Gene Summary

Gene:CKS2; CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2
Aliases: CKSHS2
Summary:CKS2 protein binds to the catalytic subunit of the cyclin dependent kinases and is essential for their biological function. The CKS2 mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects specialized role for the encoded protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CKS2 (cancer-related)

Lin L, Fang Z, Lin H, et al.
Depletion of Cks1 and Cks2 expression compromises cell proliferation and enhance chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(1):26-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The present study explored the oncogenic roles of overexpressed Cks1 and Cks2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Gene expression of Cks1 and Cks2 in HepG2 cells was disrupted by siRNA or increased by cDNA transfection. Cell proliferation was assayed by CCK-8 analysis and cell counting. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis after transfection was measured by flow cytometry using Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. Cell cycle changes after transfection were determined by flow cytometry with PI staining. Protein levels of Akt and GSK-3β were measured after transfection. The results revealed that HepG2 proliferation was decreased by depletion of endogenous Cks1 or Cks2, and increased by overexpression of Cks1 or Cks2. HepG2 apoptosis increased concordantly with the decline of Cks1 or Cks2 expression. Overexpression of Cks1 or Cks2 prevented cell apoptosis. Protein levels of p‑Akt and p‑GSK-3β were downregulated after RNA interference of Cks1 or Cks2. In conclusion, Cks1 and Cks2 promoted proliferation and prevented apoptosis of HepG2 cells. The Akt/GSK-3β-related PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may be a key signaling pathway that is involved in the regulation of cell growth and cell death.

Bi D, Ning H, Liu S, et al.
Gene expression patterns combined with network analysis identify hub genes associated with bladder cancer.
Comput Biol Chem. 2015; 56:71-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To explore molecular mechanisms of bladder cancer (BC), network strategy was used to find biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis.
METHODS: The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between bladder carcinoma patients and normal subjects were screened using empirical Bayes method of the linear models for microarray data package. Co-expression networks were constructed by differentially co-expressed genes and links. Regulatory impact factors (RIF) metric was used to identify critical transcription factors (TFs). The protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) and clusters were obtained through molecular complex detection (MCODE) algorithm. Centralities analyses for complex networks were performed based on degree, stress and betweenness. Enrichment analyses were performed based on Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases.
RESULTS: Co-expression networks and TFs (based on expression data of global DEGs and DEGs in different stages and grades) were identified. Hub genes of complex networks, such as UBE2C, ACTA2, FABP4, CKS2, FN1 and TOP2A, were also obtained according to analysis of degree. In gene enrichment analyses of global DEGs, cell adhesion, proteinaceous extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix structural constituent were top three GO terms. ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and cell cycle were significant pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide some potential underlying biomarkers of BC. However, further validation is required and deep studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of BC.

Kita Y, Nishizono Y, Okumura H, et al.
Clinical and biological impact of cyclin-dependent kinase subunit 2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(5):1986-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclin-dependent kinase subunit 2 (CKS2) is a cyclin-dependent kinase subunit (CKS) family member that participates in cell cycle regulation. Few studies have investigated its involvement in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical significance of CKS2 in ESCC. We used immunohistochemistry to study the clinicopathologic significance of CKS2 protein expression in 121 patients with ESCC. Using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we examined the expression of CKS2 mRNA in tumors and the corresponding normal esophageal tissues that were obtained from 62 patients. Finally, siRNA-mediated attenuation of CKS2 expression was examined in vitro. CKS2 protein expression was significantly correlated with depth of tumor invasion, clinical stage, lymphatic invasion and distant metastasis (p=0.033, 0.028, 0.041 and 0.009, respectively). CKS2 mRNA expression was higher in cancer tissue than in corresponding normal tissue (p<0.001). Patients with positive-CKS2 protein expression had a poorer five year survival frequency than patients who did not express CKS2 protein (p=0.025). In vitro, siRNA-mediated suppression of CKS2 slowed the growth rate of ESCC cells compared to control cells (p<0.001). The evaluation of CKS2 expression is useful for predicting the cause of malignant tumors and the prognosis of patients with ESSC.

Lv M, Zhang X, Li M, et al.
miR-26a and its target CKS2 modulate cell growth and tumorigenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e67591 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: While many studies have shown that levels of miR-26a are lower in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the role and mechanism of miR-26a in PTC are unclear.
METHOD: We used database searches to select potential mRNA targets of miR-26a. Anti-miR-26a, miR-26a mimic, siRNA for CKS2 and their effects on cell growth, cell-cycle distribution and colony formation were evaluated. We also evaluate the over-expressed miR-26a in TPC-1 cells in severe combined immune-deficient mice. We used luciferase reporter assays, real-time PCR and western blot analysis to measure the expression and activity of miR-26a, CKS2, and related factors such as cyclin B1, cyclin A, cdk1, bcl-xl and Akt. Finally, we measured the relationship between the levels of miR-26a and CKS2 in PTC and normal thyroid tissues.
RESULTS: Relative to normal thyroid tissues, miR-26a is consistently down-regulated in TPC specimens, and CKS2 was identified as a potential target. Up-regulated miR-26a expression or down-regulated CKS2 expression in TPC-1 and CGTH W3 cells lines caused G2 phase-arrest. Decreased miR-26a expression or increased CKS2 expression could have inverse function on PTC cell lines. CyclinB1, cyclinA, bcl-xl and AKt are indirectly regulated by miR-26a in a CKS2-dependent manner. Finally, CKS2 is overexpressed in PTC specimens relative to normal thyroid tissue, and a significant inverse correlation exists between miR-26a and CKS2 expression in clinical PTC specimens.
CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that miR-26a functions as a growth-suppressive miRNA in PTC, and that its suppressive effects are mediated mainly by repressing CKS2 expression.

Wang JJ, Fang ZX, Ye HM, et al.
Clinical significance of overexpressed cyclin-dependent kinase subunits 1 and 2 in esophageal carcinoma.
Dis Esophagus. 2013 Sep-Oct; 26(7):729-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mammalian cyclin-dependent kinase subunit (Cks) family has two members, Cks1 and Cks2. Overexpression of Cks1 and Cks2 has been reported to be associated with high aggressiveness and poor prognosis in several malignancies, including prostate and hepatocellular carcinomas. However, whether Cks1 and Cks2 are overexpressed in esophageal carcinoma remains uncharacterized. To investigate whether overexpression of the Cks family is clinically relevant in esophageal carcinoma, and whether expression patterns of Cks1 and Cks2 can serve as biomarkers for esophageal carcinoma. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analyses were applied to detect the expression of Cks1 and Cks2 at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. The associations between Cks1 or Cks2 expressions and clinical features and p27(kip1) expressions in esophageal carcinoma were analyzed. Comparing with the adjacent noncancerous tissues, esophageal carcinoma exhibited elevated expression of Cks1 in 58% cases at the mRNA level and 54% cases at the protein level, and elevated expression of Cks2 in 65% cases at the mRNA level and 61% cases at the protein level, respectively. The expressions of both Cks1 and Cks2 were negatively associated with the p27(kip1) protein level in the tumor tissues. Furthermore, overexpression of Cks1 and Cks2 in esophageal carcinoma was closely associated with poor pathological features of esophageal carcinoma, including higher histologic grade of tumor, regional lymph nodes invasion, and neoplastic embolus. Overexpression of Cks1 and Cks2 is associated with the aggressive tumor behaviors of esophageal carcinoma. Further efforts are needed to determine whether overexpression of Cks1 and Cks2 can serve as novel biomarkers for esophageal carcinoma.

Pérez-Magán E, Campos-Martín Y, Mur P, et al.
Genetic alterations associated with progression and recurrence in meningiomas.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2012; 71(10):882-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Meningiomas are the most common primary brain tumors; they arise from the coverings of the brain. Although meningiomas are generally benign, some are more clinically aggressive, as reflected by their histopathological features or by their unexpected recurrence. We hypothesized that recurrent histologically benign meningiomas might have genetic features in common with those showing a more aggressive histology. By comparing gene expression profiles associated with meningioma progression and recurrence in 128 tumor samples (i.e. 83 benign World Health Organization [WHO] Grade I, 37 atypical WHO Grade II, and 8 anaplastic WHO Grade III) from 121 patients, we identified a 49-gene signature of meningioma aggressivity. This signature classified the tumors into 2 groups showing different clinical and pathological behaviors. The signature was composed of genes involved in the cell cycle (TMEM30B, CKS2, and UCHL1) and other pathways previously described as being altered in meningiomas, that is, WNT (SFRP1 and SFRP4) and transforming growth factor-β pathways (LTBP2 and LMO4). Overall, gene downregulation was observed in advanced and recurrent samples versus benign and original ones. We propose that this gene repression may be caused by gene promoter hypermethylation, as in the case of UCHL1 and SFRP1, suggesting that this epigenetic event, together with loss of specific chromosomal regions, may play an important role in meningioma progression and recurrence.

Menghi F, Orzan FN, Eoli M, et al.
DNA microarray analysis identifies CKS2 and LEPR as potential markers of meningioma recurrence.
Oncologist. 2011; 16(10):1440-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Meningiomas are the most frequent intracranial tumors. Surgery can be curative, but recurrences are possible. We performed gene expression analyses and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies looking for new markers predicting the recurrence risk. We analyzed expression profiles of 23 meningiomas (10 grade I, 10 grade II, and 3 grade III) and validated the data using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We performed LOH analysis on 40 meningiomas, investigating chromosomal regions on 1p, 9p, 10q, 14q, and 22q. We found 233 and 268 probe sets to be significantly down- and upregulated, respectively, in grade II or III meningiomas. Genes downregulated in high-grade meningiomas were overrepresented on chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10, and 14. Based on functional enrichment analysis, we selected LIM domain and actin binding 1 (LIMA1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3), cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 2 (CKS2), leptin receptor (LEPR), and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5) for validation using qPCR and confirmed their differential expression in the two groups of tumors. We calculated ΔCt values of CKS2 and LEPR and found that their differential expression (C-L index) was significantly higher in grade I than in grade II or III meningiomas (p < .0001). Interestingly, the C-L index of nine grade I meningiomas from patients who relapsed in <5 years was significantly lower than in grade I meningiomas from patients who did not relapse. These findings indicate that the C-L index may be relevant to define the progression risk in meningioma patients, helping guide their clinical management. A prospective analysis on a larger number of cases is warranted.

Chen R, Feng C, Xu Y
Cyclin-dependent kinase-associated protein Cks2 is associated with bladder cancer progression.
J Int Med Res. 2011; 39(2):533-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this observational retrospective study, expression of possible cancer-related genes was measured in patients with a pathological diagnosis of superficial bladder cancer. Further measurements were made in those who subsequently developed muscle-invasive cancer. Seven of the 45 patients with superficial bladder cancer progressed to muscle-invasive cancer. Expression of fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5), poly(A) binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), DEAD box polypeptide 5 (DDX5), splicing factor 3b subunit 1 (SF3B1), murine mammary tumour integration site 6 (EIF3S6), tropomyosin 2β (TPM2), transgelin (TAGLN) and cyclin-dependent kinase-associated protein (Cks2) genes was measured in bladder samples using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. FABP5, PABPC1, DDX5, SF3B1, EIF3S6 and Cks2 expression levels were significantly increased, and TPM2 and TAGLN were significantly decreased, in superficial bladder cancer compared with normal bladder tissue. In patients who developed muscle-invasive cancer, the Cks2 gene showed significantly increased expression after, compared with before, invasion. The Cks2 gene may have potential as a biomarker for predicting superficial bladder cancer progression to muscle-invasive cancer.

Tanaka F, Matsuzaki S, Mimori K, et al.
Clinicopathological and biological significance of CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2 overexpression in human gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2011; 39(2):361-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2 (CKS2) is a cyclin-dependent kinase subunit (CKS) family member that participates in cell cycle regulation. Few studies have investigated its involvement in gastric cancer. In this study, we focused on the clinical and biological significance of CKS2 over-expression in gastric cancer. The expression of CKS2 mRNA was studied by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the expression status in each tumor was examined to varify whether any correlation existed with clinical and pathological factors. In addition, an immuno-histochemical study was performed in selected samples. Moreover, we examined the impact of CKS2-siRNA in a gastric cancer cell line. A significantly higher expression of CKS2 mRNA was found in tumor tissues compared to paired normal tissues (p<0.01). Immunohistochemical analyses led to similar results. The overall five-year survival rate was significantly higher in the low CKS2 expression group (59.9%) than in the high CKS2 expression group (23.9%) (p<0.01). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that CKS2 expression status was an independent prognostic factor (relative risk, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.97; p<0.05). Moreover, the inhibition of cellular proliferation by CKS2-siRNA was observed in a gastric cancer cell line. CKS2 is one of the gastric cancer-related genes that correlates with biological aggressiveness and poor prognosis of gastric cancer. Thus, CKS2 is a possible candidate gene for diagnosis, as well as targeted molecular diagnosis and therapy in gastric cancer.

Williams MD, Zhang L, Elliott DD, et al.
Differential gene expression profiling of aggressive and nonaggressive follicular carcinomas.
Hum Pathol. 2011; 42(9):1213-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The classification of follicular thyroid neoplasms requires surgical resection for histologic evaluation of malignancy. Because variable clinical behavior exists, genomic expression profiling may lead to the identification of novel markers that facilitate better biologic classification. We performed for the first time gene expression analysis on clinically aggressive and nonaggressive follicular carcinomas (FCs) from patients for whom long-term follow-up data were available. We examined matched fresh-frozen tissue from 15 histopathologically diagnosed follicular carcinomas (7 patients with documented distant metastasis and/or death from disease and 8 patients without recurrence). For categorical comparison, we analyzed 4 follicular adenomas (FAs). The biologic control comprised 11 normal thyroid tissue specimens. High-quality RNA was extracted from the tissues, labeled, and hybridized to an Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA) oligonucleotide microarray (HG-U133A). With the exceptions of 1 follicular adenoma and 1 follicular carcinoma, unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed 2 distinct groups--one containing normal thyroid tissue and follicular adenomas and another containing follicular carcinomas. We identified 421 genes that were differentially expressed between histologically normal thyroid tissues and all follicular neoplasms (P < 0.01; fold-change >2), 94 genes that distinguished follicular carcinomas from follicular adenomas (including PBP and CKS2), and 4 genes that distinguished aggressive follicular carcinomas from nonaggressive follicular carcinomas (NID2, TM7SF2, TRIM2, and GLTSCR2). Comparative genomic groupings identified differentially expressed genes that may lead to better classification of follicular thyroid neoplasms. Such genes may be used in future prospective validation studies to establish clinically useful and complementary diagnostic markers.

Jung Y, Lee S, Choi HS, et al.
Clinical validation of colorectal cancer biomarkers identified from bioinformatics analysis of public expression data.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(4):700-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Identification of novel biomarkers of cancer is important for improved diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic intervention. This study aimed to identify marker genes of colorectal cancer (CRC) by combining bioinformatics analysis of gene expression data and validation experiments using patient samples and to examine the potential connection between validated markers and the established oncogenes such as c-Myc and K-ras.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Publicly available data from GenBank and Oncomine were meta-analyzed leading to 34 candidate marker genes of CRC. Multiple case-matched normal and tumor tissues were examined by RT-PCR for differential expression, and 9 genes were validated as CRC biomarkers. Statistical analyses for correlation with major clinical parameters were carried out, and RNA interference was used to examine connection with major oncogenes.
RESULTS: We show with high confidence that 9 (ECT2, ETV4, DDX21, RAN, S100A11, RPS4X, HSPD1, CKS2, and C9orf140) of the 34 candidate genes are expressed at significantly elevated levels in CRC tissues compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, high-level expression of RPS4X was associated with nonmucinous cancer cell type and that of ECT2 with lack of lymphatic invasion while upregulation of CKS2 was correlated with early tumor stage and lack of family history of CRC. We also demonstrate that RPS4X and DDX21 are regulatory targets of c-Myc and ETV4 is downstream to K-ras signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: We have identified multiple novel biomarkers of CRC. Further analyses of their function and connection to signaling pathways may reveal potential value of these biomarkers in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of CRC.

Mezzasoma L, Antognelli C, Del Buono C, et al.
Expression and biological-clinical significance of hTR, hTERT and CKS2 in washing fluids of patients with bladder cancer.
BMC Urol. 2010; 10:17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: at present, pathogenesis of bladder cancer (BC) has not been fully elucidated. Aim of this study is to investigate the role of human telomerase RNA (hTR), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2 (CKS2) in bladder carcinogenesis and their possible clinical significance;
METHODS: the transcript levels of hTR, hTERT and CKS2 were quantified by Real time reverse transcriptase chain reaction in exfoliated cells from bladder washings of 36 patients with BC and 58 controls. The statistical significance of differences between BC bearing patients and control groups, in the general as well as in the stratified analysis (superficial or invasive BC), was assessed by Student's t test. Non parametric Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis (ROC) was performed to ascertain the accuracy of study variables to discriminate between BC and controls. The clinical value of concomitant examination of hTR, hTERT and CKS2 was evaluated by logistic regression analysis;
RESULTS: a significant decrease in hTR and a significant increase in hTERT or CKS2 gene expression were found between BC bearing patients and controls, as well as in the subgroups analysis. The area under the curve (AUC) indicated an average discrimination power for the three genes, both in the general and subgroups analysis, when singularly considered. The ability to significantly discriminate between superficial and invasive BC was observed only for hTR transcript levels. A combined model including hTR and CKS2 was the best one in BC diagnosis;
CONCLUSIONS: our results, obtained from a sample set particularly rich of exfoliated cells, provide further molecular evidence on the involvement of hTR, hTERT and CKS2 gene expression in BC carcinogenesis. In particular, while hTERT and CKS2 gene expression seems to have a major involvement in the early stages of the disease, hTR gene expression, seems to be more involved in progression. In addition, our findings suggest that the studied genes have a clinical role in discriminating between BC and controls in the general as well as in the stratified analysis, when singularly considered. A combined model improved over the single marker BC diagnosis.

Yu YN, Yip GW, Tan PH, et al.
Y-box binding protein 1 is up-regulated in proliferative breast cancer and its inhibition deregulates the cell cycle.
Int J Oncol. 2010; 37(2):483-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1), a member of the cold-shock domain RNA-and DNA-binding protein family, has pleiotropic functions such as regulation of the cell cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate if YB-1 is a proliferative marker in breast cancer and elucidate potential downstream targets involved in YB-1-mediated cell cycle regulation using RNA interference technology. YB-1 protein expression was evaluated in tissue microarrays of 131 breast invasive ductal carcinomas by immunohistochemistry, while the YB-1 gene expression profile was evaluated in the T-47D, MDA-MB-231, ZR-75-1 and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Silencing of the YB-1 gene in T-47D breast cancer cells was performed using siRNA and the effects of down-regulation of YB-1 on cell growth and regulation of the cell cycle were ascertained. A focused panel of 84 genes involved in cell cycle progression was also examined. In tissue microarrays, YB-1 expression was shown to be associated with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining. siRNA-mediated silencing of the YB-1 gene inhibited cell proliferation and induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in T-47D breast cancer cells. Knockdown of the YB-1 gene induced up-regulation of two genes which contribute to G1-arrest (RAD9A and CDKN3 genes) and down-regulation of ten genes associated with positive regulation of the cell cycle (SKP2, SUMO1, ANAPC4, CCNB1, CKS2, MNAT1, CDC20, RBBP8, KPNA2 and CCNC genes). The data obtained from the tissue microarrays and cell lines provide evidence that YB-1 is a reliable marker of cell proliferation and possibly a potential molecular target in breast cancer therapy.

Fèvre-Montange M, Champier J, Durand A, et al.
Microarray gene expression profiling in meningiomas: differential expression according to grade or histopathological subtype.
Int J Oncol. 2009; 35(6):1395-407 [PubMed] Related Publications
Meningiomas, one of the largest subgroup of intracranial tumours are generally benign, but can progress to malignancy. They are classified into the three World Health Organization grades: benign, atypical and anaplastic meningiomas. Various histopathological features have been associated with aggressiveness or recurrence. Several genes have been suggested as prognostic factors, but molecular signatures have not permitted the classification of the tumours into the three grades. We have performed a microarray transcriptomic study on 17 meningiomas of different malignancy using CodeLink Uniset Human Whole Genome Bioarrays to try to distinguish the different grades and histopathological subtypes. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering classified the meningiomas into groups A, B and C, which corresponded to the three grades except for 3 benign meningiomas with higher proliferation indexes and/or recurrence, included in the atypical group. Several genes involved in cell adhesion (CD44, LOX), cell division (CKS2, BIRC5 and UBE2C), cell differentiation (Notch1) or signal transduction (ARHGAP28) were upregulated, whereas tumour suppressor genes (LR1B, DRR1, PLZF, GPX3, SYNPO, TIMP3 and HOPS) and genes involved in cell adhesion (PROS1), proliferation (SERPINF1 and PDGFD) and differentiation (AOX1) were downregulated in groups B and C compared to group A. In the benign tumours, we identified genes with signatures specific for fibroblastic meningiomas (FBLN1, Tenascin C and MMP2 encoding extracellular matrix proteins) and for meningothelial meningiomas (MLPH, DEFB1 and FAT3), suggesting different mechanisms involved in the tumorigenesis of these subtypes. This microarray-based expression profiling study revealed candidate genes and pathways that may contribute to a better understanding of the recurrence of a benign meningioma. Our results might make it possible to determine which benign meningiomas might recur despite complete resection, and will provide helpful information for neurosurgeons in the follow-up of the patients.

Shen DY, Fang ZX, You P, et al.
Clinical significance and expression of cyclin kinase subunits 1 and 2 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Liver Int. 2010; 30(1):119-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The mammalian cyclin kinase subunit (Cks) family has two members, Cks1 and Cks2, which were identified based on the protein sequence homology to yeast Cks. Overexpression of Cks1 and Cks2 has been reported to be associated with high aggressiveness and a poor prognosis in various malignancies, including gastric, breast and prostate carcinomas. Yet, whether Cks1 and Cks2 are overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains uncharacterized.
AIMS: To investigate whether overexpression of the Cks family is clinically relevant to HCC, and whether expression patterns of Cks1 and Cks2 in HCC have diagnostic and prognostic value.
METHODS: Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunostaining and Western blot analyses were used to detect the expression of Cks1 and Cks2 at the mRNA and protein levels respectively. The associations between Cks1 and Cks2 expressions and clinical features, as well as the association between Cks1 or Cks2 and p27(kip1) expressions in HCC, were analysed.
RESULTS: Expressions of Cks1 and Cks2 at both mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in HCC than those in the adjacent noncancerous tissues (including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis) and normal liver tissues. Overexpressions of Cks1 and Cks2 in HCC were closely associated with poor differentiation features. The expressions of both Cks1 and Cks2 were negatively associated with p27(kip1) at the protein level.
CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of Cks1 and Cks2 is associated with the aggressive tumour behaviours of HCC, and thus has diagnostic and prognostic value. Further efforts are needed to develop novel biomarkers for HCC based on CKs1 and Cks2 expressions.

Miller WR
Clinical, pathological, proliferative and molecular responses associated with neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor treatment in breast cancer.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010; 118(4-5):273-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neoadjuvant treatment provides an exceptional setting in which to monitor clinical, pathological, proliferative and molecular responses to aromatase inhibitors. Sequential measurements of the primary tumour provide an accurate assessment of clinical changes and the relatively easy access to the tumour within the breast means that biopsies are available for histological and molecular measurements before and during treatment. Large randomised trials (P024 and IMPACT) together with informative non-randomised studies have demonstrated clinical responses to third generation aromatase inhibitors in 40-70% of ER-positive tumours, rates generally significantly higher than observed with tamoxifen. Pathological responses in terms of reduced cellularity/increased fibrosis are also seen in 65-75% of cases. Whilst these are more often seen in clinically responding tumours, the correlation between clinical and pathological response is not absolute. A marked feature of treatment with third generation inhibitors is a reduction in cellular proliferation. Using Ki67 as a marker, this may be observed as early as 10-14 days into treatment. Reduction in proliferation with treatment may be seen in both clinically responding and non-responding tumours, although incidence and degree of effect are higher in responding cases. Aromatase inhibitor treatment frequently fails to reduce proliferation in tumours over-expressing HER-2. In terms of molecular events, aromatase inhibitor treatment is associated with changes in expression of genes classically associated with oestrogen regulation (KIAA0101, ZWINT, IRS1 and TFF1) and cell cycle progression, most notably mitotic phase proteins (CDC2, CCNB1 and CKS2). Changes occur both in clinically responding and non-responding tumours. Although expression of no individual gene correlates absolutely with response status, expression signatures can be produced which distinguish between responding and non-responding tumours. In terms of gene ontology, terms relating to macro-molecular biosynthesis, translation and structural components of ribosomes are significantly enriched. Finally, molecular signatures can be used to illustrate the relative homogeneity of responding tumours and the disparate nature of non-responding tumours suggesting multiple and diverse pathways associated with resistance.

Padua MB, Hansen PJ
Changes in expression of cell-cycle-related genes in PC-3 prostate cancer cells caused by ovine uterine serpin.
J Cell Biochem. 2009; 107(6):1182-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The hormonal-regulated serpin, ovine uterine serpin (OvUS), also called uterine milk protein (UTMP), inhibits proliferation of lymphocytes and prostate cancer (PC-3) cells by blocking cell-cycle progression. The present aim was to identify cell-cycle-related genes regulated by OvUS in PC-3 cells using the quantitative human cell-cycle RT(2) Profiler PCR array. Cells were cultured +/-200 microg/ml recombinant OvUS (rOvUS) for 12 and 24 h. At 12 h, rOvUS increased expression of three genes related to cell-cycle checkpoints and arrest (CDKN1A, CDKN2B, and CCNG2). Also, 14 genes were down-regulated including genes involved in progression through S (MCM3, MCM5, PCNA), M (CDC2, CKS2, CCNH, BIRC5, MAD2L1, MAD2L2), G(1) (CDK4, CUL1, CDKN3) and DNA damage checkpoint and repair genes RAD1 and RBPP8. At 24 h, rOvUS decreased expression of 16 genes related to regulation and progression through M (BIRC5, CCNB1, CKS2, CDK5RAP1, CDC20, E2F4, MAD2L2) and G(1) (CDK4, CDKN3, TFDP2), DNA damage checkpoints and repair (RAD17, BRCA1, BCCIP, KPNA2, RAD1). Also, rOvUS down-regulated the cell proliferation marker gene MKI67, which is absent in cells at G(0). Results showed that OvUS blocks cell-cycle progression through upregulation of cell-cycle checkpoint and arrest genes and down-regulation of genes involved in cell-cycle progression.

Wang F, Kuang Y, Salem N, et al.
Cross-species hybridization of woodchuck hepatitis viral infection-induced woodchuck hepatocellular carcinoma using human, rat and mouse oligonucleotide microarrays.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009; 24(4):605-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: We aimed to evaluate the transcriptional characteristics of viral infection-induced woodchuck hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), to compare the use of human, rat and mouse gene arrays for cross-species hybridization, and to look into gene expression profiles in woodchuck HCC by the combined use of these arrays.
METHODS: Commercially available human, rat and mouse oligonucleotide microarrays were used to determine the gene expression profiles on the same woodchuck liver samples. Differentially expressed genes between HCC and the surrounding hepatic tissues found in the arrays were selected for quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Despite the difference in the number of the probes from each array, the percentage of genes that were detectable was similar. Stringent microarray data analysis using both supervised and unsupervised methods identified 281 differentially expressed genes via the human array with a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.99%, 107 genes via the rat array with an FDR of 1.85% and 78 genes via the mouse array with an FDR of 7.41%. Eleven genes were differentially changed in all three arrays that include the upregulation of NPM1, H2AFZ, EEF1G, HNRPAB, RPS18, EIF5, CKS2, ARIH1, RPS12 and RPS10, and the downregulation of EGR1. The quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with woodchuck-specific primers confirmed the reliability of the microarray results.
CONCLUSION: This study further demonstrated the utility of cross-species hybridization of microarrays on woodchuck HCC. A combined use of three types of arrays identified more differential genes in HCC than individual arrays with the human array providing the richest information among the three arrays used.

Kang MA, Kim JT, Kim JH, et al.
Upregulation of the cycline kinase subunit CKS2 increases cell proliferation rate in gastric cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2009; 135(6):761-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: CKS2 was identified as an upregulated gene in gastric cancer via our DNA microarray. This study was to verify the upregulation of CKS2 in many gastric cancer patients and to examine the CKS2-mediated cellular response.
METHODS: CKS2 upregulation was analyzed using reverse transcriptase PCR, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemical and clinicopathological analyses. GFP-CKS2 or CKS2-siRNA was used to analyze the cellular localization and proliferation.
RESULTS: The strong upregulation of mRNA and protein levels of CKS2 was identified. In CKS2-overexpressing cells, tumor suppressor p53 and p21(cip1) were downregulated and cell growth was increased. In contrast, CKS2-siRNA-transfected cells showed an increased tumor suppressor expression and decreased cell growth.
CONCLUSIONS: We showed that CKS2 was significantly upregulated in gastric cancers and a high level of CKS2 was highly correlated with histologic tumor differentiation and pathological grade of the tumor size, lymph node, and metastasis stage. We suggest that the cell cycle regulator CKS2 might be deeply involved in gastric cancer progression.

Lan Y, Zhang Y, Wang J, et al.
Aberrant expression of Cks1 and Cks2 contributes to prostate tumorigenesis by promoting proliferation and inhibiting programmed cell death.
Int J Cancer. 2008; 123(3):543-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mammalian Cks family consists of 2 well-conserved small proteins, Cks1 and Cks2. Cks1 has been shown to promote cell-cycle progression by triggering degradation of p27(kip1). The function of Cks2 in somatic mammalian cells is not well understood although it is required for the first metaphase/anaphase transition during the meiosis. Emerging evidence shows that elevated expression of Cks1 and Cks2 is often found in a variety of tumors, and is correlated with poor survival rate of the patients. Here we demonstrated that expression of Cks1 and Cks2 were elevated in prostate tumors of human and animal models, as well as prostatic cancer cell lines. Forced expression of Cks1 and Cks2 in benign prostate tumor epithelial cells promoted cell population growth. Knockdown of Cks1 expression in malignant prostate tumor cells inhibited proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and migration activities, whereas knockdown of Cks2 expression induced programmed cell death and inhibited the tumorigenicity. Collectively, the data suggest that elevated expression of Cks1 contributes to the tumorigenicity of prostate tumor cells by promoting cell growth and elevated expression of Cks2 protects the cells from apoptosis. Thus, the finding suggests a novel therapeutic strategy for prostatic cancer based on inhibiting Cks1 and Cks2 activity.

Scrideli CA, Carlotti CG, Okamoto OK, et al.
Gene expression profile analysis of primary glioblastomas and non-neoplastic brain tissue: identification of potential target genes by oligonucleotide microarray and real-time quantitative PCR.
J Neurooncol. 2008; 88(3):281-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognosis of glioblastomas is still extremely poor and the discovery of novel molecular therapeutic targets can be important to optimize treatment strategies. Gene expression analyses comparing normal and neoplastic tissues have been used to identify genes associated with tumorigenesis and potential therapeutic targets. We have used this approach to identify differentially expressed genes between primary glioblastomas and non-neoplastic brain tissues. We selected 20 overexpressed genes related to cell cycle, cellular movement and growth, proliferation and cell-to-cell signaling and analyzed their expression levels by real time quantitative PCR in cDNA obtained from microdissected fresh tumor tissue from 20 patients with primary glioblastomas and from 10 samples of non-neoplastic white matter tissue. The gene expression levels were significantly higher in glioblastomas than in non-neoplastic white matter in 18 out of 20 genes analyzed: P < 0.00001 for CDKN2C, CKS2, EEF1A1, EMP3, PDPN, BNIP2, CA12, CD34, CDC42EP4, PPIE, SNAI2, GDF15 and MMP23b; and NFIA (P: 0.0001), GPS1 (P: 0.0003), LAMA1 (P: 0.002), STIM1 (P: 0.006), and TASP1 (P: 0.01). Five of these genes are located in contiguous loci at 1p31-36 and 2 at 17q24-25 and 8 of them encode surface membrane proteins. PDPN and CD34 protein expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and they showed concordance with the PCR results. The present results indicate the presence of 18 overexpressed genes in human primary glioblastomas that may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of these tumors and that deserve further functional investigation as attractive candidates for new therapeutic targets.

Haaber J, Abildgaard N, Knudsen LM, et al.
Myeloma cell expression of 10 candidate genes for osteolytic bone disease. Only overexpression of DKK1 correlates with clinical bone involvement at diagnosis.
Br J Haematol. 2008; 140(1):25-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteolytic bone disease (OBD) in multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by interactions between MM cells and the bone marrow microenvironment and is characterized by increased osteoclastic bone resorption and decreased osteoblastic bone formation. Recently, the role of osteoblast inhibition has come into focus, especially the possible role of overexpression of DKK1, an inhibitor of the Wnt signalling pathway. Further, CKS2, PSME2 and DHFR have also been reported as candidate genes for OBD. We studied the gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of TNFSF11 (RANKL), TNFSF11A (RANK), TNFRSF11B (OPG), CCL3 (MIP1A), CCL4 (MIP1B), PTHR1 (PTHrp), DKK1, CKS2, PSME2 and DHFR in purified, immunophenotypic FACS-sorted plasma cells from 171 newly diagnosed MM patients, 20 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and 12 controls. The gene expressions of the analysed genes were correlated with radiographically assessed OBD. Only overexpression of DKK1 was correlated to the degree of OBD. Myeloma cells did not express TNFSF11A, TNFSF11, or TNFRSF11B, and very rarely expressed CCL3 and PTHR11. CCL4, CKS2, PSME2 and DHFR were variably expressed, but the expression of these genes showed no correlation with OBD. In contrast, loss of PSME2 expression in MM plasma cells was significantly correlated with OBD.

Wiese AH, Auer J, Lassmann S, et al.
Identification of gene signatures for invasive colorectal tumor cells.
Cancer Detect Prev. 2007; 31(4):282-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene signatures of sporadic colorectal carcinoma tissues and microdissected colorectal tumor cells were analyzed to identify stromal and tumor cell-specific markers, respectively.
METHODS: Serial sections of frozen colorectal tumors (n=29) were subjected to RNA isolation of (1) entire tissue sections with a various tumor cell content and of (2) microdissected invasive tumor cells. Three matching samples of microdissected normal colorectal epithelial and invasive tumor cells were similarly obtained. RNA samples were analyzed using the HG95A and HG95Av2 GeneChip microarrays (Affymetrix). The microarray data was evaluated by established methods and validated by Q-RT-PCR.
RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis of 18 sample pairs (training set) clearly distinguished tumors from microdissected tumor cells. A 149-gene signature was identified using statistical methods, which was then validated by a hierarchical clustering analysis of 11 independent sample pairs (test set). Genes specifically associated with microdissected invasive tumor cells were for example CKS2 and NME1. In contrast, genes associated with stromal cells were for example MMP2, SDF1 and FBLN2. Finally, a 65-gene signature distinguished normal colorectal epithelial cells and invasive tumor cells, including down-regulation of BMP2 and ANPEP mRNA expression as well as up-regulation of TKT, SPARC, MCM5 mRNA expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our approach allowed precise evaluation of molecular signatures in morphologically defined cell populations and identified novel target genes related to stroma-tumor interactions in colorectal cancer. The approach enables further analysis of gene signatures in different tumor areas and cell types, such as within invasive margins to decipher molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis.

Lin HM, Chatterjee A, Lin YH, et al.
Genome wide expression profiling identifies genes associated with colorectal liver metastasis.
Oncol Rep. 2007; 17(6):1541-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumour cells have to undergo gene expression changes in order to metastasise and adapt to a new site. We investigated these changes in liver metastases of colorectal cancer by using genome-wide microarray analysis to profile the expression of 48 primary tumours and 28 liver metastases. Statistical analysis of these expression profiles using the significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) method identified 778 genes differentially expressed between primary tumours and metastases. Gene ontology analysis revealed that genes associated with tissue remodelling and immune response were upregulated in metastases relative to primary tumours, whereas genes associated with proliferation and oxidative phosphorylation were downregulated. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the differential expression of selected genes, osteopontin, versican, ADAM17, CKS2, PRDX1, CXCR4, CXCL12, and LCN2. The upregulation of genes associated with tissue remodelling and immune response are likely to be involved in metastatic invasion and colonisation of the new site because these genes can promote tumour progression. However, downregulation of genes associated with proliferation suggests that proliferation in metastases was reduced relative to primary tumours.

Lin CY, Ström A, Li Kong S, et al.
Inhibitory effects of estrogen receptor beta on specific hormone-responsive gene expression and association with disease outcome in primary breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2007; 9(2):R25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The impact of interactions between the two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERalpha and ERbeta, on gene expression in breast cancer biology is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine transcriptomic alterations in cancer cells co-expressing both receptors and the association of gene expression signatures with disease outcome.
METHODS: Transcriptional effects of ERbeta overexpression were determined in a stably transfected cell line derived from ERalpha-positive T-47D cells. Microarray analysis was carried out to identify differential gene expression in the cell line, and expression of key genes was validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Microarray and clinical data from patient samples were then assessed to determine the in vivo relevance of the expression profiles observed in the cell line.
RESULTS: A subset of 14 DNA replication and cell cycle-related genes was found to be specifically downregulated by ERbeta. Expression profiles of four genes, CDC2, CDC6, CKS2, and DNA2L, were significantly inversely correlated with ERbeta transcript levels in patient samples, consistent with in vitro observations. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed better disease outcome for the patient group with an expression signature linked to higher ERbeta expression as compared to the lower ERbeta-expressing group for both disease-free survival (p = 0.00165) and disease-specific survival (p = 0.0268). These findings were further validated in an independent cohort.
CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed a transcriptionally regulated mechanism for the previously described growth inhibitory effects of ERbeta in ERalpha-positive breast tumor cells and provide evidence for a functional and beneficial impact of ERbeta in primary breast tumors.

Uchikado Y, Inoue H, Haraguchi N, et al.
Gene expression profiling of lymph node metastasis by oligomicroarray analysis using laser microdissection in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2006; 29(6):1337-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
We applied oligomicroarray analysis of 17086 genes to identify the genes related to lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The samples of cancer and non-cancerous paired tissue were taken from 16 patients with ESCC who underwent esophagectomy with lymph node dissection. Total ribonucleic acid was extracted from the cancer cells obtained by using laser microdissection and was amplified by T7 based-amplification for the application to the oligomicroarray. The oligomicroarray demonstrated 43 overexpressed genes, such as cell-cycle regulators, cell adhesion related genes, anti-apoptosis related genes, and 138 suppressed genes such as cell differentiation related and apoptosis related genes in ESCC cells with lymph node metastasis. Among them, 5 overexpressed genes (SPP-1, CKS2, CCT5, STMN1, NDUFB9) and one suppressed expression gene (GJB2) were selected in the gene profiles, and then the expressions of those genes were confirmed by real-time semi-quantitative reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method for confirmation of the result not only in study cases but also in additional 21 cases. The gene expression by real-time semi-quantitative RT-PCR was in accordance with the microarray data. Although we were able to extract some genes related to nodal metastasis in ESCC, further examination is necessary in other genes as well as the interaction of stromal tissues.

Lyng H, Brøvig RS, Svendsrud DH, et al.
Gene expressions and copy numbers associated with metastatic phenotypes of uterine cervical cancer.
BMC Genomics. 2006; 7:268 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the development of metastatic disease and the identification of molecular markers for cancer spread would be useful for the design of improved treatment strategies. This study was conducted to identify gene expressions associated with metastatic phenotypes of locally advanced cervical carcinomas and investigate whether gains or losses of these genes could play a role in regulation of the transcripts. Gene expressions and copy number changes were determined in primary tumors from 29 patients with and 19 without diagnosed lymph node metastases by use of cDNA and genomic microarray techniques, respectively.
RESULTS: Thirty-one genes that differed in expression between the node positive and negative tumors were identified. Expressions of eight of these genes (MRPL11, CKS2, PDK2, MRPS23, MSN, TBX3, KLF3, LSM3) correlated with progression free survival in univariate analysis and were therefore more strongly associated with metastatic phenotypes than the others. Immunohistochemistry data of CKS2 and MSN showed similar relationships to survival. The prognostic genes clustered into two groups, suggesting two major metastatic phenotypes. One group was associated with rapid proliferation, oxidative phosphorylation, invasiveness, and tumor size (MRPS23, MRPL11, CKS2, LSM3, TBX3, MSN) and another with hypoxia tolerance, anaerobic metabolism, and high lactate content (PDK2, KLF3). Multivariate analysis identified tumor volume and PDK2 expression as independent prognostic variables. Gene copy number changes of the differentially expressed genes were not frequent, but correlated with the expression level for seven genes, including MRPS23, MSN, and LSM3.
CONCLUSION: Gene expressions associated with known metastatic phenotypes of cervical cancers were identified. Our findings may indicate molecular mechanisms underlying development of these phenotypes and be useful as markers of cancer spread. Gains or losses of the genes may be involved in development of the metastatic phenotypes in some cases, but other mechanisms for transcriptional regulation are probably important in the majority of tumors.

Kawakami K, Enokida H, Tachiwada T, et al.
Identification of differentially expressed genes in human bladder cancer through genome-wide gene expression profiling.
Oncol Rep. 2006; 16(3):521-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Large-scale gene expression profiling is an effective strategy for understanding the progression of bladder cancer (BC). The aim of this study was to identify genes that are expressed differently in the course of BC progression and to establish new biomarkers for BC. Specimens from 21 patients with pathologically confirmed superficial (n = 10) or invasive (n = 11) BC and 4 normal bladder samples were studied; samples from 14 of the 21 BC samples were subjected to microarray analysis. The validity of the microarray results was verified by real-time RT-PCR. Of the 136 up-regulated genes we detected, 21 were present in all 14 BCs examined (100%), 44 in 13 (92.9%), and the other 71 in 12 BCs (85.7%). Of 69 down-regulated genes, 25 were found in all 14 BCs (100%), 22 in 13 (92.9%), and the other 22 in 12 BCs (85.7%). Functional annotation revealed that of the up-regulated genes, 36% were involved in metabolism and 14% in transcription and processing; 25% of the down-regulated genes were linked to cell adhesion/surface and 21% to cytoskeleton/cell membrane. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed the microarray results obtained for the 6 most highly up- and the 2 most highly down-regulated genes. Among the 6 most highly up-regulated genes, CKS2 was the only gene with a significantly greater level of up-regulation in invasive than in superficial BC (p = 0.04). To confirm this result, we subjected all 21 BC samples to real-time PCR assay for CKS2. We found a considerable difference between superficial and invasive BC (p = 0.001). Interestingly, there was a considerable difference between the normal bladder and invasive BC (p = 0.001) and less difference between the normal bladder and superficial BC (p = 0.005). We identified several genes as promising candidates for diagnostic biomarkers of human BC and the CKS2 gene not only as a potential biomarker for diagnosing, but also for staging human BC. This is the first report demonstrating that CKS2 expression is strongly correlated with the progression of human BC.

Stanbrough M, Bubley GJ, Ross K, et al.
Increased expression of genes converting adrenal androgens to testosterone in androgen-independent prostate cancer.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(5):2815-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in prostate cancer, and most patients respond to androgen deprivation therapies, but they invariably relapse with a more aggressive prostate cancer that has been termed hormone refractory or androgen independent. To identify proteins that mediate this tumor progression, gene expression in 33 androgen-independent prostate cancer bone marrow metastases versus 22 laser capture-microdissected primary prostate cancers was compared using Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays. Multiple genes associated with aggressive behavior were increased in the androgen-independent metastatic tumors (MMP9, CKS2, LRRC15, WNT5A, EZH2, E2F3, SDC1, SKP2, and BIRC5), whereas a candidate tumor suppressor gene (KLF6) was decreased. Consistent with castrate androgen levels, androgen-regulated genes were reduced 2- to 3-fold in the androgen-independent tumors. Nonetheless, they were still major transcripts in these tumors, indicating that there was partial reactivation of AR transcriptional activity. This was associated with increased expression of AR (5.8-fold) and multiple genes mediating androgen metabolism (HSD3B2, AKR1C3, SRD5A1, AKR1C2, AKR1C1, and UGT2B15). The increase in aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3 (AKR1C3), the prostatic enzyme that reduces adrenal androstenedione to testosterone, was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry. These results indicate that enhanced intracellular conversion of adrenal androgens to testosterone and dihydrotestosterone is a mechanism by which prostate cancer cells adapt to androgen deprivation and suggest new therapeutic targets.

Wong YF, Cheung TH, Tsao GS, et al.
Genome-wide gene expression profiling of cervical cancer in Hong Kong women by oligonucleotide microarray.
Int J Cancer. 2006; 118(10):2461-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
An analysis of gene expression profiles obtained from cervical cancers was performed to find those genes most aberrantly expressed. Total RNA was prepared from 29 samples of cervical squamous cell carcinoma and 18 control samples, and hybridized to Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays with probe sets complementary to over 20,000 transcripts. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the expression data readily distinguished normal cervix from cancer. Supervised analysis of gene expression data identified 98 and 139 genes that exhibited >2-fold upregulation and >2-fold downregulation, respectively, in cervical cancer compared to normal cervix. Several of the genes that were differentially regulated included SPP1 (Osteopontin), CDKN2A (p16), RPL39L, Clorf1, MAL, p11, ARS and NICE-1. These were validated by quantitative RT-PCR on an independent set of cancer and control specimens. Gene Ontology analysis showed that the list of differentially expressed genes included ones that were involved in multiple biological processes, including cell proliferation, cell cycle and protein catabolism. Immunohistochemical staining of cancer specimens further confirmed differential expression of SPP1 in cervical cancer cells vs. nontumor cells. In addition, 2 genes, CTGF and RGS1 were found to be upregulated in late stage cancer compared to early stage cancer, suggesting that they might be involved in cancer progression. The pathway analysis of expression data showed that the SPP1, VEGF, CDC2 and CKS2 genes were coordinately differentially regulated between cancer and normal. The present study is promising and provides potential new insights into the extent of expression differences underlying the development and progression of cervical squamous cell cancer. This study has also revealed several genes that may be highly attractive candidate molecular markers/targets for cervical cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapy.

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