CYP27B1

Gene Summary

Gene:CYP27B1; cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily B member 1
Aliases: VDR, CP2B, CYP1, PDDR, VDD1, VDDR, VDDRI, CYP27B, P450c1, CYP1alpha
Location:12q14.1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the inner mitochondrial membrane where it hydroxylates 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 at the 1alpha position. This reaction synthesizes 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D3, which binds to the vitamin D receptor and regulates calcium metabolism. Thus this enzyme regulates the level of biologically active vitamin D and plays an important role in calcium homeostasis. Mutations in this gene can result in vitamin D-dependent rickets type I. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase, mitochondrial
Source:NCBIAccessed: 10 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (31)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Calcitriol
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Transcription Factors
  • Breast Cancer
  • RTPCR
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Receptors, Calcitriol
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase
  • Calcifediol
  • Steroid Hydroxylases
  • Vitamin D-Binding Protein
  • Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase
  • Young Adult
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Genetic Variation
  • Promoter Regions
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Genetic Recombination
  • Chromosome 12
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Genotype
  • Skin Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • CYP17
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Vitamins
  • Alternative Splicing
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Odds Ratio
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Lung Cancer
  • Vitamin D
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
Tag cloud generated 10 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CYP27B1 (cancer-related)

Lu D, Jing L, Zhang S
Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(18):e3535 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The objective was to perform a meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence from prospective nested case-control studies on the association of vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer.We searched PubMed, ISI web of science, EMBASE, and reference lists for included articles. Study specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled by using fixed-effect or random-effects models.Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were no association between Fok1 gene allele contrast f versus F (OR: 0.859; 95%CI: 0.685-1.079), ff versus FF (OR: 0.893; 95%CI: 0.763-1.045), recessive models ff versus FF+Ff (OR: 0.932; 95%CI: 0.796-1.092), and dominant models ff+Ff versus FF (OR: 0.899; 95%CI: 0.780-1.037). The estimated VDR polymorphism showed no significant association between Bsm1, Taq1, Apa1 polymorphism, and breast cancer risk. In the Caucasian ethnic subgroup, no association was found between allele contrast, recessive models, and dominant models on Fok1, Bsm1 polymorphism, and breast cancer risk.VDR polymorphism (Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1, and Apa1) were not associated with the risk of breast cancer in the general population as well as Caucasian population.

VON Schuckmann LA, Law MH, Montgomery GW, et al.
Vitamin D Pathway Gene Polymorphisms and Keratinocyte Cancers: A Nested Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(5):2145-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The vitamin D endocrine system is implicated in skin carcinogenesis and polymorphisms in genes associated with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene may alter the risk of keratinocyte cancers (basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a nested case-control study of 1,124 adults, we investigated associations between polymorphisms in VDR-related pathways and incident keratinocyte cancers during 11 years of follow-up using adjusted multivariate regression analysis. We also performed a meta-analysis of rs2228570, rs7975232, rs1544410 and rs739837 polymorphisms.
RESULTS: A total of 286 BCCs and 161 SCCs were newly-diagnosed during follow-up. Participants with rs2228570 and rs927650 recessive genotypes had a decreased risk of SCC (odds ratio (OR)=0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.17-0.68; OR=0.48, CI=0.27-0.84, respectively). Meta-analysis showed a lower SCC risk in rs1544410 recessive genotypes (summary OR (SOR)=0.74, CI=0.53-0.94), while rs7975232 and rs739837 recessive genotypes were associated with a decreased BCC risk (SOR=0.74, CI=0.56-0.98; SOR=0.65, CI=0.43-0.88).
CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis indicated that vitamin D receptor polymorphisms may be associated with the risk of keratinocyte cancers.

Pawlowska E, Wysokinski D, Blasiak J
Nucleotide Excision Repair and Vitamin D--Relevance for Skin Cancer Therapy.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(4):372 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is involved in almost all skin cancer cases, but on the other hand, it stimulates the production of pre-vitamin D3, whose active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25VD3), plays important physiological functions on binding with its receptor (vitamin D receptor, VDR). UV-induced DNA damages in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers or (6-4)-pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts are frequently found in skin cancer and its precursors. Therefore, removing these lesions is essential for the prevention of skin cancer. As UV-induced DNA damages are repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER), the interaction of 1,25VD3 with NER components can be important for skin cancer transformation. Several studies show that 1,25VD3 protects DNA against damage induced by UV, but the exact mechanism of this protection is not completely clear. 1,25VD3 was also shown to affect cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in several signaling pathways, so it can be considered as a potential modulator of the cellular DNA damage response, which is crucial for mutagenesis and cancer transformation. 1,25VD3 was shown to affect DNA repair and potentially NER through decreasing nitrosylation of DNA repair enzymes by NO overproduction by UV, but other mechanisms of the interaction between 1,25VD3 and NER machinery also are suggested. Therefore, the array of NER gene functioning could be analyzed and an appropriate amount of 1.25VD3 could be recommended to decrease UV-induced DNA damage important for skin cancer transformation.

Marchwicka A, Cebrat M, Łaszkiewicz A, et al.
Regulation of vitamin D receptor expression by retinoic acid receptor alpha in acute myeloid leukemia cells.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016; 159:121-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the predominant acute leukemia among adults, characterized by an accumulation of malignant immature myeloid precursors. A very promising way to treat AML is differentiation therapy using either all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), or the use of both these differentiation-inducing agents. However, the effect of combination treatment varies in different AML cell lines, and this is due to ATRA either down- or up-regulating transcription of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the cells examined. The mechanism of transcriptional regulation of VDR in response to ATRA has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) is responsible for regulating VDR transcription in AML cells. We have shown that a VDR transcriptional variant, originating in exon 1a, is regulated by RARα agonists in AML cells. Moreover, in cells with a high basal level of RARα protein, the VDR gene is transcriptionally repressed as long as RARα agonist is absent. In these cells down-regulation of the level of RARα leads to increased expression of VDR. We consider that our findings provide a mechanistic background to explain the different outcomes from treating AML cell lines with a combination of ATRA and 1,25D.

Williams JD, Aggarwal A, Swami S, et al.
Tumor Autonomous Effects of Vitamin D Deficiency Promote Breast Cancer Metastasis.
Endocrinology. 2016; 157(4):1341-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Patients with breast cancer (BCa) frequently have preexisting vitamin D deficiency (low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) when their cancer develops. A number of epidemiological studies show an inverse association between BCa risk and vitamin D status in humans, although some studies have failed to find an association. In addition, several studies have reported that BCa patients with vitamin D deficiency have a more aggressive molecular phenotype and worse prognostic indicators. However, it is unknown whether this association is mechanistically causative and, if so, whether it results from systemic or tumor autonomous effects of vitamin D signaling. We found that ablation of vitamin D receptor expression within BCa cells accelerates primary tumor growth and enables the development of metastases, demonstrating a tumor autonomous effect of vitamin D signaling to suppress BCa metastases. We show that vitamin D signaling inhibits the expression of the tumor progression gene Id1, and this pathway is abrogated in vitamin D deficiency in vivo in 2 murine models of BCa. These findings are relevant to humans, because we discovered that the mechanism of VDR regulation of Inhibitor of differentiation 1 (ID1) is conserved in human BCa cells, and there is a negative correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the level of ID1 in primary tumors from patients with BCa.

Shaikh F, Baig S, Jamal Q
Do VDR Gene Polymorphisms Contribute to Breast Cancer?
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(2):479-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the first or second leading cancer among females across the globe. A large number of studies have been conducted to assess any relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer development. Epidemiological studies have indicated that ethnic traits exhibited by a group of people with a common ancestry and culture, alter the link between VDR gene and breast cancer. It has been hypothesized that VDR polymorphisms have the capacity to impact both on incidence of breast cancer occurrence and to predict its outcome. A survey was here conducted to assess and compare the impact of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms Fok1, Bsm1, Taq1, Apa1 and poly (A) on development of breast cancer. Information was obtained from electronic databases including PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published during the period from 1996 to 2015. This search was achieved by using the terms "genetics", "breast cancer", "VDR gene", "polymorphisms". However, due to inconsistent results, no conclusive statements could be presented about the significance of the VDR genotype as far as the development of breast carcinoma is concerned'.

Izkhakov E, Somjen D, Sharon O, et al.
Vitamin D receptor expression is linked to potential markers of human thyroid papillary carcinoma.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016; 159:26-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genes regulated cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been screened as potential markers of malignant thyroid nodules. The mRNA expression levels of two of them, the ECM protein-1 (ECM1) and the type II transmembrane serine protease-4 (TMPRSS4), were shown to be an independent predictor of an existing thyroid carcinoma. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in epithelial cells of the normal thyroid gland, as well as in malignant dividing cells, which respond to the active metabolite of vitamin D by decreased proliferative activity in vitro. We evaluated the relationship between mRNA gene expressions of TMPRSS4, ECM1 and VDR in 21 papillary thyroid carcinoma samples and compared it to 21 normal thyroid tissues from the same patients. Gene expression was considered as up- or down-regulated if it varied by more or less than 2-fold in the cancer tissue relative to the normal thyroid tissue (Ca/N) from the same patient. We found an overall significant adjusted correlation between the mRNA expression ratio (ExR) of VDR and that of ECM1 in Ca/N thyroid tissue (R=0.648, P<0.001). There was a high ExR of VDR between Ca/N thyroid tissue from the same patient (3.06±2.9), which also exhibited a high Ca/N ExR of ECM1 and/or of TMPRSS4 (>2, P=0.05).The finding that increased VDR expression in human thyroid cancer cells is often linked to increased ECM1 and/or TPMRSS4 expression warrants further investigation into the potential role of vitamin D analogs in thyroid carcinoma.

Beckett EL, Le Gras K, Martin C, et al.
Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms Relate to Risk of Adenomatous Polyps in a Sex-Specific Manner.
Nutr Cancer. 2016; 68(2):193-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms may influence risk for adenomatous polyps (AP), a benign precursor to colon cancer, via modulation of vitamin D sensitive pathways, including cell proliferation and differentiation. However, results have been mixed and any association remains contentious. Failure to clinically exclude the presence of (AP in control cohorts may contribute to the lack of consensus. Therefore, we assessed the role of the FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI VDR polymorphisms in modifying risk for AP, adjusting for a range of dietary and lifestyle variables. Blood was collected from colonoscopy patients (n = 258) and VDR polymorphisms assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Dietary habits were estimated from food frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios for AP were calculated by genotype, stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, lifestyle, and dietary factors. FokI was associated with modified risk for AP in males, whereas the BsmI/ApaI/TaqI haplotype was associated with modified risk in females. No interaction was found between VDR variants and vitamin D intake. This study offers novel insight into the potential for VDR genetics to contribute to risk for AP and is the first to demonstrate a sex-specific relationship between these polymorphisms and risk for AP.

Zhang J, Zhu L, Fang J, et al.
LRG1 modulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer via HIF-1α activation.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:29 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Leucine-rich-alpha-2-glycoprotein 1 (LRG1) has been reported to be involved in several tumors, whether it participates in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression remains unclear. Here, we investigated the biological function and underlying molecular mechanisms of LRG1 in CRC.
METHODS: The mRNA and protein levels of LRG1 were assessed in CRC tissues through RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. HCT116 and SW480 cells were treated with LRG1 siRNA, control siRNA, or recombinant LRG1. Transwell invasion assays and wound healing assays were performed to evaluate the invasion and migration of CRC cells. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers of E-cadherin, VDR, N-cadherin, α-SMA, Vimentin and Twist1 were detected by RT-PCR and western blot. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the secretion level of VEGF-A. Conditioned medium from CRC cells was collected for endothelial cell migration, tube formation and aortic ring sprouting assays.
RESULTS: LRG1 was overexpressed in CRC tissues and associated with cancer aggressiveness. LRG1 was further found to induce the EMT process, as well as CRC cell migration and invasion capacity. In addition, LRG1 promoted VEGF-A expression in CRC cells and contributed to tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, HIF-1α could be induced by LRG1 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, which was responsible for LRG1-induced VEGF-A expression and EMT.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that LRG1 plays a crucial role in the progression of CRC by regulating HIF-1α expression, thereby may be a promising therapeutic target of CRC.

Luo W, Johnson CS, Trump DL
Vitamin D Signaling Modulators in Cancer Therapy.
Vitam Horm. 2016; 100:433-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
The antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3, 1,25D3, calcitriol) have been demonstrated in various tumor model systems in vitro and in vivo. However, limited antitumor effects of 1,25D3 have been observed in clinical trials. This may be attributed to a variety of factors including overexpression of the primary 1,25D3 degrading enzyme, CYP24A1, in tumors, which would lead to rapid local inactivation of 1,25D3. An alternative strategy for improving the antitumor activity of 1,25D3 involves the combination with a selective CYP24A1 inhibitor. The validity of this approach is supported by numerous preclinical investigations, which demonstrate that CYP24A1 inhibitors suppress 1,25D3 catabolism in tumor cells and increase the effects of 1,25D3 on gene expression and cell growth. Studies are now required to determine whether selective CYP24A1 inhibitors+1,25D3 can be used safely and effectively in patients. CYP24A1 inhibitors plus 1,25D3 can cause dose-limiting toxicity of vitamin D (hypercalcemia) in some patients. Dexamethasone significantly reduces 1,25D3-mediated hypercalcemia and enhances the antitumor activity of 1,25D3, increases VDR-ligand binding, and increases VDR protein expression. Efforts to dissect the mechanisms responsible for CYP24A1 overexpression and combinational effect of 1,25D3/dexamethasone in tumors are underway. Understanding the cross talk between vitamin D receptor (VDR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling axes is of crucial importance to the design of new therapies that include 1,25D3 and dexamethasone. Insights gained from these studies are expected to yield novel strategies to improve the efficacy of 1,25D3 treatment.

Munetsuna E, Kittaka A, Chen TC, Sakaki T
Metabolism and Action of 25-Hydroxy-19-nor-Vitamin D₃ in Human Prostate Cells.
Vitam Horm. 2016; 100:357-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since the discovery of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in the early 1970s, it has been widely accepted that this metabolite is responsible for the biological actions of vitamin D. Likewise, we have assumed that 25(OH)-19-nor-D3-dependent growth inhibition of human prostate PZ-HPV-7 cells was the result of its subsequent conversion to 1α,25(OH)2-19-nor-D3, catalyzed by CYP27B1 within the prostate cells. However, further in vitro studies in a reconstituted system using recombinant CYP27B1 revealed that 25(OH)-19-nor-D3 was hardly converted to 1α,25(OH)2-19-nor-D3 by the enzyme. The kinetic analysis of 1α-hydroxylation of 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)-19-nor-D3 demonstrated that the k(cat)/K(m) for 25(OH)-19-nor-D3 is less than 0.1% of that for 25(OH)D3. When 25(OH)-19-nor-D3 was added to cultured PZ-HPV-7 cells, eight metabolites were detected, while no 1α,25(OH)2-19-nor-D3 was found. In addition, the time course of VDR translocation into the nucleus induced by 100 nM 25(OH)-19-nor-D3, and the subsequent transactivation of CYP24A1 gene were almost identical to those induced by 1 nM 1α,25(OH)2-19-nor-D3. These results strongly suggest that 25(OH)-19-nor-D3 binds directly to VDR as a ligand to transport VDR into the nucleus to induce CYP24A1 gene transactivation. Furthermore, knockdown of CYP27B1 gene did not affect the antiproliferative activity of 25(OH)-19-nor-D3, whereas VDR knockdown attenuated the effect, suggesting that the antiproliferative activity of 25(OH)-19-nor-D3 is VDR dependent but CYP27B1 independent. Finally, our recent studies using the same cell line demonstrate that 25(OH)D3 can act as a VDR agonist to induce gene transactivation. These findings suggest that vitamin D analogs without 1α-hydroxyl group could be developed as drugs for osteoporosis or cancer treatment.

Ahn J, Park S, Zuniga B, et al.
Vitamin D in Prostate Cancer.
Vitam Horm. 2016; 100:321-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a progressive, noncurable disease induced by androgen receptor (AR) upon its activation by tumor tissue androgen, which is generated from adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) through intracrine androgen biosynthesis. Inhibition of mCRPC and early-stage, androgen-dependent prostate cancer by calcitriol, the bioactive vitamin D3 metabolite, is amply documented in cell culture and animal studies. However, clinical trials of calcitriol or synthetic analogs are inconclusive, although encouraging results have recently emerged from pilot studies showing efficacy of a safe-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in reducing tumor tissue inflammation and progression of low-grade prostate cancer. Vitamin D-mediated inhibition of normal and malignant prostate cells is caused by diverse mechanisms including G1/S cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, prodifferentiation gene expression changes, and suppressed angiogenesis and cell migration. Biological effects of vitamin D are mediated by altered expression of a gene network regulated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is a multidomain, ligand-inducible transcription factor similar to AR and other nuclear receptors. AR-VDR cross talk modulates androgen metabolism in prostate cancer cells. Androgen inhibits vitamin D-mediated induction of CYP24A1, the calcitriol-degrading enzyme, while vitamin D promotes androgen inactivation by inducing phase I monooxygenases (e.g., CYP3A4) and phase II transferases (e.g., SULT2B1b, a DHEA-sulfotransferase). CYP3A4 and SULT2B1b levels are markedly reduced and CYP24A1 is overexpressed in advanced prostate cancer. In future trials, combining low-calcemic, potent next-generation calcitriol analogs with CYP24A1 inhibition or androgen supplementation, or cancer stem cell suppression by a phytonutrient such as sulfarophane, may prove fruitful in prostate cancer prevention and treatment.

Deschasaux M, Souberbielle JC, Latino-Martel P, et al.
Weight Status and Alcohol Intake Modify the Association between Vitamin D and Breast Cancer Risk.
J Nutr. 2016; 146(3):576-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mechanistic hypotheses suggest that vitamin D may contribute to the prevention of breast cancer. However, epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent, suggesting a potential effect modification by individual factors.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to perform exploratory analyses on the prospective associations between the plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, polymorphisms of genes encoding for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D-binding protein (also known as gc-globulin or group-specific component, GC), and breast cancer risk, along with 2 potential modifiers: body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) and alcohol intake.
METHODS: A nested case-control study was set up in the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux Anti-oXydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort (1994-2007), involving 233 women with breast cancer and 466 matched controls (mean ± SD age: 49 ± 6 y). The plasma total 25(OH)D concentration and gene polymorphisms were assessed on samples obtained at baseline. Conditional logistic regression models were computed.
RESULTS: A higher plasma 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer for women with a BMI < the median of 22.4 [OR quartile (Q)4 compared with Q1: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.89; P-trend = 0.01, P-interaction = 0.002], whereas it was associated with an increased risk for women with a BMI ≥ the median (OR Q4 compared with Q1: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.13, 5.28; P-trend = 0.02, P-interaction = 0.002). A plasma 25(OH)D concentration ≥ 10 ng/mL was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer for women with alcohol intakes ≥ the median of 7.1 g/d (OR ≥10 compared with <10 ng/mL: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.95; P = 0.03, P-interaction = 0.03). The genetic analyses were consistent with the results observed with plasma 25(OH)D.
CONCLUSION: In this prospective study, BMI and alcohol intake modified the association between vitamin D [plasma 25(OH)D and vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms] and breast cancer risk. These effect modifications suggest explanations for discrepancies in results of previous studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.

Bienertová-Vašků J, Drábová K, Zlámal F, et al.
Pre-treatment VD levels and VDR receptors as potential predictors of occurrence and overall survival in paediatric patients with solid tumours-a single institution pilot study.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9209-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, vitamin D has been recognized as an important player in the immune system, and multiple studies suggested its involvement in cancer, too. The aims of this study were to investigate selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDR gene, BsmI (rs1544410; A > G), FokI (rs 2228570; C > T), TaqI (rs731236; T > C), ApaI (rs 7975232; C > T) and Cdx-2 (rs11568820; A > G), and to evaluate their possible predictive role for outcomes in patients with paediatric solid tumours. A total of 111 children with paediatric solid tumours were enrolled at the Department of Paediatric Oncology, University Hospital Brno (Brno, Czech Republic) along with a control population of 787 adults; all study subjects were available for genotyping of selected SNPs, and the prediagnostic levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3) were measured in the cases, too. In FokI, the heterozygote CT genotype was weakly associated with a decreased risk of paediatric solid cancer occurrence 0.82 (0.53-1.28), while the CC genotype was associated with a decreased risk of 0.58 (0.30-1.09), p = 0.09. The 1,25(OH)2D3 prediagnostic levels were indicative of the overall survival in the cases (β = -0.012, HR 0.988, 95 % CI (0.978-0.998), while higher prediagnostic levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 were associated with a statistically significant increase in overall mortality. We observed multiple effects of the alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and of 1,25(OH)2D3 on overall survival, regardless of the underlying disease.

Ben-Eltriki M, Deb S, Adomat H, Tomlinson Guns ES
Calcitriol and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol synergistically inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016; 158:207-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
The potential cancer preventive roles of calcitriol, the dihydroxylated metabolite of Vitamin D3, as well as 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (aPPD), the aglycone of the protopanaxadiol family of ginsenosides, have gained much attention in recent years for the prevention/treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). In the present study, we evaluated the anticancer and chemosensitization effects of calcitriol at clinically relevant concentrations and aPPD, either alone or in combination, in two well-characterized human PCa cell lines: androgen-sensitive non-metastatic LNCaP cells and androgen-independent metastatic C4-2 cells. The effects of the treatments on PCa cell viability and proliferation rates were evaluated by MTS and Brdu assays, respectively. Combination Indices (CI) and Dose Reduction Indices (DRI) were estimated to assess synergistic anticancer activity using Calcusyn software (Biosoft, Cambridge, UK). Then, we determined the potential Pharmacodynamic interaction mechanisms as follows: The protein expression levels of the genes those are known to control cell cycle (cyclin D1 and cdk2); apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, and Capspases 3), androgen receptor and Vitamin D receptors were examined upon combinational treatment. The cell viability assay data show that addition of 10nM calcitriol to aPPD significantly lowered its IC50 values from the range of 41-53μM to 13-23μM, in LNCaP and C4-2 prostate cancer cells. The cell proliferation rate was significantly lower for combination treatments compared to the cells treated with aPPD alone. Similarly, Western blot results indicate that aPPD significantly upregulated Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, while calcitriol further enhanced the ability of aPPD to induce pro-apoptotic BAX, increased cleaved caspase-3 and downregulate cdk2 protein levels. Thus, the pharmacodynamic interaction between aPPD and calcitriol in impacting growth inhibition and apoptosis appears to be synergistic in nature. In conclusion, calcitriol sensitizes PCa cells to aPPD-mediated anticancer effects by enhancing its ability to induce apoptosis and reduce cell proliferation, and this synergism may limit calcitriol toxicity by facilitating the use of lower calcitriol doses. The associated increase in VDR expression and calcitriol half-life may be mechanistically associated with this sensitization effect.

Verone-Boyle AR, Shoemaker S, Attwood K, et al.
Diet-derived 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 activates vitamin D receptor target gene expression and suppresses EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer growth in vitro and in vivo.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(1):995-1013 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Epidemiologic studies implicate vitamin D status as a factor that influences growth of EGFR mutant lung cancers. However, laboratory based evidence of the biological effect of vitamin D in this disease is lacking. To fill this knowledge gap, we determined vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in human lung tumors using a tissue microarray constructed of lung cancer cases from never-smokers (where EGFR gene mutations are prevalent). Nuclear VDR was detected in 19/19 EGFR mutant tumors. Expression tended to be higher in tumors with EGFR exon 19 deletions than those with EGFR L858R mutations. To study anti-proliferative activity and signaling, EGFR mutant lung cancer cells were treated with the circulating metabolite of vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D3). 25D3 inhibited clonogenic growth in a dose-dependent manner. CYP27B1 encodes the 1α-hydroxylase (1αOHase) that converts 25D3 to the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3). Studies employing VDR siRNA, CYP27B1 zinc finger nucleases, and pharmacologic inhibitors of the vitamin D pathway indicate that 25D3 regulates gene expression in a VDR-dependent manner but does not strictly require 1αOHase-mediated conversion of 25D3 to 1,25D3. To determine the effects of modulating serum 25D3 levels on growth of EGFR mutant lung tumor xenografts, mice were fed diets containing 100 or 10,000 IU vitamin D3/kg. High dietary vitamin D3 intake resulted in elevated serum 25D3 and significant inhibition of tumor growth. No toxic effects of supplementation were observed. These results identify EGFR mutant lung cancer as a vitamin D-responsive disease and diet-derived 25D3 as a direct VDR agonist and therapeutic agent.

Singh R, Yadav V, Kumar S, Saini N
MicroRNA-195 inhibits proliferation, invasion and metastasis in breast cancer cells by targeting FASN, HMGCR, ACACA and CYP27B1.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:17454 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
De novo lipogenesis, a hallmark for cancers is required for cellular transformation. Further it is believed that resistance to apoptosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition(EMT) facilitates metastasis via over-expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Previously we demonstrated that hsa-miR-195 targets BCL2, induces apoptosis and augmented the effect of etoposide in breast cancer cells. However, the mechanism behind its function remains elusive. Herein gene expression profiling was done in presence/absence of hsa-miR-195 in Breast cancer cells. IPA revealed mitochondrial dysfunction, fatty acid metabolism and xenobiotic metabolism signalling among the top processes being affected. For the first time we herein identified ACACA, FASN (the key enzymes of de novo fatty acid synthesis), HMGCR (the key enzyme of de novo cholesterol synthesis) and CYP27B1 as direct targets of hsa-miR-195. We further showed that ectopic expression of hsa-miR-195 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells not only altered cellular cholesterol and triglyceride levels significantly but also resulted in reduced proliferation, invasion and migration. We further demonstrated that over expression of hsa-miR-195 decreased the Mesenchymal markers expression and enhanced Epithelial markers. In conclusion we say that hsa-miR-195 targets the genes of de novo lipogenesis, inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion which potentially opens new avenues for the treatment of breast cancer.

Shi J, Grundy A, Richardson H, et al.
Genetic variation in vitamin D-related genes and risk of breast cancer among women of European and East Asian descent.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):6379-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies of vitamin D-related genetic variants and breast cancer have been inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate associations of vitamin D-related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk among European and East Asian women and potential interactions with menopausal status and breast tumour subtypes. Data from a case-control study of breast cancer (1037 cases and 1050 controls) were used to assess relationships between 21 polymorphisms in two vitamin D-related genes (GC and VDR) and breast cancer risk. Odds ratios were calculated in stratified analyses of European and East Asian women, using logistic regression in an additive genetic model. An interaction term was used to explore modification by menopausal status. Polytomous regression was used to assess heterogeneity by breast tumour subtype. False discovery rate adjustments were conducted to account for multiple testing. No association was observed between GC or VDR polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Modification of these relationships by menopausal status was observed for select polymorphisms in both Europeans (VDR rs4328262 and rs11168292) and East Asians (GC rs7041 and VDR rs11168287). Heterogeneity by tumour subtype was seen for three VDR polymorphisms (rs1544410, rs7967152 and rs2239186) among Europeans, in which associations with ER-/PR-/HER2+ tumours, but not with other subtypes, were observed. In conclusion, associations between vitamin D-related genetic variants and breast cancer were not observed overall, although the relationships between vitamin D pathway polymorphisms and breast cancer may be modified by menopausal status and breast tumour subtype.

Arbitrio M, Di Martino MT, Barbieri V, et al.
Identification of polymorphic variants associated with erlotinib-related skin toxicity in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients by DMET microarray analysis.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(1):205-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Erlotinib is a targeted agent commonly used in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC). However, drug-related skin toxicity often may affect the quality of life of cancer patients and lead to treatment discontinuation. Genetic polymorphisms in drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes play a major role in the interindividual variability in terms of efficacy and toxicity of erlotinib treatment. The aim of our study was to identify genetic determinants in adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion genes influencing skin rash (SR) by the novel drug-metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) microarray Affymetrix platform in aNSCLC patients.
METHODS: In a retrospective study, 34 erlotinib-treated aNSCLC patients were genotyped by DMET Plus chip: 23 patients experienced SR (cases), while 11 patients did not (controls). Peripheral blood DNA was genotyped. Genotype association was analyzed by Fisher's exact test, and the toxicity-associated gene sets underwent Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA).
RESULTS: Seven SNPs in six genes (CYP27B1, MAT1A1, CHST1, CYP4B1, ADH6, and SLC22A1) were associated with the occurrence of SR or with a protective effect. Specifically, the rs8176345 in CYP27B1 gene was significantly correlated with SR (p = 0.0003, OR 55.55, 95% CI 2.7036-1141.1707). The IPA on SR-related genes highlighted the role of a variety of canonical pathways including 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 biosynthesis, S-adenosyl-L-methionine biosynthesis, and methionine degradation I (to homocysteine) in SR development.
CONCLUSION: Although exploratory, this study indicates rs8176345 in CYP27B1 gene as significantly correlated with erlotinib-induced SR in aNSCLC patients probably through a mechanism mediated by vitamin D3 and inflammation at skin level.

Maj E, Filip-Psurska B, Świtalska M, et al.
Vitamin D Analogs Potentiate the Antitumor Effect of Imatinib Mesylate in a Human A549 Lung Tumor Model.
Int J Mol Sci. 2015; 16(11):27191-207 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
In previous papers, we presented data on studies on the anticancer activity of the vitamin D₃ analogs, named PRI-2191 and PRI-2205, in different cancer models. In this study, we showed the improved antiproliferative activity of a combination of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, GV) and cytostatic agents in in vitro studies, when used with a third compound, namely PRI-2191, in an A549 human lung cancer model. Furthermore, we analyzed the influence of both PRI-2191, as well as PRI-2205 on the anticancer activity of GV in mice bearing A549 tumors. The route of PRI-2191 analog administration showed a significant impact on the outcome of GV treatment: subcutaneous injection was more efficient and less toxic than oral gavage. Moreover, both vitamin D compounds increased the anticancer activity of GV; however, they might also potentiate some adverse effects. We also evaluated in tumor tissue the expression of VEGF, PDGF-BB, vitamin D receptor, CYP27B1, CYP24, p53 and Bcl-2, as well as PDGF receptors: α and β. We observed the upregulation of p53 expression and the downregulation of Bcl-2, as well as VEGF in A549 tumors as a result of the tested treatment. However, vitamin D analogs did not significantly influence the expression of these proteins.

Deschasaux M, Souberbielle JC, Latino-Martel P, et al.
A prospective study of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and prostate cancer risk.
Br J Nutr. 2016; 115(2):305-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mechanistic hypotheses suggest that vitamin D and the closely related parathyroid hormone (PTH) may be involved in prostate carcinogenesis. However, epidemiological evidence is lacking for PTH and inconsistent for vitamin D. Our objectives were to prospectively investigate the association between vitamin D status, vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms, PTH and prostate cancer risk. A total of 129 cases diagnosed within the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants cohort were included in a nested case-control study and matched to 167 controls (13 years of follow-up). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and PTH concentrations were assessed from baseline plasma samples. Conditional logistic regression models were computed. Higher 25(OH)D concentration was associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer (ORQ4 v. Q1 0·30; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·77; P trend=0·007). PTH concentration was not associated with prostate cancer risk (P trend=0·4) neither did the studied vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms. In this prospective study, prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with 25(OH)D concentration but not with PTH concentration. These results bring a new contribution to the understanding of the relationship between vitamin D and prostate cancer, which deserves further investigation.

Orlow I, Reiner AS, Thomas NE, et al.
Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and survival in patients with cutaneous melanoma: a population-based study.
Carcinogenesis. 2016; 37(1):30-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Factors known to affect melanoma survival include age at presentation, sex and tumor characteristics. Polymorphisms also appear to modulate survival following diagnosis. Result from other studies suggest that vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms (SNPs) impact survival in patients with glioma, renal cell carcinoma, lung, breast, prostate and other cancers; however, a comprehensive study of VDR polymorphisms and melanoma-specific survival is lacking. We aimed to investigate whether VDR genetic variation influences survival in patients with cutaneous melanoma. The analysis involved 3566 incident single and multiple primary melanoma cases enrolled in the international population-based Genes, Environment, and Melanoma Study. Melanoma-specific survival outcomes were calculated for each of 38 VDR SNPs using a competing risk analysis after adjustment for covariates. There were 254 (7.1%) deaths due to melanoma during the median 7.6 years follow-up period. VDR SNPs rs7299460, rs3782905, rs2239182, rs12370156, rs2238140, rs7305032, rs1544410 (BsmI) and rs731236 (TaqI) each had a statistically significant (trend P values < 0.05) association with melanoma-specific survival in multivariate analysis. One functional SNP (rs2239182) remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing using the Monte Carlo method. None of the SNPs associated with survival were significantly associated with Breslow thickness, ulceration or mitosis. These results suggest that the VDR gene may influence survival from melanoma, although the mechanism by which VDR exerts its effect does not seem driven by tumor aggressiveness. Further investigations are needed to confirm our results and to understand the relationship between VDR and survival in the combined context of tumor and host characteristics.

Rashid MU, Muzaffar M, Khan FA, et al.
Association between the BsmI Polymorphism in the Vitamin D Receptor Gene and Breast Cancer Risk: Results from a Pakistani Case-Control Study.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0141562 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is postulated to decrease the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation via the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDR gene, rs1544410 (BsmI) and rs2228570 (FokI), are inconsistently associated with breast cancer risk in Caucasian populations, while data for Asians are scarce. Here, we investigated the possible contribution of these SNPs to breast cancer risk in Pakistani breast cancer patients and in controls participating in a hospital-based breast cancer case-control study (PAK-BCCC).
METHODS: Genotyping of the BsmI and FokI SNPs was performed by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 463 genetically enriched female breast cancer cases with known BRCA1/2 status and in 1,012 controls from Pakistan. The association between SNP genotypes and breast cancer risk was investigated by logistic regression adjusted for potential breast cancer risk factors and stratified by BRCA1/2 status and family history. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported.
RESULTS: The b allele of the BsmI was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (per b allele OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.09-1.49, P = 0.003). Subgroup analysis revealed that this effect was restricted to BRCA1/2 non-carriers (per b allele OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.59, P = 0.002) and was stronger in those who reported a positive family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer (per b allele OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.22, P = 0.002). No association with breast cancer risk was detected for the FokI SNP.
CONCLUSIONS: The BsmI polymorphism in the VDR gene may be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in Pakistani women negative for BRCA1/2 germline mutations.

Clendenen TV, Ge W, Koenig KL, et al.
Genetic Polymorphisms in Vitamin D Metabolism and Signaling Genes and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0140478 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D metabolism and signaling genes have been inconsistently associated with risk of breast cancer, though few studies have examined SNPs in vitamin D-related genes other than the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and particularly have not examined the association with the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA) gene which may be a key vitamin D pathway gene. We conducted a nested case-control study of 734 cases and 1435 individually matched controls from a population-based prospective cohort study, the Northern Sweden Mammary Screening Cohort. Tag and functional SNPs were genotyped for the VDR, cytochrome p450 24A1 (CYP24A1), and RXRA genes. We also genotyped specific SNPs in four other genes related to vitamin D metabolism and signaling (GC/VDBP, CYP2R1, DHCR7, and CYP27B1). SNPs in the CYP2R1, DHCR7, and VDBP gene regions that were associated with circulating 25(OH)D concentration in GWAS were also associated with plasma 25(OH)D in our study (p-trend <0.005). After taking into account the false discovery rate, these SNPs were not significantly associated with breast cancer risk, nor were any of the other SNPs or haplotypes in VDR, RXRA, and CYP24A1. We observed no statistically significant associations between polymorphisms or haplotypes in key vitamin D-related genes and risk of breast cancer. These results, combined with the observation in this cohort and most other prospective studies of no association of circulating 25(OH)D with breast cancer risk, do not support an association between vitamin D and breast cancer risk.

Dasgupta S, Dutta J, Annamaneni S, et al.
Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with polycystic ovary syndrome among Indian women.
Indian J Med Res. 2015; 142(3):276-85 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The Vitamin-D receptor (VDR) regulates vitamin D levels and calcium metabolism in the body and these are known to be associated with endocrine dysfunctions, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Studies on VDR polymorphisms among PCOS women are sparse. We undertook this study to investigate the association pattern of VDR polymorphisms (Cdx2, Fok1, Apa1 and Taq1) with PCOS among Indian women.
METHODS: For the present study, 250 women with PCOS and 250 normal healthy control women were selected from Hyderabad city, Telangana, India. The four VDR polymorphisms were genotyped and analysed using ASM-PCR (allele specific multiple PCR) and PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism).
RESULTS: The genotype and allele frequency distributions of only Cdx2 showed significant difference between the PCOS cases and control women, indicating protective role of this SNP against PCOS phenotype. However, significant association was observed between VDR genotypes and some of the PCOS specific clinical/biochemical traits. For example, Fok1 showed a significant genotypic difference for the presence of infertility and Cdx2 genotpes showed association with testosterone levels. Further, the two haplotypes, ACCA and ACTA, were found to be significantly associated with PCOS indicating haplotype specific risk.
INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: Although VDR polymorphisms have not shown significant association with PCOS, in view of functional significance of the SNPs considered, one cannot yet rule out the possibility of their association with PCOS. Further, specifically designed studies on large cohorts are required to conclusively establish the role of VDR polymorphisms in PCOS, particularly including data on vitamin D levels.

Deschasaux M, Souberbielle JC, Latino-Martel P, et al.
Prospective associations between vitamin D status, vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms, and risk of tobacco-related cancers.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2015; 102(5):1207-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence has suggested that vitamin D may be protective against tobacco-related cancers through the inhibition of the formation of tumors induced by tobacco carcinogens. To our knowledge, only one previous epidemiologic study investigated the association between vitamin D status and tobacco-related cancer risk, and no study has focused on vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to prospectively study the association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms, and risk of tobacco-related cancers.
DESIGN: A total of 209 tobacco-related cancers were diagnosed within the SU.VI.MAX (Supplémentation en vitamines et minéraux antioxydants) cohort (1994-2007) and were matched with 418 controls as part of a nested case-control study. Tobacco-related cancers (i.e., cancers for which tobacco is one of the risk factors) included several sites in the respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems. Total plasma 25(OH)D was assessed with the use of an electrochemoluminescent assay. Polymorphisms were determined with the use of a TaqMan assay. Conditional logistic regression models were computed.
RESULTS: A 25(OH)D concentration ≥30 ng/mL was associated with reduced risk of tobacco-related cancers (OR for ≥30 compared with <30 ng/mL: 0.59; 95% CI 0.35, 0.99; P = 0.046). This association was observed in former and current smokers (OR for ≥30 compared with <30 ng/mL: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.84; P = 0.01) but not in never smokers (P = 0.8). The vitamin D receptor (VDR) FokI AA genotype and retinoid X receptor (RXR) rs7861779 TT genotype were associated with increased risk of tobacco-related cancers [OR for homozygous mutant type (MT) compared with wild type (WT): 1.87; 95% CI: 1.08, 3.23; P-trend = 0.02; OR for heterozygous type (HT) plus MT compared with WT: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.38; P = 0.02].
CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study, high vitamin D status [25(OH)D concentration ≥30 ng/mL] was associated with decreased risk of tobacco-related cancers, especially in smokers. These results, which are supported by mechanistic plausibility, suggest that vitamin D may contribute to the prevention of tobacco-induced cancers in smokers and deserve additional investigation. The SU.VI.MAX trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.

Wang Q, Lin Z, Kim TK, et al.
Total synthesis of biologically active 20S-hydroxyvitamin D3.
Steroids. 2015; 104:153-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
A total synthetic strategy of 20S-hydroxyvitamin D3 [20S-(OH)D3] involving modified synthesis of key intermediates 7 and 12, Grignard reaction to stereoselectively generate 20S-OH and Wittig-Horner coupling to establish D3 framework, was completed in 16 steps with an overall yield of 0.4%. The synthetic 20S-(OH)D3 activated vitamin D receptor (VDR) and initiated the expression of downstream genes. In addition, 20S-(OH)D3 showed similar inhibitory potency as calcitriol [1,25(OH)2D3] on proliferation of melanoma cells.

Jedrzejuk D, Łaczmański Ł, Milewicz A, et al.
Classic PCOS phenotype is not associated with deficiency of endogenous vitamin D and VDR gene polymorphisms rs731236 (TaqI), rs7975232 (ApaI), rs1544410 (BsmI), rs10735810 (FokI): a case-control study of lower Silesian women.
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2015; 31(12):976-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: The role of endogenous vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still controversial.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate for the first time in women with "classic" PCOS phenotype and healthy controls the role of the serum endogenous vitamin D level and VDR gene polymorphisms in PCOS etiology.
DESIGN: Ninety-two women with "classic" PCOS phenotype and 85 controls from lower Silesia with comparable body mass index (BMI) were studied. In all women the waist circumference, android/gynoid fat deposit, parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism, testosterone, free androgen index, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and vitamin D were evaluated. Also, VDR gene polymorphisms rs731236, rs7975232, rs1544410 and rs10735810 were assessed.
RESULTS: Serum vitamin D levels in both groups were comparable. Also high, comparable frequencies of hypovitaminosis and vitamin D deficiency in both groups were observed. Women with "classic" PCOS phenotype had statistically significantly higher values of all measured parameters, except serum SHBG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, which were lower. The frequency of VDR genotype polymorphism was also comparable in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we show that endogenous vitamin D deficiency and VDR polymorphisms are not associated with homogeneous "classic" PCOS phenotype.

Tagliabue E, Raimondi S, Gandini S
Meta-analysis of vitamin D-binding protein and cancer risk.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015; 24(11):1758-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence supported a role for vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms in cancer risk. Beyond VDR, the biologic effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), a key protein in vitamin D metabolism. Furthermore, the gene encoding the DBP (GC, group-specific component) has an important role in the vitamin D pathway. Several studies investigated DBP serologic levels and GC polymorphisms in association with cancer risk with controversial results. Thus, we carried out a meta-analysis to investigate these associations.
METHODS: We included 28 independent studies concerning the following tumors: basal cell carcinoma, bladder, breast, colon-rectum, endometrium, liver, esophagus, stomach, melanoma, pancreas, prostate, and kidney. Through random-effect models, we calculated the summary odds ratios (SOR) for serum DBP and the GC polymorphisms rs2282679, rs12512631, rs7041, rs4588, rs17467825, rs1155563, and rs1352844.
RESULTS: We found a borderline decrease in cancer risk for subjects with high compared with low levels of DBP [SOR, 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-1.00]. Dose-response meta-analysis indicates a nonsignificant decrease risk for an increase of 1,000 nmol/L of DBP (SOR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.91-1.01). We found no significant alterations in cancer risk for subjects carrying any of the studied GC polymorphisms compared with wild-type subjects both in the main analysis and in analyses stratified by cancer type and ethnicity.
CONCLUSIONS: We found trends toward significance, suggesting a role of DBP in cancer etiology, which should be confirmed in further studies.
IMPACT: To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate GC polymorphisms and DBP serologic levels in association with any type of cancer.

Ahmad K, Scholz B, Capelo R, et al.
AF4 and AF4-MLL mediate transcriptional elongation of 5-lipoxygenase mRNA by 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):25784-800 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
The human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), encoded by the ALOX5 gene, is the key enzyme in the formation of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes. ALOX5 gene transcription is strongly stimulated by calcitriol (1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) and TGFβ (transforming growth factor-β). Here, we investigated the influence of MLL (activator of transcript initiation), AF4 (activator of transcriptional elongation) as well as of the leukemogenic fusion proteins MLL-AF4 (ectopic activator of transcript initiation) and AF4-MLL (ectopic activator of transcriptional elongation) on calcitriol/TGFβ-dependent 5-LO transcript elongation. We present evidence that the AF4 complex directly interacts with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and promotes calcitriol-dependent ALOX5 transcript elongation. Activation of transcript elongation was strongly enhanced by the AF4-MLL fusion protein but was sensitive to Flavopiridol. By contrast, MLL-AF4 displayed no effect on transcriptional elongation. Furthermore, HDAC class I inhibitors inhibited the ectopic effects caused by AF4-MLL on transcriptional elongation, suggesting that HDAC class I inhibitors are potential therapeutics for the treatment of t(4;11)(q21;q23) leukemia.

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