Gene Summary

Gene:CYP2B6; cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily B, polypeptide 6
Aliases: CPB6, EFVM, IIB1, P450, CYP2B, CYP2B7, CYP2B7P, CYPIIB6
Summary:This gene, CYP2B6, encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and its expression is induced by phenobarbital. The enzyme is known to metabolize some xenobiotics, such as the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Transcript variants for this gene have been described; however, it has not been resolved whether these transcripts are in fact produced by this gene or by a closely related pseudogene, CYP2B7. Both the gene and the pseudogene are located in the middle of a CYP2A pseudogene found in a large cluster of cytochrome P450 genes from the CYP2A, CYP2B and CYP2F subfamilies on chromosome 19q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cytochrome P450 2B6
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 February, 2015

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 26 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transfection
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • CYP2D6
  • Alleles
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Polymorphism
  • Drug Resistance
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6
  • Adolescents
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Genotype
  • Steroid Hydroxylases
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Cohort Studies
  • Young Adult
  • Tamoxifen
  • Tobacco Use Disorder
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Liver Cancer
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19
  • Promoter Regions
  • Doxorubicin
  • Cancer DNA
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
  • Xenobiotics
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosome 19
  • Risk Factors
  • Biotransformation
  • Tumor Markers
Tag cloud generated 25 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CYP2B6 (cancer-related)

Xu L, Yang M, Zhao T, et al.
The polymorphism of CYP2E1 Rsa I/Pst I gene and susceptibility to respiratory system cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 34 studies.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2014; 93(27):e178 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this articles is to determine whether the cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) Rsa I/Pst I gene polymorphism is correlated with respiratory system cancers. Respiratory system cancers included lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, and cancers of other respiratory organs, which are the most common malignant tumors worldwide; the significant relationship between CYP2E1 Rsa I/Pst I gene polymorphism and some respiratory system cancer have been reported, but results of some other studies are controversial. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to assess the association. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library Databases, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database (up to July 20, 2014) were searched for all case-control studies those mainly studied the relationship between CYP2E1 Rsa I/Pst I gene polymorphism and the susceptibility of respiratory system cancer. A total of 332 articles were collected, among which 34 studies that involved 7028 cases and 9822 controls fulfilled the inclusion criteria after being assessed by 2 reviewers. When stratified by cancer site, the C2/C2 polymorphism could increase the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer under the homozygote model (C2C2 vs C1C1: OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.20-2.85, P = 0.005) and recessive model (C2C2 vs C1C2/C1C1: OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.23-2.89, P = 0.003). Protection effect was found in lung cancer in heterozygote model (C1C2 vs C1C1: OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.74-0.91, P < 0.001), dominant model (C1C2/C2C2 vs C1C1: OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.76-0.90, P < 0.001), and allele contrast model (C2 vs C1: OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.73-1.00, P = 0.045). With regard to ethnicity subgroup analysis, there was significant association in Asian population in heterozygote model (C1C2 vs C1C1: OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78-0.94, P = 0.001), dominant model (C1C2/C2C2 vs C1C1: OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.95, P = 0.001), and recessive model (C2C2 vs C1C2/C1C1: OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.01-1.53, P = 0.036). CYP2E1 Rsa I/Pst I gene polymorphism may reduce the risk of respiratory system cancer. Furthermore, significant association was also found in Asian populations.

Seo JW, Ma M, Kwong T, et al.
Comparative characterization of the lactimidomycin and iso-migrastatin biosynthetic machineries revealing unusual features for acyltransferase-less type I polyketide synthases and providing an opportunity to engineer new analogues.
Biochemistry. 2014; 53(49):7854-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/11/2015 Related Publications
Lactimidomycin (LTM, 1) and iso-migrastatin (iso-MGS, 2) belong to the glutarimide-containing polyketide family of natural products. We previously cloned and characterized the mgs biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces platensis NRRL 18993. The iso-MGS biosynthetic machinery featured an acyltransferase (AT)-less type I polyketide synthase (PKS) and three tailoring enzymes (MgsIJK). We now report cloning and characterization of the ltm biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces amphibiosporus ATCC 53964, which consists of nine genes that encode an AT-less type I PKS (LtmBCDEFGHL) and one tailoring enzyme (LtmK). Inactivation of ltmE or ltmH afforded the mutant strain SB15001 or SB15002, respectively, that abolished the production of 1, as well as the three cometabolites 8,9-dihydro-LTM (14), 8,9-dihydro-8S-hydroxy-LTM (15), and 8,9-dihydro-9R-hydroxy-LTM (13). Inactivation of ltmK yielded the mutant strain SB15003 that abolished the production of 1, 13, and 15 but led to the accumulation of 14. Complementation of the ΔltmK mutation in SB15003 by expressing ltmK in trans restored the production of 1, as well as that of 13 and 15. These results support the model for 1 biosynthesis, featuring an AT-less type I PKS that synthesizes 14 as the nascent polyketide intermediate and a cytochrome P450 desaturase that converts 14 to 1, with 13 and 15 as minor cometabolites. Comparative analysis of the LTM and iso-MGS AT-less type I PKSs revealed several unusual features that deviate from those of the collinear type I PKS model. Exploitation of the tailoring enzymes for 1 and 2 biosynthesis afforded two analogues, 8,9-dihydro-8R-hydroxy-LTM (16) and 8,9-dihydro-8R-methoxy-LTM (17), that provided new insights into the structure-activity relationship of 1 and 2. While 12-membered macrolides, featuring a combination of a hydroxyl group at C-17 and a double bond at C-8 and C-9 as found in 1, exhibit the most potent activity, analogues with a single hydroxyl or methoxy group at C-8 or C-9 retain most of the activity whereas analogues with double substitutions at C-8 and C-9 lose significant activity.

Giacinti S, Bassanelli M, Aschelter AM, et al.
Resistance to abiraterone in castration-resistant prostate cancer: a review of the literature.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(11):6265-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Persistent androgen signaling is functionally significant in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and it is actually considered a validated therapeutic target. Residual intra-tumoral androgens compensate for the effects of androgen ablation, activating the androgen receptor (AR), AR-mediated gene expression and driving CRPC. The intra-tumoral biosynthesis of androgens takes place in different ways and cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) has a crucial role in this context. Abiraterone, a CYP17A1 inhibitor, has shown impressive results in pre- and post-chemotherapy settings, prolonging the survival of patients with CRPC. However, not all patients respond to the treatment and most responders develop resistance, with a widely variable duration of response. Although many hypotheses are emerging, the mechanisms of resistance to abiraterone treatment have not yet been elucidated. The aim of the present review is to describe the main data currently available on resistance to abiraterone.

Lin J, He B, Cao L, et al.
CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism and the risk of non-small cell lung cancer in a Chinese population.
Tumori. 2014 Sep-Oct; 100(5):547-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 enzyme plays an important role in the metabolism of carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitroaromatics and arylamines.
METHODS: The study examined the association of CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism with the risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer in a Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study including 526 non-small cell lung cancer cases and 526 cancer-free controls. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by logistic regression models.
RESULTS: Compared with 462Ile/Ile genotype carriers, subjects with CYP1A1 462Ile/Val or Val/Val genotype had a decreased risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer with odds ratios of 0.57 (95% CI, 0.44-0.75) and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.36-0.81), respectively. When stratified by smoking status, the decreased risk of non-small cell lung cancer associated with CYP1A1 462Ile/Val or Val/Val genotype was observed among non-smokers (OR = 0.62, 95% CI, 0.45-0.87) and among smokers (OR = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.37-0.78). When stratified by smoking-dose, the correlation between CYP1A1 genotypes and the risk of non-small cell lung cancer was detected among light smokers (OR = 0.30, 95% CI, 0.19-0.48) but not among heavy smokers (OR = 0.93, 95% CI, 0.61-1.43).
CONCLUSIONS: The CYP1A1 Ile462Val variant was associated with a low risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer in a Chinese population.

Do MT, Kim HG, Tran TT, et al.
Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014; 280(1):138-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer.

Zheng H, Li Y, Wang Y, et al.
Downregulation of COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling by isoliquiritigenin inhibits human breast cancer metastasis through preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014; 280(1):10-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Flavonoids exert extensive in vitro anti-invasive and in vivo anti-metastatic activities. Anoikis resistance occurs at multiple key stages of the metastatic cascade. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from Glycyrrhiza glabra, inhibits human breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion through downregulating cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A signaling. ISL induced anoikis in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 human breast cancer cells as evidenced by flow cytometry and the detection of caspase cleavage. Moreover, ISL inhibited the mRNA expression of phospholipase A2, COX-2 and CYP 4A and decreased the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in detached MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, it decreased the levels of phospho-PI3K (Tyr(458)), phospho-PDK (Ser(241)) and phospho-Akt (Thr(308)). Conversely, the exogenous addition of PGE2, WIT003 (a 20-HETE analog) and an EP4 agonist (CAY10580) or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed ISL-induced anoikis. ISL exerted the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities, whereas the addition of PGE2, WIT003 and CAY10580 or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities of ISL in MDA-MB-231 cells. Notably, ISL inhibited the in vivo lung metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells, together with decreased intratumoral levels of PGE2, 20-HETE and phospho-Akt (Thr(308)). In conclusion, ISL inhibits breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion via downregulating COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling. It suggests that ISL could be a promising multi-target agent for preventing breast cancer metastasis, and anoikis could represent a novel mechanism through which flavonoids may exert the anti-metastatic activities.

Gong FF, Lu SS, Hu CY, et al.
Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) polymorphism and susceptibility to esophageal cancer: an updated meta-analysis of 27 studies.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(10):10351-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) polymorphisms are known to play a crucial role in the development and metastasis of malignant diseases including esophageal cancer. However, the results of previous studies investigating the association between CYP1A1 polymorphisms and esophageal cancer risk have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis of 27 eligible studies, encompassing 4,215 esophageal cancer cases and 6,339 control subjects, pooled the odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) to assess this association. The effects of ethnicity (Caucasian and Asian) and histopathology type (esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma) were considered in subgroup analyses. A significant association was observed between the CYP1A1 Ile/Val gene polymorphism and esophageal cancer in all of the genetic models (Ile/Val vs. Ile/Ile, OR = 1.41, 95 % CI = 1.25-1.58; Val/Val vs. Ile/Ile, OR = 1.94, 95 % CI = 1.34-2.82; Ile/Val + Val/Val vs. Ile/Ile, OR = 1.49, 95 % CI = 1.33-1.66). The subgroup analysis based on ethnicity showed that the association between the CYP1A1 Ile/Val polymorphism and esophageal cancer existed in Asian and Caucasian populations. However, no association was observed between the CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism and esophageal cancer in either subgroup or in the overall population. These results suggested that the CYP1A1 Ile/Val polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer, whereas the CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism may not have increased susceptibility to esophageal cancer. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.

Chang I, Fukuhara S, Wong DK, et al.
Cytochrome P450 1B1 polymorphisms and risk of renal cell carcinoma in men.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(10):10223-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) enzyme activates xenobiotics to reactive forms as well as convert estradiol to 4-hydroxy-estradiol that has been shown to play a role in the carcinogenesis process of the kidney in male but not female animals. Prior reports show polymorphic variants of CYP1B1 to alter catalytic activity, and thus, we hypothesize that polymorphisms of the CYP1B1 gene are involved in the malignant transformation of the renal cell in men. The genetic distributions of five CYP1B1 polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 480 normal healthy subjects and 403 sporadic renal cell carcinoma cases. All subjects were Caucasian men. The sites evaluated were codons 48 (C → G, Arg → Gly, rs10012), 119 (G → T, Ala → Ser, rs1056827), 432 (C → G, Leu → Val, rs1056836), 449 (C → T, Asp, rs1056837), and 453 (A → G, Asn → Ser, rs1800440). A trend was demonstrated for the 432 Val/Val (χ2, P = 0.06) and 449 T/T (χ2, P = 0.1) genotypes to play a protective role against renal cancer. Odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) for Val/Val compared to Leu/Leu at codon 432 was 0.65 (0.44-0.95) and T/T compared to C/C at codon 449 was 0.67 (0.45-0.99). Codons 432 and 449 were observed to be linked (D = 0.24), and haplotype involving 432 Val and 449 T was significantly reduced in cancer cases (P = 0.04). No association was found, however, when analyzing polymorphic sites with clinical stage of cancer. These results demonstrate polymorphisms of CYP1B1 to be associated with renal carcinogenesis and are of importance in understanding their role in the pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma.

Li W, Song LQ, Tan J
Combined effects of CYP1A1 MspI and GSTM1 genetic polymorphisms on risk of lung cancer: an updated meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):9281-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) genes might contribute to the variability in individual susceptibility to lung cancer, but the reported results from individual studies are not always consistent. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to systematically estimate the associations between polymorphisms of these two genes and risk of lung cancer. Twenty-one studies with 8,926 subjects were finally enrolled into this study. Meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.2. Odds ratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the susceptibility to lung cancer. Compared with the wild-type homozygous genotype, significantly elevated risk of lung cancer were associated with variant CYP1A1 MspI (m1/m2 + m2/m2 vs. m1/m1: OR = 1.27, 95 % CI = 1.12-1.43, P < 0.001) and deletion of GSTM1 (null vs. present: OR = 1.26, 95 % CI = 1.13-1.40, P < 0.001). Both the two genetic polymorphisms were independently associated with the risk of lung cancer. The pooled OR of lung cancer for population with both CYP1A1 MspI and GSTM1 mutations (MspI m1/m2 or m2/m2 and GSTM1 null) was 1.62 (95 % CI 1.27-2.07, P < 0.001) when compared with those without any of the above mutations, which is higher than single genetic polymorphism. In the stratified analysis, significantly higher risks of lung cancer associated with above genetic polymorphisms were found only in Asian population. This meta-analysis suggests that the CYP1A1 MspI and GSTM1 polymorphisms correlate with increased lung cancer susceptibility independently, and that there is an interaction between the two genes. However, the associations vary in different ethnic populations.

Martin N, Salazar-Cardozo C, Vercamer C, et al.
Identification of a gene signature of a pre-transformation process by senescence evasion in normal human epidermal keratinocytes.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:151 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data show that the incidence of carcinomas in humans is highly dependent on age. However, the initial steps of the age-related molecular oncogenic processes by which the switch towards the neoplastic state occurs remain poorly understood, mostly due to the absence of powerful models. In a previous study, we showed that normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) spontaneously and systematically escape from senescence to give rise to pre-neoplastic emerging cells.
METHODS: Here, this model was used to analyze the gene expression profile associated with the early steps of age-related cell transformation. We compared the gene expression profiles of growing or senescent NHEKs to post-senescent emerging cells. Data analyses were performed by using the linear modeling features of the limma package, resulting in a two-sided t test or F-test based on moderated statistics. The p-values were adjusted for multiple testing by controlling the false discovery rate according to Benjamini Hochberg method.The common gene set resulting of differential gene expression profiles from these two comparisons revealed a post-senescence neoplastic emergence (PSNE) gene signature of 286 genes.
RESULTS: About half of these genes were already reported as involved in cancer or premalignant skin diseases. However, bioinformatics analyses did not highlight inside this signature canonical cancer pathways but metabolic pathways, including in first line the metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450. In order to validate the relevance of this signature as a signature of pretransformation by senescence evasion, we invalidated two components of the metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3. When performed at the beginning of the senescence plateau, this invalidation did not alter the senescent state itself but significantly decreased the frequency of PSNE. Conversely, overexpression of AKR1C2 but not AKR1C3 increased the frequency of PSNE.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this study is the first to identify reprogrammation of metabolic pathways in normal keratinocytes as a potential determinant of the switch from senescence to pre-transformation.

Kim JS, Roberts JM, Bingman WE, et al.
The prostate cancer TMPRSS2:ERG fusion synergizes with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to induce CYP24A1 expression-limiting VDR signaling.
Endocrinology. 2014; 155(9):3262-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
A number of preclinical studies have shown that the activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) reduces prostate cancer (PCa) cell and tumor growth. The majority of human PCas express a transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2):erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) fusion gene, but most preclinical studies have been performed in PCa models lacking TMPRSS2:ETS in part due to the limited availability of model systems expressing endogenous TMPRSS2:ETS. The level of the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), is controlled in part by VDR-dependent induction of cytochrome P450, family 24, subfamily 1, polypeptide1 (CYP24A1), which metabolizes 1,25D to an inactive form. Because ETS factors can cooperate with VDR to induce rat CYP24A1, we tested whether TMPRSS2:ETS would cause aberrant induction of human CYP24A1 limiting the activity of VDR. In TMPRSS2:ETS positive VCaP cells, depletion of TMPRSS2:ETS substantially reduced 1,25D-mediated CYP24A1 induction. Artificial expression of the type VI+72 TMPRSS2:ETS isoform in LNCaP cells synergized with 1,25D to greatly increase CYP24A1 expression. Thus, one of the early effects of TMPRSS2:ETS in prostate cells is likely a reduction in intracellular 1,25D, which may lead to increased proliferation. Next, we tested the net effect of VDR action in TMPRSS2:ETS containing PCa tumors in vivo. Unlike previous animal studies performed on PCa tumors lacking TMPRSS2:ETS, EB1089 (seocalcitol) (a less calcemic analog of 1,25D) did not inhibit the growth of TMPRSS2:ETS containing VCaP tumors in vivo, suggesting that the presence of TMPRSS2:ETS may limit the growth inhibitory actions of VDR. Our findings suggest that patients with TMPRSS2:ETS negative tumors may be more responsive to VDR-mediated growth inhibition and that TMPRSS2:ETS status should be considered in future clinical trials.

Li QY, Zhao NM, Wang LC, et al.
Individuals having variant genotypes of cytochrome P450 2C19 are at increased risk of developing primary liver cancer in Han populations, without infection with the hepatitis virus.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):9023-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, many researchers have reported that the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 may account for the interpatient variability of the clinical course in cancers including primary liver cancer (PLC). Besides the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19, hepatitis viruses (HV, including HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV, especially HBV and/or HCV) also account for the interpatient variability of the clinical course in PLC. This research covered the above two factors and divided the patients with PLC into two groups (one group with HBV infection and another without any HV infection) to find out whether the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 have different effects in the progressing of PLC in different groups of patients. Eight hundred sixty-four cancer-free Han people (controls, named group 1), 207 Han PLC patients with HBV infection (group 2), and 55 Han PLC patients without any HV infection (group 3) were involved in this study. A wild-type allele (CYP2C19*1) and two mutated alleles (CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3) were identified. The frequencies of the mutant alleles and genotypes were then compared with each other. The frequencies of the homozygous and heterozygous variant genotypes (*2/*2, *2/*3, *3/*3) in group 3 (25.5 %) were significantly higher than those in other groups (11.9 % in group 1 and 13.5 % in group 2, P = 0.014, 95 % confidence interval (CI)). The differences were statistically significant between group 1 and group 3 (P = 0.004, 95 % CI), but they were not statistically significant between group 1 and group 2 (P = 0.527, 95 % CI). Thus, we conclude that people which were not infected with HV but with the homozygous or heterozygous variant genotypes (*2/*2, *2/*3, *3/*3) of CYP2C19 may have higher possibilities of getting PLC than people with other allelic genotypes (*1/*1, *1/*2, *1/*3) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.523, 95 % CI = 1.329 ~ 4.788). However, in patients with HBV infection, the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 did not seem to be an important factor in the risk of developing PLC (OR = 1.156, 95 % CI = 0.738 ~ 1.810).

Brinkman AM, Wu J, Ersland K, Xu W
Estrogen receptor α and aryl hydrocarbon receptor independent growth inhibitory effects of aminoflavone in breast cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:344 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have implicated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) as a potential therapeutic target for several human diseases, including estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) positive breast cancer. Aminoflavone (AF), an activator of AhR signaling, is currently undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of solid tumors. Of particular interest is the potential treatment of triple negative breast cancers (TNBC), which are typically more aggressive and characterized by poorer outcomes. Here, we examined AF's effects on two TNBC cell lines and the role of AhR signaling in AF sensitivity in these model cell lines.
METHODS: AF sensitivity in MDA-MB-468 and Cal51 was examined using cell counting assays to determine growth inhibition (GI50) values. Luciferase assays and qPCR of AhR target genes cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1B1 were used to confirm AF-mediated AhR signaling. The requirement of endogenous levels of AhR and AhR signaling for AF sensitivity was examined in MDA-MB-468 and Cal51 cells stably harboring inducible shRNA for AhR. The mechanism of AF-mediated growth inhibition was explored using flow cytometry for markers of DNA damage and apoptosis, cell cycle analysis, and β-galactosidase staining for senescence. Luciferase data was analyzed using Student's T test. Three-parameter nonlinear regression was performed for cell counting assays.
RESULTS: Here, we report that ERα-negative TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-468 and Cal51 are sensitive to AF. Further, we presented evidence suggesting that neither endogenous AhR expression levels nor downstream induction of AhR target genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 is required for AF-mediated growth inhibition in these cells. Between these two ERα negative cell lines, we showed that the mechanism of AF action differs slightly. Low dose AF mediated DNA damage, S-phase arrest and apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 cells, while it resulted in DNA damage, S-phase arrest and cellular senescence in Cal51 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this work provides evidence against the simplified view of AF sensitivity, and suggests that AF could mediate growth inhibitory effects in ERα-positive and negative breast cancer cells, as well as cells with impaired AhR expression and signaling. While AF could have therapeutic effects on broader subtypes of breast cancer, the mechanism of cytotoxicity is complex, and likely, cell line- and tumor-specific.

Sharma KL, Rai R, Srivastava A, et al.
A multigenic approach to evaluate genetic variants of PLCE1, LXRs, MMPs, TIMP, and CYP genes in gallbladder cancer predisposition.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):8597-606 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a violent neoplasm associated with late diagnosis, unsatisfactory treatment, and poor prognosis. The disease shows complex interplay between multiple genetic variants. We analyzed 15 polymorphisms in nine genes involved in various pathways to find out combinations of genetic variants contributing to GBC risk. The genes included in the study were matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-2), cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1, CYP1B1, phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1), liver X receptor (LXR)-alpha, and LXR-beta. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP and TaqMan probes. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 16. Multilocus analysis was performed by Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) to gene-gene interactions in modifying GBC risk. In silico analysis was done using various bioinformatics tools (F-SNP, FAST-SNP). Single locus analysis showed association of MMP-2 (-735 C > T, -1306 C > T), MMP-7 - 181 A > G, MMP-9 (P574R, R668Q), TIMP-2 - 418 G > C, CYP1A1-MspI, CYP1A1-Ile462Val, PLCE1 (rs2274223 A > G, rs7922612 T > C) and LXR-beta T > C (rs3546355 G > A, rs2695121 T > C) polymorphisms with GBC risk (p < 0.05) whereas CYP1B1 and LXR-α variants were not associated with GBC risk. Multidimensional reduction analysis revealed LXR-β (rs3546355 G > A, rs2695121 T > C), MMP-2 (-1306 C > T), MMP-9 (R668Q), and PLCE1 rs2274223 A > G to be key players in GBC causation (p < 0.001, CVC = 7/10). The results were further supported by independent CART analysis (p < 0.001). In silico analysis of associated variants suggested change in splicing or transcriptional regulation. Interactome and STRING analysis showed network of associated genes. The study found PLCE1 and LXR-β network interactions as important contributory factors for genetic predisposition in gallbladder cancer.

Mandić S, Horvat V, Marczi S, et al.
Association study of cytochrome P450 1A1*2A polymorphism with prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness in Croatians.
Coll Antropol. 2014; 38(1):141-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is an enzyme participating in the bioactivation of various endogenous and environmental reactive compounds that can bind to DNA and thus induce cancerogenesis. Gene encoding the enzyme is expressed in the prostate tissue and is polymorphic. CYP1A1*2A gene polymorphism is associated with elevated enzyme activity and/or inducibility which can lead to accumulation of genotoxic compounds and consequently to cancerogenesis. We examined the association of this polymorphism with prostate cancer (PCa) risk and aggressiveness. The case-control study consisted of 120 PCa patients and 120 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) controls, in Croatian population. Regarding aggressiveness, PCa patients were grouped according to the Gleason score (GS), tumor stage (T) and existence of distant metastasis (M). The polymorphism was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We did not observe association of mutated allele with PCa risk, neither with PCa aggressiveness. Furthermore, frequency of polymorphic genotype was slightly higher in BPH group (16.6% vs. 14.2%, respectively) and also in less aggressive form of PCa (20.4% vs. 9.6% for GS < 7; 15.6% vs. 9.1% for T < 3; 16.7% vs. 10.0% for no distant metastasis). Comparing our findings with other published results, we can assume that the ethnicity influence the genotype distribution and thus may affect the etiology of PCa, even possibly in the way to cause an opposite effect among different ethnic groups. Given the small number of participants, results should be validated on the larger sample size.

Ye L, Yang X, Guo E, et al.
Sorafenib metabolism is significantly altered in the liver tumor tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma patient.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e96664 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sorafenib, the drug used as first line treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4-mediated oxidation and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 1A9-mediated glucuronidation. Liver diseases are associated with reduced CYP and UGT activities, which can considerably affect drug metabolism, leading to drug toxicity. Thus, understanding the metabolism of therapeutic compounds in patients with liver diseases is necessary. However, the metabolism characteristic of sorafenib has not been systematically determined in HCC patients.
METHODS: Sorafenib metabolism was tested in the pooled and individual tumor hepatic microsomes (THLMs) and adjacent normal hepatic microsomes (NHLMs) of HCC patients (n = 18). Commercial hepatic microsomes (CHLMs) were used as a control. In addition, CYP3A4 and UGT1A9 protein expression in different tissues were measured by Western blotting.
RESULTS: The mean rates of oxidation and glucuronidation of sorafenib were significantly decreased in the pooled THLMs compared with those in NHLMs and CHLMs. The maximal velocity (Vmax) of sorafenib oxidation and glucuronidation were approximately 25-fold and 2-fold decreased in the pooled THLMs, respectively, with unchanged Km values. The oxidation of sorafenib in individual THLMs sample was significantly decreased (ranging from 7 to 67-fold) than that in corresponding NHLMs sample. The reduction of glucuronidation in THLMs was observed in 15 out of 18 patients' samples. Additionally, the level of CYP3A4 and UGT1A9 expression were both notably decreased in the pooled THLMs.
CONCLUSIONS: Sorafenib metabolism was remarkably decreased in THLMs. This result was associated with the down regulation of the protein expression of CYP3A4 and UGT1A9.

Qi DC, Wu B, Tao SL, et al.
Analysis of differentially expressed genes in malignant biliary strictures.
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(2):2674-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microarray data were collected from bile duct samples from subjects with malignant biliary strictures by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to screen for key genes associated with this disease. A predicted interaction network was constructed for these genes to interpret their functions. The gene expression dataset GSE34166 (10 samples: 6 malignant and 4 benign control samples) was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. R package scripts were used to process the data and screen for differentially expressed genes. Genes identified were uploaded to the analysis tool String 8.3 to generate a gene interaction network. A hub gene was identified by calculating the node degree. The interaction network of the hub gene with other genes in the human genome was constructed and screened (score >0.9), and pathway-enrichment analysis was performed to elucidate the hub gene function. In total, 377 differentially expressed genes were identified and a network comprising 209 pairs of interactions was constructed. The most critical hub gene was identified as GSTA1, and a GSTA1-based interaction network was constructed consisting of 25 genes (containing the differentially expressed gene GSTA3). The cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-metabolic pathway displayed the most significant enrichment. Additionally, 4 transcription factors and their binding sites were also identified. In conclusion, we have identified the differentially expressed genes GSTA1 (a hub gene) and GSTA3, which may cause abnormal gene expression and tumorigenesis through CYP450-metabolic pathways. The transcription factors and their binding sites in the promoter of the hub gene provide potential directions for future drug design.

Tulsyan S, Agarwal G, Lal P, Mittal B
Significant role of CYP450 genetic variants in cyclophosphamide based breast cancer treatment outcomes: a multi-analytical strategy.
Clin Chim Acta. 2014; 434:21-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating chemotherapeutic drug, is catalyzed by the Phase I cytochrome P450 (CYPs) isozymes - CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. Hence this study aimed to elucidate the influence of genetic variants in CYP450 metabolizing enzymes on breast cancer treatment outcomes, using multi-analytical approaches.
METHODS: Treatment response was noticed in 111 patients whereas 234 patients were followed for myelo-toxicity. Eight known functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six CYP450 genes were selected for the study on the basis of CP metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms. The possible functional effects of CYP450 polymorphisms were determined by online Web servers F-SNP. Multifactor dimensionality reductions (MDR), haplotype analysis were combined with logistic regression to characterize gene-gene interaction model with treatment outcomes.
RESULTS: Haplotype analysis revealed significant association of G(rs10509681)-*1(rs1799853)-*3(rs1057910)-G(rs4244285) on chromosome 10 with overall toxicity (P=0.024) and grade 2-4 leucopenia (P=0.03). On MDR analysis, CYP3A5*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2B6*5 yielded the highest testing accuracy for treatment response (0.60) and CYP2C8*3, CYP2C9*2 for overall toxicity (0.50).
CONCLUSION: Multi-analytical approaches may provide a better clinical prediction of pharmacogenetic based treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients.

Terzolo M, Zaggia B, Allasino B, De Francia S
Practical treatment using mitotane for adrenocortical carcinoma.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2014; 21(3):159-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Description of novel findings about the mechanism of action of mitotane and its activity as an adjunctive postoperative measure, or for treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma.
RECENT FINDINGS: Several in-vitro studies have shown that mitotane suppresses gene transcription of different enzymatic steps of the steroidogenetic pathway. Moreover, mitotane induces CYP3A4 expression, thus accelerating the metabolic clearance of a variety of drugs including steroids. Retrospective studies provided evidence that adjunctive mitotane can prolong recurrence-free survival of treated patients. The concept of a therapeutic window of mitotane plasma concentrations was confirmed also for adjunctive treatment, but the relationship between mitotane concentration and given dose is loose. Genetic variability of the P450-dependent enzymes metabolizing mitotane may explain individual differences.
SUMMARY: Mitotane concentration of 14-20  mg/l should be reached and maintained during treatment also in an adjunctive setting. In advanced adrenocortical carcinoma, a high-dose starting regimen should be employed when mitotane is used as monotherapy. The combination of mitotane with other drugs should consider the possibility of pharmacologic interactions due to mitotane-induced activation of drug metabolism. This concept applies also to steroid replacement in mitotane-treated patients, who need higher doses to adjust for increased steroid metabolism.

Gao W, Liu L, Xu J, et al.
A systematic analysis of predicted MiR-31-targets identifies a diagnostic and prognostic signature for lung cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2014; 68(4):419-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that miR-31 could play a potential role as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of several cancers including lung cancer. The aim of this study is to globally summarize the predicting targets of miR-31 and their potential function, pathways and networks, which are involved in the biological behavior of lung cancer.
METHODS: We have conducted the natural language processing (NLP) analysis to identify lung cancer-related molecules in our previous work. In this study, miR-31 targets predicted by combinational computational methods. All target genes were characterized by gene ontology (GO), pathway and network analysis. In addition, miR-31 targets analysis were integrated with the results from NLP analysis, followed by hub genes interaction analysis.
RESULT: We identified 27 hub genes by the final integrative analysis and suggested that miR-31 may be involved in the initiation, progression and treatment response of lung cancer through cell cycle, cytochrome P450 pathway, metabolic pathways, apoptosis, chemokine signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, as well as others.
CONCLUSION: Our data may help researchers to predict the molecular mechanisms of miR-31 in the molecular mechanism of lung cancer comprehensively. Moreover, the present data indicate that the interaction of miR-31 targets may be promising candidates as biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis and personalized therapy of lung cancer.

Tulsyan S, Chaturvedi P, Singh AK, et al.
Assessment of clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with taxanes: multi-analytical approach.
Gene. 2014; 543(1):69-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polymorphisms in genes encoding CYPs (Phase I) and ABCB1 (Phase III) enzymes may attribute to variability of efficacy of taxanes. The present study aims to find the influence of CYP and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms on taxanes based clinical outcomes. 132 breast cancer patients treated with taxanes based chemotherapy were genotyped for CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3, CYP1B1*3, CYP2C8*3, ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP. Associations of genetic variants with clinical outcomes in terms of response in 58 patients receiving neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), and chemo-toxicity in 132 patients were studied. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis was performed to evaluate higher order gene-gene interactions with clinical outcomes. Pathological response to taxane based NACT was associated with GA genotype as well as A allele of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism (Pcorr=0.0465, Pcorr=0.0465). Similarly, association was found in dominant model of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism with responders (Pcorr=0.0465). Haplotype analysis further revealed ACYP3A4-ACYP3A5 haplotype to be significantly associated with responders (Pcorr=0.048). In assessing toxicity, significant association of variant (TT) genotype and T allele of ABCB1 2677G>T/A polymorphism, was found with 'grade 1 or no leucopenia' (Pcorr=0.0465, Pcorr=0.048). On evaluating higher order gene-gene interaction models by MDR analysis, CYP3A5*3; ABCB11236C>T and ABCB1 2677G>T/A; ABCB1 3435C>T and CYP1B1*3 showed significant association with treatment response, grade 2-4 anemia and dose delay/reduction due to neutropenia (P=0.024, P=0.004, P=0.026), respectively. Multi-analytical approaches may provide a better assessment of pharmacogenetic based treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with taxanes.

Molina-Ortiz D, Camacho-Carranza R, González-Zamora JF, et al.
Differential expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes in normal and tumor tissues from childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e93261 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/11/2015 Related Publications
Intratumoral expression of genes encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) might play a critical role not only in cancer development but also in the metabolism of anticancer drugs. The purpose of this study was to compare the mRNA expression patterns of seven representative CYPs in paired tumor and normal tissue of child patients with rabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Using real time quantitative RT-PCR, the gene expression pattern of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, CYP2W1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 were analyzed in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 13 child RMS patients. Protein concentration of CYPs was determined using Western blot. The expression levels were tested for correlation with the clinical and pathological data of the patients. Our data showed that the expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were negligible. Elevated expression of CYP1B1 mRNA and protein was detected in most RMS tumors and adjacent normal tissues. Most cancerous samples exhibit higher levels of both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 compared with normal tissue samples. Expression of CYP2E1 mRNA was found to be significantly higher in tumor tissue, however no relation was found with protein levels. CYP2W1 mRNA and/or protein are mainly expressed in tumors. In conclusion, we defined the CYP gene expression profile in tumor and paired normal tissue of child patients with RMS. The overexpression of CYP2W1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in tumor tissues suggests that they may be involved in RMS chemoresistance; furthermore, they may be exploited for the localized activation of anticancer prodrugs.

Mwinyi J, Vokinger K, Jetter A, et al.
Impact of variable CYP genotypes on breast cancer relapse in patients undergoing adjuvant tamoxifen therapy.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014; 73(6):1181-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen is frequently used for the treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancer (BC). Mainly CYP2D6 is responsible for the transformation to therapeutically active metabolites, but CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP2B6 also are involved. We investigated the impact of polymorphisms within the genes encoding these CYP enzymes on the relapse-free time (RFT) in patients with BC.
METHODS: Ninety-nine patients with hormone receptor positive BC, who had undergone adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, were genotyped for seventeen common variants within the genes encoding CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2B6 using TaqMan and PCR-RFLP technology. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to elucidate the impact of genetic variants on RFT. Furthermore, CYP2D6 metabolic activity was determined in a subset of 50 patients by assessing dextromethorphan/dextrorphan urinary excretion ratios. CYP2D6 activity was compared to the CYP2D6 allelic combinations to evaluate the predictive value of the CYP2D6 genotyping results on phenotype.
RESULTS: Although a trend toward longer RFTs in carriers of CYP2D6 allele combinations encoding for extensive and ultrafast metabolizer phenotypes was observed, none of the investigated genetic variants had a statistically significant impact on RFT. The combined analysis of five major CYP2D6 variants was useful for the discrimination between poor and non-poor metabolizers.
CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive CYP2D6 genotyping has a good predictive value for CYP2D6 activity. Common variants in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2B6 did not have a significant impact on the RFT in this cohort of patients with BC.

Scherer D, Koepl LM, Poole EM, et al.
Genetic variation in UGT genes modify the associations of NSAIDs with risk of colorectal cancer: colon cancer family registry.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(7):568-78 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with reduced risk of colorectal neoplasia. Previous studies have reported that polymorphisms in NSAID-metabolizing enzymes central to NSAID metabolism including UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 may modify this protective effect. We investigated whether 35 functionally relevant polymorphisms within CYP2C9 and UGT genes were associated with colorectal cancer risk or modified the protective effect of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer susceptibility, using 1,584 colorectal cancer cases and 2,516 unaffected sibling controls from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. A three-SNP genotype in UGT1A6 (G-A-A; Ala7-Thr181-Arg184) and the Asp85 variant in UGT2B15 increased the risk of colorectal cancer (OR 3.87; 95% CI 1.04-14.45 and OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.10-1.63, respectively). We observed interactions between UGT1A3 Thr78Thr (A>G) and NSAID use (P-interaction = 0.02), a three-SNP genotype within UGT2B4 and ibuprofen use (P-interaction = 0.0018), as well as UGT2B15 Tyr85Asp (T>G) and aspirin use (P-interaction = 0.01). The interaction with the UGT2B4 and the UGT2B15 polymorphisms were noteworthy at the 25% FDR level. This study highlights the need for further pharmacogenetic studies to identify individuals who might benefit from NSAID use as part of developing effective strategies for prevention of colorectal neoplasia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Naushad SM, Hussain T, Al-Attas OS, et al.
Molecular insights into the association of obesity with breast cancer risk: relevance to xenobiotic metabolism and CpG island methylation of tumor suppressor genes.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2014; 392(1-2):273-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Obesity, genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolic pathway, hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes, and hypomethylation of proapoptotic genes are known to be independent risk factors for breast cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the combined effect of these environmental, genetic, and epigenetic risk factors on the susceptibility to breast cancer. PCR-RFLP and multiplex PCR were used for the genetic analysis of six variants of xenobiotic metabolic pathway. Methylation-specific PCR was used for the epigenetic analysis of four genetic loci. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis revealed a significant interaction between the body mass index (BMI) and catechol-O-methyl transferase H108L variant alone or in combination with cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1m1 variant. Women with "Luminal A" breast cancer phenotype had higher BMI compared to other phenotypes and healthy controls. There was no association between the BMI and tumor grade. The post-menopausal obese women exhibited lower glutathione levels. BMI showed a positive association with the methylation of extracellular superoxide dismutase (r = 0.21, p < 0.05), Ras-association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 1 (RASSF1A) (r = 0.31, p < 0.001), and breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (r = 0.19, p < 0.05); and inverse association with methylation of BNIP3 (r = -0.48, p < 0.0001). To conclude based on these results, obesity increases the breast cancer susceptibility by two possible mechanisms: (i) by interacting with xenobiotic genetic polymorphisms in inducing increased oxidative DNA damage and (ii) by altering the methylome of several tumor suppressor genes.

Al-Achkar W, Azeiz G, Moassass F, Wafa A
Influence of CYP1A1, GST polymorphisms and susceptibility risk of chronic myeloid leukemia in Syrian population.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(5):889 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present study, we investigated the associations of polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 gene (CYP1A1), glutathione S-transferase genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). A total of 126 patients with CML and 172 healthy volunteers were genotyped, and the DNA was isolated from their blood samples. The polymorphisms were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism-based methods and multiplex PCR. Logistic regression analyses showed significant risk of CML associated with CYP1A1 Val allele [odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.96-5.53], (p < 0.0001) while CYP1A1 Val/Val homozygotes were observed only in the CML patients. There was statistically significant difference in the frequency of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes. The GSTT1-null genotype was slightly higher in 27% of CML cases and 16.7% of controls (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.12-3.5) (p < 0.020). The GSTM1 null was higher in 42.8% of CML cases and 22.7% of controls (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.54-4.22) (p < 0.00024). The individuals carrying CYP1A1 Ile/Val (AG) and GSTM1 null genotype have 9.9 times higher risk to be CML than those carrying CYP1A1 Ile/Ile (AA) and GSTM1 present genotype (OR 9.9, 95% CI 2.7-36.3) (p < 0.0001). This suggests that the association of the GSTM1 null genotype, either alone or in combination with GSTT1 null, with CYP1AI heterozygous leads to the CML risk.

Chuturgoon AA, Phulukdaree A, Moodley D
Fumonisin B₁ modulates expression of human cytochrome P450 1b1 in human hepatoma (Hepg2) cells by repressing Mir-27b.
Toxicol Lett. 2014; 227(1):50-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), a common mycotoxin contaminant of maize, is known to inhibit sphingolipid biosynthesis and has been implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma promoting activity in humans and animals. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression via translational repression. Human cytochrome P450 (CYP1B1) is highly expressed in oestrogen target tissues and catalyzes the metabolic activation of many procarcinogens. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of FB₁ on miR-27b suppression and its effect on CYP1B1 modulation in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). MiR27b and CYP1B1 expressions were evaluated in HepG2 cells by quantitative PCR. In order to directly assess the effect of miR-27b on CYP1B1 mRNA levels, cells were transfected with the mimic to miR-27b. CYP1B1 protein expression was measured using Western blot. FB₁ significantly down-regulated (11-fold) expression of miR-27b in HepG2 cells; whilst CYP1B1 mRNA and protein expression was significantly upregulated by 1.8-fold and 2.6-fold, respectively. CYP1B1 is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR-27b after HepG2 exposure to FB₁. FB₁-induced modulation of miR-27b in hepatic cells may be an additional mode of hepatic neoplastic transformation.

Hussein AG, Pasha HF, El-Shahat HM, et al.
CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and smoking status as modifier factors for lung cancer risk.
Gene. 2014; 541(1):26-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer remains the most prevalent malignancy worldwide. Susceptibility to lung cancer has been shown to be modulated by inheritance of polymorphic genes. Several metabolic enzymes are currently under investigation for their possible role in lung cancer susceptibility, including members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily. The aim of this work was to identify the correlation between CYP1A1 m1 and m2 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk and figure its interactions with smoking as genetic modifiers in the etiology of lung cancer in the Egyptian population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with lung cancer and one hundred and ten controls were enrolled in the study. CYP1A1 m1 and m2 polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism.
RESULTS: Subjects carrying TC and CC genotypes of CYP1A1 m1 and AG and GG genotypes of CYP1A1 m2 were significantly more likely to develop lung cancer especially squamous cell carcinoma. The proportion of lung cancer attributable to the interaction of smoking and CYP1A1 m1 and CYP1A1 m2 polymorphisms was 32% and 52% respectively.
CONCLUSION: Our results revealed that CYP1A1 m1 and m2 polymorphisms contribute to smoking related lung cancer risk in the Egyptian population.

Laws MJ, Kannan A, Pawar S, et al.
Dysregulated estrogen receptor signaling in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis in mice.
PLoS Genet. 2014; 10(3):e1004230 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
The etiology of ovarian epithelial cancer is poorly understood, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate experimental model for studying the onset and progression of this disease. We have created a mutant mouse model in which aberrant estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis. In these mice, termed ERαd/d, the ERα gene was conditionally deleted in the anterior pituitary, but remained intact in the hypothalamus and the ovary. The loss of negative-feedback regulation by estrogen (E) at the level of the pituitary led to increased production of luteinizing hormone (LH) by this tissue. Hyperstimulation of the ovarian cells by LH resulted in elevated steroidogenesis, producing high circulating levels of steroid hormones, including E. The ERαd/d mice exhibited formation of palpable ovarian epithelial tumors starting at 5 months of age with 100% penetrance. By 15 months of age, 80% of ERαd/d mice die. Besides proliferating epithelial cells, these tumors also contained an expanded population of luteinized stromal cells, which acquire the ability to express P450 aromatase and synthesize E locally. In response to the elevated levels of E, the ERα signaling was accentuated in the ovarian epithelial cells of ERαd/d mice, triggering increased ERα-dependent gene expression, abnormal cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Consistent with these findings, treatment of ERαd/d mice with letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, markedly reduced circulating E and ovarian tumor volume. We have, therefore, developed a unique animal model, which serves as a useful tool for exploring the involvement of E-dependent signaling pathways in ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis.

Xu J, Wang J, Hu Y, et al.
Unequal prognostic potentials of p53 gain-of-function mutations in human cancers associate with drug-metabolizing activity.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1108 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/07/2015 Related Publications
Mutation of p53 is the most common genetic change in human cancer, causing complex effects including not only loss of wild-type function but also gain of novel oncogenic functions (GOF). It is increasingly likely that p53-hotspot mutations may confer different types and magnitudes of GOF, but the evidences are mainly supported by cellular and transgenic animal models. Here we combine large-scale cancer genomic data to characterize the prognostic significance of different p53 mutations in human cancers. Unexpectedly, only mutations on the Arg248 and Arg282 positions displayed significant association with shorter patient survival, but such association was not evident for other hotspot GOF mutations. Gene set enrichment analysis on these mutations revealed higher activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes, including the CYP3A4 cytochrome P450. Ectopic expression of p53 mutant R282W in H1299 and SaOS2 cells significantly upregulated CYP3A4 mRNA and protein levels, and cancer cell lines bearing mortality-associated p53 mutations display higher CYP3A4 expression and resistance to several CYP3A4-metabolized chemotherapeutic drugs. Our results suggest that p53 mutations have unequal GOF activities in human cancers, and future evaluation of p53 as a cancer biomarker should consider which mutation is present in the tumor, rather than having comparison between wild-type and mutant genotypes.

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