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CYP2B6; cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily B, polypeptide 6 (19q13.2)

Gene Summary

Gene:CYP2B6; cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily B, polypeptide 6
Aliases: CPB6, EFVM, IIB1, P450, CYP2B, CYP2B7, CYP2B7P, CYPIIB6
Location:19q13.2
Summary:This gene, CYP2B6, encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and its expression is induced by phenobarbital. The enzyme is known to metabolize some xenobiotics, such as the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Transcript variants for this gene have been described; however, it has not been resolved whether these transcripts are in fact produced by this gene or by a closely related pseudogene, CYP2B7. Both the gene and the pseudogene are located in the middle of a CYP2A pseudogene found in a large cluster of cytochrome P450 genes from the CYP2A, CYP2B and CYP2F subfamilies on chromosome 19q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cytochrome P450 2B6
HPRD
Source:NCBI
Updated:14 December, 2014

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Messenger RNA
  • Genotype
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Cancer DNA
  • Biotransformation
  • CYP2D6
  • Chromosome 19
  • Breast Cancer
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Tamoxifen
  • Young Adult
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cohort Studies
  • GSTP1
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
  • Drug Resistance
  • Polymorphism
  • Tobacco Use Disorder
  • Base Sequence
  • Transfection
  • Xenobiotics
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • Adolescents
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Tumor Markers
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Risk Factors
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
  • Steroid Hydroxylases
  • RTPCR
  • Doxorubicin
  • Alleles
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Promoter Regions
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Liver Cancer
Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (2)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Breast CancerCYP2B6 and Breast Cancer View Publications21
Liver CancerCYP2B6 and Hepatocellular Carcinoma View Publications4

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: CYP2B6 (cancer-related)

Kim JS, Roberts JM, Bingman WE, et al.
The prostate cancer TMPRSS2:ERG fusion synergizes with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to induce CYP24A1 expression-limiting VDR signaling.
Endocrinology. 2014; 155(9):3262-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
A number of preclinical studies have shown that the activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) reduces prostate cancer (PCa) cell and tumor growth. The majority of human PCas express a transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2):erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) fusion gene, but most preclinical studies have been performed in PCa models lacking TMPRSS2:ETS in part due to the limited availability of model systems expressing endogenous TMPRSS2:ETS. The level of the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), is controlled in part by VDR-dependent induction of cytochrome P450, family 24, subfamily 1, polypeptide1 (CYP24A1), which metabolizes 1,25D to an inactive form. Because ETS factors can cooperate with VDR to induce rat CYP24A1, we tested whether TMPRSS2:ETS would cause aberrant induction of human CYP24A1 limiting the activity of VDR. In TMPRSS2:ETS positive VCaP cells, depletion of TMPRSS2:ETS substantially reduced 1,25D-mediated CYP24A1 induction. Artificial expression of the type VI+72 TMPRSS2:ETS isoform in LNCaP cells synergized with 1,25D to greatly increase CYP24A1 expression. Thus, one of the early effects of TMPRSS2:ETS in prostate cells is likely a reduction in intracellular 1,25D, which may lead to increased proliferation. Next, we tested the net effect of VDR action in TMPRSS2:ETS containing PCa tumors in vivo. Unlike previous animal studies performed on PCa tumors lacking TMPRSS2:ETS, EB1089 (seocalcitol) (a less calcemic analog of 1,25D) did not inhibit the growth of TMPRSS2:ETS containing VCaP tumors in vivo, suggesting that the presence of TMPRSS2:ETS may limit the growth inhibitory actions of VDR. Our findings suggest that patients with TMPRSS2:ETS negative tumors may be more responsive to VDR-mediated growth inhibition and that TMPRSS2:ETS status should be considered in future clinical trials.

Related: Prostate Cancer Signal Transduction ERG gene TMPRSS2 gene


Mandić S, Horvat V, Marczi S, et al.
Association study of cytochrome P450 1A1*2A polymorphism with prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness in Croatians.
Coll Antropol. 2014; 38(1):141-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is an enzyme participating in the bioactivation of various endogenous and environmental reactive compounds that can bind to DNA and thus induce cancerogenesis. Gene encoding the enzyme is expressed in the prostate tissue and is polymorphic. CYP1A1*2A gene polymorphism is associated with elevated enzyme activity and/or inducibility which can lead to accumulation of genotoxic compounds and consequently to cancerogenesis. We examined the association of this polymorphism with prostate cancer (PCa) risk and aggressiveness. The case-control study consisted of 120 PCa patients and 120 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) controls, in Croatian population. Regarding aggressiveness, PCa patients were grouped according to the Gleason score (GS), tumor stage (T) and existence of distant metastasis (M). The polymorphism was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We did not observe association of mutated allele with PCa risk, neither with PCa aggressiveness. Furthermore, frequency of polymorphic genotype was slightly higher in BPH group (16.6% vs. 14.2%, respectively) and also in less aggressive form of PCa (20.4% vs. 9.6% for GS < 7; 15.6% vs. 9.1% for T < 3; 16.7% vs. 10.0% for no distant metastasis). Comparing our findings with other published results, we can assume that the ethnicity influence the genotype distribution and thus may affect the etiology of PCa, even possibly in the way to cause an opposite effect among different ethnic groups. Given the small number of participants, results should be validated on the larger sample size.

Related: Prostate Cancer


Tulsyan S, Chaturvedi P, Singh AK, et al.
Assessment of clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with taxanes: multi-analytical approach.
Gene. 2014; 543(1):69-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polymorphisms in genes encoding CYPs (Phase I) and ABCB1 (Phase III) enzymes may attribute to variability of efficacy of taxanes. The present study aims to find the influence of CYP and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms on taxanes based clinical outcomes. 132 breast cancer patients treated with taxanes based chemotherapy were genotyped for CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3, CYP1B1*3, CYP2C8*3, ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP. Associations of genetic variants with clinical outcomes in terms of response in 58 patients receiving neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), and chemo-toxicity in 132 patients were studied. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis was performed to evaluate higher order gene-gene interactions with clinical outcomes. Pathological response to taxane based NACT was associated with GA genotype as well as A allele of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism (Pcorr=0.0465, Pcorr=0.0465). Similarly, association was found in dominant model of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism with responders (Pcorr=0.0465). Haplotype analysis further revealed ACYP3A4-ACYP3A5 haplotype to be significantly associated with responders (Pcorr=0.048). In assessing toxicity, significant association of variant (TT) genotype and T allele of ABCB1 2677G>T/A polymorphism, was found with 'grade 1 or no leucopenia' (Pcorr=0.0465, Pcorr=0.048). On evaluating higher order gene-gene interaction models by MDR analysis, CYP3A5*3; ABCB11236C>T and ABCB1 2677G>T/A; ABCB1 3435C>T and CYP1B1*3 showed significant association with treatment response, grade 2-4 anemia and dose delay/reduction due to neutropenia (P=0.024, P=0.004, P=0.026), respectively. Multi-analytical approaches may provide a better assessment of pharmacogenetic based treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with taxanes.

Related: Breast Cancer Male Breast Cancer


Mwinyi J, Vokinger K, Jetter A, et al.
Impact of variable CYP genotypes on breast cancer relapse in patients undergoing adjuvant tamoxifen therapy.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014; 73(6):1181-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen is frequently used for the treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancer (BC). Mainly CYP2D6 is responsible for the transformation to therapeutically active metabolites, but CYP2C19, CYP2C9 and CYP2B6 also are involved. We investigated the impact of polymorphisms within the genes encoding these CYP enzymes on the relapse-free time (RFT) in patients with BC.
METHODS: Ninety-nine patients with hormone receptor positive BC, who had undergone adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, were genotyped for seventeen common variants within the genes encoding CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2B6 using TaqMan and PCR-RFLP technology. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to elucidate the impact of genetic variants on RFT. Furthermore, CYP2D6 metabolic activity was determined in a subset of 50 patients by assessing dextromethorphan/dextrorphan urinary excretion ratios. CYP2D6 activity was compared to the CYP2D6 allelic combinations to evaluate the predictive value of the CYP2D6 genotyping results on phenotype.
RESULTS: Although a trend toward longer RFTs in carriers of CYP2D6 allele combinations encoding for extensive and ultrafast metabolizer phenotypes was observed, none of the investigated genetic variants had a statistically significant impact on RFT. The combined analysis of five major CYP2D6 variants was useful for the discrimination between poor and non-poor metabolizers.
CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive CYP2D6 genotyping has a good predictive value for CYP2D6 activity. Common variants in CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2B6 did not have a significant impact on the RFT in this cohort of patients with BC.

Related: Breast Cancer CYP2D6 Polymorphisms


Chuturgoon AA, Phulukdaree A, Moodley D
Fumonisin B₁ modulates expression of human cytochrome P450 1b1 in human hepatoma (Hepg2) cells by repressing Mir-27b.
Toxicol Lett. 2014; 227(1):50-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), a common mycotoxin contaminant of maize, is known to inhibit sphingolipid biosynthesis and has been implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma promoting activity in humans and animals. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression via translational repression. Human cytochrome P450 (CYP1B1) is highly expressed in oestrogen target tissues and catalyzes the metabolic activation of many procarcinogens. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of FB₁ on miR-27b suppression and its effect on CYP1B1 modulation in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). MiR27b and CYP1B1 expressions were evaluated in HepG2 cells by quantitative PCR. In order to directly assess the effect of miR-27b on CYP1B1 mRNA levels, cells were transfected with the mimic to miR-27b. CYP1B1 protein expression was measured using Western blot. FB₁ significantly down-regulated (11-fold) expression of miR-27b in HepG2 cells; whilst CYP1B1 mRNA and protein expression was significantly upregulated by 1.8-fold and 2.6-fold, respectively. CYP1B1 is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR-27b after HepG2 exposure to FB₁. FB₁-induced modulation of miR-27b in hepatic cells may be an additional mode of hepatic neoplastic transformation.

Related: Liver Cancer CYP1B1


Hussein AG, Pasha HF, El-Shahat HM, et al.
CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and smoking status as modifier factors for lung cancer risk.
Gene. 2014; 541(1):26-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer remains the most prevalent malignancy worldwide. Susceptibility to lung cancer has been shown to be modulated by inheritance of polymorphic genes. Several metabolic enzymes are currently under investigation for their possible role in lung cancer susceptibility, including members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily. The aim of this work was to identify the correlation between CYP1A1 m1 and m2 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk and figure its interactions with smoking as genetic modifiers in the etiology of lung cancer in the Egyptian population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with lung cancer and one hundred and ten controls were enrolled in the study. CYP1A1 m1 and m2 polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism.
RESULTS: Subjects carrying TC and CC genotypes of CYP1A1 m1 and AG and GG genotypes of CYP1A1 m2 were significantly more likely to develop lung cancer especially squamous cell carcinoma. The proportion of lung cancer attributable to the interaction of smoking and CYP1A1 m1 and CYP1A1 m2 polymorphisms was 32% and 52% respectively.
CONCLUSION: Our results revealed that CYP1A1 m1 and m2 polymorphisms contribute to smoking related lung cancer risk in the Egyptian population.

Related: Lung Cancer Polymorphisms


Xu J, Wang J, Hu Y, et al.
Unequal prognostic potentials of p53 gain-of-function mutations in human cancers associate with drug-metabolizing activity.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1108 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutation of p53 is the most common genetic change in human cancer, causing complex effects including not only loss of wild-type function but also gain of novel oncogenic functions (GOF). It is increasingly likely that p53-hotspot mutations may confer different types and magnitudes of GOF, but the evidences are mainly supported by cellular and transgenic animal models. Here we combine large-scale cancer genomic data to characterize the prognostic significance of different p53 mutations in human cancers. Unexpectedly, only mutations on the Arg248 and Arg282 positions displayed significant association with shorter patient survival, but such association was not evident for other hotspot GOF mutations. Gene set enrichment analysis on these mutations revealed higher activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes, including the CYP3A4 cytochrome P450. Ectopic expression of p53 mutant R282W in H1299 and SaOS2 cells significantly upregulated CYP3A4 mRNA and protein levels, and cancer cell lines bearing mortality-associated p53 mutations display higher CYP3A4 expression and resistance to several CYP3A4-metabolized chemotherapeutic drugs. Our results suggest that p53 mutations have unequal GOF activities in human cancers, and future evaluation of p53 as a cancer biomarker should consider which mutation is present in the tumor, rather than having comparison between wild-type and mutant genotypes.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction TP53


Maurya SS, Anand G, Dhawan A, et al.
Polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes and risk to head and neck cancer: evidence for gene-gene and gene-environment interaction.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2014; 55(2):134-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
A case-control study involving 750 cases with squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) and an equal number of healthy controls was initiated to investigate the association of polymorphisms in the drug metabolizing genes cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1B1, CYP2E1 and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) with the risk of developing cancer. Attempts were also made to identify the role and nature of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in modifying the susceptibility to HNSCC. Polymorphisms in drug metabolizing CYPs or GSTM1 showed modest associations with cancer risk. However, cases carrying haplotypes with variant alleles of both CYP1A1*2A and *2C or CYP1B1*2 and *3 or CYP2E1*5B and *6 were at significant risk of developing HNSCC. Likewise, cases carrying a combination of variant genotypes of CYPs and GSM1 (null) were at higher risk (up to 5-fold) of developing HNSCC. HNSCC risk also increased several-fold in cases carrying variant genotypes of CYPs who were regular tobacco smokers (8-18-fold), tobacco chewers (3-7-fold), or alcohol users (2-4-fold). Statistical analysis revealed a more than multiplicative interaction between combinations of the variant genotypes of CYPs and GSTM1 (null) and between variant genotypes and tobacco smoking or chewing or alcohol consumption, in both case-control and case-only designs. The data thus suggest that although polymorphisms in carcinogen-metabolizing CYPs may be a modest risk factor for developing HNSCC, gene-gene, and gene-environment interactions play a significant role in modifying the susceptibility to HNSCC.

Related: Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology GSTM1


Bhat GA, Shah IA, Makhdoomi MA, et al.
CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 genotypes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high-incidence region, Kashmir.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(6):5323-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The study analyzed the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, cytochromes P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP2E1 and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Kashmir, India. The different genotypes of CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism in 526 ESCC cases and equal number of matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the association of various genotypes with ESCC, gene-gene, and gene-environment interactions. High risk of ESCC was found in participants who carried CYP1A1 Val/Val genotype (OR=2.87; 95 % CI=1.00-8.44) and the risk increased in such individuals when c1/c1 of CYP2E1 genotype was also present (OR=5.68; 95 % CI=1.09-29.52). Risk due to CYP1A1 Val/Val genotype was further enhanced (OR=8.55; 95 % CI=1.86-42.20) when the analysis was limited to ever smokers. Participants who carried CYP2E1 c1/c2 genotype showed an inverse relation (OR=0.27; 95 % CI=0.17-0.43) with ESCC. The inverse association of CYP2E1 c1/c2 genotype was retained when CYP1A1 Ile/Ile was also present (OR=0.18; 95 % CI=0.09-0.32), as well as when analysis was limited to ever smokers (OR=0.45; 95 % CI=0.23-0.90). Significant interaction was found between CYP1A1 (Val/Val) and CYP2E1 (c1/c1) genotypes (OR=1.30; 95 % CI=1.12-1.51; P=0.001) and between CYP1A1 (Val/Val) and smoking (OR=1.31; 95 % CI=1.01-1.69; P=0.043). The study suggests CYP1A1 Val/Val and CYP2E1 c1/c1 genotypes are significantly associated with ESCC risk.

Related: Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer


Oguro A, Koyama C, Xu J, Imaoka S
A cellular stress response (CSR) that interacts with NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) is a new regulator of hypoxic response.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 445(1):43-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) was previously found to contribute to the hypoxic response of cells, but the mechanism was not clarified. In this study, we identified a cellular stress response (CSR) as a new factor interacting with NPR by a yeast two-hybrid system. Overexpression of CSR enhanced the induction of erythropoietin and hypoxia response element (HRE) activity under hypoxia in human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (Hep3B), while knockdown of CSR suppressed them. This new finding regarding the interaction of NPR with CSR provides insight into the function of NPR in hypoxic response.

Related: Liver Cancer


Liu Y, Lin CS, Zhang AM, et al.
The CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism and risk of urinary system cancers.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4719-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) gene plays a key role in the metabolism of various carcinogens. The CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism leads to leucine to valine substitution at codon 432. A lot of studies have shown that the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism was associated with urinary system cancers, especially prostate cancer. However, the results were still inconclusive. In this meta-analysis, by searching online databases and references of related reviews, we identified 17 eligible studies to assess the relationship between CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism and urinary system cancers, including 7,783 cancer cases and 7,238 controls. By pooling all eligible studies, we found that the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism was not associated with overall urinary system cancers. However, in subgroup analyses, we found that the variant 432Val allele significantly increased the risk of prostate cancer (Val vs. Leu, odds ratio (OR) = 1.064, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.981-1.154; Pheterogeneity = 0.002), while no association was found for bladder cancer (Val vs. Leu, OR = 0.942, 95% CI 0.853-1.041; Pheterogeneity = 0.504). No evidence of publication bias was found (Begg's test, P = 0.053; Egger's test, P = 0.073). In conclusion, based on 17 eligible studies, we found that the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, while no association of bladder cancer was observed.

Related: Polymorphisms Prostate Cancer Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology CYP1B1


Dallaglio K, Bruno A, Cantelmo AR, et al.
Paradoxic effects of metformin on endothelial cells and angiogenesis.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(5):1055-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The biguanide metformin is used in type 2 diabetes management and has gained significant attention as a potential cancer preventive agent. Angioprevention represents a mechanism of chemoprevention, yet conflicting data concerning the antiangiogenic action of metformin have emerged. Here, we clarify some of the contradictory effects of metformin on endothelial cells and angiogenesis, using in vitro and in vivo assays combined with transcriptomic and protein array approaches. Metformin inhibits formation of capillary-like networks by endothelial cells; this effect is partially dependent on the energy sensor adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as shown by small interfering RNA knockdown. Gene expression profiling of human umbilical vein endothelial cells revealed a paradoxical modulation of several angiogenesis-associated genes and proteins by metformin, with short-term induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase 2 and CXC chemokine receptor 4 at the messenger RNA level and downregulation of ADAMTS1. Antibody array analysis shows an essentially opposite regulation of numerous angiogenesis-associated proteins in endothelial and breast cancer cells including interleukin-8, angiogenin and TIMP-1, as well as selective regulation of angiopioetin-1, -2, endoglin and others. Endothelial cell production of the cytochrome P450 member CYP1B1 is upregulated by tumor cell supernatants in an AMPK-dependent manner, metformin blocks this effect. Metformin inhibits VEGF-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and the inhibition of AMPK activity abrogates this event. Metformin hinders angiogenesis in matrigel pellets in vivo, prevents the microvessel density increase observed in obese mice on a high-fat diet, downregulating the number of white adipose tissue endothelial precursor cells. Our data show that metformin has an antiangiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo associated with a contradictory short-term enhancement of pro-angiogenic mediators, as well as with a differential regulation in endothelial and breast cancer cells.

Related: Angiogenesis Inhibitors Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction Angiogenesis and Cancer VEGFA CYP1B1


Wang H, Ren L, He Y, et al.
Association between cytochrome P450 2C9 gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer susceptibility: evidence from 16 case-control studies.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4317-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between common variations of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 (430C>T and 1075A>C) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) with conflicting results. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between these CYP2C9 polymorphisms and CRC, a meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and Web of Science databases were searched. A total of 16 studies including 9,463 cases and 11,416 controls were identified. Potential sources of heterogeneity including ethnicity, sample size of study, genotyping method, diagnostic criteria, and outcome were systematically assessed. Overall, the summary odds ratio of 430T variant for CRC was 0.92 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-0.98; P = 0.012) and 1.39 (95% CI 1.07-1.81; P = 0.013) for colorectal adenomas (CRAs). As for CYP2C9 1075A>C polymorphism, no significant results were observed in overall and subgroup analysis. There was no evidence of publication bias. In conclusion, there is evidence to indicate a significant association between CYP2C9 430C>T polymorphism and CRC/CRA risk.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Polymorphisms


Wang J, Ma D, Li Y, et al.
Targeted delivery of CYP2E1 recombinant adenovirus to malignant melanoma by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells as vehicles.
Anticancer Drugs. 2014; 25(3):303-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) as intermediate carriers on targeting of P450 gene recombinant adenovirus to malignant melanoma in vitro and in vivo. BMSCs were transduced with pAd5-CMV-CYP2E1 recombinant adenovirus. BMSC migration was detected by Transwell plates in vitro and by superparamagnetic iron oxide particles in vivo. Growth-inhibitory effect and apoptosis were determined by MTT and immunity fluorescence staining. Anticancer effects were examined by a human melanoma nude mouse model in vivo. BMSCs moved toward A375 cells in Transwell plates. Numerous superparamagnetic MSCs labeled with iron oxide were identified in the peripheral areas of the tumor, but were detected in primary organs by Prussian blue staining. BMSC-CYP2E1 cells mediated a bystander killing effect on CYP2E1-negative A375 cells during coculture (IC50 values for A375 cells cocultured with BMSC-EGFP and BMSC-CYP2E1 were 4.08 and 2.68 mmol/l, respectively). Intravenously injecting CYP2E1 recombinant adenovirus-loaded BMSCs in mice with established human melanoma managed to target the tumor site, and BMSCs with forced expression of CYP2E1 inhibited the growth of malignant cells in vivo by activating 5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno)imidazole-4-carboxamide. BMSCs may serve as a platform of P450 gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy for the delivery of chemotherapeutic prodrugs to tumors.

Related: Apoptosis Dacarbazine Melanoma


Androutsopoulos VP, Spyrou I, Ploumidis A, et al.
Expression profile of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes in colon and bladder tumors.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e82487 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes are involved in carcinogenesis via activation of pro-carcinogenic compounds to carcinogenic metabolites. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 have shown elevated levels in human tumors as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical studies. However studies that have examined CYP1 expression by enzyme activity assays are limited.
RESULTS: In the current study the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 was investigated in a panel of human tumors of bladder and colorectal origin by qRT-PCR and enzyme activity assays. The results demonstrated that 35% (7/20) of bladder tumors and 35% (7/20) of colon tumors overexpressed active CYP1 enzymes. CYP1B1 mRNA was overexpressed in 65% and 60% of bladder and colon tumors respectively, whereas CYP1A1 was overexpressed in 65% and 80% of bladder and colon tumors. Mean mRNA levels of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 along with mean CYP1 activity were higher in bladder and colon tumors compared to normal tissues (p<0.05). Statistical analysis revealed CYP1 expression levels to be independent of TNM status. Moreover, incubation of tumor microsomal protein in 4 bladder and 3 colon samples with a CYP1B1 specific antibody revealed a large reduction (72.5 ± 5.5 % for bladder and 71.8 ± 7.2% for colon) in catalytic activity, indicating that the activity was mainly attributed to CYP1B1 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: The study reveals active CYP1 overexpression in human tumors and uncovers the potential use of CYP1 enzymes and mainly CYP1B1 as targets for cancer therapy.

Related: Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology CYP1B1


Cronin-Fenton DP, Damkier P, Lash TL
Metabolism and transport of tamoxifen in relation to its effectiveness: new perspectives on an ongoing controversy.
Future Oncol. 2014; 10(1):107-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tamoxifen reduces the rate of breast cancer recurrence by approximately a half. Tamoxifen is metabolized to more active metabolites by enzymes encoded by polymorphic genes, including cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Tamoxifen is a substrate for ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins. We review tamoxifen's clinical pharmacology and use meta-analyses to evaluate the clinical epidemiology studies conducted to date on the association between CYP2D6 inhibition and tamoxifen effectiveness. Our findings indicate that the effect of both drug-induced and/or gene-induced inhibition of CYP2D6 activity is likely to be null or small, or at most moderate in subjects carrying two reduced function alleles. Future research should examine the effect of polymorphisms in genes encoding enzymes in tamoxifen's complete metabolic pathway, should comprehensively evaluate other biomarkers that affect tamoxifen effectiveness, such as the transport enzymes, and focus on subgroups of patients, such as premenopausal breast cancer patients, for whom tamoxifen is the only guideline endocrine therapy.

Related: Breast Cancer CYP2D6


Skrypnyk N, Chen X, Hu W, et al.
PPARα activation can help prevent and treat non-small cell lung cancer.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(2):621-31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/01/2015 Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) not amenable to surgical resection has a high mortality rate, due to the ineffectiveness and toxicity of chemotherapy. Thus, there remains an urgent need of efficacious drugs that can combat this disease. In this study, we show that targeting the formation of proangiogenic epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EET) by the cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenases (Cyp2c) represents a new and safe mechanism to treat NSCLC growth and progression. In the transgenic murine K-Ras model and human orthotopic models of NSCLC, we found that Cyp2c44 could be downregulated by activating the transcription factor PPARα with the ligands bezafibrate and Wyeth-14,643. Notably, both treatments reduced primary and metastatic NSCLC growth, tumor angiogenesis, endothelial Cyp2c44 expression, and circulating EET levels. These beneficial effects were independent of the time of administration, whether before or after the onset of primary NSCLC, and they persisted after drug withdrawal, suggesting the benefits were durable. Our findings suggest that strategies to downregulate Cyp2c expression and/or its enzymatic activity may provide a safer and effective strategy to treat NSCLC. Moreover, as bezafibrate is a well-tolerated clinically approved drug used for managing lipidemia, our findings provide an immediate cue for clinical studies to evaluate the utility of PPARα ligands as safe agents for the treatment of lung cancer in humans.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Angiogenesis and Cancer


Kassogue Y, Quachouh M, Dehbi H, et al.
Functional polymorphism of CYP2B6 G15631T is associated with hematologic and cytogenetic response in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(1):782 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the spite of the impressive results achieved with imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, differences in patient's response are observed, which may be explained by interindividual genetic variability. It is known that cytochrome P450 enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of imatinib. The present study aimed to understand the functional impact of CYP2B6 15631G>T polymorphism on the response of imatinib in CML patients and its relation to CML susceptibility. We have genotyped CYP2B6 G15631T in 48 CML patients and 64 controls by PCR-RFLP. CYP2B6 15631G>T was not found to be a risk factor for CML (OR 95 % CI, 1.12, 0.6-2, p > 0.05). Hematologic response loss was higher in patients with 15631GG/TT genotype when compared with 15631GT (36.8 vs. 13.8 %; X (2) = 3.542, p = 0.063). Complete cytogenetic response was higher in 15631GG/GT genotype groups when compared with 15631TT (X (2) = 3.298, p = 0.024). Primary cytogenetic resistance was higher in patients carrying 15631GG/TT genotype when compared with 15631GT carriers (52.6 vs. 17.2 %; X (2) = 6.692, p = 0.010). Furthermore, side effects were more common for patients carrying 15631GG genotypes when compared with GT/TT carriers (36 vs. 13.8 %; X (2) = 8.3, p = 0.004). In light of our results, identification of 15631G>T polymorphism in CML patients might be helpful to predict therapeutic response to imatinib.

Related: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) CML - Molecular Biology Polymorphisms Imatinib (Glivec)


Dieudonné AS, Lambrechts D, Smeets D, et al.
The rs1800716 variant in CYP2D6 is associated with an increased double endometrial thickness in postmenopausal women on tamoxifen.
Ann Oncol. 2014; 25(1):90-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen remains important in the treatment and prevention of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. In postmenopausal women, it can lead to endometrial changes such as cystic appearances, hyperplasia, polyps and endometrial cancer. Tamoxifen is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes to the more active metabolite endoxifen. Several genetic variants in the CYP450 enzymes reduce tamoxifen metabolism, leading to reduced endoxifen levels. We hypothesize that carriers of these variants, which are established poor metabolizers of tamoxifen, do not have the typical tamoxifen-induced increase in endometrial thickness. We test the association between genetic variability in CYP450 enzymes and the increase in double endometrial thickness (DET) as measured through transvaginal ultrasound (TVU).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study on postmenopausal tamoxifen users for which germline DNA was available and at least one DET measurement was made between January 2000 and October 2011. Genotyping of 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP450 genes involved in tamoxifen metabolism was carried out using Sequenom MassARRAY. The association between these variants and TVU outcome (DET ≥5 mm) was assessed by proportional hazards regression.
RESULTS: Data were available for 184 women: 47 with a DET of <5 mm on all ultrasounds and 137 with a DET of ≥5 mm on at least one ultrasound. The rs1800716 variant in CYP2D6 showed a statistically significant association with DET. In particular, mutant carriers of rs1800716 had an increased chance of having a DET of ≥5 mm (P = 0.0022, false discovery rate 0.0179). None of the other variants were associated with DET.
CONCLUSION: Although mutant carriers of rs1800716 are characterized by reduced CYP2D6 enzyme activity and by low levels of endoxifen, we observed that mutant alleles of rs1800716 were associated with an increased chance of having a DET of ≥5 mm in postmenopausal women on tamoxifen. We conclude that the increase in endometrial thickness seen under tamoxifen cannot be used as a marker for favorable genotypes.
CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: B32220084284.

Related: Breast Cancer CYP2D6


Ikeda K, Shiraishi K, Eguchi A, et al.
Association of a genetic variant of CYP19A1 with multicentric development of lung adenocarcinomas.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2014; 21(3):939-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The detection rate of multiple lung adenocarcinomas, which display multiple ground glass opacity nodules in the peripheral lung, is increasing because of advances in high resolution computed tomography. The genetic backgrounds of multiple nodules and the mechanisms that underlie their multicentric development are unknown. In this study, we examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the cytochrome P450 19A1 gene to determine if they are associated with multiple adenocarcinomas risk.
METHODS: Fifty-one cases of multiple adenocarcinomas with lepidic growth, 62 cases of a single adenocarcinoma with lepidic growth, and 126 control cases were analyzed. Three SNPs were analyzed by using a 5' nuclease assay with TaqMan minor-groove-binder probe. The expression level of CYP19A1 in the noncancerous lung was quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
RESULTS: A minor allele of SNP rs3764221, which is located in the CYP19A1 gene, was significantly associated with multiple adenocarcinomas risk (adjusted odds ratio = 3.06; P = 0.006). Other polymorphisms of CYP19A1 were not significantly associated with the risk of multiple adenocarcinomas. A minor allele of SNP rs3764221 was also associated with a higher level of CYP19A1 messenger RNA expression (P = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: SNP rs3764221 contributes to the development of multicentric adenocarcinomas in the peripheral lung by causing higher levels of CYP19A1 expression.

Related: Lung Cancer


Su J, Gu Y, Pruijn FB, et al.
Zinc finger nuclease knock-out of NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) in human tumor cell lines demonstrates that hypoxia-activated prodrugs differ in POR dependence.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(52):37138-53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 27/12/2014 Related Publications
Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction


Elcombe CR, Peffer RC, Wolf DC, et al.
Mode of action and human relevance analysis for nuclear receptor-mediated liver toxicity: A case study with phenobarbital as a model constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator.
Crit Rev Toxicol. 2014; 44(1):64-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 27/12/2014 Related Publications
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are important nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of cellular responses from exposure to many xenobiotics and various physiological processes. Phenobarbital (PB) is a non-genotoxic indirect CAR activator, which induces cytochrome P450 (CYP) and other xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and is known to produce liver foci/tumors in mice and rats. From literature data, a mode of action (MOA) for PB-induced rodent liver tumor formation was developed. A MOA for PXR activators was not established owing to a lack of suitable data. The key events in the PB-induced liver tumor MOA comprise activation of CAR followed by altered gene expression specific to CAR activation, increased cell proliferation, formation of altered hepatic foci and ultimately the development of liver tumors. Associative events in the MOA include altered epigenetic changes, induction of hepatic CYP2B enzymes, liver hypertrophy and decreased apoptosis; with inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication being an associative event or modulating factor. The MOA was evaluated using the modified Bradford Hill criteria for causality and other possible MOAs were excluded. While PB produces liver tumors in rodents, important species differences were identified including a lack of cell proliferation in cultured human hepatocytes. The MOA for PB-induced rodent liver tumor formation was considered to be qualitatively not plausible for humans. This conclusion is supported by data from a number of epidemiological studies conducted in human populations chronically exposed to PB in which there is no clear evidence for increased liver tumor risk.

Related: Liver Cancer


Zahid M, Beseler CL, Hall JB, et al.
Unbalanced estrogen metabolism in ovarian cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(10):2414-23 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/05/2015 Related Publications
Greater exposure to estrogens is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. To investigate the role of estrogens in ovarian cancer, a spot urine sample and a saliva sample were obtained from 33 women with ovarian cancer and 34 age-matched controls. Thirty-eight estrogen metabolites, conjugates and DNA adducts were analyzed in the urine samples using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and the ratio of adducts to metabolites and conjugates was calculated for each sample. The ratio of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts to estrogen metabolites and conjugates was significantly higher in cases compared to controls (p < 0.0001), demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity. DNA was purified from the saliva samples and analyzed for genetic polymorphisms in the genes for two estrogen-metabolizing enzymes. Women with two low-activity alleles of catechol-O-methyltransferase plus one or two high-activity alleles of cytochrome P450 1B1 had higher levels of estrogen-DNA adducts and were more likely to have ovarian cancer. These findings indicate that estrogen metabolism is unbalanced in ovarian cancer and suggest that formation of estrogen-DNA adducts plays a critical role in the initiation of ovarian cancer.

Related: Ovarian Cancer CYP1B1


Smith EC
Understanding CYP2D6 and its role in tamoxifen metabolism.
Oncol Nurs Forum. 2013; 40(6):547-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gene CYP2D6 has an extremely important role in drug metabolism. "Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6" is the official name of CYP2D6. The gene is located at position 13.1 on the long (q) arm of chromosome 21 and encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases that are heavily involved in drug metabolism (Genetics Home Reference, 2013), and many drugs are activated into their biologically active compounds. Because of numerous polymorphisms, the gene also has significant person-to-person variability. To date, more than 80 distinct CYP2D6 alleles and specific types and frequencies have been associated with different ethnic groups. CYP2D6*4 is the most common variant allele in Caucasians and, in that population, has a frequency of about 25%. On the other hand, CYP2D6*10 is common in the Asian population (Stearns & Rae, 2008).

Related: Breast Cancer CYP2D6 Polymorphisms


Donato MT, Jover R, Gómez-Lechón MJ
Hepatic cell lines for drug hepatotoxicity testing: limitations and strategies to upgrade their metabolic competence by gene engineering.
Curr Drug Metab. 2013; 14(9):946-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
One key issue in the pharmaceutical development of new compounds is knowledge on metabolism, the enzymes involved and the potential hepatotoxicity of a drug. Primary cultured hepatocytes are a valuable in vitro model for drug metabolism studies. However, human hepatocytes show phenotypic instability and have restricted accessibility and high batch-to-batch functional variability, which seriously complicates their use in routine testing. Therefore, several liver-derived cell models have been developed for drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity screening to circumvent these drawbacks. Hepatoma cell lines offer important advantages, availability, an unlimited life span and a stable phenotype, thus rendering them suitable models for such studies. However, currently available human hepatoma cell lines are not a good alternative to cultured hepatocytes as they show very limited expression for most drug-metabolising enzymes. Other approaches have been developed to generate immortalised hepatic cells with metabolic competence (use of plasmids encoding immortalising genes to transform human hepatocytes, cell lines obtained from transgenic animals, hepatocytomes or hydrid cells). Recombinant models heterologously expressing cytochrome P450 enzymes in hepatoma cells have also been generated, and are widely used in drug metabolism and toxicity evaluations. In recent years, new approaches to up-regulate the expression of drug-biotransformation enzymes in human cell lines (i.e., transfection with the expression vectors encoding key hepatic transcription factors) have also been investigated. This paper reviews the features of liver-derived cell lines, their suitability for drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity studies, and the state-of-the-art strategies pursued to generate metabolically competent hepatic cell lines.

Related: Liver Cancer


Khlifi R, Messaoud O, Rebai A, Hamza-Chaffai A
Polymorphisms in the human cytochrome P450 and arylamine N-acetyltransferase: susceptibility to head and neck cancers.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:582768 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/05/2015 Related Publications
The occurrence of head and neck cancer (HNC) is associated with smoking and alcohol drinking. Tobacco smoking exposes smokers to a series of carcinogenic chemicals. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450s), such as CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2D6, usually metabolize carcinogens to their inactive derivatives, but they occasionally convert the chemicals to more potent carcinogens. In addition, via CYP450 (CYP2E1) oxidase, alcohol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, a highly toxic compound, which plays an important role in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, two N-acetyltransferase isozymes (NATs), NAT1 and NAT2, are polymorphic and catalyze both N-acetylation and O-acetylation of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens. Genetic polymorphisms are associated with a number of enzymes involved in the metabolism of carcinogens important in the induction of HNC. It has been suggested that such polymorphisms may be linked to cancer susceptibility. In this paper, we select four cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1BA1, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1), and two N-acetyltransferase isozymes (NAT1 and NAT2) in order to summarize and analyze findings from the literature related to HNC risk by focusing on (i) the interaction between these genes and the environment, (ii) the impact of genetic defect on protein activity and/or expression, and (iii) the eventual involvement of race in such associations.

Related: CYP2D6 Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology CYP1B1 NAT1 NAT2


Diao H, Wang L, Huang J, et al.
BRCA1-mediated inflammation and growth activated & inhibited transition mechanisms between no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues and HCC.
J Cell Biochem. 2014; 115(4):641-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
To understand breast cancer 1 early onset (BRCA1)-mediated inflammation and growth activated and inhibited transition mechanisms between no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues (HBV or HCV infection) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), BRCA1-activated different complete (all no positive correlation, Pearson correlation coefficient <0.25) and uncomplete (partly no positive correlation except BRCA1, Pearson <0.25) networks were identified in higher HCC compared with lower no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues (HBV or HCV infection) from the corresponding BRCA1-stimulated (Pearson ≥0.25) or inhibited (Pearson ≤-0.25) overlapping molecules of Pearson and GRNInfer, respectively. This result was verified by the corresponding scatter matrix. As visualized by GO, KEGG, GenMAPP, BioCarta, and disease database integration, we proposed mainly that BRCA1-stimulated different complete network was involved in BRCA1 activation with integral to membrane killer cell lectin-like receptor C to nucleus interferon regulatory factor 5-induced inflammation, whereas the corresponding inhibited network participated in BRCA1 repression with matrix roundabout axon guidance receptor homolog 1 to plasma membrane versican-induced growth in lower no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues (HBV or HCV infection). However, BRCA1-stimulated network contained BRCA1 activation with endothelium-specific to lysosomal transmembrane and carbamoyl synthetase to tastin, histone cluster and cyclin-induced growth, whereas the corresponding inhibited different complete network included BRCA1 repression with ovalbumin, thyroid stimulating hormone beta and Hu antigen C to cytochrome P450 to transducin-induced inflammation in higher HCC. Our BRCA1 different networks were verified by BRCA1-activated or -inhibited complete and uncomplete networks within and between no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues (HBV or HCV infection) or (and) HCC.

Related: Liver Cancer


Ruan XL, Li S, Zeng XT, et al.
No association between cytochrome P450 2D6 gene polymorphism and risk of acute leukemia: evidence based on a meta-analysis.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2013; 126(19):3750-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many studies indicated the human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene polymorphism was associated with acute leukemia (AL) susceptibility, however, the results were inconsistent. So we performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between CYP2D6*3 or CYP2D6*4 polymorphism and AL susceptibility.
METHODS: We searched PubMed database up to February 20, 2013, and finally yielded 9 case-control studies including 1343 cases and 1843 controls which tested the association between CYP2D6*3 or *4 polymorphism and AL. After data extraction, we conducted a meta-analysis using the Comprehensive Meta Analysis software.
RESULTS: Overall, no significant association between CYP2D6*3 or *4 polymorphism and AL risk was found in this metaanalysis (+ vs. -: OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.79-1.63; +/+ vs. -/-: OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 0.99-3.02; -/+ vs. -/-: OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.68-1.56; (-/+ and +/+) vs. -/-: OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.72-1.63; +/+ vs. (-/+ and -/-): OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 0.98-3.17). Similar results were also been found in stratified subgroup analysis. There was no publication bias.
CONCLUSION: CYP2D6*3 or *4 polymorphism might not be associated with AL susceptibility. However, the results need to be further confirmed by well-designed and high quality randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes.

Related: CYP2D6 Leukemia Polymorphisms


Lee HJ, Wu K, Cox DG, et al.
Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing genes, intakes of heterocyclic amines and red meat, and postmenopausal breast cancer.
Nutr Cancer. 2013; 65(8):1122-31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/05/2015 Related Publications
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic compounds generated when meats are cooked at high temperature and for long duration. The findings from previous studies on the relation between HCAs and breast cancer are inconsistent, possibly because of genetic variations in the enzymes metabolizing HCAs. To evaluate whether the associations of intakes of estimated HCAs, meat-derived mutagenicity (MDM), and red meat with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer were modified by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) acetylator genotype or cytochrome P450 1A2-164 A/C (CYP1A2) polymorphism, we conducted a nested case-control study with 579 cases and 981 controls within a prospective cohort, the Nurses' Health Study. HCAs and MDM intakes were derived using a cooking method questionnaire administered in 1996. NAT2acetylator genotype, the CYP1A2 polymorphism, and intakes of HCAs, MDM, and red meat were not associated with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. There was also no interaction between NAT2 acetylator genotype or CYP1A2 polymorphism and HCAs and MDM and red meat intake in relation to breast cancer. These results do not support the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic enzymes involved in the metabolism of HCAs may modify the associations between intakes of red meat or meat-related mutagens and breast cancer risk.

Related: Breast Cancer Polymorphisms NAT2


Kew MC
Aflatoxins as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2013; 22(3):305-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aflatoxins, metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are frequent contaminants of a number of staple foods, particularly maize and ground nuts, in subsistence farming communities in tropical and sub-tropical climates in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Asia and parts of South America. Contamination of foods occurs during growth and as a result of storage in deficient or inappropriate facilities. These toxins pose serious public health hazards, including the causation of hepatocellular carcinoma by aflatoxin B1. Exposure begins in utero and is life-long. The innocuous parent molecule of the fungus is converted by members of the cytochrome p450 family into mutagenic and carcinogenic intermediates. Aflatoxin-B1 is converted into aflatoxin B1-8,9 exo-epoxide, which is in turn converted into 8,9-dihydroxy-8-(N7) guanyl-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B1 adduct. This adduct is metabolized into aflatoxin B1 formaminopyrimidine adduct. These adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic. In addition, an arginine to serine mutation at codon 249 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is produced, abrogating the function of the tumor suppressor gene, and contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Aflatoxin B1 acts synergistically with hepatitis B virus in causing hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of interactions between the two carcinogens may be responsible for this action, including integration of hepatitis B virus x gene and its consequences, as well as interference with nucleotide excision repair, activation of p21waf1/cip1, generation of DNA mutations, and altered methylation of genes. But much remains to be learnt about the precise pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma as well as the interaction between the toxin and hepatitis B virus in causing the tumor.

Related: Liver Cancer


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