Gene Summary

Gene:EEF1A1; eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1
Aliases: CCS3, EF1A, PTI1, CCS-3, EE1A1, EEF-1, EEF1A, EF-Tu, LENG7, eEF1A-1, GRAF-1EF, HNGC:16303
Summary:This gene encodes an isoform of the alpha subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This isoform (alpha 1) is expressed in brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas, and the other isoform (alpha 2) is expressed in brain, heart and skeletal muscle. This isoform is identified as an autoantigen in 66% of patients with Felty syndrome. This gene has been found to have multiple copies on many chromosomes, some of which, if not all, represent different pseudogenes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:elongation factor 1-alpha 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (15)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Mutation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Western Blotting
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Oncogenes
  • Lung Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Transfection
  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Bone Cancer
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Protein Biosynthesis
  • Paraffin Embedding
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • EEF1A1
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • Genetic Markers
  • Cancer RNA
  • Apoptosis
  • Peptide Elongation Factor 1
  • Tongue Neoplasms
  • RT-PCR
  • Serine
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Base Sequence
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3
  • Chromosome 6
  • HeLa Cells
  • Breast Cancer
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EEF1A1 (cancer-related)

Song N, Pogue-Geile KL, Gavin PG, et al.
Clinical Outcome From Oxaliplatin Treatment in Stage II/III Colon Cancer According to Intrinsic Subtypes: Secondary Analysis of NSABP C-07/NRG Oncology Randomized Clinical Trial.
JAMA Oncol. 2016; 2(9):1162-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2017 Related Publications
IMPORTANCE: Oxaliplatin added to fluorouracil plus leucovorin therapy for patients with colon cancer has been shown to provide significant but modest absolute benefit for disease-free survival. However, acute and chronic neurotoxic effects from this regimen underscore the need for markers that predict oxaliplatin benefit.
OBJECTIVE: To test our hypothesis that molecular subtypes of colon cancer would be associated with differential prognosis and benefit from oxaliplatin added to fluorouracil plus leucovorin therapy.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the NSABP C-07 trial were divided into discovery (n = 848) and validation (n = 881) cohorts based on the order of tissue block submission. A reestimated centroid using 72 genes was used to determine Colorectal Cancer Assigner subtypes and their association with oxaliplatin benefit in the discovery cohort. The validation cohort was examined with a locked-down algorithm for subtype classification and statistical analysis plan. Post hoc analysis included examination of the entire cohort with Colorectal Cancer Assigner, Colorectal Cancer Subtype (CCS), and Consensus Molecular Subtype (CMS) methods.
INTERVENTIONS: Fluorouracil plus leucovorin with or without oxaliplatin.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Percent recurrence-free survival.
RESULTS: Among 1729 patients, 744 (43%) were female and mean (SD) age was 58 (11) years. Although C-07 participants with stage III disease with an enterocyte subtype showed a statistically significant benefit from oxaliplatin in the discovery cohort (hazard ratio, 0.22 [95% CI, 0.09-0.56]; P = .001 [N = 65]), no statistically significant benefit was observed in the validation cohort (hazard ratio, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.22-1.24]; P = .14 [N = 70]). The stemlike subtype was associated with poor prognosis and lack of benefit from oxaliplatin treatment (HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.73-1.34]; P = .96 [N = 367]). Examination of the different subtyping methods shows that all 3 methods robustly identified patients with poor prognosis (stemlike, CCS-3, and CMS-4) in both stage II and III.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Patients with stemlike tumors may be appropriate for clinical trials testing experimental therapies because stemlike tumors were robustly identified and associated with a poor prognosis regardless of stage or chemotherapy regimen. The clinical utility of using subtyping for the identification of patients for treatment with oxaliplatin requires validation in independent clinical trial cohorts.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT00004931.

Van Roosbroeck K, Ferreiro JF, Tousseyn T, et al.
Genomic alterations of the JAK2 and PDL loci occur in a broad spectrum of lymphoid malignancies.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(5):428-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
The recurrent 9p24.1 aberrations in lymphoid malignancies potentially involving four cancer-related and druggable genes (JAK2, CD274/PDL1, PDCD1LG2/PDL2, and KDM4C/JMJD2Cl) are incompletely characterized. To gain more insight into the anatomy of these abnormalities, at first we studied 9p24.1 alterations in 18 leukemia/lymphoma cases using cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The aberrations comprised structural (nine cases) and numerical (nine cases) alterations. The former lesions were heterogeneous but shared a common breakpoint region of 200 kb downstream of JAK2. The rearrangements predominantly targeted the PDL locus. We have identified five potential partner genes of PDL1/2: PHACTR4 (1p34), N4BP2 (4p14), EEF1A1 (6q13), JAK2 (9p24.1), and IGL (22q11). Interestingly, the cryptic JAK2-PDL1 rearrangement was generated by a microdeletion spanning the 3'JAK2-5'PDL1 region. JAK2 was additionally involved in a cytogenetically cryptic IGH-mediated t(9;14)(p24.1;q32) found in two patients. This rare but likely underestimated rearrangement highlights the essential role of JAK2 in B-cell neoplasms. Cases with amplification of 9p24.1 were diagnosed as primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (five cases) and T-cell lymphoma (four cases). The smallest amplified 9p24.1 region was restricted to the JAK2-PDL1/2-RANBP6 interval. In the next step, we screened 200 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma by interphase FISH and identified PDL1/2 rearrangement (CIITA- and IGH-negative) in four cases (2%), what is a novel finding. Forty (25%) cases revealed high level amplification of 9p24.1, including four cases with a selective amplification of PDL1/2. Altogether, the majority of 9p24.1 rearrangements occurring in lymphoid malignancies seem to target the programmed death-1 ligands, what potentiates the therapeutic activity of PD-1 blockade in these tumors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

He K, Guo X, Liu Y, et al.
TUFM downregulation induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion in lung cancer cells via a mechanism involving AMPK-GSK3β signaling.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016; 73(10):2105-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mitochondrial dysfunction and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) play important roles in cancer development and metastasis. However, very little is known about the connection between mitochondrial dysfunction and EMT. Tu translation elongation factor, mitochondrial (TUFM), a key factor in the translational expression of mitochondrial DNA, plays an important role in the control of mitochondrial function. Here, we show that TUFM is downregulated in human cancer tissues. TUFM expression level was positively correlated with that of E-cadherin and decreased significantly during the progression of human lung cancer. TUFM knockdown induced EMT, reduced mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, and increased glycolytic function and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mechanistically, TUFM knockdown activated AMPK and phosphorylated GSK3β and increased the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, leading to the induction of EMT and increased migration and metastasis of A549 lung cancer cells. Although TUFM knockdown also induced EMT of MCF7 breast cancer cells, the underlying mechanism appeared somewhat different from that in lung cancer cells. Our work identifies TUFM as a novel regulator of EMT and suggests a molecular link between mitochondrial dysfunction and EMT induction.

Yang Z, Zhuan B, Yan Y, et al.
Identification of gene markers in the development of smoking-induced lung cancer.
Gene. 2016; 576(1 Pt 3):451-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with high mortality in both women and men. To study the mechanisms of smoking-induced lung cancer, we analyzed microarray of GSE4115. GSE4115 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus including 78 and 85 bronchial epithelium tissue samples separately from smokers with and without lung cancer. Limma package in R was used to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Hierarchical cluster analysis for DEGs was conducted using orange software and visualized by distance map. Using DAVID software, functional and pathway enrichment analyses separately were conducted for the DEGs. And protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using Cytoscape software. Then, the pathscores of enriched pathways were calculated. Besides, functional features were screened and optimized using the recursive feature elimination (RFE) method. Additionally, the support vector machine (SVM) method was used to train model. Total 1923 DEGs were identified between the two groups. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that there were differences in gene level between the two groups. And SVM analysis indicated that the five features had potential diagnostic value. Importantly, MAPK1 (degree=30), SRC (degree=29), SMAD4 (degree=23), EEF1A1 (degree=21), TRAF2 (degree=21) and PLCG1 (degree=20) had higher degrees in the PPI network of the DEGs. They might be involved in smoking-induced lung cancer by interacting with each other (e.g. MAPK1-SMAD4, SMAD4-EEF1A1 and SRC-PLCG1). MAPK1, SRC, SMAD4, EEF1A1, TRAF2 and PLCG1 might be responsible for the development of smoking-induced lung cancer.

Lange N, Unger FT, Schöppler M, et al.
Identification and Validation of a Potential Marker of Tissue Quality Using Gene Expression Analysis of Human Colorectal Tissue.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0133987 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2017 Related Publications
Correlative studies have identified numerous biomarkers that are individualizing therapy across many medical specialties, including oncology. Accurate interpretation of these studies requires the collection of tissue samples of sufficient quality. Tissue quality can be measured by changes in levels of gene expression and can be influenced by many factors including pre-analytical conditions, ischemic effects and the surgical collection procedure itself. However, as yet there are no reliable biomarkers of tissue quality at researchers' disposal. The aim of the current study was to identify genes with expression patterns that fluctuated reproducibly in response to typical post-surgical stress (ischemia) in order to identify a specific marker of tissue quality. All tissue samples were obtained from patients with primary colorectal carcinoma (CRC) (N = 40) either via colonoscopy prior to surgery, or by surgical resection. Surgically resected tissue samples were divided into three groups and subjected to cold ischemia for 10, 20 or 45 minutes. Normal colorectal tissue and CRC tissue was analyzed using microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Comparing changes in gene expression between pre- and post-surgical tissue using microarray analysis identified a list of potential tissue quality biomarkers and this list was validated using qPCR. Results revealed that post-operative ischemia significantly alters gene expression in normal and CRC tissue samples. Both microarray analysis and qPCR revealed regulator of G-protein signaling 1 (RGS1) as a potential marker of CRC tissue quality and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (EEF1A1) as a potential reference gene of post-operative tissue quality. Larger studies with additional time points and endpoints will be needed to confirm these results.

Narita T, Narita K, Takedachi A, et al.
Regulation of Transcription Elongation by the XPG-TFIIH Complex Is Implicated in Cockayne Syndrome.
Mol Cell Biol. 2015; 35(18):3178-88 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2017 Related Publications
XPG is a causative gene underlying the photosensitive disorder xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XP-G) and is involved in nucleotide excision repair. Here, we show that XPG knockdown represses epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced FOS transcription at the level of transcription elongation with little effect on EGF signal transduction. XPG interacted with transcription elongation factors in concert with TFIIH, suggesting that the XPG-TFIIH complex serves as a transcription elongation factor. The XPG-TFIIH complex was recruited to promoter and coding regions of both EGF-induced (FOS) and housekeeping (EEF1A1) genes. Further, EGF-induced recruitment of RNA polymerase II and TFIIH to FOS was reduced by XPG knockdown. Importantly, EGF-induced FOS transcription was markedly lower in XP-G/Cockayne syndrome (CS) cells expressing truncated XPG than in control cells expressing wild-type (WT) XPG, with less significant decreases in XP-G cells with XPG nuclease domain mutations. In corroboration of this finding, both WT XPG and a missense XPG mutant from an XP-G patient were recruited to FOS upon EGF stimulation, but an XPG mutant mimicking a C-terminal truncation from an XP-G/CS patient was not. These results suggest that the XPG-TFIIH complex is involved in transcription elongation and that defects in this association may partly account for Cockayne syndrome in XP-G/CS patients.

Zhao L, Teklemariam T, Hantash BM
Heterelogous expression of mutated HLA-G decreases immunogenicity of human embryonic stem cells and their epidermal derivatives.
Stem Cell Res. 2014; 13(2):342-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are capable of extensive self-renewal and expansion and can differentiate into any somatic tissue, making them useful for regenerative medicine applications. Allogeneic transplantation of hESC-derived tissues from results in immunological rejection absent adjunctive immunosuppression. The goal of our study was to generate a universal pluripotent stem cell source by nucleofecting a mutated human leukocyte antigen G (mHLA-G) gene into hESCs using the PiggyBac transposon. We successfully generated stable mHLA-G(EF1α)-hESC lines using chEF1α promoter system that stably expressed mHLA-G protein during prolonged undifferentiated proliferation andin differentiated embryoid bodies as well as teratomas. Morphology, karyotype, and telomerase activity of mHLA-G expressing hESC were normal. Immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry analysis revealed persistent expression of pluripotent markers, OCT-3/4 and SSEA-4, in undifferentiated mHLA-G(EF1α)-hESC. Nucleofected hESC formed teratomas and when directed to differentiate into epidermal precursors, expressed high levels of mHLA-G and keratinocyte markers K14 and CD29. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity assays demonstrated a significant decrease in lysis of mHLA-G(EF1a)-hESC targets relative to control cells. Similar results were obtained with mHLA-G(EF1α)-hESC-derived epidermal progenitors (hEEP). One way mixed T lymphocyte reactions unveiled that mHLA-G(EF1a)-hESC and -hEEP restrained the proliferative activity of mixed T lymphocytes. We conclude that heterologous expression of mHLA-G decreases immunogenicity of hESCs and their epidermal differentiated derivatives.

Saito K, Iizuka Y, Ohta S, et al.
Functional analysis of a novel glioma antigen, EFTUD1.
Neuro Oncol. 2014; 16(12):1618-29 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A cDNA library made from 2 glioma cell lines, U87MG and T98G, was screened by serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression (SEREX) using serum from a glioblastoma patient. Elongation factor Tu GTP binding domain containing protein 1 (EFTUD1), which is required for ribosome biogenesis, was identified. A cancer microarray database showed overexpression of EFTUD1 in gliomas, suggesting that EFTUD1 is a candidate molecular target for gliomas.
METHODS: EFTUD1 expression in glioma cell lines and glioma tissue was assessed by Western blot, quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemistry. The effect on ribosome biogenesis, cell growth, cell cycle, and induction of apoptosis and autophagy in glioma cells during the downregulation of EFTUD1 was investigated. To reveal the role of autophagy, the autophagy-blocker, chloroquine (CQ), was used in glioma cells downregulating EFTUD1. The effect of combining CQ with EFTUD1 inhibition in glioma cells was analyzed.
RESULTS: EFTUD1 expression in glioma cell lines and tissue was higher than in normal brain tissue. Downregulating EFTUD1 induced G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, leading to reduced glioma cell proliferation. The mechanism underlying this antitumor effect was impaired ribosome biogenesis via EFTUD1 inhibition. Additionally, protective autophagy was induced by glioma cells as an adaptive response to EFTUD1 inhibition. The antitumor effect induced by the combined treatment was significantly higher than that of either EFTUD1 inhibition or CQ alone.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that EFTUD1 represents a novel therapeutic target and that the combination of EFTUD1 inhibition with autophagy blockade may be effective in the treatment of gliomas.

Zhan C, Zhang Y, Ma J, et al.
Identification of reference genes for qRT-PCR in human lung squamous-cell carcinoma by RNA-Seq.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2014; 46(4):330-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the accuracy of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is highly dependent on the reliable reference genes, many commonly used reference genes are not stably expressed and as such are not suitable for quantification and normalization of qRT-PCR data. The aim of this study was to identify novel reliable reference genes in lung squamous-cell carcinoma. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to survey the whole genome expression in 5 lung normal samples and 44 lung squamous-cell carcinoma samples. We evaluated the expression profiles of 15 commonly used reference genes and identified five additional candidate reference genes. To validate the RNA-Seq dataset, we used qRT-PCR to verify the expression levels of these 20 genes in a separate set of 100 pairs of normal lung tissue and lung squamous-cell carcinoma samples, and then analyzed these results using geNorm and NormFinder. With respect to 14 of the 15 common reference genes (B2M, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT1, IPO8, PGK1, POLR2A, PPIA, RPLP0, TBP, TFRC, UBC, and YWHAZ), the expression levels were either too low to be easily detected, or exhibited a high degree of variability either between lung normal and squamous-cell carcinoma samples, or even among samples of the same tissue type. In contrast, 1 of the 15 common reference genes (ACTB) and the 5 additional candidate reference genes (EEF1A1, FAU, RPS9, RPS11, and RPS14) were stably and constitutively expressed at high levels in all the samples tested. ACTB, EEF1A1, FAU, RPS9, RPS11, and RPS14 are ideal reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of lung squamous-cell carcinoma, while 14 commonly used qRT-PCR reference genes are less appropriate in this context.

Matassa DS, Amoroso MR, Agliarulo I, et al.
Translational control in the stress adaptive response of cancer cells: a novel role for the heat shock protein TRAP1.
Cell Death Dis. 2013; 4:e851 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2017 Related Publications
TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), the main mitochondrial member of the heat shock protein (HSP) 90 family, is induced in most tumor types and is involved in the regulation of proteostasis in the mitochondria of tumor cells through the control of folding and stability of selective proteins, such as Cyclophilin D and Sorcin. Notably, we have recently demonstrated that TRAP1 also interacts with the regulatory protein particle TBP7 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it is involved in a further extra-mitochondrial quality control of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins through the regulation of their ubiquitination/degradation. Here we show that TRAP1 is involved in the translational control of cancer cells through an attenuation of global protein synthesis, as evidenced by an inverse correlation between TRAP1 expression and ubiquitination/degradation of nascent stress-protective client proteins. This study demonstrates for the first time that TRAP1 is associated with ribosomes and with several translation factors in colon carcinoma cells and, remarkably, is found co-upregulated with some components of the translational apparatus (eIF4A, eIF4E, eEF1A and eEF1G) in human colorectal cancers, with potential new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in humans. Moreover, TRAP1 regulates the rate of protein synthesis through the eIF2α pathway either under basal conditions or under stress, favoring the activation of GCN2 and PERK kinases, with consequent phosphorylation of eIF2α and attenuation of cap-dependent translation. This enhances the synthesis of selective stress-responsive proteins, such as the transcription factor ATF4 and its downstream effectors BiP/Grp78, and the cystine antiporter system xCT, thereby providing protection against ER stress, oxidative damage and nutrient deprivation. Accordingly, TRAP1 silencing sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by novel antitumoral drugs that inhibit cap-dependent translation, such as ribavirin or 4EGI-1, and reduces the ability of cells to migrate through the pores of transwell filters. These new findings target the TRAP1 network in the development of novel anti-cancer strategies.

López-Díaz FJ, Gascard P, Balakrishnan SK, et al.
Coordinate transcriptional and translational repression of p53 by TGF-β1 impairs the stress response.
Mol Cell. 2013; 50(4):552-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2017 Related Publications
Cellular stress results in profound changes in RNA and protein synthesis. How cells integrate this intrinsic, p53-centered program with extracellular signals is largely unknown. We demonstrate that TGF-β1 signaling interferes with the stress response through coordinate transcriptional and translational repression of p53 levels, which reduces p53-activated transcription, and apoptosis in precancerous cells. Mechanistically, E2F-4 binds constitutively to the TP53 gene and induces transcription. TGF-β1-activated Smads are recruited to a composite Smad/E2F-4 element by an E2F-4/p107 complex that switches to a Smad corepressor, which represses TP53 transcription. TGF-β1 also causes dissociation of ribosomal protein RPL26 and elongation factor eEF1A from p53 mRNA, thereby reducing p53 mRNA association with polyribosomes and p53 translation. TGF-β1 signaling is dominant over stress-induced transcription and translation of p53 and prevents stress-imposed downregulation of Smad proteins. Thus, crosstalk between the TGF-β and p53 pathways defines a major node of regulation in the cellular stress response, enhancing drug resistance.

Meunier C, Van Der Kraak L, Turbide C, et al.
Positional mapping and candidate gene analysis of the mouse Ccs3 locus that regulates differential susceptibility to carcinogen-induced colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58733 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2017 Related Publications
The Ccs3 locus on mouse chromosome 3 regulates differential susceptibility of A/J (A, susceptible) and C57BL/6J (B6, resistant) mouse strains to chemically-induced colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we report the high-resolution positional mapping of the gene underlying the Ccs3 effect. Using phenotype/genotype correlation in a series of 33 AcB/BcA recombinant congenic mouse strains, as well as in groups of backcross populations bearing unique recombinant chromosomes for the interval, and in subcongenic strains, we have delineated the maximum size of the Ccs3 physical interval to a ∼2.15 Mb segment. This interval contains 12 annotated transcripts. Sequencing of positional candidates in A and B6 identified many either low-priority coding changes or non-protein coding variants. We found a unique copy number variant (CNV) in intron 15 of the Nfkb1 gene. The CNV consists of two copies of a 54 bp sequence immediately adjacent to the exon 15 splice site, while only one copy is found in CRC-susceptible A. The Nfkb1 protein (p105/p50) expression is much reduced in A tumors compared to normal A colonic epithelium as analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Studies in primary macrophages from A and B6 mice demonstrate a marked differential activation of the NfκB pathway by lipopolysaccharide (kinetics of stimulation and maximum levels of phosphorylated IκBα), with a more robust activation being associated with resistance to CRC. NfκB has been previously implicated in regulating homeostasis and inflammatory response in the intestinal mucosa. The interval contains another positional candidate Slc39a8 that is differentially expressed in A vs B6 colons, and that has recently been associated in CRC tumor aggressiveness in humans.

Rienzo M, Schiano C, Casamassimi A, et al.
Identification of valid reference housekeeping genes for gene expression analysis in tumor neovascularization studies.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2013; 15(3):211-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Real time RT-PCR is a widely used technique to evaluate and confirm gene expression data obtained in different cell systems and experimental conditions. However, there are many conflicting reports about the same gene or sets of gene expression. A common method is to report the interest gene expression relative to an internal control, usually a housekeeping gene (HKG), which should be constant in cells independently of experimental conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the expression stability of ten HKGs was considered in parallel in two cell systems (endothelial and osteosarcoma cells): beta actin (ACTB), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), TATA box binding protein (TBP), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase 1 (HPRT1), Cyclophilin A (PPIA), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), glucuronidase beta (GUSB), eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha1 (EEF1A1), transferrin receptor (TFRC), ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18). In order to study the stability of candidate reference genes, data have been also analyzed by several algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and delta-Ct method).
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The overall analysis obtained by the comprehensive ranking showed that RPS18 and PPIA are appropriate internal reference genes for tumor neovascularization studies where it is necessary to analyze both systems at the same time.

Yu X, Liu X, Liu T, et al.
Identification of a novel binding protein of FAT10: eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A1.
Dig Dis Sci. 2012; 57(9):2347-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: FAT10 is known to execute its functions mainly through conjugation to different substrates, and these known functions include cytokine responses, apoptosis, mitosis, and tumorigenesis. Nonetheless, the known binding proteins of FAT10 cannot explain all its known functions. As such, the aim of this study was to identify unidentified conjugation proteins of FAT10.
METHODS: The yeast two-hybrid system was employed in this study. FAT10 was used as the bait protein for screening of a cDNA library from a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep3B. Protein interactions were confirmed based on localization studies and co-immunoprecipitation assays. The expression of mRNA and protein was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, respectively.
RESULTS: In this study, we identified eukaryotic elongation factor 1A1 (eEF1A1) as a FAT10-specific binding protein. The binding between FAT10 and eEF1A1 was confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. We also found that, when the expression of FAT10 was reduced by siRNA knockdown, this resulted in downregulation of eEF1A1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We propose a model in which eEF1A1 serves as a substrate of FAT10 to accomplish, in part, its functions in regulating the biological behavior of tumor cells. Since both eEF1A1 and FAT10 are important for tumorigenesis and development, comprehending the mechanisms of this interaction can provide clues for identification of novel strategic targets for drug screening and molecular typing, and possibly in the development of new effective therapeutic strategies against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Vui-Kee K, Mohd Dali AZ, Mohamed Rose I, et al.
Molecular markers associated with nonepithelial ovarian cancer in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens by genome wide expression profiling.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2012; 28(5):243-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nonepithelial ovarian cancer (NEOC) is a rare cancer that is often misdiagnosed as other malignant tumors. Research on this cancer using fresh tissues is nearly impossible because of its limited number of samples within a limited time provided. The study is to identify potential genes and their molecular pathways related to NEOC using formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples. Total RNA was extracted from eight archived NEOCs and seven normal ovaries. The RNA samples with RNA integrity number >2.0, purity >1.7 and cycle count value <28 cycles were hybridized to the Illumina Whole-Genome DASL assay (cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation). We analyzed the results using the GeneSpring GX11.0 and FlexArray software to determine the differentially expressed genes. Microarray results were validated using an immunohistochemistry method. Statistical analysis identified 804 differentially expressed genes with 443 and 361 genes as overexpressed and underexpressed in cancer, respectively. Consistent findings were documented for the overexpression of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1, E2F transcription factor 2, and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3, except for the down-regulated gene, early growth response 1 (EGR1). The immunopositivity staining for EGR1 was found in the majority of cancer tissues. This finding suggested that the mRNA level of a transcript did not always match with the protein expression in tissues. The current gene profile can be the platform for further exploration of the molecular mechanism of NEOC.

Scaggiante B, Dapas B, Bonin S, et al.
Dissecting the expression of EEF1A1/2 genes in human prostate cancer cells: the potential of EEF1A2 as a hallmark for prostate transformation and progression.
Br J Cancer. 2012; 106(1):166-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In prostate adenocarcinoma, the dissection of the expression behaviour of the eukaryotic elongation factors (eEF1A1/2) has not yet fully elucidated.
METHODS: The EEF1A1/A2 expressions were investigated by real-time PCR, western blotting (cytoplasmic and cytoskeletal/nuclear-enriched fractions) and immunofluorescence in the androgen-responsive LNCaP and the non-responsive DU-145 and PC-3 cells, displaying a low, moderate and high aggressive phenotype, respectively. Targeted experiments were also conducted in the androgen-responsive 22Rv1, a cell line marking the progression towards androgen-refractory tumour. The non-tumourigenic prostate PZHPV-7 cell line was the control.
RESULTS: Compared with PZHPV-7, cancer cells showed no major variations in EEF1A1 mRNA; eEF1A1 protein increased only in cytoskeletal/nuclear fraction. On the contrary, a significant rise of EEF1A2 mRNA and protein were found, with the highest levels detected in LNCaP. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A2 immunostaining confirmed the western blotting results. Pilot evaluation in archive prostate tissues showed the presence of EEF1A2 mRNA in near all neoplastic and perineoplastic but not in normal samples or in benign adenoma; in contrast, EEF1A1 mRNA was everywhere detectable.
CONCLUSION: Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A2 switch-on, observed in cultured tumour prostate cells and in human prostate tumour samples, may represent a feature of prostate cancer; in contrast, a minor involvement is assigned to EEF1A1. These observations suggest to consider EEF1A2 as a marker for prostate cell transformation and/or possibly as a hallmark of cancer progression.

Skrtić M, Sriskanthadevan S, Jhas B, et al.
Inhibition of mitochondrial translation as a therapeutic strategy for human acute myeloid leukemia.
Cancer Cell. 2011; 20(5):674-88 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2017 Related Publications
To identify FDA-approved agents targeting leukemic cells, we performed a chemical screen on two human leukemic cell lines and identified the antimicrobial tigecycline. A genome-wide screen in yeast identified mitochondrial translation inhibition as the mechanism of tigecycline-mediated lethality. Tigecycline selectively killed leukemia stem and progenitor cells compared to their normal counterparts and also showed antileukemic activity in mouse models of human leukemia. ShRNA-mediated knockdown of EF-Tu mitochondrial translation factor in leukemic cells reproduced the antileukemia activity of tigecycline. These effects were derivative of mitochondrial biogenesis that, together with an increased basal oxygen consumption, proved to be enhanced in AML versus normal hematopoietic cells and were also important for their difference in tigecycline sensitivity.

Chaudhury A, Hussey GS, Howe PH
3'-UTR-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of cancer metastasis: beginning at the end.
RNA Biol. 2011 Jul-Aug; 8(4):595-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2017 Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the underlying mechanisms and signaling pathways regulating such transitions have generated a lot of interest among cancer researchers. Much of this can be attributed to the apparent similarities in the molecular processes regulating embryonic EMT that can be recapitulated during tumor progression and metastasis. It appears that both embryonic and oncogenic EMT are regulated by an intricate interplay of transcriptional and post-transcriptional programs, and the recent discovery of a transcript-selective translational regulatory pathway controlling expression of EMT-associated mRNAs demonstrates the high fidelity and tight regulation associated with the process of EMT and metastatic progression. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP E1) is emerging as a critical and integral modulator of TGFβ-induced EMT and subsequent tumor metastasis. Through its RNA-binding ability, hnRNP E1 binds distinct 3'-UTR structural elements present in mRNA transcripts required for EMT and translationally silences their expression. Translational silencing, mediated by hnRNP E1, occurs specifically at the translation elongation step through effects on the eukaryotic elongation factor-1 A1 (eEF1A1), and is relieved by Akt2-mediated phosphorylation. Interestingly, modulation of either the steady-state expression or the posttranscriptional modification of hnRNP E1 has a temporo-spatial effect on translational repression, tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis.

Zheng G, Peng F, Ding R, et al.
Identification of proteins responsible for the multiple drug resistance in 5-fluorouracil-induced breast cancer cell using proteomics analysis.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010; 136(10):1477-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the mechanism of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced breast cancer cell MCF-7.
METHODS: MCF-7 cells were exposed in stepwise escalating concentration of 5-FU to develop the resistant cell line, MCF-7/5-FU. Biological and molecular characteristics of the cells were studied through MTT, flow cytometry, real-time PCR, western-blot, and the global protein profiles between MCF-7/5-FU and parental MCF-7 were compared using proteomic approach. Then some of the differentially expressed proteins were validated by western-blot. In addition, the role of 14-3-3sigma was validated using gene transfection.
RESULTS: Drug resistance of MCF-7/5-FU cells to 5-FU, MX, cDDP, ADM, TAXOL all increased significantly compared with MCF-7 cells and that maybe related to BCRP, but not MDR1 and MRP1. Differentially expressed proteins between MCF-7/5-FU and MCF-7 cells were identified; 12 proteins were up-regulated and 18 proteins were down-regulated in MCF-7/5-FU cells. Expressive levels of some proteins in western-blot validation were consistent with the results in proteomic analysis. Enforced 14-3-3sigma expression can increase the sensitivity of MCF-7/5-FU cells to 5-FU and cDDP.
CONCLUSION: MDR of MCF-7/5-FU likely associated with differentially expressed proteins and 14-3-3sigma may play a positive role in chemotherapy. These findings may provide theoretical support for the prediction of chemotherapeutic response and reverse of MDR.

Van Goietsenoven G, Hutton J, Becker JP, et al.
Targeting of eEF1A with Amaryllidaceae isocarbostyrils as a strategy to combat melanomas.
FASEB J. 2010; 24(11):4575-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2017 Related Publications
Melanomas display poor response rates to adjuvant therapies because of their intrinsic resistance to proapoptotic stimuli. This study indicates that such resistance can be overcome, at least partly, through the targeting of eEF1A elongation factor with narciclasine, an Amaryllidaceae isocarbostyril controlling plant growth. Narciclasine displays IC(50) growth inhibitory values between 30-100 nM in melanoma cell lines, irrespective of their levels of resistance to proapoptotic stimuli. Normal noncancerous cell lines are much less affected. At nontoxic doses, narciclasine also significantly improves (P=0.004) the survival of mice bearing metastatic apoptosis-resistant melanoma xenografts in their brain. The eEF1A targeting with narciclasine (50 nM) leads to 1) marked actin cytoskeleton disorganization, resulting in cytokinesis impairment, and 2) protein synthesis impairment (elongation and initiation steps), whereas apoptosis is induced at higher doses only (≥200 nM). In addition to molecular docking validation and identification of potential binding sites, we biochemically confirmed that narciclasine directly binds to human recombinant and yeast-purified eEF1A in a nanomolar range, but not to actin or elongation factor 2, and that 5 nM narciclasine is sufficient to impair eEF1A-related actin bundling activity. eEF1A is thus a potential target to combat melanomas regardless of their apoptosis-sensitivity, and this finding reconciles the pleiotropic cytostatic of narciclasine. -

Shen Y, Li Y, Ye F, et al.
Identification of suitable reference genes for measurement of gene expression in human cervical tissues.
Anal Biochem. 2010; 405(2):224-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
For quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the most commonly used normalization strategy is to select a stable reference gene. However, no suitable reference genes have been identified in cervical tissues to date. The aim of this study was to identify the most stable gene or a set of genes as reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in cervical tissues from a panel of 12 candidates (ALAS1, PPIA, GAPDH, HBB, TBP, ACTIN, B2M, MBNL2, PGKL, RPLP0, RPL-4, and EEF1A1). In total, 20 normal and 20 cervical cancer specimens were examined. Gene expression data were analyzed using two different statistical models (geNorm and NormFinder). EEF1A1 was identified as the most stable and reliable reference gene, followed by GAPDH and RPLP0, whereas EEF1A1 and GAPDH were the best two-gene combination by NormFinder. The expression validity of EEF1A1 was further determined in 21 normal, 22 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN(2-3)), and 18 cancer tissues; no expression differences were found among normal, CIN(2-3), and cancer tissues (P>0.05). Our results suggested that EEF1A1 can be used as a reference gene for normalization in gene profiling studies in clinic cervical samples, and the combination of EEF1A1 and GAPDH could be recommended as a much more reliable normalization strategy.

Meunier C, Cai J, Fortin A, et al.
Characterization of a major colon cancer susceptibility locus (Ccs3) on mouse chromosome 3.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(5):647-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Treatment of mice with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) induces a number of lesions in the colon, including hyperplastic lesions, as well adenomas and carcinomas in situ. Inbred strains of mice show different responses to AOM-induced carcinogenesis. A/J mice are highly susceptible and develop a greater number of hyperplastic lesions and tumors (15-70 tumors per mouse) than resistant C57BL/6J mice (0-6 tumors per mouse). Susceptibility to AOM-induced tumors segregates as a co-dominant trait in (A x B6)F1 hybrids. Using a set of 23 AcB and BcA recombinant congenic mouse strains derived from A/J (susceptible) and B6 (resistant) parents, we observed that the number of hyperplastic lesions and tumors induced by AOM was under different genetic controls in AcB/BcA strains. The multiplicity of AOM-induced tumors is controlled by a major locus that we have mapped on the distal portion of chromosome 3, to which we have given the temporary designation colon cancer susceptibility locus 3 (Ccs3). B6 and A/J alleles at Ccs3 are associated with resistance and susceptibility, respectively. Haplotype analysis in key informative AcB/BcA strains restricts the size of the Ccs3 locus to a 14 Mb segment that contains 94 annotated genes. The expression level of all these genes in normal colon has been established by transcript profiling with microarrays, and has led to the identification of a subset of positional candidates that are expressed at high levels in this tissue. The 4q and 1p human chromosomal segments sharing syntenic homology with the mouse Ccs3 segment are known to be associated with inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal tumors in humans, suggesting that the study of the mouse Ccs3 locus may help further the pathogenesis of these human conditions.

Kim J, Namkung W, Yoon JS, et al.
The role of translation elongation factor eEF1A in intracellular alkalinization-induced tumor cell growth.
Lab Invest. 2009; 89(8):867-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
The formation of a pH gradient, which is characterized by intracellular alkalinization and extracellular acidification, plays a key role in the growth and metastasis of tumor cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of alkalinization-induced cell growth are not known. In this study, we investigated the roles of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) in alkalinization-induced cell growth. In all cell lines tested (NIH3T3, HEK293, and HeLa), cell growth was affected by the modulation of intracellular pH. In general, weak intracellular alkalinization produced increased cell growth, whereas intracellular acidification resulted in decreased cell growth. It is interesting to note that portions of actin-bound eEF1A proteins were gradually reduced from acidic to alkaline conditions, suggesting an increase in levels of functionally active, free-form eEF1A. Over-expression of eEF1A caused increased cell growth in HeLa cells. It should be noted that dissociation of eEF1A from actin by transfection with the actin-binding domain deleted eEF1A construct further increased cell growth under acidic conditions, whereas most of the intact eEF1A was bound to actin. Conversely, knockdown of eEF1A by treatment with eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 siRNAs nullified the effects of alkalinization-induced cell growth. The above findings suggest that an increase in free-form eEF1A under alkaline conditions plays a critical role in alkalinization-induced cell growth.

Zhang J, Guo H, Mi Z, et al.
EF1A1-actin interactions alter mRNA stability to determine differential osteopontin expression in HepG2 and Hep3B cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2009; 315(2):304-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer progression depends on an accumulation of metastasis-supporting physiological changes which are regulated by cell signaling molecules. One such molecule, osteopontin (OPN), is a secreted phosphoprotein which mediates increased cellular migratory and invasive behavior, increased metastasis, protection from apoptosis, promotion of colony formation and 3D growth ability, induction of tumor-associated inflammatory cells, and induction of expression of angiogenic factors. Studies show that OPN expression is controlled by complex regulatory pathways at the transcriptional level in several cancers, but the molecular mechanisms which determine expression of OPN in HCC are largely unknown. In HepG2 and Hep3B tumor cell lines that differentially express OPN mRNA and protein, we identify elongation translation factor-1A1 (EF1A1) to be the trans-acting factor regulating differential OPN mRNA stability between HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines and characterize its interactions with G- and F-actin. EF1A1 binds to the OPN 5'-UTR to regulate OPN mRNA half-life. EF1A1 binds to actin in Hep3B cells. Pharmacologic manipulation to increase the G:F actin ratio in Hep3B increases OPN mRNA half-life and protein expression with simultaneous decrease in EF1A1 binding to OPN 5'-UTR. The converse findings were noted in HepG2 cells. Overall, our results suggest that EF1A1 regulation of OPN mRNA stability is actin dependent. EF1A1 has not been previously identified as a regulatory factor in OPN expression in cancer.

Scaggiante B, Bonin S, Cristiano L, et al.
Prostate-tumor-inducing gene-1 analysis in human prostate cancer cells and tissue in relation to Mycoplasma infection.
Cancer Invest. 2008; 26(8):800-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The potential role of PTI-1, in the natural story of prostate adenocarcinoma remains to be fully determined. PTI-1 expression was evaluated in human prostate cancer cell lines and in paraffin-embedded archive tissues. PTI-1 expression was found in Mycoplasma infected but not in non-infected cells. The lack of PTI-1 expression was also confirmed in fixed and paraffin-embedded human cancer prostate biopsies. The overall data indicate that, in prostate tumor cell lines, PTI-1 presence parallels Mycoplasma infection suggesting that PTI-1 might not necessarily play a major role in the onset of prostate tumorigenesis.

Kido T, Lau YF
The human Y-encoded testis-specific protein interacts functionally with eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A, a putative oncoprotein.
Int J Cancer. 2008; 123(7):1573-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Testis-specific protein Y-encoded (TSPY) is the putative gene for the gonadoblastoma locus on the Y chromosome. TSPY is expressed in normal germ cells of fetal and adult testis and ectopically in tumor germ cells, including gonadoblastoma in intersex patients, testicular germ cell tumors, prostate cancer and other somatic cancers. It is a member of the TSPY/SET/NAP1 superfamily and harbors a highly conserved domain, termed SET/NAP domain. To explore its possible role(s) in tumorigenesis, we had performed a yeast two-hybrid screen of a fetal gonadal cDNA library and identified the translation elongation factor eEF1A as a binding partner for TSPY at the SET/NAP domain. TSPY and eEF1A were highly expressed and colocalized in tumor germ cells of human seminoma specimens, suggesting their possible interaction in germ cell tumors. They were colocalized in the cytoplasm and could be co-immunoprecipitated from transfected COS7 cells. Significantly, both eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 have postulated to be involved in various types of human cancer, including breast and prostate cancers. TSPY enhanced protein synthesis of a reporter gene, which was augmented by an overexpression of eEF1A. TSPY also increased the nuclear redistribution of eEF1A, resulting in a parallel increase in reporter gene transcripts. Our results suggest that TSPY could exert its oncogenic function(s) by interacting with eEF1As and stimulating gene expression via its enhancements in protein synthesis and gene transcription.

Scrideli CA, Carlotti CG, Okamoto OK, et al.
Gene expression profile analysis of primary glioblastomas and non-neoplastic brain tissue: identification of potential target genes by oligonucleotide microarray and real-time quantitative PCR.
J Neurooncol. 2008; 88(3):281-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognosis of glioblastomas is still extremely poor and the discovery of novel molecular therapeutic targets can be important to optimize treatment strategies. Gene expression analyses comparing normal and neoplastic tissues have been used to identify genes associated with tumorigenesis and potential therapeutic targets. We have used this approach to identify differentially expressed genes between primary glioblastomas and non-neoplastic brain tissues. We selected 20 overexpressed genes related to cell cycle, cellular movement and growth, proliferation and cell-to-cell signaling and analyzed their expression levels by real time quantitative PCR in cDNA obtained from microdissected fresh tumor tissue from 20 patients with primary glioblastomas and from 10 samples of non-neoplastic white matter tissue. The gene expression levels were significantly higher in glioblastomas than in non-neoplastic white matter in 18 out of 20 genes analyzed: P < 0.00001 for CDKN2C, CKS2, EEF1A1, EMP3, PDPN, BNIP2, CA12, CD34, CDC42EP4, PPIE, SNAI2, GDF15 and MMP23b; and NFIA (P: 0.0001), GPS1 (P: 0.0003), LAMA1 (P: 0.002), STIM1 (P: 0.006), and TASP1 (P: 0.01). Five of these genes are located in contiguous loci at 1p31-36 and 2 at 17q24-25 and 8 of them encode surface membrane proteins. PDPN and CD34 protein expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and they showed concordance with the PCR results. The present results indicate the presence of 18 overexpressed genes in human primary glioblastomas that may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of these tumors and that deserve further functional investigation as attractive candidates for new therapeutic targets.

Umeda D, Yano S, Yamada K, Tachibana H
Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate signaling pathway through 67-kDa laminin receptor.
J Biol Chem. 2008; 283(6):3050-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the principal polyphenol in green tea, has been shown to be a potent chemopreventive agent. Recently, 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) has been identified as a cell surface receptor for EGCG that mediates the anticancer activity of EGCG. Indeed, expression of 67LR confers EGCG responsiveness to tumor cells; however, the molecular basis for the anticancer activity of EGCG in vivo is not entirely understood. Here we show that (i) using a direct genetic screen, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) is identified as a component responsible for the anticancer activity of EGCG; (ii) through both eEF1A and 67LR, EGCG induces the dephosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) at Thr-696 and activates myosin phosphatase; and (iii) silencing of 67LR, eEF1A, or MYPT1 in tumor cells results in abrogation of EGCG-induced tumor growth inhibition in vivo. Additionally, we found that eEF1A is up-regulated by EGCG through 67LR. Overall, these findings implicate both eEF1A and MYPT1 in EGCG signaling for cancer prevention through 67LR.

Yajima S, Ishii M, Matsushita H, et al.
Expression profiling of fecal colonocytes for RNA-based screening of colorectal cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2007; 31(5):1029-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
The early detection of colorectal cancer originating from any part of the colorectum is desirable because this cancer can be cured surgically if diagnosed early. We searched for marker genes for a fecal RNA-based colorectal cancer screening method by comparison of genome-wide expression profiles among cancerous and non-cancerous tissues, and healthy volunteer- and cancer patient-derived colonocytes from the feces, and the peripheral blood. Of 14,564 genes, only 3 (PAP, REG1A, and DPEP1) were selectable as final candidates which were expressed frequently at any stage of this cancer and were suppressed in non-cancerous tissues and also in the peripheral blood and colonocytes of healthy volunteers. Next, we directly compared fecal RNA-expression profiles between colorectal cancer patients and healthy volunteers, and found that most of the genes (92%) expressed in the colonocytes of the cancer patients were not expressed in those of the healthy volunteers. Six genes (SEPP1, RPL27A, ATP1B1, EEF1A1, SFN, and RPS11) selected randomly from 85 cancer patient-derived colonocyte-specific genes were evaluated. In total, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or focused microarray of all those 9 genes detected 18 (78%) of 23 curable colorectal cancers (Dukes stages A-C), 9 or 10 (64% or 71%) of 14 early cancers with no lymph node metastasis (Dukes stage A or B) and 4 (80%) of 5 right-sided cancers. Our extensive gene list provides other markers for fecal RNA-based colorectal cancer screening.

Grassi G, Scaggiante B, Farra R, et al.
The expression levels of the translational factors eEF1A 1/2 correlate with cell growth but not apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines with different differentiation grade.
Biochimie. 2007; 89(12):1544-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the involvement of the elongation factors eEF1A (eEF1A1 and eEF1A2) in the development of different cancers no information is available on their possible contribution to the biology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the expression of both forms of eEF1A in HepG2 and JHH6 cell lines considered to be a good in vitro model of HCC at different stage of differentiation. Our data indicate that the mRNA amount of eEF1A1 is increased in both cell lines as compared to normal liver tissue, but eEF1A2 mRNA level is markedly increased only in JHH6. Moreover, the less differentiated cell line JHH6 displays higher EEF1A1 and EEF1A2 mRNAs levels and an higher nuclear-enriched/cytoplasm ratio of EEF1A protein compared to the better differentiated HepG2 cell line. Over-expression depends only partially on gene amplification. The more abundant mRNA levels and the higher nuclear-enriched/cytoplasm ratio of eEF1A in JHH6 neither correlate with apoptosis resistance nor with proliferation rate in sub-confluent cells. However, in confluent cells, a clear tendency to maintain JHH6 into the cell cycle was observed. In conclusion, we document the increased mRNA levels of EEF1A genes in HCC cell lines compared to normal liver. Additionally, we show the increased nuclear-enriched/cytoplasmic protein ratio of eEF1A and the marked raise of the expression of both eEF1A forms in JHH6 compared to HepG2, suggesting the possibility that eEF1A forms might become a relevant markers related to HCC tumor phenotype.

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