Gene Summary

Gene:EEF1A1; eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1
Aliases: CCS3, EF1A, PTI1, CCS-3, EE1A1, EEF-1, EEF1A, EF-Tu, LENG7, eEF1A-1, GRAF-1EF, HNGC:16303
Summary:This gene encodes an isoform of the alpha subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This isoform (alpha 1) is expressed in brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas, and the other isoform (alpha 2) is expressed in brain, heart and skeletal muscle. This isoform is identified as an autoantigen in 66% of patients with Felty syndrome. This gene has been found to have multiple copies on many chromosomes, some of which, if not all, represent different pseudogenes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:elongation factor 1-alpha 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Messenger RNA
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Binding
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Base Sequence
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Mutation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3
  • Transfection
  • RT-PCR
  • Chromosome 6
  • Peptide Elongation Factor 1
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Transcription Factors
  • HeLa Cells
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Apoptosis
  • Tongue Neoplasms
  • Breast Cancer
  • Lung Cancer
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Western Blotting
  • VHL
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Prostate Cancer
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Cancer RNA
  • MicroRNAs
  • EEF1A1
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Oncogenes
  • Protein Biosynthesis
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EEF1A1 (cancer-related)

Jia L, Yang T, Gu X, et al.
Translation elongation factor eEF1Bα is identified as a novel prognostic marker of gastric cancer.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2019; 126:345-351 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is a common cancer in humans. Although overexpression of eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1Bα is associated with cancer onset and progression, little is known about its expression in GC and its prognostic significance. Here we used immunohistochemistry to analyze eEF1Bα expression in the following tissue types: GC, normal gastric, chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and intraepithelial neoplasia. These data were correlated with patients' clinical information. eEF1Bα was expressed at levels approximately three times higher in GC tissues compared with normal gastric tissues. High expression of eEF1Bα was significantly associated with histological type, TNM stage, tumor size, and distant metastases. GC patients with high eEF1Bα expression experienced significantly shorter overall survival. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that eEF1Bα may be associated with protein synthesis, energy metabolism, cell cycle, and the p53 signaling pathway. We identified the products of RPL10A and RPS13 as critical components of a network comprising eEF1Bα. We concluded that high eEF1Bα expression is associated with poor overall survival and may serve as an independent prognostic factor of GC. Further, we proposed that eEF1Bα likely mediates the development of GC through the cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway. Together, our findings suggest that eEF1Bα could be an effective prognostic biomarker for GC.

Hellmuth JC, Louissaint A, Szczepanowski M, et al.
Duodenal-type and nodal follicular lymphomas differ by their immune microenvironment rather than their mutation profiles.
Blood. 2018; 132(16):1695-1702 [PubMed] Related Publications
Duodenal-type follicular lymphoma (DTFL) is a rare and highly indolent follicular lymphoma (FL) variant. It is morphologically and immunophenotypically indistinguishable from typical FL, characterized by restricted involvement of intestinal mucosa, and lacks extraintestinal manifestations. The molecular determinants of this distinct clinical behavior are largely unknown. Thirty-eight diagnostic biopsies from patients with DTFL were evaluated. The 10-year overall survival rate was 100% in clinically evaluable patients (n = 19). We compared the targeted mutation profile of DTFL (n = 31), limited-stage typical FL (LSTFL; n = 17), and advanced-stage typical FL (ASTFL; n = 241). The mutation frequencies of recurrently mutated genes, including

Moretti ML, Busso-Lopes AF, Tararam CA, et al.
Airborne transmission of invasive fusariosis in patients with hematologic malignancies.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0196426 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
From 2006 to 2013, an increasing incidence of fusariosis was observed in the hematologic patients of our University Hospital. We suspected of an environmental source, and the indoor hospital air was investigated as a potential source of the fungemia. Air samplings were performed in the hematology and bone marrow transplant (BMT) wards using an air sampler with pre-defined air volumes. To study the molecular relationship among environmental and clinical isolates, 18 Fusarium spp. recovered from blood cultures were included in the study. DNA sequencing of a partial portion of TEF1α gene was performed for molecular identification. Molecular typing was carried out by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) using a four-gene scheme: TEF1α, rDNA, RPB1 and RPB2. One hundred four isolates were recovered from the air of the hematology (n = 76) and the BMT (n = 28) wards. Fusarium isolates from the air were from five species complexes: Fusarium fujikuroi (FFSC, n = 56), Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti (FIESC, n = 24), Fusarium solani (FSSC, n = 13), Fusarium chlamydosporum (FCSC, n = 10), and Fusarium oxysporum (FOSC, n = 1). Fifteen Fusarium isolates recovered from blood belonged to FSSC, and three to FFSC. MLST identified the same sequence type (ST) in clinical and environmental isolates. ST1 was found in 5 isolates from blood and in 7 from the air, both identified as FSSC (Fusarium petroliphilum). STn1 was found in one isolate from blood and in one from the air, both identified as FFSC (Fusarium napiforme). F. napiforme was isolated from the air of the hospital room of the patient with fungemia due to F. napiforme. These findings suggested a possible clonal origin of the Fusarium spp. recovered from air and bloodcultures. In conclusion, our study found a diversity of Fusarium species in the air of our hospital, and a possible role of the air as source of systemic fusariosis in our immunocompromised patients.

Cheng DD, Li SJ, Zhu B, et al.
EEF1D overexpression promotes osteosarcoma cell proliferation by facilitating Akt-mTOR and Akt-bad signaling.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta (EEF1D) in cancers has been reported; however, the role and mechanisms of EEF1D in osteosarcoma remain poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression and role of EEF1D in osteosarcoma and to elucidate its underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: The expression of EEF1D in osteosarcomas and cell lines was evaluated by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. EEF1D knockdown using small interfering RNA (siRNA) was employed to analyze the role of EEF1D in osteosarcoma cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. The host signaling pathways affected by EEF1D knockdown were detected using PathScan® intracellular signaling array kit.
RESULTS: The expression of EEF1D was found to be up-regulated in human osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Its expression was positively correlated with Enneking stage and the tumor recurrence. EEF1D knockdown inhibited osteosarcoma cell proliferation, colony-forming ability, and cell cycle G2/M transition in vitro. In addition, EEF1D knockdown decreased the levels of phospho-Akt, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-Bad proteins.
CONCLUSIONS: EEF1D is upregulated in osteosarcoma and plays a tumor promoting role by facilitating Akt-mTOR and Akt-Bad signaling pathways. Accordingly, EEF1D is a potential target for cancer therapy.

Kim WG, Kim JY, Park DY
Simple classifiers for molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer.
Arab J Gastroenterol. 2017; 18(4):191-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease entity with a diverse biological pathogenesis. This study aims to validate the two studies published in 2013 which established a separate CRC molecular subtype classification by utilizing a rapidly accessible miniclassifier, and verify a simplified version thereof.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants diagnosed with CRC (n = 568) were subtyped in three classifications for characteristic, and prognostic purposes. Colorectal cancer subtypes (CCS) were classified as: i) CCS1 (CDX2+, microsatellite stable (MSS)/microsatellite instability (MSI)-low), ii) CCS2 (MSI-high), and iii) CCS3 (FRMD6/ZEB1/HTR2B +, CDX2-, MSS/MSI-low]. Simplified CCS (SiCCS) subtypes were grouped as: i) CDX2 (CDX2+, MSS/MSI-low, ZEB1 ≤ 2), ii) MSI-H (MSI-high, CDX2/FRMD6/ZEB1/HTR2B +/-), and iii) ZEB1 (ZEB1 ≥ 2, CDX2-, MSS/MSI-low). New molecular classification (NMC) subtypes were defined as: i) enterocyte (E-C) (MUC2 +), ii) goblet-like (G-L) (MUC2 + and TFF3 +), iii) transit-amplifying (T-A) (CFTR +), and iv) stem-like (S-L) (ZEB1 +).
RESULTS: In total, 53.5% (n = 304) CCS, 58.3% (n = 331) SiCCS, and 37.7% (n = 214) NMC tumours could be evaluated. CCS2 and MSI-H CRCs had the most favourable survival outcome, whereas the CCS3, ZEB1 and S-L subtypes showed the poorest prognosis. A significant overlap between CCS3, ZEB1, and S-L tumours was demonstrated.
CONCLUSION: There is still a need for a consensus gene expression-based subtyping classification system for CRCs, thereby allowing the categorization of most CRC tumours. This study reveals that a simple and rapidly accessible process could replace the complicated, costly and mostly inapproachable methods clinical practices that have been introduced in the majority of previous studies.

Worst TS, Waldbillig F, Abdelhadi A, et al.
The EEF1A2 gene expression as risk predictor in localized prostate cancer.
BMC Urol. 2017; 17(1):86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Besides clinical stage and Gleason score, risk-stratification of prostate cancer in the pretherapeutic setting mainly relies on the serum PSA level. Yet, this is associated with many uncertainties. With regard to therapy decision-making, additional markers are needed to allow an exact risk prediction. Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 (EEF1A2) was previously suggested as driver of tumor progression and potential biomarker. In the present study its functional and prognostic relevance in prostate cancer was investigated.
METHODS: EEF1A2 expression was analyzed in two cohorts of patients (n = 40 and n = 59) with localized PCa. Additionally data from two large expression dataset (MSKCC, Cell, 2010 with n = 131 localized, n = 19 metastatic PCa and TCGA provisional data, n = 499) of PCa patients were reanalyzed. The expression of EEF1A2 was correlated with histopathology features and biochemical recurrence (BCR). To evaluate the influence of EEF1A2 on proliferation and migration of metastatic PC3 cells, siRNA interference was used. Statistical significance was tested with t-test, Mann-Whitney-test, Pearson correlation and log-rank test.
RESULTS: qRT-PCR revealed EEF1A2 to be significantly overexpressed in PCa tissue, with an increase according to tumor stage in one cohort (p = 0.0443). In silico analyses in the MSKCC cohort confirmed the overexpression of EEF1A2 in localized PCa with high Gleason score (p = 0.0142) and in metastatic lesions (p = 0.0038). Patients with EEF1A2 overexpression had a significantly shorter BCR-free survival (p = 0.0028). EEF1A2 expression was not correlated with serum PSA levels. Similar results were seen in the TCGA cohort, where EEF1A2 overexpression only occurred in tumors with Gleason 7 or higher. Patients with elevated EEF1A2 expression had a significantly shorter BCR-free survival (p = 0.043). EEF1A2 knockdown significantly impaired the migration, but not the proliferation of metastatic PC3 cells.
CONCLUSION: The overexpression of EEF1A2 is a frequent event in localized PCa and is associated with histopathology features and a shorter biochemical recurrence-free survival. Due to its independence from serum PSA levels, EEF1A2 could serve as valuable biomarker in risk-stratification of localized PCa.

Sbirkov Y, Kwok C, Bhamra A, et al.
Semi-Quantitative Mass Spectrometry in AML Cells Identifies New Non-Genomic Targets of the EZH2 Methyltransferase.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Alterations to the gene encoding the EZH2 (KMT6A) methyltransferase, including both gain-of-function and loss-of-function, have been linked to a variety of haematological malignancies and solid tumours, suggesting a complex, context-dependent role of this methyltransferase. The successful implementation of molecularly targeted therapies against EZH2 requires a greater understanding of the potential mechanisms by which EZH2 contributes to cancer. One aspect of this effort is the mapping of EZH2 partner proteins and cellular targets. To this end we performed affinity-purification mass spectrometry in the FAB-M2 HL-60 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cell line before and after all-

Comprehensive and Integrative Genomic Characterization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Cell. 2017; 169(7):1327-1341.e23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Liver cancer has the second highest worldwide cancer mortality rate and has limited therapeutic options. We analyzed 363 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases by whole-exome sequencing and DNA copy number analyses, and we analyzed 196 HCC cases by DNA methylation, RNA, miRNA, and proteomic expression also. DNA sequencing and mutation analysis identified significantly mutated genes, including LZTR1, EEF1A1, SF3B1, and SMARCA4. Significant alterations by mutation or downregulation by hypermethylation in genes likely to result in HCC metabolic reprogramming (ALB, APOB, and CPS1) were observed. Integrative molecular HCC subtyping incorporating unsupervised clustering of five data platforms identified three subtypes, one of which was associated with poorer prognosis in three HCC cohorts. Integrated analyses enabled development of a p53 target gene expression signature correlating with poor survival. Potential therapeutic targets for which inhibitors exist include WNT signaling, MDM4, MET, VEGFA, MCL1, IDH1, TERT, and immune checkpoint proteins CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1.

Xu K, Zhang YY, Han B, et al.
Suppression subtractive hybridization identified differentially expressed genes in colorectal cancer: microRNA-451a as a novel colorectal cancer-related gene.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(5):1010428317705504 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate differentially expressed genes regulated by microRNA-451a in colorectal cancer. We detected expression of microRNA-451a in colorectal cancer samples and normal pericarcinous tissues from 68 colorectal cancer patients and the correlation between microRNA-451a and clinical features of these patients. Then, the expression of microRNA-451a in HCT116, SW620, HT29, SW480, and DLD cells was also measured. The suppression subtractive hybridization method was used with two HCT116 cell lines with overexpressing or underexpressing microRNA-451a, respectively. The most highly increased genes were screened. Their functions were predicted by gene ontology analysis. The expression ratio of microRNA-451a in colorectal cancer to pericarcinous tissues was 0.37. Expression of microRNA-451a was decreased in HCT116, SW620, HT29, SW480, and DLD cells. In our suppression subtractive hybridization library, expression of seven genes was the most highly increased when underexpressing microRNA-451a. They were BCAP31, EEF1A1, CDC20, WDR6, TUFM, RPL13, and RPL7A. Expression of DKK1, PSME1, NDUFA3, and GNB2 was most highly increased when overexpressing microRNA-451a. Gene ontology analysis showed that the main functions of these genes were associated with translational elongation, protein localization to the endoplasmic reticulum, translation, poly(A) RNA binding, negative regulations of Wnt signaling pathway, and so on. MicroRNA-451a was demonstrated to be downregulated in colorectal cancer patient tissues whose target genes were analyzed and functions were predicted by suppression subtractive hybridization.

Maddalena F, Simeon V, Vita G, et al.
TRAP1 protein signature predicts outcome in human metastatic colorectal carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(13):21229-21240 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TRAP1 is a HSP90 molecular chaperone upregulated in colorectal carcinomas and involved in control of intracellular signaling, cell cycle, apoptosis and drug resistance, stemness and bioenergetics through co-traslational regulation of a network of client proteins. Thus, the clinical significance of TRAP1 protein network was analyzed in human colorectal cancers. TRAP1 and/or its client proteins were quantified, by immunoblot analysis, in 60 surgical specimens of colorectal carcinomas at different stages and, by immunohistochemistry, in 9 colorectal adenomatous polyps, 11 in situ carcinomas and 55 metastatic colorectal tumors. TRAP1 is upregulated at the transition between low- and high-grade adenomas, in in situ carcinomas and in about 60% of human colorectal carcinomas, being downregulated only in a small cohort of tumors. The analysis of TCGA database showed that a subgroup of colorectal tumors is characterized by gain/loss of TRAP1 copy number, this correlating with its mRNA and protein expression. Interestingly, TRAP1 is co-expressed with the majority of its client proteins and hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the upregulation of TRAP1 and associated 6-protein signature (i.e., IF2α, eF1A, TBP7, MAD2, CDK1 and βCatenin) identifies a cohort of metastatic colorectal carcinomas with a significantly shorter overall survival (HR 5.4; 95% C.I. 1.1-26.6; p=0.037). Consistently, the prognostic relevance of TRAP1 was confirmed in a cohort of 55 metastatic colorectal tumors. Finally, TRAP1 positive expression and its prognostic value are more evident in left colon cancers. These data suggest that TRAP1 protein network may provide a prognostic signature in human metastatic colorectal carcinomas.

Norberg E, Lako A, Chen PH, et al.
Differential contribution of the mitochondrial translation pathway to the survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subsets.
Cell Death Differ. 2017; 24(2):251-262 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are a highly heterogeneous group of tumors in which subsets share molecular features revealed by gene expression profiles and metabolic fingerprints. While B-cell receptor (BCR)-dependent DLBCLs are glycolytic, OxPhos-DLBCLs rely on mitochondrial energy transduction and nutrient utilization pathways that provide pro-survival benefits independent of BCR signaling. Integral to these metabolic distinctions is elevated mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) activity in OxPhos-DLBCLs compared with BCR-DLBCLs, which is linked to greater protein abundance of ETC components. To gain insights into molecular determinants of the selective increase in ETC activity and dependence on mitochondrial energy metabolism in OxPhos-DLBCLs, we examined the mitochondrial translation pathway in charge of the synthesis of mitochondrial DNA encoded ETC subunits. Quantitative mass spectrometry identified increased expression of mitochondrial translation factors in OxPhos-DLBCL as compared with the BCR subtype. Biochemical and functional assays indicate that the mitochondrial translation pathway is required for increased ETC activity and mitochondrial energy reserves in OxPhos-DLBCL. Importantly, molecular depletion of several mitochondrial translation proteins using RNA interference or pharmacological perturbation of the mitochondrial translation pathway with the FDA-approved inhibitor tigecycline (Tigecyl) is selectively toxic to OxPhos-DLBCL cell lines and primary tumors. These findings provide additional molecular insights into the metabolic characteristics of OxPhos-DLBCLs, and mark the mitochondrial translation pathway as a potential therapeutic target in these tumors.

Pisani C, Onori A, Gabanella F, et al.
eEF1Bγ binds the Che-1 and TP53 gene promoters and their transcripts.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35(1):146 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that the eukaryotic elongation factor subunit 1B gamma (eEF1Bγ) interacts with the RNA polymerase II (pol II) alpha-like subunit "C" (POLR2C), alone or complexed, in the pol II enzyme. Moreover, we demonstrated that eEF1Bγ binds the promoter region and the 3' UTR mRNA of the vimentin gene. These events contribute to localize the vimentin transcript and consequentially its translation, promoting a proper mitochondrial network.
METHODS: With the intent of identifying additional transcripts that complex with the eEF1Bγ protein, we performed a series of ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays using a mitochondria-enriched heavy membrane (HM) fraction.
RESULTS: Among the eEF1Bγ complexed transcripts, we found the mRNA encoding the Che-1/AATF multifunctional protein. As reported by other research groups, we found the tumor suppressor p53 transcript complexed with the eEF1Bγ protein. Here, we show for the first time that eEF1Bγ binds not only Che-1 and p53 transcripts but also their promoters. Remarkably, we demonstrate that both the Che-1 transcript and its translated product localize also to the mitochondria and that eEF1Bγ depletion strongly perturbs the mitochondrial network and the correct localization of Che-1. In a doxorubicin (Dox)-induced DNA damage assay we show that eEF1Bγ depletion significantly decreases p53 protein accumulation and slightly impacts on Che-1 accumulation. Importantly, Che-1 and p53 proteins are components of the DNA damage response machinery that maintains genome integrity and prevents tumorigenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the notion that eEF1Bγ, besides its canonical role in translation, is an RNA-binding protein and a key player in cellular stress responses. We suggest for eEF1Bγ a role as primordial transcription/translation factor that links fundamental steps from transcription control to local translation.

Song N, Pogue-Geile KL, Gavin PG, et al.
Clinical Outcome From Oxaliplatin Treatment in Stage II/III Colon Cancer According to Intrinsic Subtypes: Secondary Analysis of NSABP C-07/NRG Oncology Randomized Clinical Trial.
JAMA Oncol. 2016; 2(9):1162-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
IMPORTANCE: Oxaliplatin added to fluorouracil plus leucovorin therapy for patients with colon cancer has been shown to provide significant but modest absolute benefit for disease-free survival. However, acute and chronic neurotoxic effects from this regimen underscore the need for markers that predict oxaliplatin benefit.
OBJECTIVE: To test our hypothesis that molecular subtypes of colon cancer would be associated with differential prognosis and benefit from oxaliplatin added to fluorouracil plus leucovorin therapy.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the NSABP C-07 trial were divided into discovery (n = 848) and validation (n = 881) cohorts based on the order of tissue block submission. A reestimated centroid using 72 genes was used to determine Colorectal Cancer Assigner subtypes and their association with oxaliplatin benefit in the discovery cohort. The validation cohort was examined with a locked-down algorithm for subtype classification and statistical analysis plan. Post hoc analysis included examination of the entire cohort with Colorectal Cancer Assigner, Colorectal Cancer Subtype (CCS), and Consensus Molecular Subtype (CMS) methods.
INTERVENTIONS: Fluorouracil plus leucovorin with or without oxaliplatin.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Percent recurrence-free survival.
RESULTS: Among 1729 patients, 744 (43%) were female and mean (SD) age was 58 (11) years. Although C-07 participants with stage III disease with an enterocyte subtype showed a statistically significant benefit from oxaliplatin in the discovery cohort (hazard ratio, 0.22 [95% CI, 0.09-0.56]; P = .001 [N = 65]), no statistically significant benefit was observed in the validation cohort (hazard ratio, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.22-1.24]; P = .14 [N = 70]). The stemlike subtype was associated with poor prognosis and lack of benefit from oxaliplatin treatment (HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.73-1.34]; P = .96 [N = 367]). Examination of the different subtyping methods shows that all 3 methods robustly identified patients with poor prognosis (stemlike, CCS-3, and CMS-4) in both stage II and III.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Patients with stemlike tumors may be appropriate for clinical trials testing experimental therapies because stemlike tumors were robustly identified and associated with a poor prognosis regardless of stage or chemotherapy regimen. The clinical utility of using subtyping for the identification of patients for treatment with oxaliplatin requires validation in independent clinical trial cohorts.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT00004931.

Fan Z, Cui X, Wei D, et al.
eEF1A1 binds and enriches protoporphyrin IX in cancer cells in 5-aminolevulinic acid based photodynamic therapy.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:25353 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which is endogenously derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its derivatives, is a promising modality for the treatment of both pre-malignant and malignant lesions. However, the mechanisms of how ALA-induced PpIX selectively accumulated in the tumors are not fully elucidated. Here we discovered that eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (eEF1A1) interacted with PpIX (with an affinity constant of 2.96 × 10(6) M(-1)). Microscopy imaging showed that ALA-induced PpIX was co-localized with eEF1A1 in cancer cells. eEF1A1 was found to enrich ALA-induced PpIX in cells by competitively blocking the downstream bioavailability of PpIX. Taken together, our study discovered eEF1A1 as a novel photosensitizer binding protein, which may play an essential role in the enrichment of ALA-induced PpIX in cancer cells during PDT. These suggested eEF1A1 as a molecular marker to predict the selectivity and efficiency of 5-ALA based PDT in cancer therapy.

Qiu FN, Huang Y, Chen DY, et al.
Eukaryotic elongation factor-1α 2 knockdown inhibits hepatocarcinogenesis by suppressing PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling.
World J Gastroenterol. 2016; 22(16):4226-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To assess the impact of eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha 2 (eEF1A2) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion, and determine the underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: eEF1A2 levels were detected in 62 HCC tissue samples and paired pericarcinomatous specimens, and the human HCC cell lines SK-HEP-1, HepG2 and BEF-7402, by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Experimental groups included eEF1A2 silencing in BEL-7402 cells with lentivirus eEF1A2-shRNA (KD group) and eEF1A2 overexpression in SK-HEP-1 cells with eEF1A2 plasmid (OE group). Non-transfected cells (control group) and lentivirus-based empty vector transfected cells (NC group) were considered control groups. Cell proliferation (MTT and colony formation assays), apoptosis (Annexin V-APC assay), cell cycle (DNA ploidy assay), and migration and invasion (Transwell assays) were assessed. Protein levels of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling effectors were evaluated by Western blot.
RESULTS: eEF1A2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in HCC cancer tissue samples than in paired pericarcinomatous and normal specimens. SK-HEP-1 cells showed lower eEF1A2 mRNA levels; HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells showed higher eEF1A2 mRNA levels, with BEL-7402 cells displaying the highest amount. Efficient eEF1A2 silencing resulted in reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion, increased apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest. The PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway was notably inhibited. Inversely, eEF1A2 overexpression resulted in promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
CONCLUSION: eEF1A2, highly expressed in HCC, is a potential oncogene. Its silencing significantly decreases HCC tumorigenesis, likely by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling.

Yang G, Zong H
Overexpression of PDZK1IP1, EEF1A2 and RPL41 genes in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(6):4786-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is an aggressive malignancy in the liver, which is associated with a poor prognosis. However, the molecular pathogenesis of iCCA remains unclear. RNA-Seq for tumor and para-tumor sample pairs enables the characterization of changes in the gene expression profiles of patients with iCCA. The present study analyzed RNA‑Seq data of seven iCCA para‑tumor and tumor sample pairs. Differential gene expression analysis demonstrated significant upregulation of PDZK1IP1, EEF1A2 and RPL41 (ENSG00000279483) genes in the iCCA samples when compared with the matched para‑tumor samples. Furthermore, genes associated with the immune system, metabolism and metabolic energy were significantly downregulated in the iCCA tumor tissues, indicating that this is involved in the pathogenesis of iCCA. The present study aimed to elucidate the gene expression patterns associated with the tumorigenesis of iCCA by comparing tumor and normal tissues, in order to isolate novel diagnostic factors for iCCA.

Van Roosbroeck K, Ferreiro JF, Tousseyn T, et al.
Genomic alterations of the JAK2 and PDL loci occur in a broad spectrum of lymphoid malignancies.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(5):428-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
The recurrent 9p24.1 aberrations in lymphoid malignancies potentially involving four cancer-related and druggable genes (JAK2, CD274/PDL1, PDCD1LG2/PDL2, and KDM4C/JMJD2Cl) are incompletely characterized. To gain more insight into the anatomy of these abnormalities, at first we studied 9p24.1 alterations in 18 leukemia/lymphoma cases using cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The aberrations comprised structural (nine cases) and numerical (nine cases) alterations. The former lesions were heterogeneous but shared a common breakpoint region of 200 kb downstream of JAK2. The rearrangements predominantly targeted the PDL locus. We have identified five potential partner genes of PDL1/2: PHACTR4 (1p34), N4BP2 (4p14), EEF1A1 (6q13), JAK2 (9p24.1), and IGL (22q11). Interestingly, the cryptic JAK2-PDL1 rearrangement was generated by a microdeletion spanning the 3'JAK2-5'PDL1 region. JAK2 was additionally involved in a cytogenetically cryptic IGH-mediated t(9;14)(p24.1;q32) found in two patients. This rare but likely underestimated rearrangement highlights the essential role of JAK2 in B-cell neoplasms. Cases with amplification of 9p24.1 were diagnosed as primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (five cases) and T-cell lymphoma (four cases). The smallest amplified 9p24.1 region was restricted to the JAK2-PDL1/2-RANBP6 interval. In the next step, we screened 200 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma by interphase FISH and identified PDL1/2 rearrangement (CIITA- and IGH-negative) in four cases (2%), what is a novel finding. Forty (25%) cases revealed high level amplification of 9p24.1, including four cases with a selective amplification of PDL1/2. Altogether, the majority of 9p24.1 rearrangements occurring in lymphoid malignancies seem to target the programmed death-1 ligands, what potentiates the therapeutic activity of PD-1 blockade in these tumors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Flores IL, Kawahara R, Miguel MC, et al.
EEF1D modulates proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin Sci (Lond). 2016; 130(10):785-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
EEF1D (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1δ) is a subunit of the elongation factor 1 complex of proteins that mediates the elongation process during protein synthesis via enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome. Although the functions of EEF1D in the translation process are recognized, EEF1D expression was found to be unbalanced in tumours. In the present study, we demonstrate the overexpression of EEF1D in OSCC (oral squamous cell carcinoma), and revealed that EEF1D and protein interaction partners promote the activation of cyclin D1 and vimentin proteins. EEF1D knockdown in OSCC reduced cell proliferation and induced EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) phenotypes, including cell invasion. Taken together, these results define EEF1D as a critical inducer of OSCC proliferation and EMT.

He K, Guo X, Liu Y, et al.
TUFM downregulation induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion in lung cancer cells via a mechanism involving AMPK-GSK3β signaling.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016; 73(10):2105-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mitochondrial dysfunction and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) play important roles in cancer development and metastasis. However, very little is known about the connection between mitochondrial dysfunction and EMT. Tu translation elongation factor, mitochondrial (TUFM), a key factor in the translational expression of mitochondrial DNA, plays an important role in the control of mitochondrial function. Here, we show that TUFM is downregulated in human cancer tissues. TUFM expression level was positively correlated with that of E-cadherin and decreased significantly during the progression of human lung cancer. TUFM knockdown induced EMT, reduced mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, and increased glycolytic function and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mechanistically, TUFM knockdown activated AMPK and phosphorylated GSK3β and increased the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, leading to the induction of EMT and increased migration and metastasis of A549 lung cancer cells. Although TUFM knockdown also induced EMT of MCF7 breast cancer cells, the underlying mechanism appeared somewhat different from that in lung cancer cells. Our work identifies TUFM as a novel regulator of EMT and suggests a molecular link between mitochondrial dysfunction and EMT induction.

Yang Z, Zhuan B, Yan Y, et al.
Identification of gene markers in the development of smoking-induced lung cancer.
Gene. 2016; 576(1 Pt 3):451-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with high mortality in both women and men. To study the mechanisms of smoking-induced lung cancer, we analyzed microarray of GSE4115. GSE4115 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus including 78 and 85 bronchial epithelium tissue samples separately from smokers with and without lung cancer. Limma package in R was used to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Hierarchical cluster analysis for DEGs was conducted using orange software and visualized by distance map. Using DAVID software, functional and pathway enrichment analyses separately were conducted for the DEGs. And protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using Cytoscape software. Then, the pathscores of enriched pathways were calculated. Besides, functional features were screened and optimized using the recursive feature elimination (RFE) method. Additionally, the support vector machine (SVM) method was used to train model. Total 1923 DEGs were identified between the two groups. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that there were differences in gene level between the two groups. And SVM analysis indicated that the five features had potential diagnostic value. Importantly, MAPK1 (degree=30), SRC (degree=29), SMAD4 (degree=23), EEF1A1 (degree=21), TRAF2 (degree=21) and PLCG1 (degree=20) had higher degrees in the PPI network of the DEGs. They might be involved in smoking-induced lung cancer by interacting with each other (e.g. MAPK1-SMAD4, SMAD4-EEF1A1 and SRC-PLCG1). MAPK1, SRC, SMAD4, EEF1A1, TRAF2 and PLCG1 might be responsible for the development of smoking-induced lung cancer.

Kim JH, Lee JO, Kim N, et al.
Paclitaxel suppresses the viability of breast tumor MCF7 cells through the regulation of EF1α and FOXO3a by AMPK signaling.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(5):1874-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paclitaxel (Taxol), a potent drug of natural origin isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew, is widely used for treating ovarian, lung and breast cancers. Currently, there is little information regarding the specific mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of paclitaxel. In the present study, we found that 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR), a well-known activator of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), downregulated the protein and mRNA levels of elongation factor 1 α (EF1α) in breast cancer MCF7 cells. Paclitaxel increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and also downregulated the expression of EF1α in MCF7 cells. In addition, paclitaxel increased the expression, as well as the phosphorylation of forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a). Phosphorylation of FOXO3a was suppressed in the presence of compound C, a specific AMPK inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of AMPK in paclitaxel-induced FOXO3a phosphorylation. The induction and phosphorylation of FOXO3a by paclitaxel were not observed in EF1α and AMPK knockdown cells. Co-treatment with AICAR resulted in increased susceptibility of cancer cells to paclitaxel-induced suppression of their viability and further enhanced paclitaxel-induced FOXO3a phosphorylation. These results suggest that the antitumor effects of paclitaxel in breast cancer are mediated by activation of the AMPK/EF1α/FOXO3a signaling pathway.

Lange N, Unger FT, Schöppler M, et al.
Identification and Validation of a Potential Marker of Tissue Quality Using Gene Expression Analysis of Human Colorectal Tissue.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0133987 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Correlative studies have identified numerous biomarkers that are individualizing therapy across many medical specialties, including oncology. Accurate interpretation of these studies requires the collection of tissue samples of sufficient quality. Tissue quality can be measured by changes in levels of gene expression and can be influenced by many factors including pre-analytical conditions, ischemic effects and the surgical collection procedure itself. However, as yet there are no reliable biomarkers of tissue quality at researchers' disposal. The aim of the current study was to identify genes with expression patterns that fluctuated reproducibly in response to typical post-surgical stress (ischemia) in order to identify a specific marker of tissue quality. All tissue samples were obtained from patients with primary colorectal carcinoma (CRC) (N = 40) either via colonoscopy prior to surgery, or by surgical resection. Surgically resected tissue samples were divided into three groups and subjected to cold ischemia for 10, 20 or 45 minutes. Normal colorectal tissue and CRC tissue was analyzed using microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Comparing changes in gene expression between pre- and post-surgical tissue using microarray analysis identified a list of potential tissue quality biomarkers and this list was validated using qPCR. Results revealed that post-operative ischemia significantly alters gene expression in normal and CRC tissue samples. Both microarray analysis and qPCR revealed regulator of G-protein signaling 1 (RGS1) as a potential marker of CRC tissue quality and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (EEF1A1) as a potential reference gene of post-operative tissue quality. Larger studies with additional time points and endpoints will be needed to confirm these results.

Narita T, Narita K, Takedachi A, et al.
Regulation of Transcription Elongation by the XPG-TFIIH Complex Is Implicated in Cockayne Syndrome.
Mol Cell Biol. 2015; 35(18):3178-88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
XPG is a causative gene underlying the photosensitive disorder xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XP-G) and is involved in nucleotide excision repair. Here, we show that XPG knockdown represses epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced FOS transcription at the level of transcription elongation with little effect on EGF signal transduction. XPG interacted with transcription elongation factors in concert with TFIIH, suggesting that the XPG-TFIIH complex serves as a transcription elongation factor. The XPG-TFIIH complex was recruited to promoter and coding regions of both EGF-induced (FOS) and housekeeping (EEF1A1) genes. Further, EGF-induced recruitment of RNA polymerase II and TFIIH to FOS was reduced by XPG knockdown. Importantly, EGF-induced FOS transcription was markedly lower in XP-G/Cockayne syndrome (CS) cells expressing truncated XPG than in control cells expressing wild-type (WT) XPG, with less significant decreases in XP-G cells with XPG nuclease domain mutations. In corroboration of this finding, both WT XPG and a missense XPG mutant from an XP-G patient were recruited to FOS upon EGF stimulation, but an XPG mutant mimicking a C-terminal truncation from an XP-G/CS patient was not. These results suggest that the XPG-TFIIH complex is involved in transcription elongation and that defects in this association may partly account for Cockayne syndrome in XP-G/CS patients.

Zang W, Wang Y, Wang T, et al.
miR-663 attenuates tumor growth and invasiveness by targeting eEF1A2 in pancreatic cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: miR-663 is associated with many important biologic processes, such as the evolution, development, viral infection, inflammatory response, and carcinogenesis among vertebrates. However, the molecular function and mechanism of miR-663 in pancreatic cancer growth and invasion is still unclear.
METHODS: Western blot and real-time PCR were used to study the expression level of eEF1A2 protein and miR-663 in pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. The Pearson χ (2) test was used to determine the correlation between miR-663 expression and clinicopathologic features of patients. Patients' survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, using the log-rank test for comparison. The biological function of miR-663 was examined by measuring cell growth, cell invasion and apoptosis analysis in vitro and in vivo. miR-663 target gene and signaling pathway was identified by luciferase activity assay and western blot.
RESULTS: We found that, in pancreatic cancer, eEF1A2 was significantly upregulated but miR-663 was significantly downregulated. Further results showed that the expression level of eEF1A2 and miR-663 was strongly associated with TNM stage and node metastasis status of the patients. miR-663 and eEF1A2 were inversely correlated with each other, and the changes in the expression levels of each can also predict the survival of patients with pancreatic cancer. We identified miR-663 as a tumor attenuate molecular that attenuated the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we confirmed that the expression of eEF1A2 can partially restore the pro-apoptotic and anti-invasion functions of miR-663.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-663 attenuated the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cells both in vitro and in vivo by directly targeting eEF1A2. miR-663 and eEF1A2 might be potential targets for the treatment of pancreatic cancer in the future.

Yang S, Lu M, Chen Y, et al.
Overexpression of eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha-2 is associated with poorer prognosis in patients with gastric cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(7):1265-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha-2 (eEF1A2) is a protein translation factor involved in protein synthesis. It is overexpressed in various cancers, which indicates potential vital functions in tumorigenesis and progression. Our study aims to investigate the expression levels of eEF1A2 in gastric cancer and its roles in clinical practice.
METHODS: A total of 129 patients with pathologically confirmed gastric cancer and 24 normal controls were recruited for this study. The expression levels of eEF1A2 in gastric cancer and normal tissues were evaluated by tissue microarrays, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blot analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox's proportional hazards model were used in survival analysis.
RESULTS: Compared with corresponding controls, gastric cancer specimens had significantly increased expressions of eEF1A2 at mRNA and protein levels (both P < 0.05). Moreover, multivariate analysis confirmed that overexpression of eEF1A2 was a significant and independent indicator for predicting poor prognosis of gastric cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed for the first time that overexpression of eEF1A2 was correlated with worse outcomes in gastric cancer patients, suggesting its critical roles in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer.

Elgohary N, Pellegrino R, Neumann O, et al.
Protumorigenic role of Timeless in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 46(2):597-606 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mammalian timeless (TIM) protein interacts with proteins of the endogenous clock and essentially contributes to the circadian rhythm. In addition, TIM is involved in maintenance of chromosome integrity, growth control and development. Thus, we hypothesized that TIM may exert a potential protumorigenic function in human hepatocarcinogenesis. TIM was overexpressed in a subset of human HCCs both at the mRNA and the protein level. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TIM reduced cell viability due to the induction of apoptosis and G2 arrest. The latter was mediated via CHEK2 phosphorylation. In addition, siRNA-treated cells showed a significantly reduced migratory capacity and reduced expression levels of various proteins. Mechanistically, TIM directly interacts with the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A2 (EEF1A2), which binds to actin filaments to promote tumor cell migration. siRNA-mediated knockdown of TIM reduced EEF1A2 protein levels thereby affecting ribosomal protein biosynthesis. Thus, overexpression of TIM exerts oncogenic function in human HCCs, which is mediated via CHEK2 and EEF1A2.

Zhao L, Teklemariam T, Hantash BM
Heterelogous expression of mutated HLA-G decreases immunogenicity of human embryonic stem cells and their epidermal derivatives.
Stem Cell Res. 2014; 13(2):342-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are capable of extensive self-renewal and expansion and can differentiate into any somatic tissue, making them useful for regenerative medicine applications. Allogeneic transplantation of hESC-derived tissues from results in immunological rejection absent adjunctive immunosuppression. The goal of our study was to generate a universal pluripotent stem cell source by nucleofecting a mutated human leukocyte antigen G (mHLA-G) gene into hESCs using the PiggyBac transposon. We successfully generated stable mHLA-G(EF1α)-hESC lines using chEF1α promoter system that stably expressed mHLA-G protein during prolonged undifferentiated proliferation andin differentiated embryoid bodies as well as teratomas. Morphology, karyotype, and telomerase activity of mHLA-G expressing hESC were normal. Immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry analysis revealed persistent expression of pluripotent markers, OCT-3/4 and SSEA-4, in undifferentiated mHLA-G(EF1α)-hESC. Nucleofected hESC formed teratomas and when directed to differentiate into epidermal precursors, expressed high levels of mHLA-G and keratinocyte markers K14 and CD29. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity assays demonstrated a significant decrease in lysis of mHLA-G(EF1a)-hESC targets relative to control cells. Similar results were obtained with mHLA-G(EF1α)-hESC-derived epidermal progenitors (hEEP). One way mixed T lymphocyte reactions unveiled that mHLA-G(EF1a)-hESC and -hEEP restrained the proliferative activity of mixed T lymphocytes. We conclude that heterologous expression of mHLA-G decreases immunogenicity of hESCs and their epidermal differentiated derivatives.

Saito K, Iizuka Y, Ohta S, et al.
Functional analysis of a novel glioma antigen, EFTUD1.
Neuro Oncol. 2014; 16(12):1618-29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A cDNA library made from 2 glioma cell lines, U87MG and T98G, was screened by serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression (SEREX) using serum from a glioblastoma patient. Elongation factor Tu GTP binding domain containing protein 1 (EFTUD1), which is required for ribosome biogenesis, was identified. A cancer microarray database showed overexpression of EFTUD1 in gliomas, suggesting that EFTUD1 is a candidate molecular target for gliomas.
METHODS: EFTUD1 expression in glioma cell lines and glioma tissue was assessed by Western blot, quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemistry. The effect on ribosome biogenesis, cell growth, cell cycle, and induction of apoptosis and autophagy in glioma cells during the downregulation of EFTUD1 was investigated. To reveal the role of autophagy, the autophagy-blocker, chloroquine (CQ), was used in glioma cells downregulating EFTUD1. The effect of combining CQ with EFTUD1 inhibition in glioma cells was analyzed.
RESULTS: EFTUD1 expression in glioma cell lines and tissue was higher than in normal brain tissue. Downregulating EFTUD1 induced G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, leading to reduced glioma cell proliferation. The mechanism underlying this antitumor effect was impaired ribosome biogenesis via EFTUD1 inhibition. Additionally, protective autophagy was induced by glioma cells as an adaptive response to EFTUD1 inhibition. The antitumor effect induced by the combined treatment was significantly higher than that of either EFTUD1 inhibition or CQ alone.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that EFTUD1 represents a novel therapeutic target and that the combination of EFTUD1 inhibition with autophagy blockade may be effective in the treatment of gliomas.

Sun Y, Du C, Wang B, et al.
Up-regulation of eEF1A2 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 450(1):1-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: eEF1A2 is a protein translation factor involved in protein synthesis, which possesses important function roles in cancer development. This study aims at investigating the expression pattern of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer and its potential role in prostate cancer development.
METHODS: We examined the expression level of eEF1A2 in 30 pairs of prostate cancer tissues by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). Then we applied siRNA specifically targeting eEF1A2 to down-regulate its expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells. Flow cytometer was used to explore apoptosis and Western-blot was used to detect the pathway proteins of apoptosis.
RESULTS: Our results showed that the expression level of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer tissues was significantly higher compared to their corresponding normal tissues. Reduction of eEF1A2 expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells led to a dramatic inhibition of proliferation accompanied with enhanced apoptosis rate. Western blot revealed that apoptosis pathway proteins (caspase3, BAD, BAX, PUMA) were significantly up-regulated after suppression of eEF1A2. More importantly, the levels of eEF1A2 and caspase3 were inversely correlated in prostate cancer tissues.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that eEF1A2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development, especially in inhibiting apoptosis. So eEF1A2 might serve as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer.

Zhan C, Zhang Y, Ma J, et al.
Identification of reference genes for qRT-PCR in human lung squamous-cell carcinoma by RNA-Seq.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2014; 46(4):330-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the accuracy of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is highly dependent on the reliable reference genes, many commonly used reference genes are not stably expressed and as such are not suitable for quantification and normalization of qRT-PCR data. The aim of this study was to identify novel reliable reference genes in lung squamous-cell carcinoma. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to survey the whole genome expression in 5 lung normal samples and 44 lung squamous-cell carcinoma samples. We evaluated the expression profiles of 15 commonly used reference genes and identified five additional candidate reference genes. To validate the RNA-Seq dataset, we used qRT-PCR to verify the expression levels of these 20 genes in a separate set of 100 pairs of normal lung tissue and lung squamous-cell carcinoma samples, and then analyzed these results using geNorm and NormFinder. With respect to 14 of the 15 common reference genes (B2M, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT1, IPO8, PGK1, POLR2A, PPIA, RPLP0, TBP, TFRC, UBC, and YWHAZ), the expression levels were either too low to be easily detected, or exhibited a high degree of variability either between lung normal and squamous-cell carcinoma samples, or even among samples of the same tissue type. In contrast, 1 of the 15 common reference genes (ACTB) and the 5 additional candidate reference genes (EEF1A1, FAU, RPS9, RPS11, and RPS14) were stably and constitutively expressed at high levels in all the samples tested. ACTB, EEF1A1, FAU, RPS9, RPS11, and RPS14 are ideal reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of lung squamous-cell carcinoma, while 14 commonly used qRT-PCR reference genes are less appropriate in this context.

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