Gene Summary

Gene:ENO1; enolase 1
Aliases: NNE, PPH, MPB1, ENO1L1, HEL-S-17
Summary:This gene encodes alpha-enolase, one of three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. Each isoenzyme is a homodimer composed of 2 alpha, 2 gamma, or 2 beta subunits, and functions as a glycolytic enzyme. Alpha-enolase in addition, functions as a structural lens protein (tau-crystallin) in the monomeric form. Alternative splicing of this gene results in a shorter isoform that has been shown to bind to the c-myc promoter and function as a tumor suppressor. Several pseudogenes have been identified, including one on the long arm of chromosome 1. Alpha-enolase has also been identified as an autoantigen in Hashimoto encephalopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:alpha-enolase; c-myc promoter-binding protein-1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ENO1 (cancer-related)

Kel A, Boyarskikh U, Stegmaier P, et al.
Walking pathways with positive feedback loops reveal DNA methylation biomarkers of colorectal cancer.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2019; 20(Suppl 4):119 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The search for molecular biomarkers of early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important but still quite challenging and unsolved task. Detection of CpG methylation in human DNA obtained from blood or stool has been proposed as a promising approach to a noninvasive early diagnosis of CRC. Thousands of abnormally methylated CpG positions in CRC genomes are often located in non-coding parts of genes. Novel bioinformatic methods are thus urgently needed for multi-omics data analysis to reveal causative biomarkers with a potential driver role in early stages of cancer.
METHODS: We have developed a method for finding potential causal relationships between epigenetic changes (DNA methylations) in gene regulatory regions that affect transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and gene expression changes. This method also considers the topology of the involved signal transduction pathways and searches for positive feedback loops that may cause the carcinogenic aberrations in gene expression. We call this method "Walking pathways", since it searches for potential rewiring mechanisms in cancer pathways due to dynamic changes in the DNA methylation status of important gene regulatory regions ("epigenomic walking").
RESULTS: In this paper, we analysed an extensive collection of full genome gene-expression data (RNA-seq) and DNA methylation data of genomic CpG islands (using Illumina methylation arrays) generated from a sample of tumor and normal gut epithelial tissues of 300 patients with colorectal cancer (at different stages of the disease) (data generated in the EU-supported SysCol project). Identification of potential epigenetic biomarkers of DNA methylation was performed using the fully automatic multi-omics analysis web service "My Genome Enhancer" (MGE) (my-genome-enhancer.com). MGE uses the database on gene regulation TRANSFAC®, the signal transduction pathways database TRANSPATH®, and software that employs AI (artificial intelligence) methods for the analysis of cancer-specific enhancers.
CONCLUSIONS: The identified biomarkers underwent experimental testing on an independent set of blood samples from patients with colorectal cancer. As a result, using advanced methods of statistics and machine learning, a minimum set of 6 biomarkers was selected, which together achieve the best cancer detection potential. The markers include hypermethylated positions in regulatory regions of the following genes: CALCA, ENO1, MYC, PDX1, TCF7, ZNF43.

Sun Y, Xiaoyan H, Yun L, et al.
Identification of Key Candidate Genes and Pathways for Relationship between Ovarian Cancer and Diabetes Mellitus Using Bioinformatical Analysis
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(1):145-155 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is one of the three major gynecologic cancers in the world. The aim of this study is to find the relationship between ovarian cancer and diabetes mellitus by using the genetic screening technique. By GEO database query and related online tools of analysis, we analyzed 185 cases of ovarian cancer and 10 control samples from GSE26712, and a total of 379 different genes were identified, including 104 up-regulated genes and 275 down-regulated genes. The up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in biological processes, including cell adhesion, transcription of nucleic acid and biosynthesis, and negative regulation of cell metabolism. The down-regulated genes were enriched in cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and macromolecular metabolism. Protein-protein interaction was analyzed by network diagram and module synthesis analysis. The top ten hub genes (CDC20, H2AFX, ENO1, ACTB, ISG15, KAT2B, HNRNPD, YWHAE, GJA1 and CAV1) were identified, which play important roles in critical signaling pathways that regulate the process of oxidation-reduction reaction and carboxylic acid metabolism. CTD analysis showed that the hub genes were involved in 1,128 distinct diseases (bonferroni-corrected P<0.05). Further analysis by drawing the Kaplan-Meier survival curve indicated that CDC20 and ISG15 were statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, glycometabolism was related to ovarian cancer and genes and proteins in glycometabolism could serve as potential targets in ovarian cancer treatment.

Sun L, Lu T, Tian K, et al.
Alpha-enolase promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation and metastasis via regulating AKT signaling pathway.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2019; 845:8-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increased aerobic glycolysis is considered as a hallmark of cancer and targeting key glycolytic enzymes will be a promising therapeutic approach in cancer treatment. Alpha-enolase (ENO1), as a prominent glycolytic enzyme, is upregulated in multiple cancers and its overexpression is involved in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of ENO1 in the development and progression of gastric cancer (GC). Here, we found that ENO1 expression was upregulated in human GC and was associated with Lauren type, lymph node metastasis (LNM) and TNM stage. Knockdown of ENO1 attenuated GC cell proliferation and metastasis and reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progress in vitro while ENO1 overexpression did the opposite. ENO1 could modulate AKT signaling pathway in GC cells and the enhanced proliferation and migration ability induced by ENO1 overexpression was impaired after incubation with PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 in SGC7901 cells. Our data demonstrated that ENO1 enhances GC cell proliferation and metastasis through the protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway, indicating that ENO1/AKT signaling axis may serve as a potential target for treatment of GC.

Fan P, Wang B, Meng Z, et al.
PES1 is transcriptionally regulated by BRD4 and promotes cell proliferation and glycolysis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018; 104:1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. However, the mechanism underlying the tumorigenesis of HCC is still unclear. Improper recruitment of Pescadillo homologue 1 (PES1) can lead to tumorigenesis in multiple cancer types, such as gastric cancer and colon cancer. Here, we reported that PES1 was upregulated and associated with a poor prognosis in HCC specimens. Next, we found that PES1 promoted the growth of HCC in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we showed that the knockdown of PES1 decreased glycolysis via altering the gene expression of GLUT1, PKM2, ENO1, FBP1, and PCK1, which are related to glucose metabolism in HCC cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that PES1 is regulated by bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) and is partially responsible for modulating the antitumor effect of BET inhibitors in HCC. Taken together, our results suggest that PES1 plays an important role in promoting the proliferation of human liver cancer cells, suggesting that PES1 may be an ideal molecular target for HCC therapy.

Qiao H, Wang YF, Yuan WZ, et al.
Silencing of ENO1 by shRNA Inhibits the Proliferation of Gastric Cancer Cells.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 17:1533033818784411 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
α-Enolase is a significant subunit of enolase and acts as a glycolytic enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the anaerobic glycolysis pathway. The research about their role is known little in tumor invasion and metastasis. This research analyzed the effect of α-enolase in proliferation and progression of human gastric cancer. The constructed PLKO.1-ENO1 shRNA vector was transfected into 293 T cells and used to infect gastric cancer cells, MKN45, by using lentivirus method. Negative controls were generated by infection with viruses containing empty vector PLKO.1-scramble-shRNA by the same protocol and using wild-type MKN45 cells as blank control. The silencing effect was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting at messenger RNA and protein levels, respectively. Cell proliferation and chemosensitivity were tested by methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assay. Cell apoptosis was tested by flow cytometry. The cell line α-enolase short hairpin RNA stabling silence α-enolase was successfully constructed. In the α-enolase short hairpin RNA cell lines, messenger RNA and protein expression of α-enolase were significantly lower than those in negative control and blank control groups. The proliferation and clone formation ability were significantly inhibited, cell apoptosis was increased significantly, and the inhibition rate of chemotherapy drugs was increased ( P < .05). Our data provide strong evidence that α-enolase short hairpin RNA interference vector can effectively suppress the proliferation and increase chemosensitivity of MKN45 cells, which may provide a novel gene therapy for gastric cancer.

Zuo J, Wang B, Long M, et al.
The type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein B7-H3 interacts with the glycolytic enzyme ENO1 to promote malignancy and glycolysis in HeLa cells.
FEBS Lett. 2018; 592(14):2476-2488 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of the type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein B7-H3 is controversial in tumorigenesis; thus, a better clarification of its involvement in cancer is crucial. In the present study, 79.3% of cervical cancer samples were found to be B7-H3 positive and the expression of B7-H3 was positively correlated with the clinical features of the samples. Silencing B7-H3 using small interfering RNA or blocking it with intracellular ScFv attenuated the malignancy of HeLa cells. By pull-down assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in HeLa cells, the glycolytic enzyme ENO1 was found to interact with B7-H3. Subsequently, the involvement of B7-H3 in glycolysis was investigated. We observed decreases in the levels of ATP and lactate, as well as c-Myc and lactate dehydrogenase A, upon B7-H3 downregulation in HeLa cells. The results of the present study provide evidence for B7-H3 mediating tumor glycolysis.

Wang M, Wang W, Wang J, Zhang J
MiR-182 promotes glucose metabolism by upregulating hypoxia-inducible factor 1α in NSCLC cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 504(2):400-405 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to demonstrate the role of miR-182 in the glucose metabolism of NSCLC cells and the potential mechanism.
METHODS: MTT Cytotoxicity Assay was used to measure the function of differentially expressed miR-182 on two NSCLC cell lines proliferation. Metabolite analysis was introduced to monitor the glucose consumption, lactate release and glycolytic intermediate metabolites. The mRNA level of critical genes involved in glycolysis was detected by qRT-PCR. The 3'UTRs of predicted gene with a miR-182 binding site and their seed-sequence-mutated version were cloned downstream to the ORF of a Renilla luciferase reporter gene and the ability of miR-182 to downregulate luciferase expression was assessed.
RESULTS: MiR-182 had significantly improved proliferation of NSCLC cell lines. Metabolite analysis of the cells with strengthened miR-182 revealed significantly increased glucose consumption and lactate release, as well as glycolytic intermediate metabolites, or conversely. Among a panel of genes controlling glucose metabolism, miR-182 exhibited significantly influence on ENO1, GLUT1, HIF-1α, HK1, HK2, LDHA and PDK1, especially HIF-1α. For the predicted target gene HIF1AN, the wild-type but not mutated 3'UTR, responded to miR-182  b y directing ∼45% reduction of reporter gene expression.
CONCLUSION: MiR-182 promotes glucose metabolism by upregulating HIF-1α in NSCLC cells.

Ishikawa H, Xu L, Sone K, et al.
Hypoxia Induces Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α and Potential HIF-Responsive Gene Expression in Uterine Leiomyoma.
Reprod Sci. 2019; 26(3):428-435 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine leiomyoma is characterized by abundant extracellular matrix and broad avascular areas, both constantly resulting in hypoxia, suggesting some hypoxia-induced response function. Here, we examined whether hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)- mediated hypoxic response function in uterine leiomyoma. Immunoblotting detected higher basal HIF-1α protein expression in nuclear extracts from uterine leiomyoma tissues than in those from the adjacent myometrium ( P = .0011). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of HIF-1α-positive cellular components in both leiomyoma and surrounding myometrial tissues. Hypoxia decreased HIF-1α messenger RNA (mRNA), but increased HIF-1α protein in primary culture leiomyoma smooth muscle cells, and caused translocation of HIF-1α from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Hypoxia upregulated mRNAs of 6 potential HIF-responsive genes ( ALDOA, ENO1, LDHA, VEGFA, PFKFB3, and SLC2A1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that hypoxia significantly increased recruitment of HIF-1α binding to putative HIF-responsive elements in the HIF-responsive genes, suggesting that the HIF transcriptional complex initiates hypoxia-induced transcription of HIF-responsive genes. These results demonstrated a HIF-1α-mediated hypoxic response in uterine leiomyoma.

Yang M, Sun Y, Sun J, et al.
Differentially expressed and survival-related proteins of lung adenocarcinoma with bone metastasis.
Cancer Med. 2018; 7(4):1081-1092 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite recent advances in targeted and immune-based therapies, the poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) with bone metastasis (BM) remains a challenge. First, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in LUAD with BM, and then matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to identify these proteins. Second, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was used to identify mutations in these differentially expressed proteins and Kaplan-Meier plotter (KM Plotter) was used to generate survival curves for the analyzed cases. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to check the expression of proteins in 28 patients with BM and nine patients with LUAD. Lastly, the results were analyzed with respect to clinical features and patient's follow-up. We identified a number of matched proteins from 2-DE. High expression of enolase 1 (ENO1) (HR = 1.67, logrank P = 1.9E-05), ribosomal protein lateral stalk subunit P2 (RPLP2) (HR = 1.77, logrank P = 2.9e-06), and NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NME1-NME2) (HR = 2.65, logrank P = 3.9E-15) was all significantly associated with poor survival (P < 0.05). Further, ENO1 was upregulated (P = 0.0004) and calcyphosine (CAPS1) was downregulated (P = 5.34E-07) in TCGA LUAD RNA-seq expression data. IHC revealed that prominent ENO1 staining (OR = 7.5, P = 0.034) and low levels of CAPS1 (OR = 0.01, P < 0.0001) staining were associated with BM incidence. Finally, we found that LUAD patients with high expression of ENO1 and RPLP2 had worse overall survival. This is the first instance where the genes ENO1, RPLP2, NME1-NME2 and CAPS1 were associated with disease severity and progression in LUAD patients with BM. Thus, with this study, we have identified potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for this disease.

Martín-Lorenzo A, Auer F, Chan LN, et al.
Loss of Pax5 Exploits Sca1-BCR-ABL
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(10):2669-2679 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Preleukemic clones carrying

Handschuh L, Kaźmierczak M, Milewski MC, et al.
Gene expression profiling of acute myeloid leukemia samples from adult patients with AML-M1 and -M2 through boutique microarrays, real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(3):656-678 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common and severe form of acute leukemia diagnosed in adults. Owing to its heterogeneity, AML is divided into classes associated with different treatment outcomes and specific gene expression profiles. Based on previous studies on AML, in this study, we designed and generated an AML-array containing 900 oligonucleotide probes complementary to human genes implicated in hematopoietic cell differentiation and maturation, proliferation, apoptosis and leukemic transformation. The AML-array was used to hybridize 118 samples from 33 patients with AML of the M1 and M2 subtypes of the French-American‑British (FAB) classification and 15 healthy volunteers (HV). Rigorous analysis of the microarray data revealed that 83 genes were differentially expressed between the patients with AML and the HV, including genes not yet discussed in the context of AML pathogenesis. The most overexpressed genes in AML were STMN1, KITLG, CDK6, MCM5, KRAS, CEBPA, MYC, ANGPT1, SRGN, RPLP0, ENO1 and SET, whereas the most underexpressed genes were IFITM1, LTB, FCN1, BIRC3, LYZ, ADD3, S100A9, FCER1G, PTRPE, CD74 and TMSB4X. The overexpression of the CPA3 gene was specific for AML with mutated NPM1 and FLT3. Although the microarray-based method was insufficient to differentiate between any other AML subgroups, quantitative PCR approaches enabled us to identify 3 genes (ANXA3, S100A9 and WT1) whose expression can be used to discriminate between the 2 studied AML FAB subtypes. The expression levels of the ANXA3 and S100A9 genes were increased, whereas those of WT1 were decreased in the AML-M2 compared to the AML-M1 group. We also examined the association between the STMN1, CAT and ABL1 genes, and the FLT3 and NPM1 mutation status. FLT3+/NPM1- AML was associated with the highest expression of STMN1, and ABL1 was upregulated in FLT3+ AML and CAT in FLT3- AML, irrespectively of the NPM1 mutation status. Moreover, our results indicated that CAT and WT1 gene expression levels correlated with the response to therapy. CAT expression was highest in patients who remained longer under complete remission, whereas WT1 expression increased with treatment resistance. On the whole, this study demonstrates that the AML-array can potentially serve as a first-line screening tool, and may be helpful for the diagnosis of AML, whereas the differentiation between AML subgroups can be more successfully performed with PCR-based analysis of a few marker genes.

Das T, Prodhan C, Patsa S, et al.
Identification of over expressed proteins in oral submucous fibrosis by proteomic analysis.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(6):4361-4371 [PubMed] Related Publications
Early detection and identification of oral pre-malignancy or malignancy help in management of the disease and improve survival rates. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a major threat to public health worldwide and especially in Southeast Asian countries. Identification of biomarkers is a necessary step toward early diagnosis and treatment. In this study, differentially expressed proteins between oral submucous fibrotic tissue and normal control tissues were recorded by proteomic analysis using two dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. By proteomic analysis, 15 proteins were found to be upregulated and 10 proteins downregulated in the OSMF tissues than the control tissues; among these identified proteins, Hsp-70 1B, Calreticulin, and Lumican variant exhibited higher expression in OSMF tissues compared to the control tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed elevated expression of these in OSMF tissues. Further validation was done by real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis; gene expression of Hsp-70 1B, Calreticulin, and Lumican variant were significantly increased (6.2-, 3.3-, 2.8- fold, respectively), whereas Enolase 1 was decreased by 0.5 fold in the OSMF tissues, consistent with proteomic results. The expression of proteins indicates that various cellular signaling pathways must be involved in the processes of fibrosis and suggests that expressed protein molecules play an important role in the pathogenesis of OSMF. These identified proteins may be potentially used in future studies of OSMF enabling to determine diagnostic marker or therapeutic targets of this precancerous condition of oral cavity.

Zhao Q, Kun D, Hong B, et al.
Identification of Novel Proteins Interacting with Vascular Endothelial Growth Inhibitor 174 in Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(8):4379-4388 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) is a multipotential cytokine that plays a role in regulating immunity, anti-angiogenesis, and inhibiting tumor growth. However, the proteins that interact with it are still unknown. In the present study, we examined the proteins that interact with VEGI174 and their expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proteins that interact with VEGI174 were identified using western blot, pull-down assay, and mass spectrometry. The expressions of VEGI174 and the interacting proteins were examined in RCC and were compared to normal renal tissues using immunohistochemical staining and RNA-seq respectively.
RESULTS: The results of the mass spectrometric analysis showed that ACLY, ENO1, ZIK1, AKR1C3, and MYC may interact with VEGI174. When compared to the TCGA database, the expression level of VEGI174 in RCC was lower than that in normal kidney using RNAseq (p<0.001). The expression levels of ACLY, ENO1, ZIK1, AKR1C3 and MYC in RCC were higher than those in normal kidney (p<0.05, all of above factors). Moreover, immunochemical staining results also showed that the expression levels of AKR1C3 in RCC were significantly higher those that in normal kidney (p<0.001) and was also positively correlated with higher RCC stage and grade.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our findings showed that VEGI174 may interact with ACLY, ENO1, ZIK1, AKR1C3, and MYC. The expression of ACLY, ENO1, AKR1C3 and MYC is increased in RCC. AKR1C3 was a new factor that may correlate with the progression of RCC. The results indicated that VEGI174 has more functions than we currently know in the development and progression of RCC.

Zhao W, Mo Y, Wang S, et al.
Quantitation of DNA methylation in Epstein-Barr virus-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma by bisulfite amplicon sequencing.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):489 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, disrupt normal cell function, thus contributing to multiple steps of carcinogenesis. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic in southern China and is highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Significant changes of the host cell methylome are observed in EBV-associated NPC with cancer development. Epigenetic marks for NPC diagnosis are urgently needed. In order to explore DNA methylation marks, we investigated DNA methylation of candidate genes in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
METHODS: We first employed methyl-capture sequencing and cDNA microarrays to compare the genome-wide methylation profiles of seven NPC tissues and five non-cancer nasopharyngeal epithelium (NNE) tissues. We found 150 hypermethylated CpG islands spanning promoter regions and down-regulated genes. Furthermore, we quantified the methylation rates of seven candidate genes using bisulfite amplicon sequencing for nine NPC and nine NNE tissues.
RESULTS: All seven candidate genes showed significantly higher methylation rates in NPC than in NNE tissues, and the ratios (NPC/NNE) were in descending order as follows: ITGA4 > RERG > ZNF671 > SHISA3 > ZNF549 > CR2 > RRAD. In particular, methylation levels of ITGA4, RERG, and ZNF671 could distinguish NPC patients from NNE subjects.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified the DNA methylation rates of previously unidentified NPC candidate genes. The combination of genome-wide and targeted methylation profiling by next-generation sequencers should provide useful information regarding cancer-specific aberrant methylation.

Ni H, Jiang B, Zhou Z, et al.
Inactivation of MSH3 by promoter methylation correlates with primary tumor stage in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Int J Mol Med. 2017; 40(3):673-678 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate the inactivation of the MutS homolog human 3 (MSH3) gene by promoter methylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methylation‑specific PCR, semi‑quantitative reverse transcription PCR and immunohistochemical analysis were used to detect methylation and the mRNA and protein expression levels of MSH3 in 54 cases of NPC tissues and 16 cases of normal nasopharyngeal epithelial (NNE) tissues. The association between promoter methylation and mRNA expression, and the mRNA and protein expression of the gene and clinical factors was analyzed. The promoter methylation of MSH3 was detected in 50% (27/54) of the primary tumors, but not in the 16 NNE tissues. The mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly decreased in the 54 cases of human NPC as compared to the 16 NNE tissues (P<0.05). The MSH3‑methylated cases exhibited significantly lower mRNA and protein expression levels than the unmethylated cases (P<0.05). The MSH3 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly associated with the variable T stage (P<0.05); however, they did not correlate with the age and sex of the patients, or with the N stage, TNM classification or histopathological subtype (P>0.05). On the whole, MSH3 was frequently inactivated by promoter methylation and its mRNA and protein expression correlated with the primary tumor stage in NPC.

Qian X, Xu W, Xu J, et al.
Enolase 1 stimulates glycolysis to promote chemoresistance in gastric cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(29):47691-47708 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chemotherapy is the major choice for the cancer treatment of early and advanced stages. However, intrinsic or acquired drug resistance significantly restricts the clinical efficacy of chemotherapy. It is critical to develop novel approaches to detect and overcome drug resistance. In this study, we demonstrated that accelerated glycolysis played a pivotal role in both intrinsic and acquired cisplatin-resistance of gastric cancer cells. The metabolic reprogramming of cisplatin-resistant cells was characterized by increased glycolysis dependence. Inhibition of glycolysis with glucose starvation or 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) treatment significantly reversed drug resistance. By proteomic screening, we found the increased expression of the glycolytic enzyme Enolase 1 (ENO1) in cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cells. Depletion of ENO1 by siRNA significantly reduced glycolysis and reversed drug resistance. Moreover, the increased expression of ENO1 was attributed to the down-regulation of ENO1-targeting miR-22, rather than activated gene transcriptional or prolonged protein stability. Finally, the elevated levels of ENO1 proteins were associated with the shorter overall survival of gastric cancer patients. In conclusion, ENO1 is a novel biomarker to predict drug resistance and overall prognosis in gastric cancer. Targeting ENO1 by chemical inhibitors or up-regulating miR-22 could be valuable to overcome drug resistance.

Qing S, Tulake W, Ru M, et al.
Proteomic identification of potential biomarkers for cervical squamous cell carcinoma and human papillomavirus infection.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(4):1010428317697547 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is known that high-risk human papillomavirus infection is the main etiological factor in cervical carcinogenesis. However, human papillomavirus screening is not sufficient for early diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers common to cervical carcinoma and human papillomavirus infection by proteomics for human papillomavirus-based early diagnosis and prognosis. To this end, we collected 76 cases of fresh cervical tissues and 116 cases of paraffin-embedded tissue slices, diagnosed as cervical squamous cell carcinoma, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II-III, or normal cervix from ethnic Uighur and Han women. Human papillomavirus infection by eight oncogenic human papillomavirus types was detected in tissue DNA samples using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The protein profile of cervical specimens from human papillomavirus 16-positive squamous cell carcinoma and human papillomavirus-negative normal controls was analyzed by proteomics and bioinformatics. The expression of candidate proteins was further determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. We identified 67 proteins that were differentially expressed in human papillomavirus 16-positive squamous cell carcinoma compared to normal cervix. The quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis verified the upregulation of ASAH1, PCBP2, DDX5, MCM5, TAGLN2, hnRNPA1, ENO1, TYPH, CYC, and MCM4 in squamous cell carcinoma compared to normal cervix ( p < 0.05). In addition, the transcription of PCBP2, MCM5, hnRNPA1, TYPH, and CYC was also significantly increased in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II-III compared to normal cervix. Immunohistochemistry staining further confirmed the overexpression of PCBP2, hnRNPA1, ASAH1, and DDX5 in squamous cell carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II-III compared to normal controls ( p < 0.05). Our data suggest that the expression of ASAH1, PCBP2, DDX5, and hnRNPA1, and possibly MCM4, MCM5, CYC, ENO1, and TYPH, is upregulated during cervical carcinogenesis and potentially associated with human papillomavirus infection. Further validation studies of the profile will contribute to establishing auxiliary diagnostic markers for human papillomavirus-based cancer prognosis.

Chen X, Xu H, Wu N, et al.
Interaction between granulin A and enolase 1 attenuates the migration and invasion of human hepatoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(18):30305-30316 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Granulin A (GRN A), a peptide with a molecular 6 kDa, is derived from proteolysis of progranulin (PGRN). Previous study in our laboratory has shown that GRN A is able to inhibit cancer cell growth significantly. In the present study, we confirmed that GRN A can bind to α-enolase (ENO1) specifically as analyzed using Pull-down/MS approaches. The interaction of GRN A with ENO1 was further confirmed by Western blotting and Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. Treatment of human HepG-2 cells with GRN A inhibited cancer cell growth as well as migration and invasion of cancer cells as analyzed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) and Scratch wound healing assay as well as Transwell experiments. Additionally, GRN A treatment results in augmentation of glucose uptake in cancer cells. Further study reveals that higher expression of ENO1 reversed the inhibitory effects of GRN A on migration and invasion of HepG-2 cells. The increase of glucose uptake, as well as the expression of apoptosis-related genes, is also reversed in cells overexpressing ENO1. The study provides solid evidence that there is the interaction between GRN A and ENO1 and the interaction is responsible for the effects of GRN A on glucose uptake as well as cancer cell migration and invasion.

Gu Z, Xia J, Xu H, et al.
NEK2 Promotes Aerobic Glycolysis in Multiple Myeloma Through Regulating Splicing of Pyruvate Kinase.
J Hematol Oncol. 2017; 10(1):17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aerobic glycolysis, a hallmark of cancer, is characterized by increased metabolism of glucose and production of lactate in normaxia. Recently, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been identified as a key player for regulating aerobic glycolysis and promoting tumor cell proliferation and survival.
METHODS: Tandem affinity purification followed up by mass spectrometry (TAP-MS) and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) were used to study the interaction between NIMA (never in mitosis gene A)-related kinase 2 (NEK2) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) A1/2. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) was performed to identify NEK2 binding to PKM pre-mRNA sequence. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR was performed to analyze a transcriptional regulation of NEK2 by c-Myc. Western blot and real-time PCR were executed to analyze the regulation of PKM2 by NEK2.
RESULTS: NEK2 regulates the alternative splicing of PKM immature RNA in multiple myeloma cells by interacting with hnRNPA1/2. RIP shows that NEK2 binds to the intronic sequence flanking exon 9 of PKM pre-mRNA. Knockdown of NEK2 decreases the ratio of PKM2/PKM1 and also other aerobic glycolysis genes including GLUT4, HK2, ENO1, LDHA, and MCT4. Myeloma patients with high expression of NEK2 and PKM2 have lower event-free survival and overall survival. Our data indicate that NEK2 is transcriptionally regulated by c-Myc in myeloma cells. Ectopic expression of NEK2 partially rescues growth inhibition and cell death induced by silenced c-Myc.
CONCLUSIONS: Our studies demonstrate that NEK2 promotes aerobic glycolysis through regulating splicing of PKM and increasing the PKM2/PKM1 ratio in myeloma cells which contributes to its oncogenic activity.

Principe M, Borgoni S, Cascione M, et al.
Alpha-enolase (ENO1) controls alpha v/beta 3 integrin expression and regulates pancreatic cancer adhesion, invasion, and metastasis.
J Hematol Oncol. 2017; 10(1):16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells, the glycolytic enzyme alpha-enolase (ENO1) also acts as a plasminogen receptor and promotes invasion and metastasis formation. Moreover, ENO1 silencing in PDA cells induces oxidative stress, senescence and profoundly modifies PDA cell metabolism. Although anti-ENO1 antibody inhibits PDA cell migration and invasion, little is known about the role of ENO1 in regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts. We therefore investigated the effect of ENO1 silencing on the modulation of cell morphology, adhesion to matrix substrates, cell invasiveness, and metastatic ability.
METHODS: The membrane and cytoskeleton modifications that occurred in ENO1-silenced (shENO1) PDA cells were investigated by a combination of confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of ENO1 silencing was then evaluated by phenotypic and functional experiments to identify the role of ENO1 in adhesion, migration, and invasion, as well as in senescence and apoptosis. The experimental results were then validated in a mouse model.
RESULTS: We observed a significant increase in the roughness of the cell membrane due to ENO1 silencing, a feature associated with an impaired ability to migrate and invade, along with a significant downregulation of proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, including alpha v/beta 3 integrin in shENO1 PDA cells. These changes impaired the ability of shENO1 cells to adhere to Collagen I and IV and Fibronectin and caused an increase in RGD-independent adhesion to vitronectin (VN) via urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Binding of uPAR to VN triggers integrin-mediated signals, which result in ERK1-2 and RAC activation, accumulation of ROS, and senescence. In shENO1 cancer cells, the use of an anti-uPAR antibody caused significant reduction of ROS production and senescence. Overall, a decrease of in vitro and in vivo cell migration and invasion of shENO1 PDA cells was observed.
CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that ENO1 promotes PDA survival, migration, and metastasis through cooperation with integrins and uPAR.

Zhan P, Zhao S, Yan H, et al.
α-enolase promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis via regulating AMPK/mTOR pathway in colorectal cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(5):1427-1437 [PubMed] Related Publications
The α-enolase (ENO1) plays pivotal roles in several types of cancer, but its clinical significance, functional role, and possible mechanism in colorectal cancer (CRC) have remained unclear. Expression level of ENO1 in CRC tissues was examined by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The effects of ENO1 on cell growth were investigated by MTT, colony formation, flow cytometry assays, and in vivo tumorigenic capacity analysis. The impacts of ENO1 on cell migration and invasion were also explored by scratch-healing, Transwell or Matrigel chamber assays, and in vivo metastatic capacity analysis. Our results showed that the expression level of ENO1 was significantly elevated in CRC tissues. High expression level of ENO1 was associated with disease progression in CRC patients. Overexpression of ENO1 in HCT116 cell line promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro as well as tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. In other hand, ablation of ENO1 in HCT116 cells led to totally reverse effects. Mechanistically, we revealed ENO1 could regulate AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. AMPK pathway activation or mTOR pathway suppression blocked these ENO1 induced alterations. Together, our results demonstrated that ENO1 is a potent promoter of CRC genesis and metastasis at least in part though regulating AMPK/mTOR pathway. These findings also suggested that ENO1 may be a promising therapeutic target in CRC patients.

Liu D, Chang C, Lu N, et al.
Comprehensive Proteomics Analysis Reveals Metabolic Reprogramming of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Stimulated by the Tumor Microenvironment.
J Proteome Res. 2017; 16(1):288-297 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are major components of the tumor microenvironment. Although a role for TAMs in promoting tumor progression has been revealed, the differentiation mechanisms and intrinsic signals of TAMs regulated by the tumor microenvironment remain unclear. Here we constructed an in vitro TAMs cell model, TES-TAMs, which is from tumor-extract-stimulated bone-marrow-derived macrophages. We performed a comparative proteomics analysis of bone-marrow-derived macrophages and TES-TAMs, which indicated that TES-TAMs possessed characteristic molecular expression of TAMs. Intriguingly, the signal pathways enriched in up-regulated differentially expressed proteins of TAMs demonstrated that glycolysis metabolism reprogramming may play an important role in TAM differentiation. We found that hexokinase-2, a key mediator of aerobic glycolysis, and the downstream proteins PFKL and ENO1 were remarkably increased in both TES-TAMs and primary TAMs from our MMTV-PyMT mice model. This phenomenon was then verified in human THP-1 cell lines stimulated by tumor extract solution from breast cancer patient. Taken together, our study provides insight into the induction of TAM differentiation by the tumor microenvironment through metabolic reprogramming.

Riffo-Campos ÁL, Castillo J, Vallet-Sánchez A, et al.
In silico RNA-seq and experimental analyses reveal the differential expression and splicing of EPDR1 and ZNF518B genes in relation to KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(6):3627-3634 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several drugs used for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) are targeted at the epidermal growth factor receptor, but mutations in genes of the RAS family cause resistance to these drugs. Thus, extensive research is being carried out to counterbalance this resistance. The G13D mutation of KRAS is common in humans, and we previously reported that this mutation results in the epigenetic modification of hnRNP proteins, involved in RNA splicing. As aberrant splicing often results in oncogenicity, the present study aimed to identify the genes which show altered splicing patterns in connection with the G13D KRAS mutation. To accomplish this, we first carried out an in silico analysis of RNA-seq databases and found that the distribution of alternative splicing isoforms of genes RPL13, HSP90B1, ENO1, EPDR1 and ZNF518B was altered in human CRC cell lines carrying the G13D KRAS mutation when compared to cell lines carrying wild-type KRAS. The in silico results were experimentally validated by quantitative real‑time PCR. Expression of the genes EPDR1 and ZNF518B was negligible in the Caco2, RKO and SW48 cell lines, which possess wild-type KRAS, while the HCT116, DLD1 and D-Mut1 cell lines, harbouring the G13D mutation, expressed these genes. Moreover, in both genes, the ratio of isoforms was significantly different between the parental DLD1 (+/G13D) and D-Mut1 cells, in which the wild-type allele had been knocked out. DWT7m cells also expressed both genes. These cells, derived from DLD1, have spontaneously acquired a G12D mutation in their single KRAS allele in 20% of the population. The present data suggest a relationship between KRAS mutations, particularly G13D, and the expression of the EPDR1 and ZNF518B genes and expression of their isoforms and provide enhanced understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance of CRC cells to anti‑EGF receptor therapies.

Lee SY, Jin CC, Choi JE, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in glycolytic pathway are associated with the prognosis of patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:35603 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study was conducted to investigate whether polymorphisms of genes involved in glycolysis are associated with the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical resection. Forty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 17 genes in glycolytic pathway were investigated in a total of 782 patients with NSCLC who underwent curative surgical resection. The association of the SNPs with overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) were analyzed. Among the 44 SNPs investigated, four SNPs (ENO1 rs2274971A > G, PFKM rs11168417C > T, PFKP rs1132173C > T, PDK2 rs3785921G > A) were significantly associated with survival outcomes in multivariate analyses. When stratified by tumor histology, three SNPs (ENO1 rs2274971A > G, PFKM rs11168417C > T, and PDK2 rs3785921G > A) were significantly associated with OS and/or DFS only in squamous cell carcinoma, whereas PFKP rs1132173C > T exhibited a significant association with survival outcomes only in adenocarcinoma. When the four SNPs were combined, OS and DFS decreased as the number of bad genotypes increased (Ptrend = 8 × 10

Applebaum MA, Jha AR, Kao C, et al.
Integrative genomics reveals hypoxia inducible genes that are associated with a poor prognosis in neuroblastoma patients.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(47):76816-76826 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is notable for its broad spectrum of clinical behavior ranging from spontaneous regression to rapidly progressive disease. Hypoxia is well known to confer a more aggressive phenotype in neuroblastoma. We analyzed transcriptome data from diagnostic neuroblastoma tumors and hypoxic neuroblastoma cell lines to identify genes whose expression levels correlate with poor patient outcome and are involved in the hypoxia response. By integrating a diverse set of transcriptome datasets, including those from neuroblastoma patients and neuroblastoma derived cell lines, we identified nine genes (SLCO4A1, ENO1, HK2, PGK1, MTFP1, HILPDA, VKORC1, TPI1, and HIST1H1C) that are up-regulated in hypoxia and whose expression levels are correlated with poor patient outcome in three independent neuroblastoma cohorts. Analysis of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and ENCODE data indicate that at least five of these nine genes have an increase in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and a more open chromatin structure in hypoxia versus normoxia and are putative targets of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) as they contain HIF binding sites in their regulatory regions. Four of these genes are key components of the glycolytic pathway and another three are directly involved in cellular metabolism. We experimentally validated our computational findings demonstrating that seven of the nine genes are significantly up-regulated in response to hypoxia in the four neuroblastoma cell lines tested. This compact and robustly validated group of genes, is associated with the hypoxia response in aggressive neuroblastoma and may represent a novel target for biomarker and therapeutic development.

Greening DW, Ji H, Chen M, et al.
Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:32643 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets.

Harami-Papp H, Pongor LS, Munkácsy G, et al.
TP53 mutation hits energy metabolism and increases glycolysis in breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(41):67183-67195 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Promising new hallmarks of cancer is alteration of energy metabolism that involves molecular mechanisms shifting cancer cells to aerobe glycolysis. Our goal was to evaluate the correlation between mutation in the commonly mutated tumor suppressor gene TP53 and metabolism. We established a database comprising mutation and RNA-seq expression data of the TCGA repository and performed receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to compare expression of each gene between TP53 mutated and wild type samples. All together 762 breast cancer samples were evaluated of which 215 had TP53 mutation. Top up-regulated metabolic genes include glycolytic enzymes (e.g. HK3, GPI, GAPDH, PGK1, ENO1), glycolysis regulator (PDK1) and pentose phosphate pathway enzymes (PGD, TKT, RPIA). Gluconeogenesis enzymes (G6PC3, FBP1) were down-regulated. Oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rates were measured in TP53 wild type and mutant breast cell lines with a microfluorimetric analyzer. Applying metabolic inhibitors in the presence and absence of D-glucose and L-glutamine in cell culture experiments resulted in higher glycolytic and mitochondrial activity in TP53 mutant breast cancer cell lines. In summary, TP53 mutation influences energy metabolism at multiple levels. Our results provide evidence for the synergistic activation of multiple hallmarks linking to these the mutation status of a key driver gene.

Valcz G, Galamb O, Krenács T, et al.
Exosomes in colorectal carcinoma formation: ALIX under the magnifying glass.
Mod Pathol. 2016; 29(8):928-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that have important roles in transporting a great variety of bioactive molecules between epithelial compartment and their microenvironment during tumor formation including colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. We tested the mRNA expression of the top 25 exosome-related markers based on ExoCharta database in healthy (n=49), adenoma (n=49) and colorectal carcinoma (n=49) patients using Affymetrix HGU133 Plus2.0 microarrays. Most related genes showed significantly elevated expression including PGK1, PKM, ANXA5, ENO1, HSP90AB1 and MSN during adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Surprisingly, the expression of ALIX (ALG 2-interacting protein X), involved in multivesicular body (MVB) and exosome formation, was significantly reduced in normal vs adenoma (P=5.02 × 10(-13)) and in normal vs colorectal carcinoma comparisons (P=1.51 × 10(-10)). ALIX also showed significant reduction (P<0.05) at the in situ protein level in the epithelial compartment of adenoma (n=35) and colorectal carcinoma (n=37) patients compared with 27 healthy individuals. Furthermore, significantly reduced ALIX protein levels were accompanied by their gradual transition from diffuse cytoplasmic expression to granular signals, which fell into the 0.6-2 μm diameter size range of MVBs. These ALIX-positive particles were seen in the tumor nests, including tumor-stroma border, which suggest their exosome function. MVB-like structures were also detected in tumor microenvironment including α-smooth muscle actin-positive stromal cells, budding off cancer cells in the tumor front as well as in cancer cells entrapped within lymphoid vessels. In conclusion, we determined the top aberrantly expressed exosome-associated markers and revealed the transition of diffuse ALIX protein signals into a MVB-like pattern during adenoma-carcinoma sequence. These tumor-associated particles seen both in the carcinoma and the surrounding microenvironment can potentially mediate epithelial-stromal interactions involved in the regulation of tumor growth, metastatic invasion and therapy response.

Bartosch C, Monteiro-Reis S, Almeida-Rios D, et al.
Assessing sirtuin expression in endometrial carcinoma and non-neoplastic endometrium.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(2):1144-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sirtuins participate in hormone imbalance, metabolism and aging, which are important processes for endometrial cancer (EC) development. Sirtuins mRNA expression (SIRT1 to 7) was determined in 76 ECs (63 Type I, 12 Type II and one mixed EC), and 30 non-neoplastic endometria (NNE) by quantitative real-time PCR. SIRT1 and SIRT7 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using Allred score. Compared to NNE, ECs showed SIRT7 (p < 0.001) mRNA overexpression, whereas SIRT1 (p < 0.001), SIRT2 (p < 0.001), SIRT4 (p < 0.001) and SIRT5 (p < 0.001) were underexpressed. No significant differences were observed for SIRT3 and SIRT6. Type II ECs displayed lower SIRT1 (p = 0.032) and SIRT3 (p = 0.016) transcript levels than Type I ECs. Concerning protein expression, SIRT1 immunostaining median score was higher in ECs compared to NNE epithelium (EC = 5 vs. NNE = 2, p < 0.001), while SIRT7 was lower in ECs (EC = 6 vs. NNE = 7, p < 0.001). No significant associations were found between SIRT1/7 immunoexpression and histological subtype, grade, lymphovascular invasion or stage. Our data shows that sirtuins are deregulated in EC. The diversity of expression patterns observed suggests that sirtuins may have distinctive roles in endometrial cancer similarly to what has been described in other cancer models.

Isgrò MA, Bottoni P, Scatena R
Neuron-Specific Enolase as a Biomarker: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015; 867:125-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is known to be a cell specific isoenzyme of the glycolytic enzyme enolase. In vertebrate organisms three isozymes of enolase, expressed by different genes, are present: enolase α is ubiquitous; enolase β is muscle-specific and enolase γ is neuron-specific. The expression of NSE, which occurs as γγ- and αγ-dimer, is a late event in neural differentiation, thus making it a useful index of neural maturation.NSE is a highly specific marker for neurons and peripheral neuroendocrine cells. As a result of the findings of NSE in specific tissues under normal conditions, increased body fluids levels of NSE may occur with malignant proliferation and thus can be of value in diagnosis, staging and treatment of related neuroendocrine tumours (NETs).NSE is currently the most reliable tumour marker in diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), even though increased levels of NSE have been reported also in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of NSE correlates with tumour burden, number of metastatic sites and response to treatment.NSE can be also useful at diagnosis of NETs and gastroenteropancreatic (GEP)-NETs.Raised serum levels of NSE have been found in all stages of neuroblastoma, although the incidence of increased concentration is greater in widespread and metastatic disease. Moreover, NSE determination in cord blood offers an early postnatal possibility of confirming the diagnosis of neuroblastoma in newborns.NSE has been demonstrated to provide quantitative measures of brain damage and/or to improve the diagnosis and the outcome evaluation in ischaemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, seizures, comatose patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation for cardiac arrest and traumatic brain injury.Increased NSE serum levels have also been found associated with melanoma, seminoma, renal cell carcinoma, Merkel cell tumour, carcinoid tumours, dysgerminomas and immature teratomas, malignant phaechromocytoma, Guillain-Barré syndrome and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

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