Gene Summary

Gene:ENO1; enolase 1, (alpha)
Aliases: NNE, PPH, MPB1, ENO1L1
Summary:This gene encodes alpha-enolase, one of three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. Each isoenzyme is a homodimer composed of 2 alpha, 2 gamma, or 2 beta subunits, and functions as a glycolytic enzyme. Alpha-enolase in addition, functions as a structural lens protein (tau-crystallin) in the monomeric form. Alternative splicing of this gene results in a shorter isoform that has been shown to bind to the c-myc promoter and function as a tumor suppressor. Several pseudogenes have been identified, including one on the long arm of chromosome 1. Alpha-enolase has also been identified as an autoantigen in Hashimoto encephalopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:alpha-enolase; c-myc promoter-binding protein-1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ENO1 (cancer-related)

El-Mallawany NK, Day N, Ayello J, et al.
Differential proteomic analysis of endemic and sporadic Epstein-Barr virus-positive and negative Burkitt lymphoma.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(1):92-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children worldwide and the most common paediatric malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa. The endemic (eBL) and sporadic (sBL) variants have distinct epidemiologic and virologic characteristics. Although gene expression studies have defined the transcriptional profiles of both, their proteomic signatures have not been studied.
METHODS: We compared the proteomic expression profiles using differential mass spectrometry-based isotope tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis of a cell line representing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ eBL, EBV+ and EBV- sBL, and EBV+/- normal B cells from healthy donors.
RESULTS: In total, there were 144 differentially expressed proteins with a statistically significant false discovery rate (FDR) of ⩽0.2. Results revealed over-expression of specific proteins with well-established links to lymphomagenesis such as TUBB2C (FDR 0.05), UCHL1 (FDR 0.05) and HSP90AB1 (FDR 0.1). Distinct characteristics based upon the epidemiologic and virologic subtypes of BL were also identified. In sBL, PCNA (FDR 0.05) and SLC3A2 (FDR 0.1) were significantly over-expressed. In eBL, C1QBP (FDR 0.1) and ENO1 (FDR 0.25) were significantly over-expressed. Comparison of EBV+ to EBV- BL cell lines and B cells revealed significant over-expression of DDX3X (FDR 0.1). Proteins were validated using Western blot analysis.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest unique signal transduction pathways associated with EBV infection and epidemiological subtype of BL that may contribute to lymphomagenesis. These proteomic findings provide potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic links to BL.

Yu L, Shen J, Mannoor K, et al.
Identification of ENO1 as a potential sputum biomarker for early-stage lung cancer by shotgun proteomics.
Clin Lung Cancer. 2014; 15(5):372-8.e1 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cancer killer. Early detection will reduce the related deaths. The objective of this study was to identify potential biomarkers for early-stage lung cancer in sputum supernatant.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using shotgun proteomics, we detected changes in protein profiles that were associated with lung cancer by analyzing sputum supernatants from 6 patients with early-stage lung cancer and 5 cancer-free controls. Using western blotting, we validated the proteomic results in 22 lung cancer cases and 22 controls. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we evaluated the diagnostic performance of the biomarker candidates in an independent set of 35 cases and 36 controls.
RESULTS: Proteomics identified 8 biomarker candidates for lung cancer. Western blotting validation of the candidates showed that enolase 1 (ENO1) displayed a higher expression level in patients with cancer than in cancer-free individuals (P = .015). ELISA revealed that the assessment of ENO1 expression in sputum supernatant had 58.33% sensitivity and 80.00% specificity in distinguishing patients with stage I lung cancer from cancer-free individuals.
CONCLUSION: The analysis of protein biomarkers in sputum may provide a potential approach for the early detection of lung cancer. Future validation of all the candidates defined by shotgun proteomics in a large cohort study may help develop additional biomarkers that can be added to ENO1 to provide more diagnostic efficacy for lung cancer.

Chen K, Zhu C, Cai M, et al.
Integrative metabolome and transcriptome profiling reveals discordant glycolysis process between osteosarcoma and normal osteoblastic cells.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(10):1715-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone in children and adolescents. However, few biomarkers of diagnostic significance have been established. In recent years, high-throughput transcriptomic and metabolomic approaches make it possible for studying the levels of thousands of biomarkers simultaneously.
METHODS: In this study, we integrated two disparate transcriptomic and metabolomic datasets to find meaningful biomarkers and then used an independent dataset to test the sensibility and specificity of these biomarkers.
RESULTS: By using integrated two datasets, we discovered that the biomarkers involved in the glycolysis pathway are highly enriched, including 4 genes (ENO1, TPI1, PKG1 and LDHC) and 2 metabolites (lactate and pyruvate). The 4 genes were significantly down-regulated in OS samples as well as the 2 metabolites. The mixed metabolites + genes signature also outperformed metabolites or genes alone, with recall being 0.813 and F-measure being 0.812. And the AUC value of metabolites + genes classifier was 0.825 (compared to 0.58 for metabolites and 0.821 for genes alone).
CONCLUSION: Our findings establish that integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic signature can be used to distinguish OS malignant with good diagnostic accuracy superior to other methods.

Chen S, Duan G, Zhang R, Fan Q
Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A protein upregulates α-enolase expression via Src/MEK/ERK pathway: implication for progression of gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(2):764-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori confers an increased risk for the development of gastric cancer. In our previous investigations, we found that ENO1 was overexpression in cagA-positive H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial AGS cells by proteomic method, in contrast to the isogenic cagA knock out mutant H. pylori-infected cells. ENO1 is a newly identified oncoprotein overexpressed in some cancer. However, the relationship between H. pylori infection and ENO1 expression still remains undefined. The AGS gastric cancer cells were transfected with WT-cagA plasmid and PR-cagA plasmids. Expression of ENO1 mRNA and protein were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. Signal protein inhibitor treatment was used to investigate the signal pathways. It was found that the ENO1 mRNA and protein overexpression levels were dependent on cagA gene expression and CagA protein phosphorylation. Further analysis revealed that the Src, MEK and ERK pathway was involved in this upregulation effect. Our data suggest that ENO1 was upregulated by CagA protein through activating the Src and MEK/ERK signal pathways, thereby providing a novel mechanism underlying H. pylori-mediated gastric diseases.

Reece KM, Richardson ED, Cook KM, et al.
Epidithiodiketopiperazines (ETPs) exhibit in vitro antiangiogenic and in vivo antitumor activity by disrupting the HIF-1α/p300 complex in a preclinical model of prostate cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
The downstream targets of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) play an important role in tumor progression and angiogenesis. Therefore, inhibition of HIF-mediated transcription has potential in the treatment of cancer. One attractive strategy for inhibiting HIF activity is the disruption of the HIF-1α/p300 complex, as p300 is a crucial coactivator of hypoxia-inducible transcription. Several members of the epidithiodiketopiperazine (ETP) family of natural products have been shown to disrupt the HIF-1α/p300 complex in vitro; namely, gliotoxin, chaetocin, and chetomin. Here, we further characterized the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiangiogenic and antitumor effects of these ETPs using a preclinical model of prostate cancer. In the rat aortic ring angiogenesis assay, gliotoxin, chaetocin, and chetomin significantly inhibited microvessel outgrowth at a GI50 of 151, 8, and 20 nM, respectively. In vitro co-immunoprecipitation studies in prostate cancer cell extracts demonstrated that these compounds disrupted the HIF-1α/p300 complex. The downstream effects of inhibiting the HIF-1α/p300 interaction were evaluated by determining HIF-1α target gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Dose-dependent decreases in levels of secreted VEGF were detected by ELISA in the culture media of treated cells, and the subsequent downregulation of VEGFA, LDHA, and ENO1 HIF-1α target genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, treatment with ETPs in mice bearing prostate tumor xenografts resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth. These results suggest that directly targeting the HIF-1α/p300 complex with ETPs may be an effective approach for inhibiting angiogenesis and tumor growth.

Chen S, Cai J, Zhang W, et al.
Proteomic identification of differentially expressed proteins associated with the multiple drug resistance in methotrexate-resistant human breast cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(1):448-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Methotrexate (MTX), as a chemotherapeutic drug, is widely used in the therapy of several cancer types. The efficiency of drug treatment is compromised by the appearance of multidrug resistance (MDR), and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We investigated the mechanism of MDR in the MTX-induced breast cancer MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/MTX) using proteomic analysis. MCF-7 drug-sensitive cells (MCF-7/S) were exposed in progressively increasing concentrations of MTX to establish the drug-resistant cell line MCF-7/MTX. The biological characteristics of the cells were analyzed by MTT, flow cytometry, quantitative PCR, western blotting and the global protein profiles of MCF-7/MTX and MCF-7/S were compared using a proteomic approach. The resistance factor of MCF-7/MTX cells was 64, and it possessed significant MDR. Seventeen differentially expressed proteins between MCF-7/MTX and MCF-7/S cells were identified, seven proteins were upregulated and 10 proteins were downregulated in MCF-7/MTX cells. We verified that the protein levels of nucleophosmin (NPM), α-enolase (ENO1) and vimentin (VIM) were upregulated, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP C1/C2), phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) and proteasome subunit α type-2 (PSMA2) were downregulated in MCF-7/MTX cells. The mRNA levels of NPM, VIM, hnRNP C1/C2, PGAM1 and PSMA2 were consistent with the protein expressions, but the gene expression of ENO1 was slightly downregulated. Surprisingly, knockdown of NPM by siRNA sensitized MCF-7/MTX cells to MTX and attenuated the multidrug resistance. The proteins identified, particularly NPM provides new insights into the mechanism of MDR and is expected to become a crucial molecular target for breast cancer treatment.

Zempleni J, Liu D, Camara DT, Cordonier EL
Novel roles of holocarboxylase synthetase in gene regulation and intermediary metabolism.
Nutr Rev. 2014; 72(6):369-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
The role of holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) in catalyzing the covalent binding of biotin to the five biotin-dependent carboxylases in humans is well established, as are the essential roles of these carboxylases in the metabolism of fatty acids, the catabolism of leucine, and gluconeogenesis. This review examines recent discoveries regarding the roles of HLCS in assembling a multiprotein gene repression complex in chromatin. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that the number of biotinylated proteins is far larger than previously assumed and includes members of the heat-shock superfamily of proteins and proteins coded by the ENO1 gene. Evidence is presented linking biotinylation of heat-shock proteins HSP60 and HSP72 with redox biology and immune function, respectively, and biotinylation of the two ENO1 gene products MBP-1 and ENO1 with tumor suppression and glycolysis, respectively.

Song Y, Luo Q, Long H, et al.
Alpha-enolase as a potential cancer prognostic marker promotes cell growth, migration, and invasion in glioma.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The success of using glycolytic inhibitors for cancer treatment relies on better understanding the roles of each frequently deregulated glycolytic genes in cancer. This report analyzed the involvement of a key glycolytic enzyme, alpha-enolase (ENO1), in tumor progression and prognosis of human glioma.
METHODS: ENO1 expression levels were examined in glioma tissues and normal brain (NB) tissues. The molecular mechanisms of ENO1 expression and its effects on cell growth, migration and invasion were also explored by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Transwell chamber assay, Boyden chamber assay, Western blot and in vivo tumorigenesis in nude mice.
RESULTS: ENO1 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in glioma tissues compared to NB. In addition, increased ENO1 was associated disease progression in glioma samples. Knocking down ENO1 expression not only significantly decreased cell proliferation, but also markedly inhibited cell migration and invasion as well as in vivo tumorigenesis. Mechanistic analyses revealed that Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, pRb, and NF-κB were downregulated after stable ENO1 knockdown in glioma U251 and U87 cells. Conversely, knockdown of ENO1 resulted in restoration of E-cadherin expression and suppression of mesenchymal cell markers, such as Vimentin, Snail, N-Cadherin, β-Catenin and Slug. Furthermore, ENO1 suppression inactivated PI3K/Akt pathway regulating the cell growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression.
CONCLUSION: Overexpression of ENO1 is associated with glioma progression. Knockdown of ENO1 expression led to suppressed cell growth, migration and invasion progression by inactivating the PI3K/Akt pathway in glioma cells.

White NM, Masui O, Desouza LV, et al.
Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals potential diagnostic markers and pathways involved in pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(2):506-18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
There are no serum biomarkers for the accurate diagnosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Diagnosis and decision of nephrectomy rely on imaging which is not always accurate. Non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers are urgently required. In this study, we preformed quantitative proteomics analysis on a total of 199 patients including 30 matched pairs of normal kidney and ccRCC using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis to identify differentially expressed proteins. We found 55 proteins significantly dysregulated in ccRCC compared to normal kidney tissue. 54 were previously reported to play a role in carcinogenesis, and 39 are secreted proteins. Dysregulation of alpha-enolase (ENO1), L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain (LDHA), heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1/Hsp27), and 10 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial (HSPE1) was confirmed in two independent sets of patients by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Pathway analysis, validated by PCR, showed glucose metabolism is altered in ccRCC compared to normal kidney tissue. In addition, we examined the utility of Hsp27 as biomarker in serum and urine. In ccRCC patients, Hsp27 was elevated in the urine and serum and high serum Hsp27 was associated with high grade (Grade 3-4) tumors. These data together identify potential diagnostic biomarkers for ccRCC and shed new light on the molecular mechanisms that are dysregulated and contribute to the pathogenesis of ccRCC. Hsp27 is a promising diagnostic marker for ccRCC although further large-scale studies are required. Also, molecular profiling may help pave the road to the discovery of new therapies.

Fischer-Fodor E, Vălean AM, Virag P, et al.
Gallium phosphinoarylbisthiolato complexes counteract drug resistance of cancer cells.
Metallomics. 2014; 6(4):833-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
In cancer therapy the platinum-based drugs are used frequently with a good clinical outcome, but besides unwanted side effects which occur, the tumour cells subjected to treatment are prone to develop tolerance or even multidrug resistance (MDR). Metal compounds with a central atom other than platinum are efficient in targeting the chemoresistant cells, therefore the biological outcome of two recently synthesized gallium phosphinoarylbisthiolato complexes was studied, having the formula [X][Ga{PPh(2-SC6H4)2-κ(3)S,S',P}{PPh(2-SC6H4)2-κ(2)S,S'}] where [X] is either the NEt3H (1) or PPh4 (2) cation. Compounds 1 and 2 display in vitro cytotoxicity against both platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant cell lines (A2780 and A2780cis). Morphological and ultrastructural evidence points toward their capacity to impair tumour cells survival. This behaviour is based on malignant cells capacity to selectively intake gallium, and to bind to the cellular DNA. They are able to cause massive DNA damage in treated cancer cells, focusing on 7-methylguanine and 8-oxoguanine sites and oxidizing the pyrimidine bases; this leads to early apoptosis of a significant percent of treated cells. The intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways are influenced through the modulation of gene expression following the treatment with complexes 1 and 2, which accompanies the negative regulation of P-glycoprotein 1 (Pgp-1), an important cellular ABC-type transporter from the multidrug resistance (MDR) family. The studied Ga(III) compounds demonstrated the capacity to counteract the chemoresistance mechanisms in the tumours defiant to standard drug action. Compound 2 shows a good anticancer potential and it could represent an alternative to platinum-based drugs especially in the situation of standard treatment failure.

Cui Y, Xie S, Luan J, et al.
Quantitative proteomics and protein network analysis of A549 lung cancer cells affected by miR-206.
Biosci Trends. 2013; 7(6):259-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
MiR-206 acts as a potential tumor suppressor during carcinogenesis and a regulatory factor in osteoblasts differentiation, but its modulatory mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we used a quantitative proteomics method, difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE), to profile the protein variation in A549 lung cancer cells with and without miR- 206 transfection. We identified a total of 17 differently expressed proteins including 5 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated proteins affected by miR-206 in A549 cells. We further constructed a protein network linked 17 differently expressed proteins with 106 computationally predicted miR-206 targets, and identified 8 "hub" genes (CALR, CTSD, ENO1, HSPA5, CDC42, HSPD1, POLA1, and SMARCA4) within the network, which may represent important miR-206 functional gene targets. In conclusion, in this study, we identified several candidate functional target genes for miR-206, which is helpful to further explore its mechanisms during carcinogenesis and osteogenesis, and we also proposed a novel proteomic strategy to identify functionally important gene targets for microRNA.

Pernemalm M, De Petris L, Branca RM, et al.
Quantitative proteomics profiling of primary lung adenocarcinoma tumors reveals functional perturbations in tumor metabolism.
J Proteome Res. 2013; 12(9):3934-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we have analyzed human primary lung adenocarcinoma tumors using global mass spectrometry to elucidate the biological mechanisms behind relapse post surgery. In total, we identified over 3000 proteins with high confidence. Supervised multivariate analysis was used to select 132 proteins separating the prognostic groups. Based on in-depth bioinformatics analysis, we hypothesized that the tumors with poor prognosis had a higher glycolytic activity and HIF activation. By measuring the bioenergetic cellular index of the tumors, we could detect a higher dependency of glycolysis among the tumors with poor prognosis. Further, we could also detect an up-regulation of HIF1α mRNA expression in tumors with early relapse. Finally, we selected three proteins that were upregulated in the poor prognosis group (cathepsin D, ENO1, and VDAC1) to confirm that the proteins indeed originated from the tumor and not from a stromal or inflammatory component. Overall, these findings show how in-depth analysis of clinical material can lead to an increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind tumor progression.

Liu Z, Chen C, Yang H, et al.
Proteomic features of potential tumor suppressor NESG1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Proteomics. 2012; 12(22):3416-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously defined the recently revised NESG1 gene as a potential tumor suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, we further used proteomics technology to globally examine NESG1-controlled proteins in NPC cells. Twenty-six proteins were found to be deregulated by NESG1 using proteomics analysis while enolase 1 (alpha) (ENO1), heat shock protein 90 kDa beta (Grp94), member 1 (HSP90B1), and cathepsin D (CTSD) proteins were differentially expressed by Western blot. Interestingly, a-enolase (ENO1), an overexpressed gene in NPC, was confirmed as a NESG1-regulated protein in NPC cells. Overexpressed ENO1 not only restored cell proliferation and cell-cycle progression, but also antagonized the regulation of NESG1 to cell-cycle regulators p21 and CCNA1 expression as well as induced the expression of C-Myc, pRB, and E2F1 in NESG1-ovexpressed NPC cells. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that NESG1 expression is negatively correlated with ENO1 expression in NPC tissues. Our observations suggest that ENO1 downregulation plays an important role in NESG1-induced growth inhibition of NPC cancer cells.

Muller FL, Colla S, Aquilanti E, et al.
Passenger deletions generate therapeutic vulnerabilities in cancer.
Nature. 2012; 488(7411):337-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Inactivation of tumour-suppressor genes by homozygous deletion is a prototypic event in the cancer genome, yet such deletions often encompass neighbouring genes. We propose that homozygous deletions in such passenger genes can expose cancer-specific therapeutic vulnerabilities when the collaterally deleted gene is a member of a functionally redundant family of genes carrying out an essential function. The glycolytic gene enolase 1 (ENO1) in the 1p36 locus is deleted in glioblastoma (GBM), which is tolerated by the expression of ENO2. Here we show that short-hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing of ENO2 selectively inhibits growth, survival and the tumorigenic potential of ENO1-deleted GBM cells, and that the enolase inhibitor phosphonoacetohydroxamate is selectively toxic to ENO1-deleted GBM cells relative to ENO1-intact GBM cells or normal astrocytes. The principle of collateral vulnerability should be applicable to other passenger-deleted genes encoding functionally redundant essential activities and provide an effective treatment strategy for cancers containing such genomic events.

Linge A, Kennedy S, O'Flynn D, et al.
Differential expression of fourteen proteins between uveal melanoma from patients who subsequently developed distant metastases versus those who did Not.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012; 53(8):4634-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To compare the proteomic profiles of two categories of primary uveal melanoma tissue samples; those from patients who have subsequently developed metastatic disease and those who have not.
METHODS: Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) was performed on 25 uveal melanoma tissue specimens (minimum follow-up of 7 years) comparing nine uveal melanoma tumors from patients who developed metastatic disease and 16 from those who did not. Most of the tumors which metastasized also exhibited chromosome 3 monosomy. Selected differentially expressed proteins were further followed up by immunohistochemistry and functional validation in vitro using siRNA.
RESULTS: Proteomic analysis revealed 14 statistically significant differentially expressed proteins, with nine showing increased expression (PDIA3, VIM/HEXA, SELENBP1, ENO1, CAPZA1, ERP29, TPI1, PARK7, and FABP3) and five showing decreased expression (EIF2S, PSMA3, RPSA, TUBB, and TUBA1B) in uveal melanomas that subsequently metastasized compared with those that did not. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for six of the differentially expressed proteins and gave similar results to the 2D DIGE study for two of these proteins, fatty acid-binding protein, heart-type (FABP3) and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI1). siRNA knockdown in the 92.1 uveal melanoma cell line confirmed a functional role for FABP3 and TPI1 in invasion in vitro.
CONCLUSIONS: Proteomic analysis identified proteins differentially expressed in uveal melanoma that will subsequently metastasize, some of which appear to have a functional role in invasion. These results may contribute to better predictive tests (along with genetic analysis) and to the identification of new therapeutic targets.

Yan GR, Xu SH, Tan ZL, et al.
Proteomics characterization of gastrokine 1-induced growth inhibition of gastric cancer cells.
Proteomics. 2011; 11(18):3657-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously used proteomics technology to globally identify gastric cancer-associated proteins and found that gastrokine 1 (GKN1) was dramatically underexpressed in gastric cancer tissues. Here, we further showed that GKN1 could inhibit cell growth and induce cell cycle arrest in gastric cancer cells. The activity of protein kinase PKCδ/θ was inhibited by GKN1, whereas the activity of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 was increased by GKN1, suggesting that GKN1 induced growth inhibition of gastric cancer cells by synergistically regulating the activity of these protein kinases. Seventy-four proteins were found to be regulated by GKN1 by proteomics analysis, including α-enolase (ENO1) and Cathepsin D. Interestingly, ENO1 is an important hub in the protein-protein interaction network of the 74 differential proteins. Silencing of ENO1 resulted in growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells, similar to the effect of GKN1 overexpression in cells, whereas ENO1 overexpression blocked GKN1-induced growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest. These observations suggested that ENO1 downregulation played an important role in GKN1-induced growth inhibition of gastric cancer cells.

Jiang F, Todd NW, Li R, et al.
A panel of sputum-based genomic marker for early detection of lung cancer.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010; 3(12):1571-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death. Early detection of NSCLC will improve its outcome. We previously identified genetic signatures whose genomic copy number aberrations were associated with early stage NSCLC. Here, we aimed to develop a panel of genes that could be detected in sputum for NSCLC early detection. We first optimized a panel of genes by using an in situ minichip for measuring changes of the signatures in sputum of a case-control cohort of 49 NSCLC patients, 49 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 49 healthy smokers. We then validated the genes in an independent cohort of 69 NSCLC patients and 65 noncancer subjects. The results were compared with those of sputum cytology. Fifteen genes showed significant differences of their copy number changes in sputum between NSCLC and both COPD and healthy subjects. A logistic regression model with the best prediction was built on the basis of 6 genes, ENO1, FHIT, HYAL2, SKP2, p16, and 14-3-3zeta. The composite of the 6 genes produced 86.7% sensitivity and 93.9% specificity in distinguishing stage I NSCLC patients from the noncancer individuals. Furthermore, the genes had higher sensitivity (86.9%) in identification of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than in adenocarcinoma of the lungs (80.8%; P < 0.05). Validation of the genes in the independent cohort confirmed their diagnostic power that also showed higher accuracy for lung SCCs than for sputum cytology. The gene panel could provide sputum-based markers that have the potential to improve early detection of lung SCCs.

Migneco G, Whitaker-Menezes D, Chiavarina B, et al.
Glycolytic cancer associated fibroblasts promote breast cancer tumor growth, without a measurable increase in angiogenesis: evidence for stromal-epithelial metabolic coupling.
Cell Cycle. 2010; 9(12):2412-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previously, we proposed a new model for understanding the Warburg effect in tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this model, the stromal fibroblasts would undergo aerobic glycolysis (a.k.a., the Warburg effect)--producing and secreting increased pyruvate/lactate that could then be used by adjacent epithelial cancer cells as "fuel" for the mitochondrial TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and ATP production. To test this model more directly, here we used a matched set of metabolically well-characterized immortalized fibroblasts that differ in a single gene. CL3 fibroblasts show a shift towards oxidative metabolism, and have an increased mitochondrial mass. In contrast, CL4 fibroblasts show a shift towards aerobic glycolysis, and have a reduced mitochondrial mass. We validated these differences in CL3 and CL4 fibroblasts by performing an unbiased proteomics analysis, showing the functional upregulation of 4 glycolytic enzymes, namely ENO1, ALDOA, LDHA and TPI1, in CL4 fibroblasts. Many of the proteins that were upregulated in CL4 fibroblasts, as seen by unbiased proteomics, were also transcriptionally upregulated in the stroma of human breast cancers, especially in the patients that were prone to metastasis. Importantly, when CL4 fibroblasts were co-injected with human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) in a xenograft model, tumor growth was dramatically enhanced. CL4 fibroblasts induced a > 4-fold increase in tumor mass, and a near 8-fold increase in tumor volume, without any measurable increases in tumor angiogenesis. In parallel, CL3 and CL4 fibroblasts both failed to form tumors when they were injected alone, without epithelial cancer cells. Mechanistically, under co-culture conditions, CL4 glycolytic fibroblasts increased mitochondrial activity in adjacent breast cancer cells (relative to CL3 cells), consistent with the "Reverse Warburg Effect". Notably, Western blot analysis of CL4 fibroblasts revealed a significant reduction in caveolin-1 (Cav-1) protein levels. In human breast cancer patients, a loss of stromal Cav-1 is associated with an increased risk of early tumor recurrence, metastasis, tamoxifen-resistance, and poor clinical outcome. Thus, loss of stromal Cav-1 may be an effective marker for predicting the "Reverse Warburg Effect" in the stroma of human breast cancer patients. As such, CL4 fibroblasts are a new attractive model for mimicking the "glycolytic phenotype" of cancer-associated fibroblasts. Nutrients derived from glycolytic cancer associated fibroblasts could provide an escape mechanism to confer drug-resistance during anti-angiogenic therapy, by effectively reducing the dependence of cancer cells on a vascular blood supply.

Tsai ST, Chien IH, Shen WH, et al.
ENO1, a potential prognostic head and neck cancer marker, promotes transformation partly via chemokine CCL20 induction.
Eur J Cancer. 2010; 46(9):1712-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
The success of using glycolytic inhibitors for cancer treatment depends on studying the individual role of frequently deregulated glycolytic genes in cancer. This report aims to study the prognostic implication, and determine the cellular role and action mechanism of glycolytic ENO1 overexpression in head and neck cancer. The relationship of ENO1 mRNA expression in 44-pair clinical specimens with patient clinicopathologic characteristics was analysed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox model analyses. Following ectopic ENO1 expression or knockdown, we studied the proliferative, migratory, invasive, colony-forming and tumourigenic abilities of ENO1-genetically altered cells. DNA microarray analysis was used to identify downstream targets responsible for the ENO1 action in the cells. The expression of ENO1 mRNA was increased in 68% of tumour (T) specimens when compared to their normal (N) counterparts, and positively associated with clinical progression (p<0.05). High ENO1 expression (T/N2) was frequently observed in the patients with large primary tumours, late clinical stages or advanced neck metastasis. Moreover, high ENO1 patients had significantly poorer clinical outcomes than low expressers (T/N<2). Ectopic ENO1 expression stimulated cell transformation, invasion and tongue tumour formation. ENO1 knockdown abrogated the stimulation. Suppression of ENO1-induced proinflammatory CCL20 chemokine expression significantly attenuated its stimulatory effects on cell transformation and invasion. A concordant expression of ENO1 and CCL20 was validated both in ENO1-expressing cells and in clinical specimens. Together, we demonstrate a prognostic role of ENO1 overexpression in head and neck cancer and ENO1-mediated promotion of cell transformation and invasion partly via induced CCL20 expression.

Suzuki A, Iizuka A, Komiyama M, et al.
Identification of melanoma antigens using a Serological Proteome Approach (SERPA).
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2010 Jan-Feb; 7(1):17-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is an intractable cancer with a poor prognosis and increasing prevalence worldwide. Specific biomarkers for early diagnosis have yet to be found.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples from melanoma patients and healthy volunteers were utilized for identifying melanoma marker proteins using a serological proteome approach. Specifically, G361 cell protein spots separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane were incubated with patient sera, and positive spots that reacted with more than 5 serum samples were identified using time of flight mass spectrometry.
RESULTS: Only patient sera showed many spots reacted in G361 gels. A total of 13 positive spots were detected and 5 proteins were identified: eukaryotic elongation factor2 (EEF2), enolase1 (ENO1), aldolase A (ALDOA), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (HNRNP) A2B1. The mRNAs of four proteins (EEF2, ENO1, ALDOA and HNRNPA2B1) were highly expressed in G361 cells compared with melanocytes. EEF2, ENO1 and ALDOA mRNAs were also frequently expressed in other melanoma cell lines.
CONCLUSION: The autoantibody-based proteomic approach was effective for investigating melanoma biomarkers. This study might contribute to the development of a diagnostic device for the early detection of cancer.

Beckner ME, Fellows-Mayle W, Zhang Z, et al.
Identification of ATP citrate lyase as a positive regulator of glycolytic function in glioblastomas.
Int J Cancer. 2010; 126(10):2282-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Glioblastomas, the most malignant type of glioma, are more glycolytic than normal brain tissue. Robust migration of glioblastoma cells has been previously demonstrated under glycolytic conditions and their pseudopodia contain increased glycolytic and decreased mitochondrial enzymes. Glycolysis is suppressed by metabolic acids, including citric acid which is excluded from mitochondria during hypoxia. We postulated that glioma cells maintain glycolysis by regulating metabolic acids, especially in their pseudopodia. The enzyme that breaks down cytosolic citric acid is ATP citrate lyase (ACLY). Our identification of increased ACLY in pseudopodia of U87 glioblastoma cells on 1D gels and immunoblots prompted investigation of ACLY gene expression in gliomas for survival data and correlation with expression of ENO1, that encodes enolase 1. Queries of the NIH's REMBRANDT brain tumor database based on Affymetrix data indicated that decreased survival correlated with increased gene expression of ACLY in gliomas. Queries of gliomas and glioblastomas found an association of upregulated ACLY and ENO1 expression by chi square for all probe sets (reporters) combined and correlation for numbers of probe sets indicating shared upregulation of these genes. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed correlation between ACLY and ENO1 in 21 glioblastomas (p < 0.001). Inhibition of ACLY with hydroxycitrate suppressed (p < 0.05) in vitro glioblastoma cell migration, clonogenicity and brain invasion under glycolytic conditions and enhanced the suppressive effects of a Met inhibitor on cell migration. In summary, gene expression data, proteomics and functional assays support ACLY as a positive regulator of glycolysis in glioblastomas.

Trojanowicz B, Winkler A, Hammje K, et al.
Retinoic acid-mediated down-regulation of ENO1/MBP-1 gene products caused decreased invasiveness of the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
J Mol Endocrinol. 2009; 42(3):249-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoic acid (RA) acts as an anti-proliferative and redifferentiation agent in the therapy of thyroid carcinoma. Our previous studies demonstrated that pretreatment of follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines FTC-133 and FTC-238 resulted in decreased in vitro proliferation rates and reduced tumor cell growth of xenotransplants. In addition to the previous results, we found that RA led to decreased vitality and invasiveness of FTC-133 and FTC-238 cells as they reacted with reduction of intracellular ATP levels and number of migrated cells respectively. However, the molecular mechanisms by which RA mediates these effects are not well understood. Two-dimensional (2D) screening of the proteins related to ATP metabolism and western blot analysis revealed alpha-enolase (ENO1) to be down-regulated in FTC-133 and FTC-238 cells after RA treatment. 2D gel detection and mass spectrometric analysis revealed that ENO1 existed as three separate protein spots of distinct pIs (ENO1-A1-A3). Comparative 2D difference gel electrophoresis analysis of fluorescently labeled protein samples of RA-treated and untreated FTC-133 demonstrated a selective down-regulation of ENO1-A1 which we identified as a phosphoprotein. RA caused the dephosphorylation of ENO1-A1. Both, RA-mediated and specific knock-down of ENO1/MBP-1 resulted in the reduction of MYC oncoprotein, and simultaneously decreased proliferation rates of FTC-133 and FTC-238 cell lines. In summary, the RA-mediated down-regulation of the ENO1 gene products and MYC oncoprotein provides a novel molecular mechanism facilitating the anti-proliferative effect of RA in human thyroid carcinoma cells and suggests new pathways for supportive RA therapies.

Hamaguchi T, Iizuka N, Tsunedomi R, et al.
Glycolysis module activated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha is related to the aggressive phenotype of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2008; 33(4):725-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
An increased level of glycolysis, an intracellular hallmark of neoplasms, enables cancer cells to survive under various conditions. To elucidate the role of increased glycolysis in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we investigated the associations between the expression patterns of 14 glycolysis-related genes and clinicopathologic factors in 60 HCCs by using pooled transcriptome data. We then evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the knockdown of ENO1, which is encoded by a glycolysis-related gene, in HCC cells. Among the 14 genes, levels of 8 genes (GPI, ALDOA, TPI1, GAPD, PGK, PGAM, ENO1 and PKM), all of which can be transcriptionally activated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha), were significantly higher in HCC with venous invasion (VI) than in HCC without VI. Our cluster analysis showed that HCC patients with activation of the 8 HIF-1alpha-regulated genes had significantly shorter overall survival (P=0.023) than did HCC patients without increased expression levels of these genes. The association between the levels of ENO1 and VI was confirmed in an independent sample set of 49 HCCs by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. The knockdown of ENO1 by small-interfering RNA significantly inhibited the proliferation of an HCC cell line (HLE cells) in both the glucose-rich and glucose-free conditions, accompanied by a decreased S phase and increased G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of an HIF-1alpha-regulated glycolysis module is closely related to the aggressive phenotype of HCC, and that ENO1, a glycolysis module gene, might serve as a new target to circumvent HCC metastasis.

Jiang W, Li X, Rao S, et al.
Constructing disease-specific gene networks using pair-wise relevance metric: application to colon cancer identifies interleukin 8, desmin and enolase 1 as the central elements.
BMC Syst Biol. 2008; 2:72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: With the advance of large-scale omics technologies, it is now feasible to reversely engineer the underlying genetic networks that describe the complex interplays of molecular elements that lead to complex diseases. Current networking approaches are mainly focusing on building genetic networks at large without probing the interaction mechanisms specific to a physiological or disease condition. The aim of this study was thus to develop such a novel networking approach based on the relevance concept, which is ideal to reveal integrative effects of multiple genes in the underlying genetic circuit for complex diseases.
RESULTS: The approach started with identification of multiple disease pathways, called a gene forest, in which the genes extracted from the decision forest constructed by supervised learning of the genome-wide transcriptional profiles for patients and normal samples. Based on the newly identified disease mechanisms, a novel pair-wise relevance metric, adjusted frequency value, was used to define the degree of genetic relationship between two molecular determinants. We applied the proposed method to analyze a publicly available microarray dataset for colon cancer. The results demonstrated that the colon cancer-specific gene network captured the most important genetic interactions in several cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, mitogenesis and immunity, which are known to be pivotal for tumourigenesis. Further analysis of the topological architecture of the network identified three known hub cancer genes [interleukin 8 (IL8) (p approximately 0), desmin (DES) (p = 2.71 x 10(-6)) and enolase 1 (ENO1) (p = 4.19 x 10(-5))], while two novel hub genes [RNA binding motif protein 9 (RBM9) (p = 1.50 x 10(-4)) and ribosomal protein L30 (RPL30) (p = 1.50 x 10(-4))] may define new central elements in the gene network specific to colon cancer. Gene Ontology (GO) based analysis of the colon cancer-specific gene network and the sub-network that consisted of three-way gene interactions suggested that tumourigenesis in colon cancer resulted from dysfunction in protein biosynthesis and categories associated with ribonucleoprotein complex which are well supported by multiple lines of experimental evidence.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that IL8, DES and ENO1 act as the central elements in colon cancer susceptibility, and protein biosynthesis and the ribosome-associated function categories largely account for the colon cancer tumuorigenesis. Thus, the newly developed relevancy-based networking approach offers a powerful means to reverse-engineer the disease-specific network, a promising tool for systematic dissection of complex diseases.

Enomoto Y, Ushijima M, Miyata S, et al.
Inference on biological mechanisms using an integrated phenotype prediction model.
Hiroshima J Med Sci. 2008; 57(1):7-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
We propose a methodology for constructing an integrated phenotype prediction model that accounts for multiple pathways regulating a targeted phenotype. The method uses multiple prediction models, each expressing a particular pattern of gene-to-gene interrelationship, such as epistasis. We also propose a methodology using Gene Ontology annotations to infer a biological mechanism from the integrated phenotype prediction model. To construct the integrated models, we employed multiple logistic regression models using a two-step learning approach to examine a number of patterns of gene-to-gene interrelationships. We first selected individual prediction models with acceptable goodness of fit, and then combined the models. The resulting integrated model predicts phenotype as a logical sum of predicted results from the individual models. We used published microarray data on neuroblastoma from Ohira et al (2005) for illustration, constructing an integrated model to predict prognosis and infer the biological mechanisms controlling prognosis. Although the resulting integrated model comprised a small number of genes compared to a previously reported analysis of these data, the model demonstrated excellent performance, with an error rate of 0.12 in a validation analysis. Gene Ontology analysis suggested that prognosis of patients with neuroblastoma may be influenced by biological processes such as cell growth, G-protein signaling, phosphoinositide-mediated signaling, alcohol metabolism, glycolysis, neurophysiological processes, and catecholamine catabolism.

Cao J, Chen XP, Li WL, et al.
Decreased fragile histidine triad expression in colorectal cancer and its association with apoptosis inhibition.
World J Gastroenterol. 2007; 13(7):1018-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
AIM: To detect the expression of fragile histidine triad (FHIT) in normal colorectal tissue, colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue, and to analyze its relationship with the clinicopathological features of CRC, and apoptosis-associated proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, survivin) and apoptosis in colorectal cancer.
METHODS: FHIT mRNA analysis was performed by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Tissue microarray (TMA) was established to detect the expression of FHIT, Bcl-2, Bax and survivin genes in 80 CRC tissue specimens, 16 colorectal adenoma tissue specimens and 16 hemorrhoid (PPH) tissue specimens during the same period of time as the control. Citrate-microwave-SP was used as immunohistochemical method. The relationship between clinicopathological factors, such as differentiation grades and 5-year survival rate was observed. TUNEL assay was used to detect the apoptosis index in 80 CRC tissue specimens.
RESULTS: Ten out of 26 (38.5%) CRC tissue specimens expressed aberrant FHIT transcripts, none of the aberrant FHIT transcripts was observed in the matched normal tissue and colorectal adenoma tissue by nested RT-PCR assay. The positive rate of FHIT gene expression in normal colorectal tissue, colorectal adenoma and carcinoma tissue was 93.75%, 68.75% and 46.25%, respectively. Clinicopathological analysis of patients showed that the decreased FHIT gene expression was not associated with age, sex, serum CEA levels, tumor site and size, histological classification. However, the expression of FHIT was correlated with differentiation grades, pathological stages, lymph node metastases and 5-year survival rate after operation. The positive rate of apoptosis-associated proteins (Bax, Bcl-2 and survivin) in CRC tissue was 72.50%, 51.25% and 77.50%, respectively. The expression of these apoptosis-associated proteins in CRC tissue was correlated with the expression of FHIT. The mean apoptosis index in FHIT negative tumors was significantly lower than that in FHIT positive tumors (5.41 +/- 0.23 vs 0.56 +/- 0.10, P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: The FHIT gene plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis and decreased FHIT expression plays a key role in the initiation and progression of colorectal carcinoma.

Assämäki R, Sarlomo-Rikala M, Lopez-Guerrero JA, et al.
Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of chromosomal imbalances and their target genes in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2007; 46(6):564-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract. The tumors characteristically harbor KIT or PDGFRA mutations, and mutant tumors respond to imatinib mesylate (Glivectrade mark). Chromosomal imbalances resulting in altered gene dosage are known to have a role in the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors, but the target genes remain to be identified. The present study aimed to identify some of these genes. In total, 35 GIST samples were screened for chromosomal imbalances by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. A cDNA array was used to define the minimal common overlapping areas of DNA copy number change. Eight confirmative, replicate hybridizations were performed using an oligonucleotide array. The most recurrent copy number losses were localized to 14q, 22q, and 1p. Gains were less common with 8q being the most recurrent. Two recurrent deleted regions of 14q were 14q11.2 harboring the PARP2, APEX1, and NDRG2 genes and 14q32.33 harboring SIVA. Additional target candidates were NF2 at chromosome 22, CDKN2A/2B at 9p, and ENO1 at 1p for copy number losses, and MYC at 8q for copy number gains. Array CGH proved to be an effective tool for the identification of chromosome regions involved in the development and progression of GISTs.

Ito S, Honma T, Ishida K, et al.
Differential expression of the human alpha-enolase gene in oral epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2007; 98(4):499-505 [PubMed] Related Publications
alpha-Enolase and c-myc promoter binding protein 1 are encoded by a single gene, ENO1, and are synthesized from the same transcript through alternative use of translational start sites. We have investigated the localization of ENO1 gene transcripts detected as proteins with an immunohistochemical method and also as mRNA with an in situ hybridization method on tissue sections of oral epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma, and demonstrated the differential distribution of the gene transcripts in normal oral epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma in humans. Expression of the ENO1 transcript was detectable in the region from the basal cell layers to the lower granular cell layers. Three patterns of ENO1 localization were observed with immunostaining in the epithelia: cytoplasm, nuclei, and both nuclei and cytoplasm. These patterns were observed randomly within the same specimen. In contrast to normal oral epithelium, ENO1 protein was not detectable in the nuclei of carcinoma cells. Our results indicate that differential subcellular localization of ENO1 products may be closely related to carcinogenesis of the oral epithelium.

Yoon SY, Kim JM, Oh JH, et al.
Gene expression profiling of human HBV- and/or HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma cells using expressed sequence tags.
Int J Oncol. 2006; 29(2):315-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. To identify novel target genes that are related to liver carcinogenesis, we examined new genes that are differentially expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and tissues based on the expressed sequence tag (EST) frequency. Eleven libraries were constructed from seven HCC cell lines and three normal liver tissue samples obtained from Korean patients. An analysis of gene expression profiles for HCC was performed using the frequency of ESTs obtained from these cDNA libraries. Genes were identified (n=120) as being either up- or down-regulated in human liver cancer cells. Among these, 14 genes (FTL, K-ALPHA1, LDHA, RPL4, ENO1, ANXA2, RPL9, RPL10, RPL13A, GNB2L1, AMBP, GC, A1BG, and SERPINC1), in addition to previously well-known liver cancer related genes, were confirmed to be differentially expressed in seven liver cancer cell lines and 17 HCC tissues by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, 73 genes, in which there was a significant difference (P>0.99) between HBV- and HCV-associated HCC cells, were selected. Of these, expression patterns of 14 (RPLP0, AKR1C, KRT8, GPX4, RPS15, ID1, RPS21, VIM, EEF1G, EIF4A1, HLA-C, FN1, CD44, and RPS10) were confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in four of HBV- and three of HCV-associated HCC cell lines. Among those genes, an immunohistochemical analysis for ANXA2 showed that it is expressed at high levels in HCC. Using an analysis of EST frequency, the newly identified genes, especially ANXA2, represent potential biomarkers for HCC and useful targets for elucidating the molecular mechanisms associated with HCC involving virological etiology.

Chambery A, Farina A, Di Maro A, et al.
Proteomic analysis of MCF-7 cell lines expressing the zinc-finger or the proline-rich domain of retinoblastoma-interacting-zinc-finger protein.
J Proteome Res. 2006; 5(5):1176-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
To identify a growth-promoting activity related to retinoblastoma-interacting-zinc-finger (RIZ) protein, differential protein expression of MCF-7 cell lines expressing the zinc-finger or the proline-rich domain of RIZ protein was analyzed by a robust bottom-up mass-spectrometry proteomic approach. Spots corresponding to qualitative and quantitative differences in protein expression have been selected and identified. Some of these proteins have been previously reported as being associated with different types of carcinomas or involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Knowledge of specific differentially expressed proteins by MCF-7-derived cell lines expressing RIZ different domains will provide the basis for identifying a growth-promoting activity related to RIZ gene products.

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