Research IndicatorsGraph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (3)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: GAB1 (cancer-related)
Wang J, Song W, Shen W, et al.MicroRNA-200a Suppresses Cell Invasion and Migration by Directly Targeting GAB1 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Oncol Res. 2017; 25(1):1-10 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNA-200a (miR-200a) is frequently downregulated in most cancer types and plays an important role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. In this study, we determined that miR-200a was downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and cell lines, consistent with the results of our previous study. Because a previous study suggested that downregulation of miR-200a is correlated with HCC metastasis, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the role of miR-200a in metastasis in HCC. Here we observed that overexpression of miR-200a resulted in suppression of HCC metastatic ability, including HCC cell migration, invasion, and metastasis, in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assays indicated that GAB1 is a direct target of miR-200a. Inhibition of GAB1 resulted in substantially decreased cell invasion and migration similar to that observed with overexpression of miR-200a in HCC cell lines, whereas restoration of GAB1 partially rescued the inhibitory effects of miR-200a. Taken together, these data provide novel information for comprehending the tumor-suppressive role of miR-200a in HCC pathogenesis through inhibition of GAB1 translation.
Fan Y, Yang F, Cao X, et al.Gab1 regulates SDF-1-induced progression via inhibition of apoptosis pathway induced by PI3K/AKT/Bcl-2/BAX pathway in human chondrosarcoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(1):1141-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In recent decades, the stromal cell-derived factor-l (SDF-1) and Gab1 have been investigated to be involved in oncogenesis. However, it is scarcely reported that SDF-1-Gab1 pathway mediates proliferation and apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma (CS). In this study, we assessed the expression of Gab1 in 90 CS solid tumors by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and qRT-PCR, and then, some in vitro assays were also applied to CS cells treated with SDF-1. We observed that the overexpression of Gab1 was positively correlated with lung metastasis and recurrence, and acts as an independent prognostic factor for CS patients. Gab1 expression was up-regulated in response to SDF-1 stimulation in CS cell line JJ012, SW1353, L3252. Overexpression of Gab1 increased Bcl-2/BAX ratio to promote cell growth via PI3K/AKT. On the other hand, silencing of Gab1 accelerated apoptosis and repressed the growth of CS cells, which further caused the inhibition of G1/S phase transition and decreased invasion capacity in CS cell lines. In vivo assay identified that the knockdown of Gab1 interfered with the tumor mass formation. In conclusion, our data identified overexpression of Gab1 in CS tissues, and Gab1 can be recommended as a novel biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis in patients with CS. Additionally, PI3K/AKT/Bcl-2/BAX axis was involved in Gab1-induced CS progression, indicating Gab1 might act as a new target for the treatment of CS patients.
Sang H, Li T, Li H, Liu JGab1 regulates proliferation and migration through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(11):8367-77 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of the liver, and it originates from the intrahepatic biliary duct epithelium. Prognosis is poor due to lack of effective comprehensive treatments. In this study, we assessed the expression of Gab1, VEGFR-2, and MMP-9 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma solid tumors by immunohistochemistry and determined whether their expression was associated with clinical and pathological features. We found that expression of Gab1, VEGFR-2, and MMP-9 was highly and positively correlated with each other and with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tissues. Interference of Gab1 and VEGFR-2 expression via siRNA in the intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell line RBE resulted in decreased PI3K/Akt pathway activity. Inhibition of Gab1 and VEGFR-2 expression also caused decreased cell proliferation, cell cycle arrested in G1 phase, increased apoptosis, and decreased invasion in RBE cells. These results suggest that Gab1, VEGFR-2, and MMP-9 contribute significantly to the highly malignant behavior of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The regulation of growth, apoptosis, and invasion by Gab1 through the VEGFR-2/Gab1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway may represent potential targets for improving the treatment of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Bai R, Weng C, Dong H, et al.MicroRNA-409-3p suppresses colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis partly by targeting GAB1 expression.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(10):2310-22 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and its metastasis accounts for the majority of deaths. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC progression are not well characterized. In this study, we identified miR-409-3p as a tumor suppressor of CRC. MiR-409-3p expression was significantly downregulated in CRC tissue compared to adjacent non-tumor tissue, and reduced miR-409-3p expression was correlated with CRC metastasis. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that miR-409-3p negatively regulated CRC metastatic capacities, including suppressing cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. To explore the mechanism of action of miR-409-3p, we adopted a pathway and pathophysiological event-based target screening and validation approach, and found nine known metastasis-related genes as potential targets. The 3'-UTR binding assays between the candidates and miR-409-3p suggested that only GAB1, NR4A2 and LMO4 were directly regulated by the miRNA. However, endogenous expression analysis revealed that only GAB1 was modulated by miR-409-3p in CRC cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, we provided evidence to conclude that GAB1 was partially responsible for miR-409-3p-mediated metastasis. Taken together, our data demonstrate that miR-409-3p is a metastatic suppressor, and post-transcriptional inhibition of the oncoprotein GAB1 is one of the mechanisms of action of this miRNA. Our finding suggests miR-409-3p might be a novel target for CRC metastasis treatment.
Shp2, an ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase, is essential for regulation of Ras/ERK signaling pathway and tumorigenesis. Here we report that Shp2 is modified by SUMO1 at lysine residue 590 (K590) in its C-terminus, which is reduced by SUMO1-specific protease SENP1. Analysis of wild-type Shp2 and SUMOylation-defective Shp2(K590R) mutant reveals that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes EGF-stimulated ERK signaling pathway and increases anchorage-independent cell growth and xenografted tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Furthermore, we find that mutant Shp2(K590R) reduces its binding with the scaffolding protein Gab1, and consistent with this, knockdown of SENP1 increased the interaction between Shp2 and Gab1. More surprisingly, we show that human Shp2 (hShp2) and mouse Shp2 (mShp2) have differential effects on ERK activation as a result of different SUMOylation level, which is due to the event of K590 at hShp2 substituted by R594 at mShp2. In summary, our data demonstrate that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes ERK activation via facilitating the formation of Shp2-Gab1 complex and thereby accelerates HCC cell and tumor growth, which presents a novel regulatory mechanism underlying Shp2 in regulation of HCC development.
Musilova K, Mraz MMicroRNAs in B-cell lymphomas: how a complex biology gets more complex.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(5):1004-17 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent important regulators of gene expression besides transcriptional control. miRNA regulation can be involved in the cell developmental fate decisions, but can also have more subtle roles in buffering stochastic fluctuations in gene expression. They participate in pathways fundamental to B-cell development like B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling, B-cell migration/adhesion, cell-cell interactions in immune niches, and the production and class-switching of immunoglobulins. miRNAs influence B-cell maturation, generation of pre-, marginal zone, follicular, B1, plasma and memory B cells. In this review, we discuss miRNAs with essential functions in malignant B-cell development (such as miR-150, miR-155, miR-21, miR-34a, miR-17-92 and miR-15-16). We also put these miRNAs in the context of normal B-cell differentiation, as this is intimately connected to neoplastic B-cell development. We review miRNAs' role in the most common B-cell malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). We focus on miR-contribution to the regulation of important signalling pathways (such as NF-κB, PI3K/AKT and TGF-β), BCR signalling and its modulators (such as PTEN, SHIP-1, ZAP-70, GAB1 and BTK), anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins (such as BCL2, MCL1, TCL1, BIM, p53 and SIRT1) and transcription factors (such as MYC, MYB, PU.1, FOXP1 and BCL6). We also discuss the association of miRNAs' expression levels with the patients' survival and response to therapy, summarizing their potential use as predictive and prognostic markers. Importantly, the targeting of miRNAs (like use of anti-miR-155 or miR-34a mimic) could provide a novel therapeutic approach as evidenced by tumour regression in xenograft mouse models and initial promising data from clinical trials.
Meng LQEssential role of polymorphism of Gab1, EGFR, and EGF for the susceptibility of biliary tract cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(12):12497-508 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelial cells lining the biliary ducts and its occurrence can be anatomically classified as within the liver (intrahepatic) or outside the liver (extrahepatic). Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, which can be called as biliary tract cancer (BTC), is the most common form of this malignancy, and its etiology is still unclear. In this study, we tried to elucidate the complicated association between receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility of BTC by analyzing frequency distribution of genotypes and alleles of GRB2-associated-binding protein 1 (Gab1), endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), and endothelial growth factor (EGF) and identified potential risk of BTC for people carrying specific genotype of Gab1 and EGFR. Two hundred twenty-five and 300 patients with BTC and cholelithiasis (gallstone (GS)), respectively, and 300 controls matched by age, sex, and ethnicity with patients were recruited from Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University from January 2008 to July 2011 with informed consents. Genomic DNA of BTC group was extracted and purified from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue sections using QiAamp DNA FFPE Tissue kit. For GS group and controls, DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes using genomic DNA extraction kit from Aid Lab. Target genes of RTK family were identified from National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) SNP database and Japanese Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (JSNP) database. Frequency distribution of genotypes and alleles was analyzed using HapMap Project database. All of the statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS 13.0 software. Eight loci were identified for Gab1 (4), EGFR (3), and EGF (1) as the target single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the association of gene polymorphisms and BTC. A/A genotype and A allele of rs3805246 in Gab1 and G/G genotype and G allele of rs2017000 in EGFR were significantly higher in BTC group than in GS group or controls. After controlling for BMI, age, gender, and smoking habit, patients with "A/A + G/A" had 2.154 times odds to have BTC; as for patients with "A/A" only, they still had 1.976 times odds to have BTC. In the rs2017000 of EGFR, patients with "G/G + G/A" had 1.772 times odds to have BTC, and patients with "G/G" only had 1.530 times odds to have BTC. Furthermore, patients with A/A in rs3805246 and G/G in rs2017000 simultaneously had 1.620 times chance to have BTC than people with other genotypes. This study explored the independent potential effect of EGFR signaling transduction pathway and its downstream element Gab1 and the gene-gene interaction on the disease mechanism of BTC in the perspective of genetics and molecular epidemiology.
Characterizing the genetic alterations leading to the more aggressive forms of oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers is of critical significance in breast cancer management. Here we identify recurrent rearrangements between the oestrogen receptor gene ESR1 and its neighbour CCDC170, which are enriched in the more aggressive and endocrine-resistant luminal B tumours, through large-scale analyses of breast cancer transcriptome and copy number alterations. Further screening of 200 ER+ breast cancers identifies eight ESR1-CCDC170-positive tumours. These fusions encode amino-terminally truncated CCDC170 proteins (ΔCCDC170). When introduced into ER+ breast cancer cells, ΔCCDC170 leads to markedly increased cell motility and anchorage-independent growth, reduced endocrine sensitivity and enhanced xenograft tumour formation. Mechanistic studies suggest that ΔCCDC170 engages Gab1 signalosome to potentiate growth factor signalling and enhance cell motility. Together, this study identifies neoplastic ESR1-CCDC170 fusions in a more aggressive subset of ER+ breast cancer, which suggests a new concept of ER pathobiology in breast cancer.
Seda V, Mraz MB-cell receptor signalling and its crosstalk with other pathways in normal and malignant cells.
Eur J Haematol. 2015; 94(3):193-205 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The physiology of B cells is intimately connected with the function of their B-cell receptor (BCR). B-cell lymphomas frequently (dys)regulate BCR signalling and thus take advantage of this pre-existing pathway for B-cell proliferation and survival. This has recently been underscored by clinical trials demonstrating that small molecules (fosfamatinib, ibrutinib, idelalisib) inhibiting BCR-associated kinases (SYK, BTK, PI3K) have an encouraging clinical effect. Here we describe the current knowledge of the specific aspects of BCR signalling in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and normal B cells. Multiple factors can contribute to BCR pathway (dys)regulation in these malignancies and the activation of 'chronic' or 'tonic' BCR signalling. In lymphoma B cells, the balance of initiation, amplitude and duration of BCR activation can be influenced by a specific immunoglobulin structure, the expression and mutations of adaptor molecules (like GAB1, BLNK, GRB2, CARD11), the activity of kinases (like LYN, SYK, PI3K) or phosphatases (like SHIP-1, SHP-1 and PTEN) and levels of microRNAs. We also discuss the crosstalk of BCR with other signalling pathways (NF-κB, adhesion through integrins, migration and chemokine signalling) to emphasise that the 'BCR inhibitors' target multiple pathways interconnected with BCR, which might explain some of their clinical activity.
In this issue of Blood, Mraz et al show that microRNA-150 (miR-150) is the most abundantly expressed miR in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and affects the threshold for B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling by repressing expression levels of GAB1 and FOXP1. This functional link might explain the described association between expression levels of miR-150 and prognosis.
We examined the microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and identified miR-150 as the most abundant, but with leukemia cell expression levels that varied among patients. CLL cells that expressed ζ-chain-associated protein of 70 kDa (ZAP-70) or that used unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes, each had a median expression level of miR-150 that was significantly lower than that of ZAP-70-negative CLL cells or those that used mutated IGHV genes. In samples stratified for expression of miR-150, CLL cells with low-level miR-150 expressed relatively higher levels of forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) and GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1), genes with 3' untranslated regions having evolutionary-conserved binding sites for miR-150. High-level expression of miR-150 could repress expression of these genes, which encode proteins that enhance B-cell receptor signaling, a putative CLL-growth/survival signal. Also, high-level expression of miR-150 was a significant independent predictor of longer treatment-free survival or overall survival, whereas an inverse association was observed for high-level expression of GAB1 or FOXP1 for overall survival. This study demonstrates that expression of miR-150 can influence the relative expression of GAB1 and FOXP1 and the signaling potential of the B-cell receptor, thereby possibly accounting for the noted association of expression of miR-150 and disease outcome.
Zhang Y, Li Z, Yang M, et al.Identification of GRB2 and GAB1 coexpression as an unfavorable prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma by a combination of expression profile and network analysis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e85170 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To screen novel markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by a combination of expression profile, interaction network analysis and clinical validation.
METHODS: HCC significant molecules which are differentially expressed or had genetic variations in HCC tissues were obtained from five existing HCC related databases (OncoDB.HCC, HCC.net, dbHCCvar, EHCO and Liverome). Then, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of these molecules was constructed. Three topological features of the network ('Degree', 'Betweenness', and 'Closeness') and the k-core algorithm were used to screen candidate HCC markers which play crucial roles in tumorigenesis of HCC. Furthermore, the clinical significance of two candidate HCC markers growth factor receptor-bound 2 (GRB2) and GRB2-associated-binding protein 1 (GAB1) was validated.
RESULTS: In total, 6179 HCC significant genes and 977 HCC significant proteins were collected from existing HCC related databases. After network analysis, 331 candidate HCC markers were identified. Especially, GAB1 has the highest k-coreness suggesting its central localization in HCC related network, and the interaction between GRB2 and GAB1 has the largest edge-betweenness implying it may be biologically important to the function of HCC related network. As the results of clinical validation, the expression levels of both GRB2 and GAB1 proteins were significantly higher in HCC tissues than those in their adjacent nonneoplastic tissues. More importantly, the combined GRB2 and GAB1 protein expression was significantly associated with aggressive tumor progression and poor prognosis in patients with HCC.
CONCLUSION: This study provided an integrative analysis by combining expression profile and interaction network analysis to identify a list of biologically significant HCC related markers and pathways. Further experimental validation indicated that the aberrant expression of GRB2 and GAB1 proteins may be strongly related to tumor progression and prognosis in patients with HCC. The overexpression of GRB2 in combination with upregulation of GAB1 may be an unfavorable prognostic factor for HCC.
Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is a highly aggressive malignancy originating from the hilar biliary duct epithelium. Due to few effective comprehensive treatments, the prognosis of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is poor. In this study, immunohistochemistry was first used to detect and analyze the expression of Gab1, VEGFR-2, and MMP-9 in hilar cholangiocarcinoma solid tumors and the relationships to the clinical pathological features. Furthermore, Gab1 and VEGFR-2 siRNA were used to interfere the hilar cholangiocarcinoma cell line ICBD-1 and then detect the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, MMP-9 levels and malignant biological behaviors of tumor cells. The data showed that 1. Gab1, VEGFR-2, and MMP-9 were highly expressed and positively correlated with each other in hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues, which were related to lymph node metastasis and differentiation. 2. After Gab1 or VEGFR-2 siRNA interference, PI3K/Akt pathway activity and MMP-9 levels were decreased in ICBD-1 cells. At the same time, cell proliferation decreased, cell cycle arrested in G1 phase, apoptosis increased and invasion decreased. These results suggest that the expression of Gab1, VEGFR-2, and MMP-9 are significantly related to the malignant biological behavior of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Gab1 regulates growth, apoptosis and invasion through the VEGFR-2/Gab1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in hilar cholangiocarcinoma cells and influences the invasion of tumor cells via MMP-9.
Furcht CM, Muñoz Rojas AR, Nihalani D, Lazzara MJDiminished functional role and altered localization of SHP2 in non-small cell lung cancer cells with EGFR-activating mutations.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(18):2346-55, 2355.e1-10 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells harboring activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tend to display elevated activity of several survival signaling pathways. Surprisingly, these mutations also correlate with reduced phosphorylation of ERK and SHP2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase required for complete ERK activation downstream of most receptor tyrosine kinases. As ERK activity influences cellular response to EGFR inhibition, altered SHP2 function could have a role in the striking response to gefitinib witnessed with EGFR mutation. Here, we demonstrate that impaired SHP2 phosphorylation correlates with diminished SHP2 function in NSCLC cells expressing mutant, versus wild-type, EGFR. In NSCLC cells expressing wild-type EGFR, SHP2 knockdown decreased ERK phosphorylation, basally and in response to gefitinib, and increased cellular sensitivity to gefitinib. In cells expressing EGFR mutants, these effects of SHP2 knockdown were less substantial, but the expression of constitutively active SHP2 reduced cellular sensitivity to gefitinib. In cells expressing EGFR mutants, which do not undergo efficient ligand-mediated endocytosis, SHP2 was basally associated with GRB2-associated binder 1 (GAB1) and EGFR, and SHP2's presence in membrane fractions was dependent on EGFR activity. Whereas EGF promoted a more uniform intracellular distribution of initially centrally localized SHP2 in cells expressing wild-type EGFR, SHP2 was basally evenly distributed and did not redistribute in response to EGF in cells with EGFR mutation. Thus, EGFR mutation may promote association of a fraction of SHP2 at the plasma membrane with adapters that promote SHP2 activity. Consistent with this, SHP2 immunoprecipitated from cells with EGFR mutation was active, and EGF treatment did not change this activity. Overall, our data suggest that a fraction of SHP2 is sequestered at the plasma membrane in cells with EGFR mutation in a way that impedes SHP2's ability to promote ERK activity and identify SHP2 as a potential target for co-inhibition with EGFR in NSCLC.
Ortiz-Padilla C, Gallego-Ortega D, Browne BC, et al.Functional characterization of cancer-associated Gab1 mutations.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(21):2696-702 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) is a docking protein that transduces signals from a variety of tyrosine kinases, including Met and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Although the related protein Gab2 is strongly implicated in human cancer, a role for Gab1 has been less clear. However, a screen for gene mutations in breast cancer identified two somatic mutations in Gab1, Y83C and T387N. In this paper we describe the functional characterization of these Gab1 mutants. MCF-10A immortalized mammary epithelial cells overexpressing Gab1 Y83C and T387N exhibited a more elongated, fibroblastic phenotype compared with wild-type Gab1 controls. Expression of Gab1 or the mutants promoted epidermal growth factor (EGF)-independent proliferation in monolayer culture to a similar degree. However, in Matrigel culture, both mutants enhanced the formation of acini exhibiting an aberrant, branched morphology. In addition, expression of the mutants modestly increased Erk activation. The two mutants also enhanced branching morphogenesis in a different mammary epithelial cell line, HC11. To gain further insights into the mechanism of action of these mutations, we mapped Gab1 phosphorylation sites by mass spectrometry. This detected phosphorylation of T387 but ;not Y83. Cellular stimulation with EGF or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) led to a transient, or sustained, induction of T387 phosphorylation, respectively. As T387 corresponds in position to Gab2 T391, which suppresses Gab2 signaling in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, these data support a model in which the T387N mutation abrogates negative-feedback regulation of Gab1. Interrogation of publically-available databases revealed additional cancer-associated mutations at, or in close proximity to, identified serine/threonine phosphorylation sites in other docking proteins. These data indicate that aberrant Gab1 signaling can directly contribute to breast cancer progression, and that negative feedback sites in docking proteins can be targeted by oncogenic mutations.
Yamada T, Takeuchi S, Nakade J, et al.Paracrine receptor activation by microenvironment triggers bypass survival signals and ALK inhibitor resistance in EML4-ALK lung cancer cells.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(13):3592-602 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Cancer cell microenvironments, including host cells, can critically affect cancer cell behaviors, including drug sensitivity. Although crizotinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of ALK and Met, shows dramatic effect against EML4-ALK lung cancer cells, these cells can acquire resistance to crizotinib by several mechanisms, including ALK amplification and gatekeeper mutation. We determined whether microenvironmental factors trigger ALK inhibitor resistance in EML4-ALK lung cancer cells.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We tested the effects of ligands produced by endothelial cells and fibroblasts, and the cells themselves, on the susceptibility of EML4-ALK lung cancer cell lines to crizotinib and TAE684, a selective ALK inhibitor active against cells with ALK amplification and gatekeeper mutations, both in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: EML4-ALK lung cancer cells were highly sensitive to ALK inhibitors. EGF receptor (EGFR) ligands, such as EGF, TGF-α, and HB-EGF, activated EGFR and triggered resistance to crizotinib and TAE684 by transducing bypass survival signaling through Erk1/2 and Akt. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activated Met/Gab1 and triggered resistance to TAE684, but not crizotinib, which inhibits Met. Endothelial cells and fibroblasts, which produce the EGFR ligands and HGF, respectively, decreased the sensitivity of EML4-ALK lung cancer cells to crizotinib and TAE684, respectively. EGFR-TKIs resensitized these cells to crizotinib and Met-TKI to TAE684 even in the presence of EGFR ligands and HGF, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Paracrine receptor activation by ligands from the microenvironment may trigger resistance to ALK inhibitors in EML4-ALK lung cancer cells, suggesting that receptor ligands from microenvironment may be additional targets during treatment with ALK inhibitors.
Yamada T, Takeuchi S, Kita K, et al.Hepatocyte growth factor induces resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody in lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol. 2012; 7(2):272-80 [PubMed
] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an attractive drug target in lung cancer, with several anti-EGFR antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors showing efficacy in lung cancer patients. Patients, however, may develop resistance to EGFR inhibitors. We demonstrated previously that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancers harboring EGFR mutations. We therefore determined whether HGF could induce resistance to the anti-EGFR antibody (EGFR Ab) cetuximab in lung cancer cells, regardless of EGFR gene status.
METHODS: Cetuximab sensitivity and signal transduction in lung cancer cells were examined in the presence or absence of HGF, HGF-producing fibroblasts, and cells tranfected with the HGF gene in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: HGF induced resistance to cetuximab in H292 (EGFR wild) and Ma-1(EGFR mutant) cells. Western blotting showed that HGF-induced resistance was mediated by the Met/Gab1/Akt signaling pathway. Resistance of H292 and Ma-1 cells to cetuximab was also induced by coculture with lung fibroblasts producing high levels of HGF and by cells stably transfected with the HGF gene. This resistance was abrogated by treatment with anti-HGF neutralizing antibody.
CONCLUSIONS: HGF-mediated resistance is a novel mechanism of resistance to EGFR Ab in lung cancers, with fibroblast-derived HGF inducing cetuximab resistance in H292 tumors in vivo. The involvement of HGF-Met-mediated signaling should be assessed in acquired resistance to EGFR Ab in lung cancer, regardless of EGFR gene status.
Savaris RF, Groll JM, Young SL, et al.Progesterone resistance in PCOS endometrium: a microarray analysis in clomiphene citrate-treated and artificial menstrual cycles.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(6):1737-46 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women, is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and hyperandrogenism.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare gene expression between endometrial samples of normal fertile controls and women with PCOS.
DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a case control study at university teaching hospitals.
PATIENTS: Normal fertile controls and women with PCOS participated in the study.
INTERVENTIONS: Endometrial samples were obtained from normal fertile controls and from women with PCOS, either induced to ovulate with clomiphene citrate or from a modeled secretory phase using daily administration of progesterone.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Total RNA was isolated from samples and processed for array hybridization with Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2 arrays. Data were analyzed using GeneSpring GX11 and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis. Selected gene expression differences were validated using RT-PCR and/or immunohistochemistry in separately obtained PCOS and normal endometrium.
RESULTS: ANOVA analysis revealed 5160 significantly different genes among the three conditions. Of these, 466 were differentially regulated between fertile controls and PCOS. Progesterone-regulated genes, including mitogen-inducible gene 6 (MIG6), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1), S100P, and claudin-4 were significantly lower in PCOS endometrium; whereas cell proliferation genes, such as Anillin and cyclin B1, were up-regulated.
CONCLUSIONS: Differences in gene expression provide evidence of progesterone resistance in midsecretory PCOS endometrium, independent of clomiphene citrate and corresponding to the observed phenotypes of hyperplasia, cancer, and poor reproductive outcomes in this group of women.
Medulloblastoma is heterogeneous, being characterized by molecular subgroups that demonstrate distinct gene expression profiles. Activation of the WNT or SHH signaling pathway characterizes two of these molecular subgroups, the former associated with low-risk disease and the latter potentially targeted by novel SHH pathway inhibitors. This manuscript reports the validation of a novel diagnostic immunohistochemical method to distinguish SHH, WNT, and non-SHH/WNT tumors and details their associations with clinical, pathological and cytogenetic variables. A cohort (n = 235) of medulloblastomas from patients aged 0.4-52 years was studied for expression of four immunohistochemical markers: GAB1, β-catenin, filamin A, and YAP1. Immunoreactivity (IR) for GAB1 characterizes only SHH tumors and nuclear IR for β-catenin only WNT tumors. IRs for filamin A and YAP1 identify SHH and WNT tumors. SHH, WNT, and non-SHH/WNT tumors contributed 31, 14, and 55% to the series. All desmoplastic/nodular (D/N) medulloblastomas were SHH tumors, while most WNT tumors (94%) had a classic phenotype. Monosomy 6 was strongly associated with WNT tumors, while PTCH1 loss occurred almost exclusively among SHH tumors. MYC or MYCN amplification and chromosome 17 imbalance occurred predominantly among non-SHH/WNT tumors. Among patients aged 3-16 years and entered onto the SIOP PNET3 trial, outcome was significantly better for children with WNT tumors, when compared to SHH or non-SHH/WNT tumors, which showed similar survival curves. However, high-risk factors (M+ disease, LC/A pathology, MYC amplification) significantly influenced survival in both SHH and non-SHH/WNT groups. We describe a robust method for detecting SHH, WNT, and non-SHH/WNT molecular subgroups in formalin-fixed medulloblastoma samples. In corroborating other studies that indicate the value of combining clinical, pathological, and molecular variables in therapeutic stratification schemes for medulloblastoma, we also provide the first outcome data based on a clinical trial cohort and novel data on how molecular subgroups are distributed across the range of disease.
The progression and negative outcome of a variety of human carcinomas are intimately associated with aberrant activity of the c-Met oncogene. The underlying cause of this dysregulation, however, remains a subject of discussion, as the majority of cancer patients do not present with activating mutations in c-Met receptor itself. In this study, we show that the oncogenic protease matriptase is ubiquitously co-expressed with the c-Met in human squamous cell carcinomas and amplifies migratory and proliferative responses of primary epithelial cells to the cognate ligand for c-Met, pro-hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (proHGF/SF), through c-Met and Gab1 signaling. Furthermore, the selective genetic ablation of c-Met from matriptase-expressing keratinocytes completely negates the oncogenic potential of matriptase. In addition, matriptase-dependent carcinoma formation could be blocked by the pharmacological inhibition of the Akt-mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTor) pathway. Our data identify matriptase as an initiator of c-Met-Akt-mTor-dependent signaling axis in tumors and reveal mTor activation as an essential component of matriptase/c-Met-induced carcinogenesis. The study provides a specific example of how epithelial transformation can be promoted by epigenetic acquisition of the capacity to convert a widely available paracrine growth factor precursor to its signaling competent state.
CD151, a transmembrane protein of the tetraspanin family, is implicated in the regulation of cell-substrate adhesion and cell migration through physical and functional interactions with integrin receptors. In contrast, little is known about the potential role of CD151 in controlling cell proliferation and survival. We have previously shown that β4 integrin, a major CD151 partner, not only acts as an adhesive receptor for laminins but also as an intracellular signaling platform promoting cell proliferation and invasive growth upon interaction with Met, the tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Here we show that RNAi-mediated silencing of CD151 expression in cancer cells impairs HGF-driven proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, protection from anoikis, and tumor progression in xenograft models in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that CD151 is crucially implicated in the formation of signaling complexes between Met and β4 integrin, a known amplifier of HGF-induced tumor cell growth and survival. CD151 depletion hampered HGF-induced phosphorylation of β4 integrin and the ensuing Grb2-Gab1 association, a signaling pathway leading to MAPK stimulation and cell growth. Accordingly, CD151 knockdown reduced HGF-triggered activation of MAPK but not AKT signaling cascade. These results indicate that CD151 controls Met-dependent neoplastic growth by enhancing receptor signaling through β4 integrin-mediated pathways, independent of cell-substrate adhesion.
MET amplification activates ERBB3/PI3K/AKT signaling in EGFR mutant lung cancers and causes resistance to EGFR kinase inhibitors. We demonstrate that MET activation by its ligand, HGF, also induces drug resistance, but through GAB1 signaling. Using high-throughput FISH analyses in both cell lines and in patients with lung cancer, we identify subpopulations of cells with MET amplification prior to drug exposure. Surprisingly, HGF accelerates the development of MET amplification both in vitro and in vivo. EGFR kinase inhibitor resistance, due to either MET amplification or autocrine HGF production, was cured in vivo by combined EGFR and MET inhibition. These findings highlight the potential to prospectively identify treatment naive, patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancer who will benefit from initial combination therapy.
Watanabe T, Tsuda M, Tanaka S, et al.Adaptor protein Crk induces Src-dependent activation of p38 MAPK in regulation of synovial sarcoma cell proliferation.
Mol Cancer Res. 2009; 7(9):1582-92 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The adaptor protein Crk mediates intracellular signaling related to cell motility and proliferation and is implicated in human tumorigenesis. The role of Crk in the growth of human sarcoma has remained unclear, however. The present study shows that Crk-induced activation of Src and subsequent signaling by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) contribute to the enhanced proliferation of human synovial sarcoma cells. Depletion of Crk by RNA interference markedly inhibited proliferation of the synovial sarcoma cell lines HS-SYII, SYO-1, and Fuji as well as prevented anchorage-independent growth. Conversely, reconstitution with CrkII by authentic small interfering RNA-resistant Crk gene restored proliferation in Crk-silenced SYO-1 cells. Crk-depleted synovial sarcoma cells manifested enhanced transcriptional activity and expression of the p16(INK4A) gene, resulting in their accumulation in G(1) phase of the cell cycle. In response to hepatocyte growth factor stimulation, Crk prominently induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb2-associated binder 1 through activation of Src and focal adhesion kinase, and the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 almost completely inhibited the proliferation of SYO-1 cells. Crk also induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, and SB203580, a p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor, increased expression of p16(INK4A) gene in SYO-1 cells. Furthermore, SB203580 or depletion of p38 MAPK by small interfering RNA suppressed both the phosphorylation of Akt triggered by hepatocyte growth factor and the proliferation of SYO-1 cells. These results suggest that Crk promotes proliferation of human synovial sarcoma cells through activation of Src and its downstream signaling by a novel p38 MAPK-Akt pathway, with these signaling molecules providing potent new targets for molecular therapeutics.
Fukumoto T, Kubota Y, Kitanaka A, et al.Gab1 transduces PI3K-mediated erythropoietin signals to the Erk pathway and regulates erythropoietin-dependent proliferation and survival of erythroid cells.
Cell Signal. 2009; 21(12):1775-83 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In this study, we examined the biological functions of Gab1 in erythropoietin receptor (EPOR)-mediated signaling in vivo. Knockdown of Gab1 by the introduction of the Gab1 siRNA expression vector into F-36P human erythroleukemia (F-36P-Gab1-siRNA) cells resulted in a reduction of cell proliferation and survival in response to EPO. EPO-induced activation of Erk1/2 but not of Akt was significantly suppressed in F-36P-Gab1-siRNA cells compared with mock-transfected F-36P cells. The co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed an EPO-enhanced association of Gab1 with the Grb2-SOS1 complex and SHP-2 in F-36P cells. A selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) LY294002 and short interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes targeting the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K (p85-siRNA) independently suppressed tyrosine phosphorylation of Gab1; its association with Grb2, SHP-2 and p85; and the activation of Erk in EPO-treated F-36P cells. LY294002 inhibited EPO-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Gab1 and its association with Grb2 in human primary EPO-sensitive erythroid cells. The co-immunoprecipitation experiments using the Jak inhibitor AG490 or siRNA duplexes targeting Jak2 and in vitro binding experiments demonstrated that Jak2 regulated Gab1-mediated Erk activation through tyrosine phosphorylation of Gab1. Taken together, these results suggest that Gab1 couples PI3K-mediated EPO signals with the Ras/Erk pathway and that Gab1 plays an important role in EPOR-mediated signal transduction involved in the proliferation and survival of erythroid cells.
Aberrant activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway supports growth of many tumors including those of breast, lung, and prostate. Resistance of breast cancer cells to targeted chemotherapies including tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has been linked to persistent PI3K activity, which may in part be due to increased membrane expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (HER2 and HER3). Recently we found that proteins of the RGS (regulator of G protein signaling) family suppress PI3K activity downstream of the receptor by sequestering its p85alpha subunit from signaling complexes. Because a substantial percentage of breast tumors have RGS16 mutations and reduced RGS16 protein expression, we investigated the link between regulation of PI3K activity by RGS16 and breast cancer cell growth. RGS16 overexpression in MCF7 breast cancer cells inhibited EGF-induced proliferation and Akt phosphorylation, whereas shRNA-mediated extinction of RGS16 augmented cell growth and resistance to TKI treatment. Exposure to TKI also reduced RGS16 expression in MCF7 and BT474 cell lines. RGS16 bound the amino-terminal SH2 and inter-SH2 domains of p85alpha and inhibited its interaction with the EGF receptor-associated adapter protein Gab1. These results suggest that the loss of RGS16 in some breast tumors enhances PI3K signaling elicited by growth factors and thereby promotes proliferation and TKI evasion downstream of HER activation.
Juric D, Lacayo NJ, Ramsey MC, et al.Differential gene expression patterns and interaction networks in BCR-ABL-positive and -negative adult acute lymphoblastic leukemias.
J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25(11):1341-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify gene expression patterns and interaction networks related to BCR-ABL status and clinical outcome in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: DNA microarrays were used to profile a set of 54 adult ALL specimens from the Medical Research Council UKALL XII/Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E2993 trial (21 p185BCR-ABL-positive, 16 p210BCR-ABL-positive and 17 BCR-ABL-negative specimens).
RESULTS: Using supervised and unsupervised analysis tools, we detected significant transcriptomic changes in BCR-ABL-positive versus -negative specimens, and assessed their validity in an independent cohort of 128 adult ALL specimens. This set of 271 differentially expressed genes (including GAB1, CIITA, XBP1, CD83, SERPINB9, PTP4A3, NOV, LOX, CTNND1, BAALC, and RAB21) is enriched for genes involved in cell death, cellular growth and proliferation, and hematologic system development and function. Network analysis demonstrated complex interaction patterns of these genes, and identified FYN and IL15 as the hubs of the top-scoring network. Within the BCR-ABL-positive subgroups, we identified genes overexpressed (PILRB, STS-1, SPRY1) or underexpressed (TSPAN16, ADAMTSL4) in p185BCR-ABL-positive ALL relative to p210BCR-ABL-positive ALL. Finally, we constructed a gene expression- and interaction-based outcome predictor consisting of 27 genes (including GRB2, GAB1, GLI1, IRS1, RUNX2, and SPP1), which correlated with overall survival in BCR-ABL-positive adult ALL (P = .0001), independent of age (P = .25) and WBC count at presentation (P = .003).
CONCLUSION: We identified prominent molecular features of BCR-ABL-positive adult ALL, which may be useful for developing novel therapeutic targets and prognostic markers in this disease.
BACKGROUND: Various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have explained the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and gastric atrophy and cancer. This study investigated the associations of Grb2 associated binder 1 (Gab1) polymorphism and the combination of PTPN11 gene encoding src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) and Gab1 gene with gastric cancer and gastric atrophy among H. pylori seropositive subjects.
METHODS: A single nucleotide polymorphism at intron 2 of Gab1 (JST164345) was examined for 454 Japanese health checkup examinees (126 males and 328 females) aged 35 to 85 without a history of gastric cancer and 202 gastric cancer patients (134 males and 68 females) aged 33 to 94 with pathologically confirmed diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma.
RESULTS: The decreased OR of the Gab1 A/A for H. pylori seropositivity was 0.25 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08-0.71). Among seropositive healthy controls, the OR of the Gab1 G/A+A/A for gastric atrophy was significant (OR=1.95, 95% CI: 1.12 -3.40). Seropositive individuals with PTPN11 G/G and Gab1 G/A+A/A demonstrated the highest risk of gastric atrophy with significance (OR=3.49, 95% CI: 1.54-7.90) relative to PTPN11 G/A+A/A and Gab1 G/G, the lowest risk combination, as a reference. However, the gene-gene interaction between PTPN11 and Gab1 was not observed (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 0.41-4.66). Compared to gastric cancer case, the Gab1 did not influence the step of atrophy/metaplasia-gastric cancer sequence.
CONCLUSIONS: This study represents that the Gab1 polymorphism was associated with the low risk of H. pylori infection and the high risk of gastric atrophy among seropositive healthy controls, and that seropositive individuals with PTPN11 G/G and Gab1 G/A+G/G were associated with the greatest risk of gastric atrophy. These findings require confirmation in much larger studies.
De Falco V, Castellone MD, De Vita G, et al.RET/papillary thyroid carcinoma oncogenic signaling through the Rap1 small GTPase.
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(1):381-90 [PubMed
] Related Publications
RET/papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) oncoproteins result from the in-frame fusion of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase with protein dimerization motifs encoded by heterologous genes. Here, we show that RET/PTC1 activates the Rap1 small GTPase. The activation of Rap1 was dependent on the phosphorylation of RET Tyr(1062). RET/PTC1 recruited a complex containing growth factor receptor binding protein 2-associated binding protein 1 (Gab1), CrkII (v-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homologue II), and C3G (Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1). By using dominant-negative and small interfering duplex (small interfering RNA) oligonucleotides, we show that RET/PTC1-mediated Rap1 activation was dependent on CrkII, C3G, and Gab1. Activation of Rap1 was involved in the RET/PTC1-mediated stimulation of the BRAF kinase and the p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Proliferation and stress fiber formation of RET/PTC1-expressing PC Cl 3 thyroid follicular cells were inhibited by the dominant-negative Rap1(N17) and by Rap1-specific GTPase-activating protein. Thus, Rap1 is a downstream effector of RET/PTC and may contribute to the transformed phenotype of RET/PTC-expressing thyrocytes.
Katoh M, Katoh MFGF signaling network in the gastrointestinal tract (review).
Int J Oncol. 2006; 29(1):163-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signals are transduced through FGF receptors (FGFRs) and FRS2/FRS3- SHP2 (PTPN11)-GRB2 docking protein complex to SOS-RAS-RAF-MAPKK-MAPK signaling cascade and GAB1/GAB2-PI3K-PDK-AKT/aPKC signaling cascade. The RAS approximately MAPK signaling cascade is implicated in cell growth and differentiation, the PI3K approximately AKT signaling cascade in cell survival and cell fate determination, and the PI3K approximately aPKC signaling cascade in cell polarity control. FGF18, FGF20 and SPRY4 are potent targets of the canonical WNT signaling pathway in the gastrointestinal tract. SPRY4 is the FGF signaling inhibitor functioning as negative feedback apparatus for the WNT/FGF-dependent epithelial proliferation. Recombinant FGF7 and FGF20 proteins are applicable for treatment of chemotherapy/radiation-induced mucosal injury, while recombinant FGF2 protein and FGF4 expression vector are applicable for therapeutic angiogenesis. Helicobacter pylori, a causative pathogen for peptic ulcer diseases, chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer, injects bacterial proteins into gastric epithelial cells by using Type IV secretion system, which leads to FGF signaling activation through FGF2 upregulation as well as CagA-dependent SHP2 activation. FGFR2 gene is preferentially amplified and overexpressed in diffuse-type gastric cancer. PD173074 is a small-molecule inhibitor for FGFR, while RO4396686 and SU6668 are small-molecule inhibitors for FGFR and other tyrosine kinases. Cocktail therapy using multiple protein kinase inhibitors could enhance the therapeutic effects for gastrointestinal cancer through the reduction of recurrence associated with somatic mutations of drug-target genes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number polymorphism (CNP) of genes encoding FGF signaling molecules will be identified as novel risk factors of gastrointestinal cancer. Personalized prevention and personalized medicine based on the combination of genetic screening and novel therapeutic agents could dramatically improve the prognosis of cancer patients.
Goel HL, Moro L, King M, et al.Beta1 integrins modulate cell adhesion by regulating insulin-like growth factor-II levels in the microenvironment.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(1):331-42 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The interactions between cancer cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) regulate cancer progression. The beta1C and beta1A integrins, two cytoplasmic variants of the beta1 integrin subfamily, are differentially expressed in prostate cancer. Using gene expression analysis, we show here that the beta1C variant, an inhibitor of cell proliferation, which is down-regulated in prostate cancer, up-regulates insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, beta1A does not affect IGF-II levels. We provide evidence that beta1C-mediated up-regulation of IGF-II levels increases adhesion to Laminin-1, a basement membrane protein down-regulated in prostate cancer, and that the beta1C cytoplasmic domain contains the structural motif sufficient to increase cell adhesion to Laminin-1. This autocrine mechanism that locally supports cell adhesion to Laminin-1 via IGF-II is selectively regulated by the beta1 cytoplasmic domain via activation of the growth factor receptor binding protein 2-associated binder-1/SH2-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase 2/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Thus, the concurrent local loss of beta1C integrin, of its ligand Laminin-1, and of IGF-II in the tumor microenvironment may promote prostate cancer cell invasion and metastasis by reducing cancer cell adhesive properties. It is, therefore, conceivable that reexpression of beta1C will be sufficient to revert a neoplastic phenotype to a nonproliferative and highly adherent normal phenotype.