Gene Summary

Gene:HDAC2; histone deacetylase 2
Aliases: HD2, RPD3, YAF1
Summary:This gene product belongs to the histone deacetylase family. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes, and are responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues at the N-terminal regions of core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). This protein forms transcriptional repressor complexes by associating with many different proteins, including YY1, a mammalian zinc-finger transcription factor. Thus, it plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:histone deacetylase 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Signal Transduction
  • Young Adult
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • ras Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Apoptosis
  • Zinc Finger E-box-Binding Homeobox 1
  • Thioredoxins
  • Hydroxamic Acids
  • siRNA
  • Histone Deacetylases
  • Breast Cancer
  • Histones
  • Up-Regulation
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • p53 Protein
  • Down-Regulation
  • Epigenetics
  • Rats, Inbred F344
  • Histone Deacetylase 2
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Retinoic Acid
  • Survivors
  • Promoter Regions
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Messenger RNA
  • Zinc Finger Protein GLI1
  • Histone Deacetylase 1
  • Wound Healing
  • X Chromosome
  • Acetylation
  • Translocation
  • Chromosome 6
  • Valproic Acid
  • Cell Proliferation
  • TNF
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HDAC2 (cancer-related)

Li L, Mei DT, Zeng Y
HDAC2 promotes the migration and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer cells via upregulation of fibronectin.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:284-290 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies indicated that histone deacetylases (HDACs) can modulate the tumorigenesis and development of cancer cells. We evaluated the expression of class I HDACs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and found that HDAC2 was significantly increased in NSCLC cells as compared with the normal bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. Silencing of HDAC2 by its specific siRNAs can significantly inhibit the in vitro migration and invasion of A549 and H1395 cells. While over expression of HDAC2 by transfection of pcDNA/HDAC2 plasmid can trigger the motility of NSCLC cells. Over expression of HDAC2 increased the protein and mRNA expression of firbronectin (FN), which can accelerate the metastasis of cancer cells. Similarly, knock down of HDAC2 suppressed the expression of FN. The inhibitor of NF-κB, while not ERK1/2 or PI3K/Akt, attenuated HDAC2 induced up regulation of FN and invasion of NSCLC cells. Furthermore, HDAC2 can markedly increase both mRNA and protein levels of p65 in NSCLC cells. Collectively, our data revealed that HDAC2 can trigger migration and invasion of NSCLC cells via up regulation FN through activation of NF-κB. It suggested HDAC2 might be a potential therapeutic target for the drug development of NSCLC patients.

Buurman R, Sandbothe M, Schlegelberger B, Skawran B
HDAC inhibition activates the apoptosome via Apaf1 upregulation in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Eur J Med Res. 2016; 21(1):26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylation, a common hallmark in malignant tumors, strongly alters the transcription of genes involved in the control of proliferation, cell survival, differentiation and genetic stability. We have previously shown that HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 (HDAC1-3) genes encoding histone deacetylases 1-3 are upregulated in primary human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to characterize the functional effects of HDAC1-3 downregulation and to identify functionally important target genes of histone deacetylation in HCC.
METHODS: Therefore, HCC cell lines were treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) trichostatin A and by siRNA-knockdown of HDAC1-3. Differentially expressed mRNAs were identified after siRNA-knockdown of HDAC1-3 using mRNA expression profiling. Findings were validated after siRNA-mediated silencing of HDAC1-3 using qRTPCR and Western blotting assays.
RESULTS: mRNA profiling identified apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf1) to be significantly upregulated after HDAC inhibition (HLE siRNA#1/siRNA#2 p < 0.05, HLF siRNA#1/siRNA#2 p < 0.05). As a component of the apoptosome, a caspase-activating complex, Apaf1 plays a central role in the mitochondrial caspase activation pathway of apoptosis. Using annexin V, a significant increase in apoptosis could also be shown in HLE (siRNA #1 p = 0.0034) and HLF after siRNA against HDAC1-3 (Fig. 3a, b). In parallel, caspase-9 activity was increased after siRNA-knockdown of HDAC1-3 leading to enhanced apoptosis after HDAC inhibition (Fig. 3c, d).
CONCLUSIONS: The present data show that siRNA-knockdown of HDAC1-3 plays a major role in mediating apoptotic response to HDAC inhibitors through regulation of Apaf1.

Ye P, Xing H, Lou F, et al.
Histone deacetylase 2 regulates doxorubicin (Dox) sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells by targeting ABCB1 transcription.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(3):613-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been shown to regulate cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, while their roles in drug sensitivity remain unclear. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of HDAC2 on drug resistance of CRC cells.
METHODS: We measured the expression of class I HDACs (HDAC1, 2, 3, 8) in CRC and human normal colonic epithelial cells. Additionally, we inhibited HDAC2 via siRNA or overexpressed it via pcDNA/HDAC2 transfection to evaluate its roles in doxorubicin (Dox) sensitivity.
RESULTS: Our present study showed HDAC2 was significantly increased in CRC cell lines as compared to human normal colonic epithelial cells. Silencing of HDAC2 can obviously enhance the sensitivity of HCT-116 and SW480 cells to dDox. Further, knockdown of HDAC2 can significantly (p < 0.05) downregulate the expression of ABCB1, while not ABCG2, ABCC1, ABCA1, or ABCC2. Inhibition of HDAC2 decreased ABCB1 promoter activities and the phosphorylation of c-fos and c-Jun, which can directly interact with the ABCB1 promoter and then promote its transcription. Overexpression of HDAC2 by pcDNA/HDAC2 transfection significantly increased the sensitivity of CRC cells to Dox and upregulated the levels of P-gp, p-c-fos, and p-c-Jun.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that HDAC2 can regulate Dox sensitivity of CRC cells by targeting ABCB1 transcription. It suggested that HDAC2 might be an important target for CRC therapy. Further, the combination of HDAC2-specific inhibitor and anticancer drugs including Dox might be an efficiency approach to elevate the treatment outcome of CRC.

Singh Nanda J, Kumar R, Raghava GP
dbEM: A database of epigenetic modifiers curated from cancerous and normal genomes.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:19340 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have developed a database called dbEM (database of Epigenetic Modifiers) to maintain the genomic information of about 167 epigenetic modifiers/proteins, which are considered as potential cancer targets. In dbEM, modifiers are classified on functional basis and comprise of 48 histone methyl transferases, 33 chromatin remodelers and 31 histone demethylases. dbEM maintains the genomic information like mutations, copy number variation and gene expression in thousands of tumor samples, cancer cell lines and healthy samples. This information is obtained from public resources viz. COSMIC, CCLE and 1000-genome project. Gene essentiality data retrieved from COLT database further highlights the importance of various epigenetic proteins for cancer survival. We have also reported the sequence profiles, tertiary structures and post-translational modifications of these epigenetic proteins in cancer. It also contains information of 54 drug molecules against different epigenetic proteins. A wide range of tools have been integrated in dbEM e.g. Search, BLAST, Alignment and Profile based prediction. In our analysis, we found that epigenetic proteins DNMT3A, HDAC2, KDM6A, and TET2 are highly mutated in variety of cancers. We are confident that dbEM will be very useful in cancer research particularly in the field of epigenetic proteins based cancer therapeutics. This database is available for public at URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/dbem.

Pinkerneil M, Hoffmann MJ, Deenen R, et al.
Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases 1 and 2 Promotes Urothelial Carcinoma Cell Death by Various Mechanisms.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(2):299-312 [PubMed] Related Publications
Class I histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2 contribute to cell proliferation and are commonly upregulated in urothelial carcinoma. To evaluate whether specific inhibition of these enzymes might serve as an appropriate therapy for urothelial carcinoma, siRNA-mediated knockdown and specific pharmacologic inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC2 were applied in urothelial carcinoma cell lines (UCC) with distinct HDAC1 and HDAC2 expression profiles. HDACs and response marker proteins were followed by Western blotting and qRT-PCR. Effects of class I HDAC suppression on UCCs were analyzed by viability, colony forming, and caspase-3/7 assays; flow cytometry, senescence and lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity assays; and immunofluorescence staining. Whereas single knockdowns of HDAC1 or HDAC2 were impeded by compensatory upregulation of the other isoenzyme, efficient double knockdown of HDAC1 and HDAC2 reduced proliferation by up to 80% and induced apoptosis-like cell death in all UCCs. Clonogenic growth was cell line- and HDAC-dependently reduced, with double knockdown of HDAC1 and HDAC2 being usually most efficient. Class I HDAC-specific inhibitors, especially the more specific HDAC1/2 inhibitors romidepsin and givinostat, significantly reduced proliferation of all UCCs (IC50, 3.36 nmol/L-4.59 μmol/L). Romidepsin and givinostat also significantly inhibited clonogenic growth of UCCs, with minor effects on nontumorigenic controls. Intriguingly, these compounds induced primarily S-phase disturbances and nonapoptotic cell death in UCCs. Thus, although both ways of inhibiting HDAC1/2 share mechanisms and efficaciously inhibit cell proliferation, their modes of action differ substantially. Regardless, combined inhibition of HDAC1/2 appears to represent a promising strategy for urothelial carcinoma therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(2); 299-312. ©2016 AACR.

Jia ZM, Ai X, Teng JF, et al.
p21 and CK2 interaction-mediated HDAC2 phosphorylation modulates KLF4 acetylation to regulate bladder cancer cell proliferation.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):8293-304 [PubMed] Related Publications
Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a transcription factor involved in both tumor suppression and oncogenesis as a transcriptional activator or repressor in a context-dependent manner. KLF4 acts as a regulator of p53 depending on p21 status in breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the distinct role of KLF4 remain poorly understood. Here, we revealed that p21 depletion converted KLF4 from a cell cycle inhibitor to a promoter of bladder cancer cell proliferation. Additionally, KLF4 was acetylated in a p21-dependent manner to inhibit bladder cancer cell growth as a tumor suppressor. However, deacetylated KLF4 functioned as an oncogene promoting bladder cancer cell proliferation. Mechanistically, p21 and CK2 interaction, but not CK2 alone, enhanced HDAC2 phosphorylation and restricted KLF4 deacetylation and subsequent tumor promotion. Furthermore, we observed that KLF4 was acetylated by CBP/p300 and that overexpression of CBP resulted in KLF4 acetylation and tumor suppression even in p21-depleted bladder cancer cells. Moreover, we discovered that Notch-1 knockdown-induced KLF4 is acetylated form of KLF4, which may mediate Notch-1 function in bladder cancer cell proliferation. Our data demonstrate that KLF4 acts as a tumor suppressor or oncogene to activate or repress target gene transcription depending on its acetylation status, which is regulated by p21 and CK2 interaction-mediated HDAC2 phosphorylation. Targeting KLF4 at the post-transcriptional levels may provide novel insight for bladder cancer therapy.

Huang J, Yang G, Huang Y, et al.
1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma via downregulating HDAC2 and upregulating P21(WAFI/CIP1).
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(2):1373-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vitamin D, termed 1,25(OH)2D3 in it's active form, activity is associated with a reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is an important immune regulator. However, the detail molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the progression of HCC are widely unknown. Histone deacetwylase 2 (HDAC2) is usually expressed at high levels in tumors, and its downregulation leads to high expression levels of cell cycle components, including p21(WAF1/Cip1), a well-characterized modulator, which is critical in cell senescence and apoptosis. The present study investigated whether vitamin D inhibits HCC via the regulation of HDAC2 and p21(WAF1/Cip1). Firstly, the toxic concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 were determined, according to trypan blue and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assays. Secondly, HCC cells lines were treated with different concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3. The expression of HDAC2 was either silenced via short hairpin (sh)RNA or induced by transfection of plasmids expressing the HDAC2 gene in certain HCC cells. Finally the mRNA and protein levels of HDAC2 and p21(WAF1/Cip1) were measured using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. The results revealed that 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment reduced the expression of HDAC2 and increased the expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1), in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in the reduction of HCC growth. Elevated levels of HDAC2 reduced the expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1), resulting in an increase in HCC growth. HDAC2 shRNA increased the expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1), resulting in reduction in HCC growth. Thus, 1,25(OH)2D3 exerted antitumorigenic effects through decreasing the expression levels of HDAC2 and increasing the expression of p21(WAF1/Cip1), which inhibited the development of HCC and may indicate the possible underlying mechanism. These results suggest that vitamin D3 may be developed as a potential drug for effective therapy in the treatment of HCC.

Kouhkan F, Mobarra N, Soufi-Zomorrod M, et al.
MicroRNA-129-1 acts as tumour suppressor and induces cell cycle arrest of GBM cancer cells through targeting IGF2BP3 and MAPK1.
J Med Genet. 2016; 53(1):24-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-129-1 (miR-129-1) seems to behave as a tumour suppressor since its decreased expression is associated with different tumours such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM is the most common form of brain tumours originating from glial cells. The impact of miR-129-1 downregulation on GBM pathogenesis has yet to be elucidated.
METHODS: MiR-129-1 was overexpressed in GBM cells, and its effect on proliferation was investigated by cell cycle assay. MiR-129-1 predicted targets (CDK6, IGF1, HDAC2, IGF2BP3 and MAPK1) were also evaluated by western blot and luciferase assay.
RESULTS: Restoration of miR-129-1 reduced cell proliferation and induced G1 accumulation, significantly. Several functional assays confirmed IGF2BP3, MAPK1 and CDK6 as targets of miR-129-1. Despite the fact that IGF1 expression can be suppressed by miR-129-1, through 3'-untranslated region complementary sequence, we could not find any association between IGF1 expression and GBM. MiR-129-1 expression inversely correlates with CDK6, IGF2BP3 and MAPK1 in primary clinical samples.
CONCLUSION: This is the first study to propose miR129-1 as a negative regulator of IGF2BP3 and MAPK1 and also a cell cycle arrest inducer in GBM cells. Our data suggests miR-129-1 as a potential tumour suppressor and presents a rationale for the use of miR-129-1 as a novel strategy to improve treatment response in GBM.

Giaginis C, Damaskos C, Koutsounas I, et al.
Histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1, -2, -4 and -6 expression in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma: associations with clinicopathological parameters, tumor proliferative capacity and patients' survival.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2015; 15:148 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been associated with malignant tumor development and progression in humans. HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) are currently being explored as anti-cancer agents in clinical trials. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of HDAC-1, -2, -4 and -6 protein expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: HDAC-1, -2, -4 and -6 protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on 70 pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissue specimens and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological characteristics and patients' survival.
RESULTS: Enhanced HDAC-1 expression was significantly associated with increased tumor proliferative capacity (p = 0.0238) and borderline with the absence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0632). Elevated HDAC-4 expression was significantly associated with the absence of organ metastases (p = 0.0453) and borderline with the absence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0571) and tumor proliferative capacity (p = 0.0576). Enhanced HDAC-6 expression was significantly associated with earlier histopathological stage (p = 0.0115) and borderline with smaller tumor size (p = 0.0864). Pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients with enhanced HDAC-1 and -6 expression showed significantly longer survival times compared to those with low expression (p = 0.0022 and p = 0.0113, respectively), while a borderline association concerning HDAC-2 expression was noted (p = 0.0634).
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that HDACs may be implicated in pancreatic malignant disease progression, being considered of clinical utility with potential use as therapeutic targets.

Liu ZH, Li J, Xia J, et al.
Ginsenoside 20(s)-Rh2 as potent natural histone deacetylase inhibitors suppressing the growth of human leukemia cells.
Chem Biol Interact. 2015; 242:227-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Activation and abnormal expression of histone deacetylase (HDAC) which is important target for cancer therapeutics are related to the occurrence of human leukemia. 20(s)-Ginsenoside Rh2 (20(s)-Rh2) may be a potential HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) of leukemia, but the mechanism has not been reported.
METHODS: The cell proliferation and apoptosis was assessed in cultured K562 and KG-1α cells. The protein expression was measured with immunoblotting. The activities of HDAC and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) were measured with BCA. In vivo experiments were performed on naked mice carrying K562 cells for assessment of tumor growth, apoptosis, protein expression, and HDAC/HAT activities.
RESULTS: 20(s)-Rh2 effectively induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis in K562 and KG1-α cells, decreased the levels of proteins associated with cell proliferation (Cyclin D1, Bcl-2, ERK, p-ERK) and activated pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, cleaved Caspase-3, p38, p-p38, JNK, p-JNK). 20(s)-Rh2 down-regulated HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC6, increased histone H3 acetylation and HAT activity. Moreover, 20(s)-Rh2 inhibited the growth of human leukemia xenograft tumors in vivo.
CONCLUSION: 20(s)-Rh2 inhibited the proliferation of K562 and KG1-α cell by reducing the expression and activity of HDACs, increasing histone acetylation, and regulating key proteins in the downstream signaling pathways. Therefore, 20(s)-Rh2 could become a potential natural HDACi for chemotherapy of leukemia.

Cacan E, Greer SF, Garnett-Benson C
Radiation-induced modulation of immunogenic genes in tumor cells is regulated by both histone deacetylases and DNA methyltransferases.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(6):2264-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Radiation treatment is a pivotal therapy for several cancer types, including colorectal cancer. It has been shown that sublethal doses of radiation modulate gene expression, making tumor cells more susceptible to T-cell-mediated immune attack. We have recently shown that low dose radiation enhances expression of multiple death receptors (Fas, DR4 and DR5) and co-stimulatory molecules (4-1BBL and OX-40L) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells; however, it is unclear how ionizing radiation (IR) enhances expression of these molecules mechanistically. In the present study, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which radiation controls expression of these molecules in CRC. Here we report that, enhanced expression of these genes following radiation treatment of CRC cells is due, in part, to changes in DNA methylation and histone acetylation. We observed that radiation (5 Gy) significantly increased histone acetylation at the promoter regions of 4-1BBL, Fas and DR5 but not OX-40L. However, radiation did not induce changes in the global levels of acetylated histone H3 suggesting specificity of IR-induced changes. Furthermore, evaluation of epigenetic controlling enzymes revealed that IR did not alter overall cellular levels of HDACs (HDAC1, HDAC2 or HDAC3) or DNMTs (DNMT1, DNMT3a, or DNMT3b). Instead, radiation decreased binding of HDAC2 and HDAC3 at the promoter regions of Fas and 4-1BBL, respectively. Radiation also resulted in reduced DNMT1 at both the Fas and 4-1BBL promoter regions but not a control gene. We conclude that single dose radiation can influence the expression of immune response relevant genes in colorectal tumor cells by altering the binding of epigenetic enzymes, and modulating histone acetylation, at specific gene promoters.

Salim H, Zong D, Hååg P, et al.
DKK1 is a potential novel mediator of cisplatin-refractoriness in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:628 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Platinum compounds are the mainstay of chemotherapy for lung cancer. Unfortunately treatment failure remains a critical issue since about 60% of all non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients display intrinsic platinum resistance.
METHODS: We analyzed global gene expression profiles of NSCLC clones surviving a pulse treatment with cisplatin and mapped deregulated signaling networks in silico by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Further validation was done using siRNA.
RESULTS: The pooled cisplatin-surviving NSCLC clones from each of the biological replicates demonstrated heterogeneous gene expression patterns both in terms of the number and the identity of the altered genes. Genes involved in Wnt signaling pathway (Dickkopf-1, DKK1), DNA repair machinery (XRCC2) and cell-cell/cell-matrix interaction (FMN1, LGALS9) were among the top deregulated genes by microarray in these replicates and were validated by q-RT-PCR. We focused on DKK1 which previously was reported to be overexpressed in NSCLC patients. IPA network analysis revealed coordinate up-regulation of several DKK1 transcriptional regulators (TCF4, EZH2, DNAJB6 and HDAC2) in cisplatin-surviving clones from that biological replicate. Knockdown of DKK1 by siRNA sensitized for cisplatin in two different NSCLC cell lines and in ovarian A2780 cells, but not in the A2780 cis subline made resistant to cisplatin by chronic exposure, suggesting a role of DKK1 in intrinsic but not acquired platinum refractoriness.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified DKK1 as a possible marker of a cisplatin-refractory phenotype and as a potential novel therapeutic target to improve platinum response of NSCLC cells.

Labonne JD, Vogt J, Reali L, et al.
A microdeletion encompassing PHF21A in an individual with global developmental delay and craniofacial anomalies.
Am J Med Genet A. 2015; 167A(12):3011-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
In Potocki-Shaffer syndrome (PSS), the full phenotypic spectrum is manifested when deletions are at least 2.1 Mb in size at 11p11.2. The PSS-associated genes EXT2 and ALX4, together with PHF21A, all map to this region flanked by markers D11S1393 and D11S1319. Being proximal to EXT2 and ALX4, a 1.1 Mb region containing 12 annotated genes had been identified by deletion mapping to explain PSS phenotypes except multiple exostoses and parietal foramina. Here, we report a male patient with partial PSS phenotypes including global developmental delay, craniofacial anomalies, minor limb anomalies, and micropenis. Using microarray, qPCR, RT-qPCR, and Western blot analyses, we refined the candidate gene region, which harbors five genes, by excluding two genes, SLC35C1 and CRY2, which resulted in a corroborating role of PHF21A in developmental delay and craniofacial anomalies. This microdeletion contains the least number of genes at 11p11.2 reported to date. Additionally, we also discuss the phenotypes observed in our patient with respect to those of published cases of microdeletions across the Potocki-Shaffer interval.

Vavougios GD, Solenov EI, Hatzoglou C, et al.
Computational genomic analysis of PARK7 interactome reveals high BBS1 gene expression as a prognostic factor favoring survival in malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015; 309(7):L677-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of our study was to assess the differential gene expression of Parkinson protein 7 (PARK7) interactome in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) using data mining techniques to identify novel candidate genes that may play a role in the pathogenicity of MPM. We constructed the PARK7 interactome using the ConsensusPathDB database. We then interrogated the Oncomine Cancer Microarray database using the Gordon Mesothelioma Study, for differential gene expression of the PARK7 interactome. In ConsensusPathDB, 38 protein interactors of PARK7 were identified. In the Gordon Mesothelioma Study, 34 of them were assessed out of which SUMO1, UBC3, KIAA0101, HDAC2, DAXX, RBBP4, BBS1, NONO, RBBP7, HTRA2, and STUB1 were significantly overexpressed whereas TRAF6 and MTA2 were significantly underexpressed in MPM patients (network 2). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that MPM patients with high BBS1 expression had a median overall survival of 16.5 vs. 8.7 mo of those that had low expression. For validation purposes, we performed a meta-analysis in Oncomine database in five sarcoma datasets. Eight network 2 genes (KIAA0101, HDAC2, SUMO1, RBBP4, NONO, RBBP7, HTRA2, and MTA2) were significantly differentially expressed in an array of 18 different sarcoma types. Finally, Gene Ontology annotation enrichment analysis revealed significant roles of the PARK7 interactome in NuRD, CHD, and SWI/SNF protein complexes. In conclusion, we identified 13 novel genes differentially expressed in MPM, never reported before. Among them, BBS1 emerged as a novel predictor of overall survival in MPM. Finally, we identified that PARK7 interactome is involved in novel pathways pertinent in MPM disease.

Kumar RD, Searleman AC, Swamidass SJ, et al.
Statistically identifying tumor suppressors and oncogenes from pan-cancer genome-sequencing data.
Bioinformatics. 2015; 31(22):3561-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MOTIVATION: Several tools exist to identify cancer driver genes based on somatic mutation data. However, these tools do not account for subclasses of cancer genes: oncogenes, which undergo gain-of-function events, and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) which undergo loss-of-function. A method which accounts for these subclasses could improve performance while also suggesting a mechanism of action for new putative cancer genes.
RESULTS: We develop a panel of five complementary statistical tests and assess their performance against a curated set of 99 HiConf cancer genes using a pan-cancer dataset of 1.7 million mutations. We identify patient bias as a novel signal for cancer gene discovery, and use it to significantly improve detection of oncogenes over existing methods (AUROC = 0.894). Additionally, our test of truncation event rate separates oncogenes and TSGs from one another (AUROC = 0.922). Finally, a random forest integrating the five tests further improves performance and identifies new cancer genes, including CACNG3, HDAC2, HIST1H1E, NXF1, GPS2 and HLA-DRB1.
AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: All mutation data, instructions, functions for computing the statistics and integrating them, as well as the HiConf gene panel, are available at www.github.com/Bose-Lab/Improved-Detection-of-Cancer-Genes.
CONTACT: rbose@dom.wustl.edu
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Jou YJ, Chen CJ, Liu YC, et al.
Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis reveals γ-bisabolene inducing p53-mediated apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma via HDAC2 inhibition and ERK1/2 activation.
Proteomics. 2015; 15(19):3296-309 [PubMed] Related Publications
γ-Bisabolene, one of main components in cardamom, showed potent in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative activities against human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). γ-Bisabolene activated caspases-3/9 and decreased mitochondrial memebrane potential, leading to apoptosis of OSCC cell lines (Ca9-22 and SAS), but not normal oral fibroblast cells. Phosphoproteome profiling of OSCC cells treated with γ-bisabolene was identified using TiO2-PDMS plate and LC-MS/MS, then confirmed using Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR assays. Phosphoproteome profiling revealed that γ-bisabolene increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, protein phosphatases 1 (PP1), and p53, as well as decreased the phosphorylation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in the process of apoptosis induction. Protein-protein interaction network analysis proposed the involvement of PP1-HDAC2-p53 and ERK1/2-p53 pathways in γ-bisabolene-induced apoptosis. Subsequent assays indicated γ-bisabolene eliciting p53 acetylation that enhanced the expression of p53-regulated apoptotic genes. PP1 inhibitor-2 restored the status of HDAC2 phosphorylation, reducing p53 acetylation and PUMA mRNA expression in γ-bisabolene-treated Ca9-22 and SAS cells. Meanwhile, MEK and ERK inhibitors significantly decreased γ-bisabolene-induced PUMA expression in both cancer cell lines. Notably, the results ascertained the involvement of PP1-HDAC2-p53 and ERK1/2-p53 pathways in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of γ-bisabolene-treated cells. This study demonstrated γ-bisabolene displaying potent anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities against OSCC in vitro and in vivo, elucidating molecular mechanisms of γ-bisabolene-induced apoptosis. The novel insight could be useful for developing anti-cancer drugs.

Yan-Fang T, Zhi-Heng L, Li-Xiao X, et al.
Molecular Mechanism of the Cell Death Induced by the Histone Deacetylase Pan Inhibitor LBH589 (Panobinostat) in Wilms Tumor Cells.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0126566 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wilms tumor (WT) is an embryonic kidney cancer, for which histone acetylation might be a therapeutic target. LBH589, a novel targeted agent, suppresses histone deacetylases in many tumors. This study investigated the antitumor activity of LBH589 in SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells.
METHODS: SK-NEP-1 and G401 cell growth was assessed by CCK-8 and in nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry detected apoptosis in cell culture. Gene expressions of LBH589-treated tumor cells were analyzed using an Arraystar Human LncRNA Array. The Multi Experiment View cluster software analyzed the expression data. Differentially expressed genes from the cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool.
RESULTS: LBH589 inhibited cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1 and G401 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V, TUNEL and Hochest 33342 staining analysis showed that LBH589-treated cells showed more apoptotic features compared with the control. LBH589 treatment inhibited the growth of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors in nude mice. Arraystar Human LncRNA Array analysis of genes and lncRNAs regulated by LBH589 identified 6653 mRNAs and 8135 lncRNAs in LBH589-treated SK-NEP-1 cells. The most enriched gene ontology terms were those involved in nucleosome assembly. KEGG pathway analysis identified cell cycle proteins, including CCNA2, CCNB2, CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, CDKN1B and HDAC2, etc. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified important upstream molecules: HIST2H3C, HIST1H4A, HIST1A, HIST1C, HIST1D, histone H1, histone H3, RPRM, HSP70 and MYC.
CONCLUSIONS: LBH589 treatment caused apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1and G401 cells. LBH589 had a significant effect and few side effects on SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Expression profiling, and GO, KEGG and IPA analyses identified new targets and a new "network" of genes responding to LBH589 treatment in SK-NEP-1 cells. RPRM, HSP70 and MYC may be important regulators during LBH589 treatment. Our results provide new clues to the proapoptotic mechanism of LBH589.

Pozzo F, Bittolo T, Arruga F, et al.
NOTCH1 mutations associate with low CD20 level in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: evidence for a NOTCH1 mutation-driven epigenetic dysregulation.
Leukemia. 2016; 30(1):182-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), NOTCH1 mutations have been associated with clinical resistance to the anti-CD20 rituximab, although the mechanisms behind this peculiar behavior remain to be clarified. In a wide CLL series (n=692), we demonstrated that CLL cells from NOTCH1-mutated cases (87/692) were characterized by lower CD20 expression and lower relative lysis induced by anti-CD20 exposure in vitro. Consistently, CD20 expression by CLL cells was upregulated in vitro by γ-secretase inhibitors or NOTCH1-specific small interfering RNA and the stable transfection of a mutated (c.7541-7542delCT) NOTCH1 intracellular domain (NICD-mut) into CLL-like cells resulted in a strong downregulation of both CD20 protein and transcript. By using these NICD-mut transfectants, we investigated protein interactions of RBPJ, a transcription factor acting either as activator or repressor of NOTCH1 pathway when respectively bound to NICD or histone deacetylases (HDACs). Compared with controls, NICD-mut transfectants had RBPJ preferentially complexed to NICD and showed higher levels of HDACs interacting with the promoter of the CD20 gene. Finally, treatment with the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid upregulated CD20 in both NICD-mut transfectants and primary CLL cells. In conclusion, NOTCH1 mutations are associated with low CD20 levels in CLL and are responsible for a dysregulation of HDAC-mediated epigenetic repression of CD20 expression.

Wei TT, Lin YC, Lin PH, et al.
Induction of c-Cbl contributes to anti-cancer effects of HDAC inhibitor in lung cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(14):12481-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Here we found loss of c-Cbl, an E3 ligase, expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with its adjacent normal tissue in patient specimens. HDAC inhibition by WJ or knockdown of HDAC 1, HDAC2, HDAC3 or HDAC6 all induced c-Cbl. Ectopic expression of c-Cbl induced decreased EGFR, inhibited growth in NSCLC cells. Knockdown of EGFR inhibited NSCLC growth. Mutation of EGFR at Y1045 decreased WJ-induced growth inhibition as well as in vivo anti-cancer effect and EGFR degradation mediated by WJ. Time-lapse confocal analysis showed co-localization of c-Cbl and EGFR after WJ treatment. Furthermore, WJ inhibited lung tumor growth through c-Cbl induction in orthotopic and tail vein injected models. C-Cbl up-regulation induced by HDACi is a potential strategy for NSCLC treatment.

Yang H, Maddipoti S, Quesada A, et al.
Analysis of class I and II histone deacetylase gene expression in human leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2015; 56(12):3426-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are well-characterized anti-leukemia agents and HDAC gene expression deregulation has been reported in various types of cancers. This study sought to characterize HDAC gene expression patterns in several types of leukemia. To do so, a systematic study was performed of the mRNA expression of all drug-targetable HDACs for which reagents were available. This was done by real-time PCR in 24 leukemia cell lines and 39 leukemia patients, which included AML, MDS and CLL patients, some of whom received HDAC inhibitor treatment. Among the samples analyzed, there was no discernible pattern in HDAC expression. HDAC expression was generally increased in CLL patients, except for HDAC2 and HDAC4. HDAC expression was also generally increased in VPA-treated MOLT4 cells. However, this increased expression was not seen in AML patients treated with vorinostat. In summary, increased HDAC expression was noted in CLL patients in general, but the HDAC expression patterns in myeloid malignancies appear to be heterogeneous, which implies that the role of HDACs in leukemia may be related to global expression or protein function rather than specific expression patterns.

Bhaskara S
Histone deacetylases 1 and 2 regulate DNA replication and DNA repair: potential targets for genome stability-mechanism-based therapeutics for a subset of cancers.
Cell Cycle. 2015; 14(12):1779-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1,2) belong to the class I HDAC family, which are targeted by the FDA-approved small molecule HDAC inhibitors currently used in cancer therapy. HDAC1,2 are recruited to DNA break sites during DNA repair and to chromatin around forks during DNA replication. Cancer cells use DNA repair and DNA replication as survival mechanisms and to evade chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity. Hence, it is vital to understand how HDAC1,2 function during the genome maintenance processes (DNA replication and DNA repair) in order to gain insights into the mode-of-action of HDAC inhibitors in cancer therapeutics. The first-in-class HDAC1,2-selective inhibitors and Hdac1,2 conditional knockout systems greatly facilitated dissecting the precise mechanisms by which HDAC1,2 control genome stability in normal and cancer cells. In this perspective, I summarize the findings on the mechanistic functions of class I HDACs, specifically, HDAC1,2 in genome maintenance, unanswered questions for future investigations and views on how this knowledge could be harnessed for better-targeted cancer therapeutics for a subset of cancers.

Zekri AR, Hassan ZK, Bahnassy AA, et al.
Differentially expressed genes in metastatic advanced Egyptian bladder cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(8):3543-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Gene expression profiling using microarray technologies improves the understanding of cancer biology. The aim of this study was to determine the gene expression profile in Egyptian bladder cancer patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples from 29 human bladder cancers and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues were analyzed by cDNA microarray, with hierarchical clustering and multidimensional analysis.
RESULTS: Five hundred and sixteen genes were differentially expressed of which SOS1, HDAC2, PLXNC1, GTSE1, ULK2, IRS2, ABCA12, TOP3A, HES1, and SRP68 genes were involved in 33 different pathways. The most frequently detected genes were: SOS1 in 20 different pathways; HDAC2 in 5 different pathways; IRS2 in 3 different pathways. There were 388 down-regulated genes. PLCB2 was involved in 11 different pathways, MDM2 in 9 pathways, FZD4 in 5 pathways, p15 and FGF12 in 4 pathways, POLE2 in 3 pathways, and MCM4 and POLR2E in 2 pathways. Thirty genes showed significant differences between transitional cell cancer (TCC) and squamous cell cancer (SCC) samples. Unsupervised cluster analysis of DNA microarray data revealed a clear distinction between low and high grade tumors. In addition 26 genes showed significant differences between low and high tumor stages, including fragile histidine triad, Ras and sialyltransferase 8 (alpha) and 16 showed significant differences between low and high tumor grades, like methionine adenosyl transferase II, beta.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified some genes, that can be used as molecular biomarkers or target genes in Egyptian bladder cancer patients.

Valiuliene G, Stirblyte I, Cicenaite D, et al.
Belinostat, a potent HDACi, exerts antileukaemic effect in human acute promyelocytic leukaemia cells via chromatin remodelling.
J Cell Mol Med. 2015; 19(7):1742-55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic changes play a significant role in leukaemia pathogenesis, therefore histone deacetylases (HDACis) are widely accepted as an attractive strategy for acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) treatment. Belinostat (Bel, PXD101), a hydroxamate-type HDACi, has proved to be a promising cure in clinical trials for solid tumours and haematological malignancies. However, insight into molecular effects of Bel on APL, is still lacking. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bel alone and in combination with differentiation inducer retinoic acid (RA) on human promyelocytic leukaemia NB4 and HL-60 cells. We found that treatment with Bel, depending on the dosage used, inhibits cell proliferation, whereas in combination with RA enhances and accelerates granulocytic leukaemia cell differentiation. We also evaluated the effect of used treatments with Bel and RA on certain epigenetic modifiers (HDAC1, HDAC2, PCAF) as well as cell cycle regulators (p27) gene expression and protein level modulation. We showed that Bel in combination with RA up-regulates basal histone H4 hyperacetylation level more strongly compared to Bel or RA alone. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that Bel induces the accumulation of hyperacetylated histone H4 at the p27 promoter region. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that in control NB4 cells, hyperacetylated histone H4 is mainly found in association with proteins involved in DNA replication and transcription, whereas after Bel treatment it is found with proteins implicated in pro-apoptotic processes, in defence against oxidative stress and tumour suppression. Summarizing, our study provides some novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of HDACi Bel action on APL cells.

Ecker J, Oehme I, Mazitschek R, et al.
Targeting class I histone deacetylase 2 in MYC amplified group 3 medulloblastoma.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2015; 3:22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in children. Four subgroups with distinct genetic, epigenetic and clinical characteristics have been identified. Survival remains particularly poor in patients with Group 3 tumors harbouring a MYC amplification. We herein explore the molecular mechanisms and translational implications of class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in MYC driven MBs.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Expression of HDACs in primary MB subgroups was compared to normal brain tissue. A panel of MB cell lines, including Group 3 MYC amplified cell lines, were used as model systems. Cells were treated with HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) selectively targeting class I or IIa HDACs. Depletion of HDAC2 was performed. Intracellular HDAC activity, cellular viability, metabolic activity, caspase activity, cell cycle progression, RNA and protein expression were analyzed.
RESULTS: HDAC2 was found to be overexpressed in MB subgroups with poor prognosis (SHH, Group 3 and Group 4) compared to normal brain and the WNT subgroup. Inhibition of the enzymatic activity of the class I HDACs reduced metabolic activity, cell number, and viability in contrast to inhibition of class IIa HDACs. Increased sensitivity to HDACi was specifically observed in MYC amplified cells. Depletion of HDAC2 increased H4 acetylation and induced cell death. Simulation of clinical pharmacokinetics showed time-dependent on target activity that correlated with binding kinetics of HDACi compounds.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that HDAC2 is a valid drug target in patients with MYC amplified MB. HDACi should cover HDAC2 in their inhibitory profile and timing and dosing regimen in clinical trials should take binding kinetics of compounds into consideration.

Kim HS, Lee KS, Bae HJ, et al.
MicroRNA-31 functions as a tumor suppressor by regulating cell cycle and epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulatory proteins in liver cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(10):8089-102 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA-31 (miR-31) is among the most frequently altered microRNAs in human cancers and altered expression of miR-31 has been detected in a large variety of tumor types, but the functional role of miR-31 still hold both tumor suppressive and oncogenic roles in different tumor types. MiR-31 expression was down-regulated in a large cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and low expression of miR-31 was significantly associated with poor prognosis of HCC patients. Ectopic expression of miR-31 mimics suppressed HCC cell growth by transcriptional deregulation of cell cycle proteins. Additional study evidenced miR-31 directly to suppress HDAC2 and CDK2 expression by inhibiting mRNA translation in HCC cells. We also found that ectopic expression of miR-31 mimics reduced metastatic potential of HCC cells by selectively regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulatory proteins such as N-cadherin, E-cadherin, vimentin and fibronectin. HCC tissues derived from chemical-induced rat liver cancer models validated that miR-31 expression is significantly down-regulated, and that those cell cycle- and EMT-regulatory proteins are deregulated in rat liver cancer. Overall, we suggest that miR-31 functions as a tumor suppressor by selectively regulating cell cycle and EMT regulatory proteins in human hepatocarcinogenesis providing a novel target for the molecular treatment of liver malignancies.

Wagner T, Kiweler N, Wolff K, et al.
Sumoylation of HDAC2 promotes NF-κB-dependent gene expression.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(9):7123-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is crucial for the maintenance of homeostasis. It is incompletely understood how nuclear NF-κB and the crosstalk of NF-κB with other transcription factors are controlled. Here, we demonstrate that the epigenetic regulator histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) activates NF-κB in transformed and primary cells. This function depends on both, the catalytic activity and an intact HDAC2 sumoylation motif. Several mechanisms account for the induction of NF-κB through HDAC2. The expression of wild-type HDAC2 can increase the nuclear presence of NF-κB. In addition, the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1) and the tumor suppressor p53 contribute to the regulation of NF-κB by HDAC2. Moreover, TP53 mRNA expression is positively regulated by wild-type HDAC2 but not by sumoylation-deficient HDAC2. Thus, sumoylation of HDAC2 integrates NF-κB signaling involving p53 and RSK1. Since HDAC2-dependent NF-κB activity protects colon cancer cells from genotoxic stress, our data also suggest that high HDAC2 levels, which are frequently found in tumors, are linked to chemoresistance. Accordingly, inhibitors of NF-κB and of the NF-κB/p53-regulated anti-apoptotic protein survivin significantly sensitize colon carcinoma cells expressing wild-type HDAC2 to apoptosis induced by the genotoxin doxorubicin. Hence, the HDAC2-dependent signaling node we describe here may offer an interesting therapeutic option.

Yamamoto H, Imai K
Microsatellite instability: an update.
Arch Toxicol. 2015; 89(6):899-921 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deficient DNA mismatch repair (MMR) results in a strong mutator phenotype known as microsatellite instability (MSI), which is a hallmark of Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. MSI is characterized by length alterations within simple repeated sequences that are called microsatellites. Lynch syndrome is primarily caused by mutations in the MMR genes, mainly MLH1 and MSH2, and less frequently in MSH6, and rarely PMS2, and large genomic rearrangements account for 5-20 % of all mutations. Germ line hemiallelic methylations of MLH1 or MSH2 are termed as epimutations and have been identified as causative of Lynch syndrome. Moreover, germ line 3' deletions of EPCAM gene is involved in MSH2 methylation. MSI is also observed in about 15 % of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), gastric cancer (GC), and endometrial cancer (EC), and at lower frequencies in other cancers, often in association with hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene. Trimethylation of histone H3 on Lys36 (H3K36 me3) is an epigenetic histone mark that was required for DNA MMR in vivo. Thus, mutations in the H3K36 trimethyltransferase SETD2 have been reported as a potential cause of MSI. Genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic differences have been identified between cancers with and without MSI. Recent comprehensive molecular characterizations of CRC, EC, and GC by The Cancer Genome Atlas indicate that MSI+ cancers are distinct biological entities. The BRAF V600E mutation is specifically associated with sporadic MSI+ CRCs with methylated MLH1, but is not associated with Lynch syndrome-related CRCs. Accumulating evidence indicates a role of interactions between MSI and microRNA (miRNA) in the pathogenesis of MSI-positive (MSI+) cancer. As another new mechanism underlying MSI, overexpression of miR-155 or miR-21 has been shown to downregulate the expression of the MMR genes. Gene targets of frameshift mutations caused by MSI are involved in various cellular functions, including DNA repair (MSH3 and MSH6), cell signaling (TGFBR2 and ACVR2A), apoptosis (BAX), epigenetic regulation (HDAC2 and ARID1A), and miRNA processing (TARBP2 and XPO5), and a subset of MSI+ CRCs reportedly shows the mutated miRNA machinery phenotype. Moreover, microsatellite repeats in miRNA genes, such as hsa-miR-1273c, may be novel MSI targets for CRC, and mutations in noncoding regulatory regions of MRE11, BAX (BaxΔ2), and HSP110 (HSP110ΔE9) may affect the efficiency of chemotherapy. Thus, analyses of MSI and its related molecular alterations in cancers are increasingly relevant in clinical settings, and MSI is a useful screening marker for identifying patients with Lynch syndrome and a prognostic factor for chemotherapeutic interventions. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the pathogenesis of MSI and focus on genome-wide analyses that indicate the potential use of MSI and related alterations as biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets.

Chu QS, Nielsen TO, Alcindor T, et al.
A phase II study of SB939, a novel pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, in patients with translocation-associated recurrent/metastatic sarcomas-NCIC-CTG IND 200†.
Ann Oncol. 2015; 26(5):973-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A subgroup of sarcomas is characterized by defining chromosomal translocations, creating fusion transcription factor oncogenes. Resultant fusion oncoproteins associate with chromatin-modifying complexes containing histone deacetylases (HDAC), and lead to epigenetic transcriptional dysregulation. HDAC inhibitors were shown to be effective in vitro, reversing gene repression by these complexes, restoring PTEN expression and apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: SB939 is an oral inhibitor of classes 1 and 2 HDAC. Eligible patients with recurrent or metastatic translocation-associated sarcoma (TAS) by local pathology were treated with 60 mg/day every other day for 3 of 4 weeks. Central pathology review was conducted with fusion oncogenes characterized, and HDAC2 expression correlated with efficacy in pre-specified methods.
RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were treated with a median of 2 cycles. Fourteen patients were assessable for response with confirmed specific chromosomal translocations; 8 had a best response of stable disease (SD) (median duration 5.4 months) with no confirmed objective responses. The 3-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 49%. Among those with HDAC2 score ≥5, 7/10 had SD, versus 0/3 with HDAC2 score <5. SB939 was considered as well tolerated with <10% patients experienced ≥grade 3 toxicity.
CONCLUSION: This study was stopped prematurely due to prolonged unavailability of SB939. No objective responses were seen. Although the observed SD in HDAC2 high patients was interesting, due to the small sample size, no definitive conclusion can be drawn about the efficacy of SB939 in this patient population.

Farhana L, Dawson MI, Fontana JA
Down regulation of miR-202 modulates Mxd1 and Sin3A repressor complexes to induce apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(1):115-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant regulation of microRNA expression in pancreatic cancers has been shown to play an important role in its inherent poor prognosis and malignant potential. MicroRNAs have also been shown to inhibit translation of genes by targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3-UTR) of mRNAs resulting in the inhibition of translation and often destruction of the mRNA. In the present study we investigated the role of the microRNA miR-202 in the apoptotic pathways of pancreatic cancer cells. The adamantyl-related molecule, 3-Cl-AHPC down-regulated expression of miR-202 and miR-578 resulting in the increased expression of mRNA and protein expression of their target genes, Max dimerization protein 1 (Mxd1/Mad1) and the Sin3A associated protein 18 (SAP18). Overexpression of pre-miR-202 led to diminished levels of Mxd1 and blocked the 3-Cl-AHPC-mediated increase in Mxd1 mRNA expression. The addition of the microRNA inhibitor 2'-O-methylated miR-202 enhanced the 3-Cl-AHPC-mediated increase of Mxd1 mRNA levels as well as 3-CI-AHPC-mediated apoptosis. We found increased Mxd1 bound to the Sin3A repressor protein complex through its increased binding with HDAC-2 and subsequently enhanced transcriptional repression in cells as evidenced by increased HDAC activity. Mxd1 also repressed human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA expression through its increased binding to the hTERT promoter site and resulted in decreased telomerase activity in cells. Our results demonstrate that down regulation of miR-202 increased the expression of its target Mxd1, followed by Mxd1 recruitment to the Sin3A repressor complex and through its dimerization with Max, and increased repression of Myc-Max target proteins.

Xu LX, Li ZH, Tao YF, et al.
Histone acetyltransferase inhibitor II induces apoptosis in glioma cell lines via the p53 signaling pathway.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:108 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines. The novel cell-permeable p300/CREB-binding protein (CBP)-selective HAT inhibitor HATi II can reduce histone H3 acetylation and induce chromatin condensation in HeLa cells. Here, we examined the effects and mechanism of action of HATi II in glioma cell lines.
METHODS: Cell viability was assessed using the CCK-8 assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. Apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin V staining and flow cytometry, Hoechst 33342 staining and the TUNEL assay. Expression and cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were assessed by Western blotting. Statistical analysis was performed using two-tailed Student's t-tests. The gene expression profiles of U251 glioma cells treated with HATi II or DMSO were analyzed using the Arraystar Human 8 x 60 K LncRNA/mRNA expression array; data was analyzed using MEV (Multi Experiment View) cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profiles (≥2-fold) derived from the cluster analyses were subjected to gene ontology and pathway analysis.
RESULTS: HATi II inhibited the proliferation of U251, U87, HS683 and SHG44 cells in a dose-dependent manner. HATi II induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, and induced significant levels of apoptosis, apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation in HATi II-treated U251 and SHG44 cells. HATi II induced cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP in U251 and SHG44 cells. In HATi II-treated U251 cells, 965 genes were upregulated, 984 genes were downregulated and 3492/33327 lncRNAs were differentially expressed. GO analysis showed the differentially expressed genes with known functions are involved in a variety of processes; alcoholism, p53 signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and transcriptional mis-regulation in cancer were the four most significant pathways. Upregulation of p53 signaling pathway-related genes in HATi II-treated cells was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting.
CONCLUSIONS: HATi II inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis via the caspase-dependent pathway in human glioma cell lines, possibly by activating the p53 signaling pathway. HATi II deserves further investigation as a novel treatment for glioma.

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