Gene Summary

Gene:HDAC2; histone deacetylase 2
Aliases: HD2, RPD3, YAF1, KDAC2
Summary:This gene product belongs to the histone deacetylase family. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes, and are responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues at the N-terminal regions of core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). This protein forms transcriptional repressor complexes by associating with many different proteins, including YY1, a mammalian zinc-finger transcription factor. Thus, it plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:histone deacetylase 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • NOTCH1 Receptor
  • Histone Deacetylase 2
  • Valproic Acid
  • Acetylation
  • Thioredoxins
  • Breast Cancer
  • Wound Healing
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway
  • Rats, Inbred F344
  • Chromosome 6
  • Retinoic Acid
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • p53 Protein
  • Histones
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • ras Proteins
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Translocation
  • Histone Deacetylase 1
  • Promoter Regions
  • Oncogenes
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Apoptosis
  • Young Adult
  • Stem Cells
  • Vorinostat
  • Up-Regulation
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • X Chromosome
  • Messenger RNA
  • siRNA
  • Zinc Finger E-box-Binding Homeobox 1
  • Ubiquitination
  • Signal Transduction
  • Histone Deacetylases
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HDAC2 (cancer-related)

Jia H, Xu M, Bo Y, et al.
Ras-ERK1/2 signaling accelerates the progression of colorectal cancer via mediation of H2BK5ac.
Life Sci. 2019; 230:89-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) is a key downstream gene of Ras pathway. Activation of Ras-ERK1/2 has been testified to be linked to the progression of diverse cancers. Nonetheless, whether Ras-ERK1/2-tumorigenic pathway is mediated by epigenetic factors remains indistinct. The purpose of the research attempted to disclose the functions of H2BK5ac in Ras-ERK1/2-evoked CRC cell phenotypes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Western blot assay was implemented for exploration of the relevancy between Ras-ERK1/2 and H2BK5ac. H2BK5Q was established and its functions in cell viability, colony formation and migration were appraised via utilizing MTT, soft-agar colony formation and Transwell assays. The mRNA and transcription of ERK1/2 downstream genes were estimated via RT-qPCR and ChIP assays. HDAC2 functions in SW48 cell phenotypes were evaluated after co-transfection with pEGFP-Ras
KEY FINDINGS: H2BK5ac expression was evidently repressed by Ras-ERK1/2 pathway in SW48 cells. Moreover, Ras-ERK1/2-elevated cell viability, the number of colonies and migration were both impeded by H2BK5ac. The mRNA and transcriptions of CYR61, IGFBP3, WNT16B, NT5E, GDF15 and CARD16 were both mediated by H2BK5ac. Additionally, HDAC2 silence overtly recovered H2BK5ac expression inhibited by Ras-ERK1/2, meanwhile abated Ras-ERK1/2-affected SW48 cell phenotypes. Beyond that, restrained H2BK5ac induced by Ras-ERK1/2 was concerned with MDM2-mediated ATF2 degradation.
SIGNIFICANCE: These investigations testified that Ras-ERK1/2 pathway affected SW48 cell phenotypes through repressing H2BK5ac expression. Otherwise, declined H2BK5ac might be linked to MDM2-mediated ATF2 degradation.

Pradhan N, Parbin S, Kausar C, et al.
Paederia foetida induces anticancer activity by modulating chromatin modification enzymes and altering pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in human prostate cancer cells.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2019; 130:161-173 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant epigenetic modifications are responsible for tumor development and cancer progression; however, readily reversible. Bioactive molecules from diets are promising to cure cancer by modulating epigenetic marks and changing immune response. These compounds specifically target the activity of DNMTs and HDACs to cure various human cancers. In view of this, we investigated the anticancer and epigenetic regulatory activities of an edible-plant Paederia foetida. The efficacy of methanolic extract of P. foetida leaves (MEPL) was tested for the modulation of epigenetic factors in gene silencing, i.e. DNMT and HDAC and expression pattern of certain tumor-suppressor genes. After treatment of prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and DU-145) with MEPL, lupeol and β-sitosterol; induction of apoptosis, decrease in cellular-viability and inhibition of cellular-migration were noticed. Simultaneously there was inhibition of DNMT1, HDACs and pro-inflammatory, IL-6, IL1-β, TNF-α and anti-inflammatory, IL-10 genes in cancer and THP1 cell lines. The DNMT1 protein content, enzyme activity and Bcl2 expression decreased significantly; however, expression of E-cadherin (CDH1) and pro-apoptotic gene Bax increased significantly after the treatment of cells with drugs. We conclude plant-derived compounds can be considered to target epigenetic machineries involved with malignant transformation and can open new avenues for cancer therapeutics provoking immune response.

Chen SH, Chow JM, Hsieh YY, et al.
HDAC1,2 Knock-Out and HDACi Induced Cell Apoptosis in Imatinib-Resistant K562 Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Since imatinib (Glivec or Gleevec) has been used to target the BCR-ABL fusion protein, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has become a manageable chronic disease with long-term survival. However, 15%-20% of CML patients ultimately develop resistance to imatinib and then progress to an accelerated phase and eventually to a blast crisis, limiting treatment options and resulting in a poor survival rate. Thus, we investigated whether histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) could be used as a potential anticancer therapy for imatinib-resistant CML (IR-CML) patients. By applying a noninvasive apoptosis detection sensor (NIADS), we found that panobinostat significantly enhanced cell apoptosis in K562 cells. A further investigation showed that panobinostat induced apoptosis in both K562 and imatinib-resistant K562 (IR-K562) cells mainly via H3 and H4 histone acetylation, whereas panobinostat targeted cancer stem cells (CSCs) in IR-K562 cells. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genomic editing, we found that HDAC1 and HDAC2 knockout cells significantly induced cell apoptosis, indicating that the regulation of HDAC1 and HDAC2 is extremely important in maintaining K562 cell survival. All information in this study indicates that regulating HDAC activity provides therapeutic benefits against CML and IR-CML in the clinic.

Kim TW, Han SR, Kim JT, et al.
Differential expression of tescalcin by modification of promoter methylation controls cell survival in gastric cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(6):3464-3474 [PubMed] Related Publications
The EF‑hand calcium binding protein tescalcin (TESC) is highly expressed in various human and mouse cancer tissues and is therefore considered a potential oncogene. However, the underlying mechanism that governs TESC expression remains unclear. Emerging evidence suggests that TESC expression is under epigenetic regulation. In the present study, the relationship between the epigenetic modification and gene expression of TESC in gastric cancer was investigated. To evaluate the relationship between the methylation and expression of TESC in gastric cancer, the methylation status of CpG sites in the TESC promoter was analyzed using microarray with the Illumina Human Methylation27 BeadChip (HumanMethylation27_270596_v.1.2), gene profiles from the NCBI Dataset that revealed demethylated status were acquired, and real‑time methylation‑specific PCR (MSP) in gastric cancer cells was conducted. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the hypermethylation of TESC led to the downregulation of TESC mRNA/protein expression. In addition, 5‑aza‑2c‑deoxycytidine (5'‑aza‑dC) restored TESC expression in the tested gastric cancer cells except for SNU‑620 cells. ChIP assay further revealed that the methylation of the TESC promoter was associated with methyl‑CpG binding domain protein (MBD)1, histone deacetylase (HDAC)2, and Oct‑1 and that treatment with 5'‑aza‑dC facilitated the dissociation of MBD1, HDAC2, and Oct‑1 from the promoter of TESC. Moreover, silencing of TESC increased MBD1 expression and decreased the H3K4me2/3 level, thereby causing transcriptional repression and suppression of cell survival in NCI‑N87 cells; conversely, overexpression of TESC downregulated MBD1 expression and upregulated the H3K4me2 level associated with active transcription in SNU‑638 cells. These results indicated that the differential expression of TESC via the modification status of the promoter and histone methylation controled cell survival in gastric cancer cells. Overall, the present study provided a novel therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.

Liao M, Liao W, Xu N, et al.
LncRNA EPB41L4A-AS1 regulates glycolysis and glutaminolysis by mediating nucleolar translocation of HDAC2.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 41:200-213 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: LncRNAs have been found to be involved in various aspects of biological processes. In this study, we aimed to uncover the molecular mechanisms of lncRNA EPB41L4A-AS1 in regulating glycolysis and glutaminolysis in cancer cells.
METHODS: The expression of EPB41L4A-AS1 in cancer patients was analyzed in TCGA and GEO datasets. The level of cellular metabolism was determined by extracellular flux analyzer. The relationship between p53 and EPB41L4A-AS1 was explored by qRT-PCR, luciferase assay and ChIP assay. The interactions between EPB41L4A-AS1 and HDAC2 or NPM1 were determined by RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA pull-down assay and RNA-FISH- immunofluorescence.
FINDINGS: EPB41L4A-AS1 was a p53-regulated gene. Low expression and deletion of lncRNA EPB41L4A-AS1 were found in a variety of human cancers and associated with poor prognosis of cancer patients. Knock down EPB41L4A-AS1 expression triggered Warburg effect, demonstrated as increased aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis. EPB41L4A-AS1 interacted and colocalized with HDAC2 and NPM1 in nucleolus. Silencing EPB41L4A-AS1 reduced the interaction between HDAC2 and NPM1, released HDAC2 from nucleolus and increased its distribution in nucleoplasm, enhanced HDAC2 occupation on VHL and VDAC1 promoter regions, and finally accelerated glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Depletion of EPB41L4A-AS1 increased the sensitivity of tumor to glutaminase inhibitor in tumor therapy.
INTERPRETATION: EPB41L4A-AS1 functions as a repressor of the Warburg effect and plays important roles in metabolic reprogramming of cancer.

Tang W, Zhou W, Xiang L, et al.
The p300/YY1/miR-500a-5p/HDAC2 signalling axis regulates cell proliferation in human colorectal cancer.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):663 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The biological role of miR-500a-5p has not yet been reported in the context of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we show that miR-500a-5p expression is decreased in CRC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Low miR-500a-5p expression is associated with malignant progression. Moreover, transfection of CRC cells with miR-500a-5p induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibits their growth and migration. Mechanistically, miR-500a-5p directly targets HDAC2 and inhibits HDAC2-mediated proliferation in CRC in nude mice. Furthermore, YY1 binds to the promoter of miR-500a-5p and negatively regulates its transcription. Restoration of miR-500a-5p expression is up-regulated via the p300/YY1/HDAC2 complex. Besides, therapeutic delivery of miR-500a-5p significantly suppresses tumour development in a xenograft tumour model and a HDAC2 inhibitor FK228-treated CRC model. Our studies demonstrate that miR-500a-5p functions as a tumour suppressor in CRC by targeting the p300/YY1/HDAC2 axis, which contributes to the development of and provides new potential candidates for CRC therapy.

Lin CL, Tsai ML, Lin CY, et al.
HDAC1 and HDAC2 Double Knockout Triggers Cell Apoptosis in Advanced Thyroid Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) and squamous thyroid carcinoma (STC) are both rare and advanced thyroid malignancies with a very poor prognosis and an average median survival time of 5 months and less than 20% of affected patients are alive 1 year after diagnosis. The clinical management of both ATC and STC is very similar because they are not particularly responsive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This inspired us to explore a novel and effective clinically approved therapy for ATC treatment. Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) drugs are recently FDA-approved drug for malignancies, especially for blood cell cancers. Therefore, we investigated whether an HDACi drug acts as an effective anticancer drug for advanced thyroid cancers. Cell viability analysis of panobinostat treatment demonstrated a significant IC50 of 0.075 µM on SW579 STC cells. In addition, panobinostat exposure activated histone acetylation and triggered cell death mainly through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis-related protein activation. Using CRISPR/Cas9 to knock out

Montgomery MR, Hull EE
Alterations in the glycome after HDAC inhibition impact oncogenic potential in epigenetically plastic SW13 cells.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Defects in the type and degree of cellular glycosylation impact oncogenesis on multiple levels. Although the type of glycosylation is determined by protein sequence encoded by the genome, the extent and modifications of glycosylation depends on the activity of biosynthetic enzymes and recent data suggests that the glycome is also subject to epigenetic regulation. This study focuses on the ability of HDAC inhibition to alter glycosylation and to lead to pro-oncogenic alterations in the glycome as assessed by metastatic potential and chemoresistance.
METHODS: Epigenetically plastic SW13 adrenocortical carcinoma cells were treated with FK228, an HDAC inhibitor with high affinity for HDAC1 and, to a lesser extent, HDAC2. In comparing HDAC inhibitor treated and control cells, differential expression of glycome-related genes were assessed by microarray. Differential glycosylation was then assessed by lectin binding arrays and the ability of cellular proteins to bind to glycans was assessed by glycan binding arrays. Differential sensitivity to paclitaxel, proliferation, and MMP activity were also assessed.
RESULTS: Treatment with FK228 alters expression of enzymes in the biosynthetic pathways for a large number of glycome related genes including enzymes in all major glycosylation pathways and several glycan binding proteins. 84% of these differentially expressed glycome-related genes are linked to cancer, some as prognostic markers and others contributing basic oncogenic functions such as metastasis or chemoresistance. Glycan binding proteins also appear to be differentially expressed as protein extracts from treated and untreated cells show differential binding to glycan arrays. The impact of differential mRNA expression of glycosylation enzymes was documented by differential lectin binding. However, the assessment of changes in the glycome is complicated by the fact that detection of differential glycosylation through lectin binding is dependent on the methods used to prepare samples as protein-rich lysates show different binding than fixed cells in several cases. Paralleling the alterations in the glycome, treatment of SW13 cells with FK228 increases metastatic potential and reduces sensitivity to paclitaxel.
CONCLUSIONS: The glycome is substantially altered by HDAC inhibition and these changes may have far-reaching impacts on oncogenesis.

Nie E, Miao F, Jin X, et al.
Fstl1/DIP2A/MGMT signaling pathway plays important roles in temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(15):2706-2721 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Temozolomide was recognized as the first-line therapy for glioblastoma to prolong the survival of patients noticeably, while recent clinical studies found that some patients were not sensitive to temozolomide treatment. The possible mechanisms seemed to be methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT), mismatch repair, PARP, etc. And the abnormal expression of MGMT might be the most direct factor. In this study, we provide evidence that Fstl1 plays a vital role in temozolomide resistance by sequentially regulating DIP2A protein distribution, H3K9 acetylation (H3K9Ac), and MGMT transcription. As a multifunctional protein widely distributed in cells, DIP2A cooperates with the HDAC2-DMAP1 complex to enhance H3K9Ac deacetylation, prevent MGMT transcription, and increase temozolomide sensitivity. Fstl1, a glycoprotein highly expressed in glioblastoma, competitively binds DIP2A to block DIP2A nuclear translocation, so as to hinder DIP2A from binding the HDAC2-DMAP1 complex. The overexpression of Fstl1 promoted the expression of MGMT in association with increased promoter H3K9Ac. Upregulation of Fstl1 enhanced temozolomide resistance, whereas Fstl1 silencing obviously sensitized GBM cells to temozolomide both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, DIP2A depletion abolished the effects of Fstl1 on MGMT expression and temozolomide resistance. These findings highlight an important role of Fstl1 in the regulation of temozolomide resistance by modulation of DIP2A/MGMT signaling.

Yang Y, Zhang J, Wu T, et al.
Histone deacetylase 2 regulates the doxorubicin (Dox) resistance of hepatocarcinoma cells and transcription of ABCB1.
Life Sci. 2019; 216:200-206 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) can regulate cell-cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma (HCC) cells, while their roles in drug sensitivity remain unclear. Our results showed that the expression of HDAC2 was significantly increased in HCC doxorubicin (Dox) resistant cells as compared with their corresponding control cells. Over expression of HDAC2 can increase the cell viability and decrease the Dox sensitivity. Kaplan-Meier Plotter assay revealed that HCC patients with higher levels of HDAC2 had significantly poor prognosis than that of the lower expression patients. Mechanistically studies revealed that HDAC2 can regulate the transcription of ABCB1 via directly binding with its promoter and increasing its expression in Dox resistant HCC cells. Knockdown of HDAC2 significantly inhibited the expression of ABCB1. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that HDAC2 can bind with c-fos, an important transcription factor of ABCB1, in HCC/Dox cells. Knockdown of c-Fos decreased the binding between HDAC2 and promoter of ABCB1 in HCC/Dox cells. Collectively, our data revealed that HDAC2 can regulate Dox sensitivity of HCC cells and the transcription of ABCB1.

Jang YG, Hwang KA, Choi KC
Rosmarinic Acid, a Component of Rosemary Tea, Induced the Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis through Modulation of HDAC2 Expression in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.
Nutrients. 2018; 10(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Rosmarinic acid (RA), a main phenolic compound contained in rosemary which is used as tea, oil, medicine and so on, has been known to present anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer effects. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes that play important roles in gene expression by removing the acetyl group from histone. The aberrant expression of HDAC in human tumors is related with the onset of human cancer. Especially, HDAC2, which belongs to HDAC class I composed of HDAC 1, 2, 3 and 8, has been reported to be highly expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) where it downregulates the expression of p53, resulting in an inhibition of apoptosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of RA in comparison with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), an HDAC inhibitor used as an anti-cancer agent, on survival and apoptosis of PCa cell lines, PC-3 and DU145, and the expression of HDAC. RA decreased the cell proliferation in cell viability assay, and inhibited the colony formation and tumor spheroid formation. Additionally, RA induced early- and late-stage apoptosis of PC-3 and DU145 cells in Annexin V assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, respectively. In western blot analysis, RA inhibited the expression of HDAC2, as SAHA did. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 were downregulated by RA, whereas p21 was upregulated. In addition, RA modulated the protein expression of intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway-related genes, such as Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (

Wang M, An S, Wang D, et al.
Activation of PAR4 Upregulates p16 through Inhibition of DNMT1 and HDAC2 Expression via MAPK Signals in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.
J Immunol Res. 2018; 2018:4735752 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A previous study showed that a downexpression of protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4) is associated with the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this study, we explored the relationship between PAR4 activation and the expression of p16, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms in PAR4 inducing the tumor suppressor role in ESCC. ESCC cell lines (EC109 and TE-1) were treated with PAR4-activating peptide (PAR4-AP). Immunohistochemistry for DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) was performed in 26 cases of ESCC tissues. We found that DNMT1 and HDAC2 immunoreactivities in ESCC were significantly higher than those in adjacent noncancerous tissues. PAR4 activation could suppress DNMT1 and HDAC2, as well as increase p16 expressions, whereas silencing PAR4 dramatically increased HDAC2 and DNMT1, as well as reduced p16 expressions. Importantly, the chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR (ChIP-PCR) data indicated that treatment of ESCC cells with PAR4-AP remarkably suppressed DNMT1 and HDAC2 enrichments on the p16 promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that activation of PAR4 resulted in an increase of p38/ERK phosphorylation and activators for p38/ERK enhanced the effect of PAR4 activation on HDAC2, DNMT1, and p16 expressions, whereas p38/ERK inhibitors reversed these effects. Moreover, we found that activation of PAR4 in ESCC cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that PAR4 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in ESCC cells and represents a potential therapeutic target of this disease.

Sethuraman A, Brown M, Krutilina R, et al.
BHLHE40 confers a pro-survival and pro-metastatic phenotype to breast cancer cells by modulating HBEGF secretion.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):117 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is responsible for a significant number of breast cancer-related deaths. Hypoxia, a primary driving force of cancer metastasis, induces the expression of BHLHE40, a transcription regulator. This study aimed to elucidate the function of BHLHE40 in the metastatic process of breast cancer cells.
METHODS: To define the role of BHLHE40 in breast cancer, BHLHE40 expression was knocked down by a lentiviral construct expressing a short hairpin RNA against BHLHE40 or knocked out by the CRISPR/Cas9 editing system. Orthotopic xenograft and experimental metastasis (tail vein injection) mouse models were used to analyze the role of BHLHE40 in lung metastasis of breast cancer. Global gene expression analysis and public database mining were performed to identify signaling pathways regulated by BHLHE40 in breast cancer. The action mechanism of BHLHE40 was examined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP), exosome analysis, and cell-based assays for metastatic potential.
RESULTS: BHLHE40 knockdown significantly reduced primary tumor growth and lung metastasis in orthotopic xenograft and experimental metastasis models of breast cancer. Gene expression analysis implicated a role of BHLHE40 in transcriptional activation of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HBEGF). ChIP and CoIP assays revealed that BHLHE40 induces HBEGF transcription by blocking DNA binding of histone deacetylases (HDAC)1 and HDAC2. Cell-based assays showed that HBEGF is secreted through exosomes and acts to promote cell survival and migration. Public databases provided evidence linking high expression of BHLHE40 and HBEGF to poor prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: This study reveals a novel role of BHLHE40 in promoting tumor cell survival and migration by regulating HBEGF secretion.

Zhang L, Kang W, Lu X, et al.
Weighted gene co-expression network analysis and connectivity map identifies lovastatin as a treatment option of gastric cancer by inhibiting HDAC2.
Gene. 2019; 681:15-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identifying and validating therapeutic compounds which might have positive effects on patients with gastric cancer (GC) based on weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and connectivity map (CMap).
METHODS: We performed WGCNA to gain insights into the molecular aspects of GC. Raw microarray datasets (including 132 samples) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) website. We utilized the WGCNA to identify the coexpressed genes (modules) and modular hub genes after non-specific filtering. Furthermore, these differentially expressed genes were submitted to CMap analysis to identify candidate therapeutic compounds for GC. In experimental part, cell growth inhibition was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and colony formation assays. Tumor growth was assessed using nude mice with xenografts established in vivo. QRT-PCR and western blot were used for determination of HDAC2 expression level and immunohistochemistry was performed to quantify HDAC2 in gastric tumor samples.
RESULTS: Through WGCNA and CMap analysis, we found two potential therapeutic compounds, the valproic acid (VPA), which is the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and lovastatin. HDAC2 was overexpressed in gastric cancer cell lines including AGS, BGC-823, NCI-N87 and MKN28. Dose-dependent inhibition of gastric cancer cells by VPA and lovastatin was verified in vitro. Apoptosis of GC cells was induced after treatment with VPA and lovastatin through suppressing HDAC2 expression. Furthermore, the inhibition of VPA with cisplatin and lovastatin with cisplatin were also dose-dependent and cisplatin exhibited synergistic effects. In the xenografts, similar results were found.
CONCLUSION: WGCNA was able to identify significant groups of genes associated with cancer prognosis. Moreover, analysis of gene expression signature using CMap is a powerful way to explore potential therapeutics for human diseases. For treating GC, lovastatin may be a potential drug.

Orenay-Boyacioglu S, Kasap E, Gerceker E, et al.
Expression profiles of histone modification genes in gastric cancer progression.
Mol Biol Rep. 2018; 45(6):2275-2282 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) development can be attributed to several risk factors including atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), and the presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Also, histone modification is an epigenetic mechanism that plays a pivotal role in GC carcinogenesis. In this preliminary study, we aimed to describe the expression profiles of histone modification in the AG, IM, and GC patient groups. A total of 80 patients with AG (n = 27), IM (n = 25), and GC (n = 28) with an additional 20 control subjects were included in the study. Expression profiles of three histone phosphorylation genes (PAK1, NEK6, and AURKA) and five histone deacetylation genes (HDACs 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7) were examined based on the results of Real Time qPCR method. It was observed that AURKA and HDAC2 genes were significantly overexpressed in all groups compared to the control (P < 0.05). In GC patients, overexpression of HDAC2 gene was detected in the absence of metastasis, and overexpression of AURKA, HDAC2, and NEK6 genes was detected in the presence of metastasis. When cancer involvements were compared, significant overexpression of the HDAC2 gene was noted in overall and corpus involvements (P < 0.05). In addition, overexpression of AURKA, NEK6, HDAC1, and HDAC2 genes and underexpression of HDAC5 gene were detected in the antrum involvement (P < 0.05). In conclusion, decreased expression of HDAC5 in GC is reported for the first time in this study, while supporting the existing literature in AURKA, NEK6, HDAC1, and HDAC2 up regulations during GC development.

Zhang JW, Li LX, Wu WZ, et al.
Anti-Tumor Effects of Paeoniflorin on Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:6405-6413 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in China, and the development of effective drugs is urgently needed. Here, we report on Paeoniflorin (PF), a product isolated from the roots of the peony plant, as a possible candidate because of its anti-tumor effects on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of PF in human colorectal cancer (CRC). MATERIAL AND METHODS Cell proliferation, wound healing, and Transwell assays were used to analyze the effects of PF on in vitro cell migration and invasion of HCT116 and SW480, 2 colorectal cancer cell lines. The tumor xenograft model was used to verify the anti-metastasis effects of PF in vivo. The RNA and protein levels of epithelia-cadherin (E-cadherin), Vimentin, and histone deacetylase2 (HDAC2) were measured by qPCR and Western blot analysis to explore the mechanism involved. RESULTS Our results showed that PF inhibited colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion and suppressed the metastatic potential of the cancer cells in vivo. Moreover, PF significantly decreased the expression of HDAC2 and Vimentin, while increasing the expression of E-cadherin. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that PF inhibits colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion ability and reverses the EMT process, through inhibiting the expression of HDAC2, and then affects the expression level of E-cadherin and Vimentin at the cell level. Our results were also verified in the tumor xenograft model. This indicates that PF may be a candidate for colorectal cancer treatment.

Wang Y, Zhang J, Wu L, et al.
Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome 1 protein functions as a scaffold required for ubiquitin-specific protease 4-directed histone deacetylase 2 de-ubiquitination and tumor growth.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have reported that tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type I (TRPS1) protein, the only reported atypical GATA transcription factor, is overexpressed in various carcinomas, the underlying mechanism(s) by which it contributes to cancer remain unknown.
METHODS: Both overexpression and knockdown of TRPS1 assays were performed to examine the effect of TRPS1 on histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) protein level and luminal breast cancer cell proliferation. Also, RT-qRCR, luciferase reporter assay and RNA-sequencing were used for transcription detection. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) using H4K16ac antibody in conjunction with qPCR was used for determining H4K16ac levels in targeted genes. Furthermore, in vitro cell proliferation assay and in vivo tumor xenografts were used to detect the effect of TRPS1 on tumor growth.
RESULTS: We found that TRPS1 scaffolding recruits and enhances interaction between USP4 and HDAC2 leading to HDAC2 de-ubiquitination and H4K16 deacetylation. We detected repression of a set of cellular growth-related genes by the TRPS1-USP4-HDAC2 axis indicating it is essential in tumor growth. In vitro and in vivo experiments confirmed that silencing TRPS1 reduced tumor growth, whereas overexpression of HDAC2 restored tumor growth.
CONCLUSION: Our study deciphered the TRPS1-USP4-HDAC2 axis as a novel mechanism that contributes to tumor growth. Significantly, our results revealed the scaffolding function of TPRS1 in USP4-directed HDAC2 de-ubiquitination and provided new mechanistic insights into the crosstalk between TRPS1, ubiquitin, and histone modification systems leading to tumor growth.

Caumanns JJ, Wisman GBA, Berns K, et al.
ARID1A mutant ovarian clear cell carcinoma: A clear target for synthetic lethal strategies.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer. 2018; 1870(2):176-184 [PubMed] Related Publications
SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes play an important role in the epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure and gene transcription. Mutual exclusive subunits in the SWI/SNF complex include the DNA targeting members ARID1A and ARID1B as well as the ATPases SMARCA2 and SMARCA4. SWI/SNF complexes are mutated across many cancer types. The highest mutation incidence is found in ARID1A, primarily consisting of deleterious mutations. Current advances have reported synthetic lethal interactions with the loss of ARID1A in several cancer types. In this review, we discuss targets that are only important for tumor growth in an ARID1A mutant context. We focus on synthetic lethal strategies with ARID1A loss in ovarian clear cell carcinoma, a cancer with the highest ARID1A mutation incidence (46-57%). ARID1A directed lethal strategies that can be exploited clinically include targeting of the DNA repair proteins PARP and ATR, and the epigenetic factors EZH2, HDAC2, HDAC6 and BRD2.

Li X, Ruan X, Zhang P, et al.
TBX3 promotes proliferation of papillary thyroid carcinoma cells through facilitating PRC2-mediated p57
Oncogene. 2018; 37(21):2773-2792 [PubMed] Related Publications
The T-box transcription factor TBX3 has been implicated in the patterning and differentiation of a number of tissues during embryonic development, and is overexpressed in a variety of cancers; however, the precise function of TBX3 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) development remains to be determined. In the current study, we report downregulation of TBX3 in PTC cells delays the G1/S-phase transition, decreases cell growth in vitro, and inhibits tumor formation in vivo. We identified p57

Cheng B, Tang S, Zhe N, et al.
Low expression of GFI-1 Gene is associated with Panobinostat-resistance in acute myeloid leukemia through influencing the level of HO-1.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 100:509-520 [PubMed] Related Publications
To improve the treatment outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), epigenetic modification has been widely tested and used in recent years. However, drug-resistance is still a choke point to cure the malignancy. The growth factor independent 1 transcriptional repressor (GFI-1), as a zinc-finger transcriptional repressor, can bind histone deacetylases to allow the transcriptional repression. According to the finding of our study, AML patients with low level of GFI-1 not only implicated poor prognosis but also caused Panobinostat-resistance. In our prevent study revealed that heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) was one of the main factors leading to chemotherapy sensitivity to AML. Thus, this study tried to test the correlation between GFI-1 and HO-1. Our study discovered that AML patients with lower expression of GFI-1 had higher level of HO-1, HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3, which resulted in poor prognosis in AML. The results of the in vitro study were the same. Panobinostat is a promising new class of anti-cancer drugs in AML. However, knocking down GFI-1 by siRNA could eliminate the Panobinostat-induced cell apoptosis. Subsequently, we utilized ZnPP to down regulate the level of HO-1, finding that the Panobinostat-resistance between the low level of GFI-1 and empty vector had eased. After further exploring the mechanism, it could be found that with knock down GFI-1, the phosphorylation of Akt and PI3K could be activated. Subsequently, Akt pathway and HO-1 inhibitor were utilized respectively and the resistance was reversed. It suggested that the resistance of Panobinostat to AML cells at low level of GFI-1 was mainly due to up-regulated level of HO-1 through the PI3K-Akt pathway.

Zhou H, Cai Y, Liu D, et al.
Pharmacological or transcriptional inhibition of both HDAC1 and 2 leads to cell cycle blockage and apoptosis via p21
Cell Prolif. 2018; 51(3):e12447 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are commonly dysregulated in cancer and represent promising therapeutic targets. However, global HDAC inhibitors have shown limited efficacy in the treatment of solid tumours, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of selectively inhibiting HDAC1 and 2 in HCC.
METHODS: HDAC1 inhibitor Tacedinaline (CI994), HDAC2 inhibitor Santacruzamate A (CAY10683), HDAC1/2 common inhibitor Romidepsin (FK228) and global HDAC inhibitor Vorinostat (SAHA) were used to treat HCC cells. Cell cycle, apoptosis and the protein levels of CDKs and CDKNs were performed to evaluate HCC cell growth. Inhibition of HDAC1/2 by RNAi was further investigated.
RESULTS: Combined inhibition of HDAC1/2 led to HCC cell morphology changes, growth inhibition, cell cycle blockage and apoptosis in vitro and suppressed the growth of subcutaneous HCC xenograft tumours in vivo. p21
CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacological or transcriptional inhibition of HDAC1/2 increases p19

Huang R, Zhang X, Sophia S, et al.
Clinicopathological features and prediction values of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC11 in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Anticancer Drugs. 2018; 29(4):364-370 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in multiple physical and pathological processes in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). The prognostic value of HDACs in cHL patients has not been discussed. The aim of the current study is to investigate the HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC11 expressions, and to evaluate the correlation of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC11 expressions with the survival rate in cHL patients. We retrospectively analyzed clinicopathological data of 28 patients who were diagnosed with cHL between August 2002 and March 2010. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC11 in these patients. The results showed that HDAC1, HDAC3, and HDAC11 were expressed at a higher level in Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg cells, whereas HDAC2 was expressed at a lower level in Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg cells. The expression of HDAC2 had a relationship with pathological type (P=0.012). There was also a correlation between the expression of HDAC11 and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P=0.054). Other clinicopathological parameters had no significant correlation with the expression of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC11 in terms of survival (P>0.05). The 10-year total survival rate by Cox multivariate analysis, after taking into account all clinical and pathologic factors, showed that bulky disease retained significance (P=0.028). Higher expression of HDAC1 predicted shorter progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) in cHL patients (P<0.05, in both cases), and higher expression of HDAC11 might be correlated with lower OS (P=0.05). The study showed that the expressions of HDAC2 and HDAC11 have a particular relationship with the pathologic subtype. Increased expression of HDAC1 was correlated negatively with progression-free survival and OS, and increased expression of HDAC11 had a borderline relationship with the OS rate in patients with cHL.

Wei J, Wang Z, Wang Z, et al.
MicroRNA-31 Function as a Suppressor Was Regulated by Epigenetic Mechanisms in Gastric Cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017:5348490 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. The aberrant expression of microRNA-31 (miR-31) has been reported in gastric cancer; however, its regulation mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we confirmed that miR-31 expression was significantly decreased in gastric cancer tissue and cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-31 potentially suppresses proliferation and induced early apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, miR-31 expression was regulated as a result of epigenetic mechanisms. The downregulation of miR-31 was associated with promoter DNA methylation status in gastric cancer and cell lines. Moreover, we found that

Huang J, Yang G, Huang Y, Zhang S
Biochimie. 2018; 146:28-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 1,25(OH)

Tarasenko N, Chekroun-Setti H, Nudelman A, Rephaeli A
Comparison of the anticancer properties of a novel valproic acid prodrug to leading histone deacetylase inhibitors.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(4):3417-3428 [PubMed] Related Publications
The HDAC inhibitory activity of valproic acid (VPA) has led to on-going evaluation of it as an anticancer agent. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor AN446, a prodrug of VPA, releases the acid upon metabolic degradation. AN446 is >60-fold more potent than VPA in killing cancer cells in vitro. Herein, we compare the activities of AN446, as an anticancer agent, to those of representative types from each of the four major classes of HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs): vorinostat, romidepsin, entinostat, and VPA. AN446 exhibited the greatest selectivity and HDAC inhibitory activity against cancer cells. In glioblastoma cells only AN446, and in MDA-MB-231 cells only AN446 and VPA interacted in synergy with doxorubicin (Dox). AN446 was superior to the studied HDACIs in inducing DNA-damage in cancer cells, while in normal astrocytes and cardiomyoblasts AN446 was the least toxic. AN446 was the only HDACI tested that exhibited selective HDAC inhibitory activity that was high in cancer cells and low in noncancerous cells. This discriminating inhibition correlated with the toxicity of the HDACIs, suggesting that their effects could be attributed to HDAC inhibition. In cardiomyoblasts, the HDACIs tested, except for AN446, hampered DNA repair by reducing the level of Rad 51. VPA and AN446 were the most effective HDACIs in inhibiting in vitro migration and invasion. The advantages of AN446 shown here, position it as a potentially improved HDACI for treatment of glioblastoma and triple negative breast cancer.

Kitadate A, Ikeda S, Abe F, et al.
Histone deacetylase inhibitors downregulate CCR4 expression and decrease mogamulizumab efficacy in CCR4-positive mature T-cell lymphomas.
Haematologica. 2018; 103(1):126-135 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone deacetylase inhibitors are promising agents for various T-cell lymphomas, including cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, and adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia. CCR4 is an important therapeutic target molecule because mogamulizumab, an anti-CCR4 antibody, has shown promising efficacy against various T-cell lymphomas. In this study, we examined the

Ajorloo F, Vaezi M, Saadat A, et al.
A systems medicine approach for finding target proteins affecting treatment outcomes in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(9):e0183969 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Autoantibody profiling with a systems medicine approach can help identify critical dysregulated signaling pathways (SPs) in cancers. In this way, immunoglobulins G (IgG) purified from the serum samples of 92 healthy controls, 10 pre-treated (PR) non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients, and 20 NHL patients who underwent chemotherapy (PS) were screened with a phage-displayed random peptide library. Protein-protein interaction networks of the PR and PS groups were analyzed and visualized by Gephi. The results indicated AXIN2, SENP2, TOP2A, FZD6, NLK, HDAC2, HDAC1, and EHMT2, in addition to CAMK2A, PLCG1, PLCG2, GRM5, GRIN2B, GRIN2D, CACNA2D3, and SPTAN1 as hubs in 11 and 7 modules of PR and PS networks, respectively. PR- and PS-specific hubs were evaluated in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Reactome databases. The PR-specific hubs were involved in Wnt SP, signaling by Notch1 in cancer, telomere maintenance, and transcriptional misregulation. In contrast, glutamate receptor SP, Fc receptor-related pathways, growth factors-related SPs, and Wnt SP were statistically significant enriched pathways, based on the pathway analysis of PS hubs. The results revealed that the most PR-specific proteins were associated with events involved in tumor development, while chemotherapy in the PS group was associated with side effects of drugs and/or cancer recurrence. As the findings demonstrated, PR- and PS-specific proteins in this study can be promising therapeutic targets in future studies.

Zhu W, Li Z, Xiong L, et al.
FKBP3 Promotes Proliferation of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells through Regulating Sp1/HDAC2/p27.
Theranostics. 2017; 7(12):3078-3089 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
FKBP3 is a member of FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs). Little is known about the expression and functional role(s) of FKBP3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, we demonstrated up-regulation of FKBP3 expression, both at mRNA and protein levels, in NSCLC samples which closely correlated with poor survival in NSCLC patients.

Huang J, Yang G, Huang Y, Zhang S
Inhibitory effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through the downregulation of HDAC2.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(3):1845-1850 [PubMed] Related Publications
The inhibitory effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the proliferation of a variety of cancer cell lines have been extensively reported. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the in vitro proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and the mechanism involved were investigated. Flow cytometry and MTT assay revealed that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited cell proliferation in vitro. Western blotting and real-time PCR indicated that 1,25(OH)2D3 upregulated the expression of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and attenuated that of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2). Knockdown of HDAC2 completely mimicked the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on PTEN gene expression. The influence of 1,25(OH)2D3 on PTEN expression was reversed in the cells treated with a recombinant pEGFP-LV2-HDAC2 plasmid. Akt phosphorylation, which was downregulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, was promoted by HDAC2 overexpression. These findings revealed that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited cell growth possibly by HDAC2-mediated PTEN upregulation, Akt deactivation, and inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

Borutinskaitė V, Virkšaitė A, Gudelytė G, Navakauskienė R
Green tea polyphenol EGCG causes anti-cancerous epigenetic modulations in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2018; 59(2):469-478 [PubMed] Related Publications
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to possess diverse anti-cancerous properties. We demonstrated EGCG ability to inhibit acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell proliferation and cause apoptosis. In addition, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed elevated expression of genes associated with cell cycle arrest and differentiation (p27, PCAF, C/EBPα, and C/EBPɛ). Furthermore, EGCG caused anti-cancerous epigenetic changes: downregulation of epigenetic modifiers DNMT1, HDAC1, HDAC2, and G9a was observed by RT-qPCR analysis. Reduced amount of H3K9me2 after treatment with EGCG confirmed G9a downregulation. Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) core components were also shown to be downregulated in gene and protein level. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed that EGCG treatment enhanced hyperacetylated H4 and acetylated H3K14 histones binding to the promoter regions of p27, PCAF, C/EBPα, and C/EBPɛ and reduced binding effect to PRC2 core component genes EZH2, SUZ12, and EED. Our results indicate that EGCG, as cell proliferation inhibitor and epigenetic modifier, might be useful for APL treatment.

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