Gene Summary

Gene:IFNG; interferon, gamma
Aliases: IFG, IFI
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the type II interferon family. The protein encoded is a soluble cytokine with antiviral, immunoregulatory and anti-tumor properties and is a potent activator of macrophages. Mutations in this gene are associated with aplastic anemia.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:interferon gamma
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (63)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Polymorphism
  • Chromosome 1
  • Adolescents
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Cytokines
  • DNA Methylation
  • Gene Amplification
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Apoptosis
  • Tumor Virus Infections
  • Risk Factors
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chromosome 12
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • TNF
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Genotype
  • Trans-Activators
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Xenograft Models
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Promoter Regions
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Base Sequence
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Interleukin-10
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Alleles
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Haplotypes
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Single-Stranded Conformational Polymorphism
  • Virus Activation
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Transcription Factors
  • Tumor Markers
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IFNG (cancer-related)

Reuben A, Godin-Ethier J, Santos MM, Lapointe R
T lymphocyte-derived TNF and IFN-γ repress HFE expression in cancer cells.
Mol Immunol. 2015; 65(2):259-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
The immune system and tumors are closely intertwined initially upon tumor development. During this period, tumors evolve to promote self-survival through immune escape, including by targeting crucial components involved in the presentation of antigens to the immune system in order to avoid recognition. Accordingly, components involved in MHC I presentation of tumor antigens are often mutated and down-regulated targets in tumors. On the other hand, the immune system has been shown to influence tumors through production of immunosuppressive cytokines, recruitment and polarization of cells favoring or impeding tumor escape or through production of anti-tumor cytokines promoting tumor rejection. We previously discovered that the hemochromatosis protein HFE, a negative regulator of iron absorption, dampens classical MHC I antigen presentation. In this study, we evaluated the impact of activated T lymphocytes purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) on HFE expression in tumor cell lines. We co-cultured tumor cell lines from melanoma, lung, and kidney cancers with anti-CD3-activated PBMC and established that HFE expression is increased in tumor cell lines compared to healthy tissues, whilst being down-regulated significantly upon exposure to activated PBMC. HFE down-regulation was mediated by both CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes, through production of soluble mediators, namely TNF and IFN-γ. These results suggest that the immune system may modulate tumor HFE expression in inflammatory conditions in order to regulate MHC I antigen presentation and promote tumor clearance.

Bürgler S, Gimeno A, Parente-Ribes A, et al.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells express CD38 in response to Th1 cell-derived IFN-γ by a T-bet-dependent mechanism.
J Immunol. 2015; 194(2):827-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B cell malignancy associated with increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. Similarly, expression of CD38 on CLL cells correlates with CLL cell survival and proliferation, but the mechanisms that regulate CD38 expression and inflammatory cytokines remain unclear. We have recently demonstrated that patients have CLL-specific Th cells that support CLL proliferation. In this article, we show that CLL cells attract such Th cells, thereby establishing an Ag-dependent collaboration. Blocking experiments performed in vitro as wells as in vivo, using a xenograft model, revealed that secretion of IFN-γ was a major mechanism by which CLL-specific Th cells increased CD38 on CLL cells. The expression of the transcription factor T-bet in peripheral blood CLL cells significantly correlated with CD38 expression, and transient transfection of CLL cells with T-bet resulted in T-bet(hi)CD38(hi) cells. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that T-bet can bind to regulatory regions of the CD38 gene. These data suggest that CLL cells attract CLL-specific Th cells and initiate a positive feedback loop with upregulation of T-bet, CD38, and type 1 chemokines allowing further recruitment of Th cells and increased type 1 cytokine secretion. This insight provides a cellular and molecular mechanism that links the inflammatory signature observed in CLL pathogenesis with CD38 expression and aggressive disease and suggests that targeting the IFN-γ/IFN-γR/JAK/STAT/T-bet/CD38 pathway could play a role in the therapy of CLL.

Jacca S, Franceschi V, Agosti M, et al.
Interferon gamma-mediated BoHV-4 replication restriction in bovine endometrial stromal cells is host IDO1 gene expression independent and BoHV-4 IE2 gene expression dependent.
Biol Reprod. 2014; 91(5):112 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present work the interaction between bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4)-infected bovine endometrial stromal cells (BESCs) and interferon gamma (IFNG) was investigated. Starting from the particular tropism of BoHV-4 toward BESCs, a pure population of these cells, free of CD45-positive cells, was prepared and proven to have a bona fide mesenchymal derivation as shown by vimentin-positive and cytokeratin-negative staining. BESCs expressed functional IFNG receptors (IFNGR) 1 and 2 but not IFNG ligand. BESCs transfected with a new reporter construct made by cloning the bovine indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) promoter in front of the luciferase reporter gene responded to exogenous IFNG treatment. Further, IFNG-treated or constitutively secreting IFNG BESCs strongly restricted BoHV-4 replication and consequent cytopathic effect. IDO1 expression in BESCs was tightly induced by IFNG and IDO1 was previously shown to be the mediator for some of the IFNG pathogenostatic effects. However, IDO1 inhibitors and IDO1 constitutive expression could not respectively abrogate or recapitulate IFNG effect on BoHV-4-infected BESCs, whereas BoHV-4 immediate early (IE2) gene expression was transcriptionally depressed by IFNG axis activation independently from IDO1 expression; this was further confirmed by revealing a BoHV-4 IE2 gene promoter area containing potential responsive elements interacting with inhibitory transcription factors induced by IFNG in BESCs. The data achieved in this work highlight at least two issues: first, the role of BESCs as target/effector cells for the IFNG; second, the importance of uterine IFNG integrity to control BoHV-4 infection recrudescence from a persistent/latent state to a chronic disease, endometritis.

Ganapathi SK, Beggs AD, Hodgson SV, Kumar D
Expression and DNA methylation of TNF, IFNG and FOXP3 in colorectal cancer and their prognostic significance.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(8):1581-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) progression is associated with suppression of host cell-mediated immunity and local immune escape mechanisms. Our aim was to assess the immune function in terms of expression of TNF, IFNG and FOXP3 in CRC.
METHODS: Sixty patients with CRC and 15 matched controls were recruited. TaqMan quantitative PCR and methylation-specific PCR was performed for expression and DNA methylation analysis of TNF, IFNG and FOXP3. Survival analysis was performed over a median follow-up of 48 months.
RESULTS: TNF was suppressed in tumour and IFNG was suppressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with CRC. Tumours showed enhanced expression of FOXP3 and was significantly higher when tumour size was >38 mm (median tumour size; P=0.006, Mann-Whitney U-test). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell IFNG was suppressed in recurrent CRC (P=0.01). Methylated TNFpromoter (P=0.003) and TNFexon1 (P=0.001) were associated with significant suppression of TNF in tumours. Methylated FOXP3cpg was associated with significant suppression of FOXP3 in both PBMC (P=0.018) and tumours (P=0.010). Reduced PBMC FOXP3 expression was associated with significantly worse overall survival (HR=8.319, P=0.019).
CONCLUSIONS: We have detected changes in the expression of immunomodulatory genes that could act as biomarkers for prognosis and future immunotherapeutic strategies.

Zhang Z, Fye S, Borecki IB, Rader JS
Polymorphisms in immune mediators associate with risk of cervical cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 135(1):69-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The immune system is critical for controlling the progression of HPV cervical disease and the development of cancer. This study aimed to identify cervical cancer susceptibility alleles in candidate immune-modulating genes.
METHODS: Our family-based study involved a cohort of 641 probands (women with ICC/CIN III) and their biologic parents or siblings (641 trios). In the discovery phase (stage 1), involving 288 of the trios, 80 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 immune-modulating genes (IFNG, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, JAK1, JAK2, STAT1, STAT6, IL12A, TNF, LTA and LTB) were evaluated on the GoldenGate platform. We used the combined dataset for a total of 641 trios (stage 2) and the Taqman platform to validate the SNPs that had proved significant in the discovery dataset. The transmission disequilibrium test was used to detect significant shifts in allelic transmissions in the datasets.
RESULTS: Two SNPs in JAK2 and one SNP in STAT6 showed significant allelic association with cervical cancer in the stage 1 discovery dataset and were replicated in the larger joint analysis stage 2 dataset (JAK2 rs10815144, P=0.0029 and rs12349785, P=0.0058; and STAT6 rs3024971, P=0.0127). An additional SNP in exon 19 of JAK2 (rs2230724) was also examined in the combined dataset due to its strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs10815144. It was also significant (P=0.0335).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest an association of SNPs in JAK2 and STAT6 with cervical cancer. This association should be investigated in additional cervical cancer populations.

Shen Y, Liu Q, Luo Y, et al.
Enhancement of the cytotoxic activity of cytokine-induced killer cells transfected with IL3PE38KDEL gene against acute myeloid leukemia cells.
Ann Hematol. 2014; 93(12):2019-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, one of the feasible and effective methods of adoptive immunotherapy, have shown anti-leukemia activity in vivo and in vitro. But the strategy exhibits limited cytotoxic activity in clinical studies. In this study, CIK cells were transfected with an interleukin-3/Pseudomonas exotoxin gene (IL3PE38KDEL). RT-PCR and ELISA were used to verify the expression of IL3PE38KDEL in the transfected CIK cells. These cells released 1,186.7 ± 149.6 pg IL3PE38KDEL/10(4) cells over 48 h into the medium and the culture supernatant selectively killed IL3 receptor(IL3R)-positive HL60 cells, but not IL3R-negative K562 cells. Moreover, IL3PE38KDEL transfection did not influence phenotypes and cytokine production of CIK cells. Co-cultured with leukemia cells, IL3PE38KDEL transfected CIK cells showed enhanced cytotoxicity against IL3R-positive HL60 cells at all effector-to-target (E:T) ratios, but exerted a basal anti-leukemia activity against IL3R-negative K562 cells. Our findings demonstrate that IL3PE38KDEL gene transfection may be a novel strategy for improving anti-leukemia activity of CIK cells.

Nygård S, Reitan T, Clancy T, et al.
Identifying pathogenic processes by integrating microarray data with prior knowledge.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2014; 15:115 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is of great importance to identify molecular processes and pathways that are involved in disease etiology. Although there has been an extensive use of various high-throughput methods for this task, pathogenic pathways are still not completely understood. Often the set of genes or proteins identified as altered in genome-wide screens show a poor overlap with canonical disease pathways. These findings are difficult to interpret, yet crucial in order to improve the understanding of the molecular processes underlying the disease progression. We present a novel method for identifying groups of connected molecules from a set of differentially expressed genes. These groups represent functional modules sharing common cellular function and involve signaling and regulatory events. Specifically, our method makes use of Bayesian statistics to identify groups of co-regulated genes based on the microarray data, where external information about molecular interactions and connections are used as priors in the group assignments. Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling is used to search for the most reliable grouping.
RESULTS: Simulation results showed that the method improved the ability of identifying correct groups compared to traditional clustering, especially for small sample sizes. Applied to a microarray heart failure dataset the method found one large cluster with several genes important for the structure of the extracellular matrix and a smaller group with many genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The method was also applied to a microarray dataset on melanoma cancer patients with or without metastasis, where the main cluster was dominated by genes related to keratinocyte differentiation.
CONCLUSION: Our method found clusters overlapping with known pathogenic processes, but also pointed to new connections extending beyond the classical pathways.

Kim HJ, Chung JH, Shin HP, et al.
Polymorphisms of interferon gamma gene and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B viral infection.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2013 Nov-Dec; 60(128):2080-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: Increasing evidence supports the contribution of the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance and genetic factors to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated whether genetic interferon gamma polymorphisms were associated with HCC in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B.
METHODOLOGY: We genotyped a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2430561, +874A/T) and a microsatellite (rs3138557, (CA) (n) repeat), located in the first intron of the interferon gamma gene, by direct sequencing and the gene scan method. A population-based case-control study of HCC was conducted and included 170 patients with chronic hepatitis and HCC, and 171 with chronic hepatitis B patients without hepatocellular carcinoma in a Korean population.
RESULTS: Genotype and allele distributions of the interferon gamma gene SNP were associated with HCC. The frequencies of the AA genotype and the A allele were significantly increased in hepatocellular carcinoma subjects (p < 0.05). Combined analysis using the genotype of rs2430561 and the number of microsatellites revealed that the frequencies of AT-CA12, and TT-CA12 increased significantly in hepatocellular carcinoma subjects (p < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the interferon gamma gene may be a susceptibility gene and a risk factor for HCC in the Korean population.

Ge YZ, Wang YD, Xu Z, et al.
Lack of association between interferon gamma +874 T/A polymorphism and cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):6405-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine which plays a pivotal role in the antiviral, antiproliferative, and antitumor activities. A T-to-A transition at the position +874 of human IFN-γ gene (IFNG) has been reported to influence the secretion of IFN-γ and affect cancer susceptibility. However, results from published studies on the association between IFNG +874 T/A polymorphism and cancer risk are inconclusive or even controversial. In order to derive a more precise estimation of the association, a meta-analysis of 38 eligible studies including 5,630 cases and 6,096 controls was conducted with odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). Overall, no significant association was detected in allelic model (A allele vs. T allele-OR = 0.96, 95 % CI, 0.86-1.08), homozygote comparison (AA vs. TT-OR = 0.97, 95 % CI, 0.79-1.21), heterozygote comparison (AT vs. TT-OR = 1.03, 95 % CI, 0.87-1.23), dominant model (AA + AT vs. TT-OR = 1.00, 95 % CI, 0.87-1.15), nor recessive model (AA vs. AT + TT-OR = 0.93, 95 % CI, 0.78-1.12). Further subgroup analyses based on ethnicity, cancer types, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium status failed to demonstrate any significant relationship except in African population under recessive model (AA vs. AT + TT-OR = 0.68, 95 % CI, 0.47-0.97). In conclusion, the current meta-analysis suggested that IFNG +874 T/A polymorphism may not contribute to cancer susceptibility, and further well-designed studies with large sample size are warranted to validate our conclusion.

Vu D, Sakharkar P, Shah T, et al.
Association of interferon gamma gene polymorphisms with BK virus infection among Hispanic renal allograft recipients.
Transplantation. 2014; 97(6):660-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: BK virus nephropathy is one of the most common viral infections that affect up to 10% of renal transplant recipients (RTRs), causing allograft dysfunction and graft loss. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) gene polymorphisms have been associated with parvovirus B19, hepatitis C virus, HIV-1/AIDS infection, cytomegalovirus viremia, and disease. IFN-γ is known to have potent inhibitory effects on BK virus gene expression, both at the level of transcription and translation.
METHODS: It was investigated whether IFN-γ polymorphisms are associated with BKV infection. Genotyping of four single-nucleotide polymorphisms located in the IFN-γ gene were performed on DNA collected from a total of 251 RTRs (71 RTRs with BKV infection and 180 without BKV infection).
RESULTS: Analysis of the results showed that IFN-γ (rs12369470) CC genotype was significantly associated with susceptibility to BKV infection (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.29-6.44, P=0.007) while the IFN-γ +874 (rs2435061) TT and (rs2406918) CC genotypes appear to be markers for protection against BKV infection (OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.1-0.83, P=0.01 for rs245061; OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.4-0.94, P=0.02 for rs24069718). A haplotype analysis using the combination of rs2435061-rs2406918-rs2870953 showed that the A-G-T haplotype was associated with a significantly reduced risk for BKV infection (OR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.25-0.73, P=0.001).
CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms in the IFN-γ gene may confer certain protection or predisposition for BKV infection.

Deng J, Liu X, Rong L, et al.
IFNγ-responsiveness of endothelial cells leads to efficient angiostasis in tumours involving down-regulation of Dll4.
J Pathol. 2014; 233(2):170-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although IFNγ is regarded as a key cytokine in angiostatic response, our poor understanding of its effective cellular target drastically limits its clinical trials against angiogenesis-related disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of IFNγ on endothelial cells (ECs) and possible molecular mechanisms in angiostasis. By employing Tie2(IFNγR) mice, in which IFNγR expression was reconstituted under the control of Tie2 promoter in IFNγR-deficient mice, we found that the response of ECs to IFNγ was highly effective in inhibiting blood supply and retarding tumour growth. Interestingly, the expression of IFNγR on Tie2(-) cells did not inhibit, but promoted tumour growth in control wild-type mice. Mechanism studies showed that IFNγ reacting on ECs down-regulated the delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)/Notch signalling pathway. Accordingly, overexpression of Dll4 in human ECs diminished the effect of IFNγ on ECs. This study demonstrates that the action of IFNγ on ECs, but not other cells, is highly effective for tumour angiostasis, which involves down-regulating Dll4. It provides insights for EC-targeted angiostatic therapy in treating angiogenesis-associated disorders in the clinic.

Fedele G, Di Girolamo M, Recine U, et al.
CD38 ligation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of myeloma patients induces release of protumorigenic IL-6 and impaired secretion of IFNγ cytokines and proliferation.
Mediators Inflamm. 2013; 2013:564687 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
CD38, a surface receptor that controls signals in immunocompetent cells, is densely expressed by cells of multiple myeloma (MM). The immune system of MM patients appears as functionally impaired, with qualitative and quantitative defects in T cell immune responses. This work answers the issue whether CD38 plays a role in the impairment of T lymphocyte response. To this aim, we analyzed the signals implemented by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) ligation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from MM patients and compared to benign monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). PBMC from MM both failed to proliferate and secrete IFNγ induced by CD38 ligation while it retained the ability to respond to TCR/CD3. The impaired CD38-dependent proliferative response likely reflects an arrest in the progression of cell cycle, as indicated by the reduced expression of PCNA. CD38 signaling showed an enhanced ability to induce IL-6 secretion. PBMC from MM patients displays a deregulated response possibly due to defects of CD38 activation pathways and CD38 may be functionally involved in the progression of this pathology via the secretion of high levels of IL-6 that protects neoplastic cells from apoptosis.

Gogoi D, Dar AA, Chiplunkar SV
Involvement of Notch in activation and effector functions of γδ T cells.
J Immunol. 2014; 192(5):2054-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Notch signaling plays a pivotal role in cell fate decision and lineage commitment of lymphocytes. Although the role of Notch in CD4(+) and CD8(+) αβ T cells is well documented, there are no reports on how Notch signaling regulates effector functions of γδ T cells. γδ T cells are a minor fraction in the peripheral blood but are known to play a major role in defense against pathogens and tumors. In this study, we show that Notch receptors (mRNA and protein) are expressed in peripheral γδ T cells. Inhibition of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitor inhibited the proliferation and IFN-γ secretion of γδ T cells in response to stimulation with phosphoantigens and anti-CD3 mAb. In the presence of γ-secretase inhibitor, the antitumor cytolytic ability of γδ T cells was inhibited with a decreased CD107a expression. Knockdown of Notch1 and Notch2 genes in γδ T cells using small interfering RNA inhibited their antitumor cytotoxic potential. Our study describes for the first time, to our knowledge, the role of Notch as an additional signal contributing to Ag-specific effector functions of γδ T cells.

Chang HC, Lewis D, Tung CY, et al.
Soypeptide lunasin in cytokine immunotherapy for lymphoma.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2014; 63(3):283-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Immunostimulatory cytokines can enhance anti-tumor immunity and are part of the therapeutic armamentarium for cancer treatment. We have previously reported that post-transplant lymphoma patients have an acquired deficiency of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4, which results in defective IFNγ production during clinical immunotherapy. With the goal of further improving cytokine-based immunotherapy, we examined the effects of a soybean peptide called lunasin that synergistically works with cytokines on natural killer (NK) cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors and post-transplant lymphoma patients were stimulated with or without lunasin in the presence of IL-12 or IL-2. NK activation was evaluated, and its tumoricidal activity was assessed using in vitro and in vivo tumor models. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was performed to evaluate the histone modification of gene loci that are regulated by lunasin and cytokine. Adding lunasin to IL-12- or IL-2-stimulated NK cells demonstrated synergistic effects in the induction of IFNG and GZMB involved in cytotoxicity. The combination of lunasin and cytokines (IL-12 plus IL-2) was capable of restoring IFNγ production by NK cells from post-transplant lymphoma patients. In addition, NK cells stimulated with lunasin plus cytokines displayed higher tumoricidal activity than those stimulated with cytokines alone using in vitro and in vivo tumor models. The underlying mechanism responsible for the effects of lunasin on NK cells is likely due to epigenetic modulation on target gene loci. Lunasin represents a different class of immune modulating agent that may augment the therapeutic responses mediated by cytokine-based immunotherapy.

Wang F, Xu J, Zhu Q, et al.
Downregulation of IFNG in CD4(+) T cells in lung cancer through hypermethylation: a possible mechanism of tumor-induced immunosuppression.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e79064 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Tumor survival is significantly correlated with the immune response of patients. IFNG plays an important role in the tumor host response and decreased IFNG expression is often observed in lung cancer. Studies have shown that CpG island hypermethylation plays a critical role in transcriptional silencing of IFNG gene expression. However, there is limited understanding regarding the molecular mechanisms of altered methylation, and whether the tumor microenvironment has any effect on DNA methylation and IFNG production. In the current study, we demonstrate that plasma and intra-cellular IFNG levels are significantly lower in lung cancer patients. Hypermethylation of the IFNG promoter in CD4(+) T cells and plasma IFNG was negatively correlated. CD4(+) T cells from healthy individuals co-cultured with SPC-A1 cells generated lower levels of IFNG after activation, elevated expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), and exhibited hypermethylation of the IFNG promoter. In conclusion, decreased IFNG expression of CD4(+) T cells co-cultured with lung cancer cell is associated with IFNG promoter hypermethylation. Our study suggests that interaction between lung cancer cells and CD4(+) T cells induces DNMT expression and IFNG promoter hypermethylation in CD4(+) T cell, which may serve as an important mechanism of tumor-induced immunosuppression.

Okamoto Y, Shinjo K, Shimizu Y, et al.
Hepatitis virus infection affects DNA methylation in mice with humanized livers.
Gastroenterology. 2014; 146(2):562-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cells of tumors associated with chronic inflammation frequently have altered patterns of DNA methylation, including hepatocellular carcinomas. Chronic hepatitis has also been associated with aberrant DNA methylation, but little is known about their relationship.
METHODS: Pyrosequencing was used to determine the methylation status of cultured Huh7.5.1 hepatoma cells after hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We also studied mice with severe combined immunodeficiency carrying the urokinase-type plasminogen activator transgene controlled by an albumin promoter (urokinase-type plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficient mice), in which up to 85% of hepatocytes were replaced by human hepatocytes (chimeric mice). Mice were given intravenous injections of hepatitis B virus (HBV) or HCV, liver tissues were collected, and DNA methylation profiles were determined at different time points after infection. We also compared methylation patterns between paired samples of hepatocellular carcinomas and adjacent nontumor liver tissues from patients.
RESULTS: No reproducible changes in DNA methylation were observed after infection of Huh7.5.1 cells with HCV. Livers from HBV- and HCV-infected mice had genome-wide, time-dependent changes in DNA methylation, compared with uninfected urokinase-type plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficient mice. There were changes in 160 ± 63 genes in HBV-infected and 237 ± 110 genes in HCV-infected mice. Methylation of 149 common genes increased in HBV- and HCV-infected mice; methylation of some of these genes also increased in hepatocellular carcinoma samples from patients compared with nontumor tissues. Expression of Ifng, which is expressed by natural killer cells, increased significantly in chimeric livers, in concordance with induction of DNA methylation, after infection with HBV or HCV. Induction of Ifng was reduced after administration of an inhibitor of natural killer cell function (anti-asialo GM1).
CONCLUSIONS: In chimeric mice with humanized livers, infection with HBV and HCV appears to activate a natural kill cell-dependent innate immune response. This contributes to the induction and accumulation of aberrant DNA methylation in human hepatocytes.

Yamaguchi T, Hiromasa K, Kabashima-Kubo R, et al.
Galectin-7, induced by cis-urocanic acid and ultraviolet B irradiation, down-modulates cytokine production by T lymphocytes.
Exp Dermatol. 2013; 22(12):840-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
Urocanic acid (UCA) is an epidermal chromophore that undergoes trans to cis isomerization after UVB irradiation. cis-UCA is a potent inhibitor of cutaneous acquired immunity. The aim of this study was to explore the genes, which are upregulated by cis-UCA in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and investigated its role in vitro using human T-lymphocyte cell line, Jurkat cells. DNA microarray analysis and real-time PCR investigation revealed that cis-UCA, not trans-UCA, increased the expression of a gene encoding a β-galactoside-binding lectin, galectin-7, LGALS7B. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated that galectin-7 was highly expressed in the epidermis in the patients with actinic keratosis. Galectin-7 administration upregulated apoptosis and inhibited the expression of interleukin-2 (IL2) and interferon-γ (IFNG) mRNA in Jurkat cells. Taken together, galectin-7 may play important roles in downregulating the functions of T lymphocytes after UVB irradiation and can be developed into novel immunosuppressive therapies for inflammatory skin diseases.

Laner-Plamberger S, Wolff F, Kaser-Eichberger A, et al.
Hedgehog/GLI signaling activates suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) in epidermal and neural tumor cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e75317 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Sustained hedgehog (Hh) signaling mediated by the GLI transcription factors is implicated in many types of cancer. Identification of Hh/GLI target genes modulating the activity of other pathways involved in tumor development promise to open new ways for better understanding of tumor development and maintenance. Here we show that SOCS1 is a direct target of Hh/GLI signaling in human keratinocytes and medulloblastoma cells. SOCS1 is a potent inhibitor of interferon gamma (IFN-y)/STAT1 signaling. IFN-у/STAT1 signaling can induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and anti-tumor immunity. The transcription factors GLI1 and GLI2 activate the SOCS1 promoter, which contains five putative GLI binding sites, and GLI2 binding to the promoter was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Consistent with a role of GLI in SOCS1 regulation, STAT1 phosphorylation is reduced in cells with active Hh/GLI signaling and IFN-у/STAT1 target gene activation is decreased. Furthermore, IFN-у signaling is restored by shRNA mediated knock down of SOCS1. Here, we identify SOCS1 as a novel Hh/GLI target gene, indicating a negative role of Hh/GLI pathway in IFN-y/STAT1 signaling.

Chiu BL, Li CH, Chang CC
Selective modulation of MHC class II chaperons by a novel IFN-γ-inducible class II transactivator variant in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 440(1):190-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Class II transactivator (CIITA) plays a critical role in controlling major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene expression. In this study, two novel alternatively spliced variants of human interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible CIITA, one missing exon 7 (CIITAΔE7), the other with TAG inserted at exon 4/5 junction (CIITA-TAG), were identified and characterized. Both variants are naturally occurring since they are present in primary cells. Unlike CIITA-TAG, CIITAΔE7 is expressed more abundantly in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells than in the non-transformed counterpart BEAS-2B cells following IFN-γ stimulation. Transfection experiments showed that CIITAΔE7 induced a markedly lower level of surface HLA-DR, -DP, -DQ expression than CIITA-TAG in A549 cells but not in BEAS-2B cells, although both variants elicited similar amounts of total DR, DP, and DQ proteins. This differential effect was correlated with, in A549 cells, decreased expression of Ii and HLA-DM genes, along with increased expression of HLA-DO genes. Ii and HLA-DM are chaperons assisting in HLA class II assembly, while HLA-DO functions to inhibit endosomal peptide loading and HLA class II membrane transport. These findings raise the possibility that CIITAΔE7 interacts with unknown cancer-associated factors to selectively modulate genes involved in the assembly and transport of HLA class II molecules.

Iachininoto MG, Nuzzolo ER, Bonanno G, et al.
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition constrains indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) activity in acute myeloid leukaemia cells.
Molecules. 2013; 18(9):10132-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) metabolizes L-tryptophan to kynurenines (KYN), inducing T-cell suppression either directly or by altering antigen-presenting-cell function. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandins, is over-expressed by several tumours. We aimed at determining whether COX-2 inhibitors down-regulate the IFN-g-induced expression of IDO1 in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells. IFN-γ at 100 ng/mL up-regulated COX-2 and IDO1 in HL-60 AML cells, both at mRNA and protein level. The increased COX-2 and IDO1 expression correlated with heightened production of prostaglandin (PG)E₂ and kynurenines, respectively. Nimesulide, a preferential COX-2 inhibitor, down-regulated IDO1 mRNA/protein and attenuated kynurenine synthesis, suggesting that overall IDO inhibition resulted both from reduced IDO1 gene transcription and from inhibited IDO1 catalytic activity. From a functional standpoint, IFN-g-challenged HL-60 cells promoted the in vitro conversion of allogeneic CD4⁺CD25⁻ T cells into bona fide CD4⁺CD25⁺FoxP3⁺ regulatory T cells, an effect that was significantly reduced by treatment of IFN-γ-activated HL-60 cells with nimesulide. Overall, these data point to COX-2 inhibition as a potential strategy to be pursued with the aim at circumventing leukaemia-induced, IDO-mediated immune dysfunction.

Marangon AV, Guelsin GA, Visentainer JE, et al.
The association of the immune response genes to human papillomavirus-related cervical disease in a Brazilian population.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:146079 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
The genetic variability of the host contributes to the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cervical disease. Immune response genes to HPV must be investigated to define patients with the highest risk of developing malignant disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of polymorphic immune response genes, namely KIR, HLA class I and II, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytokines with HPV-related cervical disease. We selected 79 non-related, admixed Brazilian women from the state of Paraná, southern region of Brazil, who were infected with high carcinogenic risk HPV and present cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3), and 150 HPV-negative women from the same region matched for ethnicity. KIR genes were genotyped using an in-house PCR-SSP. HLA alleles were typed using a reverse sequence-specific oligonucleotide technique. SNPs of TNF -308G>A, IL6 -174G>C, IFNG +874T>A, TGFB1 +869T>C +915G>C, and IL10 -592C>A -819C>T -1082G>A were evaluated using PCR-SSP. The KIR genes were not associated with HPV, although some pairs of i(inhibitory)KIR-ligands occurred more frequently in patients, supporting a role for NK in detrimental chronic inflammatory and carcinogenesis. Some HLA haplotypes were associated with HPV. The associations of INFG and IL10 SNPs potentially reflect impaired or invalid responses in advanced lesions.

Lee HR, No HK, Ryu CJ, Park HJ
Brahma‑related gene 1-associated expression of 9-27 and IFI-27 is involved in acquired cisplatin resistance of gastric cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2013; 8(3):747-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to investigate the mechanism of cisplatin resistance, a cisplatin-resistant human gastric cancer cell line was established. Subsequent to the exposure of the YCC-3 gastric cancer cell line to equal concentrations of cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin, CDDP) for 6 months, a cisplatin-resistant cell line was established (YCC-3/R). To determine the molecular mechanism of cisplatin resistance in YCC-3/R cells, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated between YCC-3 and YCC-3/R by annealing control primer-based reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (ACP RT-PCR) technology. Eleven DEGs were successfully identified and sequenced. Among them, interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (9-27) and interferon α-inducible protein 27 (IFI-27) were markedly increased in YCC-3/R cells. In addition, western blot analysis demonstrated that the Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), which was observed to selectively activate 9-27 and IFI-27 genes, was overexpressed in YCC-3/R cells. The results suggested that the BRG1‑associated expression of 9-27 and IFI-27 is involved in cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer cells.

Garg AD, Dudek AM, Ferreira GB, et al.
ROS-induced autophagy in cancer cells assists in evasion from determinants of immunogenic cell death.
Autophagy. 2013; 9(9):1292-307 [PubMed] Related Publications
Calreticulin surface exposure (ecto-CALR), ATP secretion, maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and stimulation of T cells are prerequisites for anticancer therapy-induced immunogenic cell death (ICD). Recent evidence suggests that chemotherapy-induced autophagy may positively regulate ICD by favoring ATP secretion. We have recently shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-based endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggered by hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy (Hyp-PDT) induces bona fide ICD. However, whether Hyp-PDT-induced autophagy regulates ICD was not explored. Here we showed that, in contrast to expectations, reducing autophagy (by ATG5 knockdown) in cancer cells did not alter ATP secretion after Hyp-PDT. Autophagy-attenuated cancer cells displayed enhanced ecto-CALR induction following Hyp-PDT, which strongly correlated with their inability to clear oxidatively damaged proteins. Furthermore, autophagy-attenuation in Hyp-PDT-treated cancer cells increased their ability to induce DC maturation, IL6 production and proliferation of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells, which was accompanied by IFNG production. Thus, our study unravels a role for ROS-induced autophagy in weakening functional interaction between dying cancer cells and the immune system thereby helping in evasion from ICD prerequisites or determinants.

Strong MJ, Xu G, Coco J, et al.
Differences in gastric carcinoma microenvironment stratify according to EBV infection intensity: implications for possible immune adjuvant therapy.
PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(5):e1003341 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with roughly 10% of gastric carcinomas worldwide (EBVaGC). Although previous investigations provide a strong link between EBV and gastric carcinomas, these studies were performed using selected EBV gene probes. Using a cohort of gastric carcinoma RNA-seq data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we performed a quantitative and global assessment of EBV gene expression in gastric carcinomas and assessed EBV associated cellular pathway alterations. EBV transcripts were detected in 17% of samples but these samples varied significantly in EBV coverage depth. In four samples with the highest EBV coverage (hiEBVaGC - high EBV associated gastric carcinoma), transcripts from the BamHI A region comprised the majority of EBV reads. Expression of LMP2, and to a lesser extent, LMP1 were also observed as was evidence of abortive lytic replication. Analysis of cellular gene expression indicated significant immune cell infiltration and a predominant IFNG response in samples expressing high levels of EBV transcripts relative to samples expressing low or no EBV transcripts. Despite the apparent immune cell infiltration, high levels of the cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cell inhibitor, IDO1, was observed in the hiEBVaGCs samples suggesting an active tolerance inducing pathway in this subgroup. These results were confirmed in a separate cohort of 21 Vietnamese gastric carcinoma samples using qRT-PCR and on tissue samples using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Lastly, a panel of tumor suppressors and candidate oncogenes were expressed at lower levels in hiEBVaGC versus EBV-low and EBV-negative gastric cancers suggesting the direct regulation of tumor pathways by EBV.

Campos K, Gomes CC, de Fátima Correia-Silva J, et al.
Methylation pattern of IFNG in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts.
J Endod. 2013; 39(4):493-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Interferon-γ plays an important role in the pathogenesis of periapical lesions, and the methylation of IFNG has been associated with transcriptional inactivation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate IFNG promoter methylation in association with gene transcription and protein levels in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts.
METHODS: Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the DNA methylation pattern of the IFNG gene in 16 periapical granulomas and 13 radicular cyst samples. The transcription levels of IFNG mRNA were verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: All the periapical lesion samples exhibited partial or total methylation of the IFNG gene. In addition, an increased methylation profile was found in radicular cysts compared with periapical granulomas. Increased IFNG mRNA expression was observed in the partially methylated periapical lesion samples relative to the samples that were completely methylated.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the first evidence of the possible impact of IFNG methylation on IFNG transcription in periapical lesions.

Camicia R, Bachmann SB, Winkler HC, et al.
BAL1/ARTD9 represses the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic IFNγ-STAT1-IRF1-p53 axis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
J Cell Sci. 2013; 126(Pt 9):1969-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
The B-aggressive lymphoma-1 protein and ADP-ribosyltransferase BAL1/ARTD9 has been recently identified as a risk-related gene product in aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). BAL1 is constitutively expressed in a subset of high-risk DLBCLs with an active host inflammatory response and has been suggested to be associated with interferon-related gene expression. Here we identify BAL1 as a novel oncogenic survival factor in DLBCL and show that constitutive overexpression of BAL1 in DLBCL tightly associates with intrinsic interferon-gamma (IFNγ) signaling and constitutive activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1. Remarkably, BAL1 stimulates the phosphorylation of both STAT1 isoforms, STAT1α and STAT1β, on Y701 and thereby promotes the nuclear accumulation of the antagonistically acting and transcriptionally repressive isoform STAT1β. Moreover, BAL1 physically interacts with both STAT1α and STAT1β through its macrodomains in an ADP-ribosylation-dependent manner. BAL1 directly inhibits, together with STAT1β, the expression of tumor suppressor and interferon response factor (IRF)-1. Conversely, BAL1 enhances the expression of the proto-oncogenes IRF2 and B-cell CLL/lymphoma (BCL)-6 in DLBCL. Our results show for the first time that BAL1 represses the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic IFNγ-STAT1-IRF1-p53 axis and mediates proliferation, survival and chemo-resistance in DLBCL. As a consequence constitutive IFNγ-STAT1 signaling does not lead to apoptosis but rather to chemo-resistance in DLBCL overexpressing BAL1. Our results suggest that BAL1 may induce an switch in STAT1 from a tumor suppressor to an oncogene in high-risk DLBCL.

Xie FJ, Zhao P, Zhang YP, et al.
Adenovirus-mediated interferon-γ gene therapy induced human pancreatic carcinoma Capan-2 cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.
Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2013; 296(4):604-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal human malignancies with a very low 5-year survival rate, which highlights urgent needs for more effective therapeutic strategies. In this study, we examined the potential therapeutic effects of an adenovirus encoding human interferon gamma (Ad-IFNγ) on pancreatic carcinoma cells Capan-2 in vitro and in vivo. The results indicated that Ad-IFNγ could significantly inhibit tumor cell growth via inducing cell apoptosis. After infection, IFNγ expressed durably and stably in xenografts, predominantly in tumor tissue, while much less in blood and liver. Thus, adenovirus-mediated intratumoral injection of human IFNγ gene could be an effective gene therapeutic system for the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma.

Ambjørn M, Ejlerskov P, Liu Y, et al.
IFNB1/interferon-β-induced autophagy in MCF-7 breast cancer cells counteracts its proapoptotic function.
Autophagy. 2013; 9(3):287-302 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
IFNB1/interferon (IFN)-β belongs to the type I IFNs and exerts potent antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antiangiogenic and immunemodulatory functions. Despite the beneficial effects of IFNB1 in experimental breast cancers, clinical translation has been disappointing, possibly due to induction of survival pathways leading to treatment resistance. Defects in autophagy, a conserved cellular degradation pathway, are implicated in numerous cancer diseases. Autophagy is induced in response to cancer therapies and can contribute to treatment resistance. While the type II IFN, IFNG, which in many aspects differs significantly from type I IFNs, can induce autophagy, no such function for any type I IFN has been reported. We show here that IFNB1 induces autophagy in MCF-7, MDAMB231 and SKBR3 breast cancer cells by measuring the turnover of two autophagic markers, MAP1LC3B/LC3 and SQSTM1/p62. The induction of autophagy in MCF-7 cells occurred upstream of the negative regulator of autophagy MTORC1, and autophagosome formation was dependent on the known core autophagy molecule ATG7 and the IFNB1 signaling molecule STAT1. Using siRNA-mediated silencing of several core autophagy molecules and STAT1, we provide evidence that IFNB1 mediates its antiproliferative effects independent of autophagy, while the proapoptotic function of IFNB1 was strongly enhanced in the absence of autophagy. This suggests that autophagy induced by IFNB1 promoted survival, which might contribute to tumor resistance against IFNB1 treatment. It may therefore be clinically relevant to reconcile a role for IFNB1 in the treatment of breast cancer with concomitant inhibition of autophagy.

Amarante MK, de Oliveira KB, Guembarovski RL, et al.
Toll-like receptor 3: implications for proinflammatory microenvironment in human breast cancer.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(12):11087-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Under many circumstances, the host constituents that are found in the tumor microenvironment support a malignancy network and provide the cancer cells with advantages in proliferation, invasiveness and metastasis establishment at remote organs. It is known that Toll like receptors (TLRs) are expressed not only on immune cells but also on cancer cells and it has suggested a deleterious role for TLR3 in inflammatory disease. Hypothesizing that altered IFNγ signaling may be a key mechanism of immune dysfunction common to cancer as well CXCR4 is overexpressed among breast cancer patients, the mRNA expression of TLR3, CXCR4 and IFNγ in breast cancer tumor tissues was investigated. No statistically significant differences in the expression of CXCR4 mRNA, IFNγ and TLR3 between healthy and tumor tissues was observed, however, it was verified a positive correlation between mRNA relative expression of TLR3 and CXCR4 (p < 0.001), and mRNA relative expression of TLR3 was significantly increased in breast cancer tumor tissue when compared to healthy mammary gland tissue among patients expressing high IFNγ (p = 0.001). Since the tumor microenvironment plays important roles in cancer initiation, growth, progression, invasion and metastasis, it is possible to propose that an overexpression of IFNγ mRNA due to the pro-inflammatory microenvironment can lead to an up-regulation of CXCR4 mRNA and consequently to an increased TLR3 mRNA expression even among nodal negative patients. In the future, a comprehensive study of TLR3, CXCR4 and IFNγ axis in primary breast tumors and corresponding healthy tissues will be crucial to further understanding of the cancer network.

Gupta B, Iancu EM, Gannon PO, et al.
Simultaneous coexpression of memory-related and effector-related genes by individual human CD8 T cells depends on antigen specificity and differentiation.
J Immunother. 2012; 35(6):488-501 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phenotypic and functional cell properties are usually analyzed at the level of defined cell populations but not single cells. Yet, large differences between individual cells may have important functional consequences. It is likely that T-cell-mediated immunity depends on the polyfunctionality of individual T cells, rather than the sum of functions of responding T-cell subpopulations. We performed highly sensitive single-cell gene expression profiling, allowing the direct ex vivo characterization of individual virus-specific and tumor-specific T cells from healthy donors and melanoma patients. We have previously shown that vaccination with the natural tumor peptide Melan-A-induced T cells with superior effector functions as compared with vaccination with the analog peptide optimized for enhanced HLA-A*0201 binding. Here we found that natural peptide vaccination induced tumor-reactive CD8 T cells with frequent coexpression of both memory/homing-associated genes (CD27, IL7R, EOMES, CXCR3, and CCR5) and effector-related genes (IFNG, KLRD1, PRF1, and GZMB), comparable with protective Epstein-Barr virus-specific and cytomegalovirus-specific T cells. In contrast, memory/homing-associated and effector-associated genes were less frequently coexpressed after vaccination with the analog peptide. Remarkably, these findings reveal a previously unknown level of gene expression diversity among vaccine-specific and virus-specific T cells with the simultaneous coexpression of multiple memory/homing-related and effector-related genes by the same cell. Such broad functional gene expression signatures within antigen-specific T cells may be critical for mounting efficient responses to pathogens or tumors. In summary, direct ex vivo high-resolution molecular characterization of individual T cells provides key insights into the processes shaping the functional properties of tumor-specific and virus-specific T cells.

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