Research IndicatorsGraph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (8)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: ITGB3 (cancer-related)
Li Z, Li N, Li F, et al.Immune checkpoint proteins PD-1 and TIM-3 are both highly expressed in liver tissues and correlate with their gene polymorphisms in patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(52):e5749 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immune checkpoint proteins programmed death-1 (PD-1) and T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain containing molecule-3 (TIM-3) expression and their gene polymorphisms have separately been shown to be associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study simultaneously examined PD-1 and TIM-3 expression in liver tissues and PD1 and TIM3 polymorphisms and analyzed their correlations in 171 patients with HBV-related HCC and 34 patients with HBV-related cirrhosis.PD-1 and TIM-3 expression in liver tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry and the genotypes of PD1 rs10204525 and TIM3 rs10053538 polymorphisms were determined using genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood as template.Both PD-1 and TIM-3 expressions in liver infiltrating lymphocytes of HCC tumor tissues were significantly higher than those in tumor adjacent tissues or cirrhotic tissues. The elevated PD-1 and TIM-3 expressions were significantly associated with higher tumor grades. The levels between PD-1 and TIM-3 expression in tumor tissues and tumor adjacent tissues had a significant positive intercorrelation. The expressions of PD-1 and TIM-3 in tumor tissues, tumor adjacent tissues, and cirrhotic tissues were significantly associated with PD1 and TIM3 polymorphisms, with genotype AA of PD1 rs10204525 and genotypes GT+TT of TIM3 rs10053538 being associated with significantly increased PD-1 and TIM-3 expression, respectively.These findings support the potential to improve the efficiency of immune checkpoint-targeted therapy and reduce resistance to the therapy by blocking both PD-1 and TIM-3 and suggest the potential to apply the genotype determination of PD1 rs10204525 and TIM3 rs10053538 as biomarkers of immune checkpoint-directed therapies.
Xue D, Liang Y, Duan S, et al.Enhanced anti-tumor immunity against breast cancer induced by whole tumor cell vaccines genetically modified expressing α-Gal epitopes.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2843-2851 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Whole tumor cell vaccines have shown much promise, but demonstrated poor efficiency in phase III trials. In this study, we modified MDA-MB‑231 tumor cells (MDA-MB‑231Gal+) to express α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase (α-1, 3-GT) protein, to potentially enhance antitumor effect of whole tumor cell vaccines. MDA-MB‑231 tumor cell vaccines were transfected with a reconstructed lentiviral containing α-1, 3-GT genes. Tumor growth, tumorigenesis and survival of Hu-NOD-SCID mice were observed when tumor-bearing mice were injected with tumor cell vaccines. Proliferation and apoptosis in MDA-MB‑231 tumor xenografts were observed by immunohistochemistry. The levels of cytokine secretion in the serum of mice were tested by ELISA. CD8+ T cells infiltrating tumors were assessed by flow cytometry. MDA-MB‑231Gal+ cells expressed active α-1, 3-GT and produced α-Gal in vitro. MDA-MB‑231Gal+ cell vaccines suppressed tumor growth and tumorigenesis in immunized Hu-NOD-SCID mice. Additionally, decrease of TGF-β, IL-10 and increase of INF-γ, IL-12 were observed in tumor cell vaccinated mice. Furthermore, the cell vaccines enhanced infiltration of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment of immunized mice. The MDA-MB‑231Gal+ cell vaccines modified α-1, 3-GT genes improved the antitumor effect.
Zhang AM, Zhang CL, Song Y, et al.Genetic variations of the NPC1L1 gene associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and biochemical characteristics of HCV patients in China.
Int J Infect Dis. 2016; 53:6-11 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: About 2% of the world population is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a leading cause of hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 cholesterol absorption receptor (NPC1L1) was recently identified to be an important factor for HCV entry into host cells. Whether genetic variations of the NPC1L1 gene are associated with HCV infection is unknown.
METHODS: In this study, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NPC1L1 gene were analyzed in 261 HCV-infected individuals and 265 general controls from Yunnan Province, China.
RESULTS: No significant differences were identified in genotypes or alleles of the SNPs between the two groups. After constructing haplotypes based on the five SNPs, a significant difference between HCV-infected individuals and general controls was shown for two haplotypes. Haplotype GCCTT appeared to be a protective factor and haplotype GCCCT was a risk factor for HCV-infected individuals. Genotypes of four SNPs correlated with biochemical characteristics of HCV-infected persons. Genotypes of SNPs rs799444 and rs2070607 were correlated with total bilirubin. Genotype TT of rs917098 was a risk factor for the gamma-glutamyltransferase level. Furthermore, HCV-infected individuals carrying genotype GG of rs41279633 showed statistically higher gamma-glutamyltransferase levels than HCV-infected persons with GT and TT.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study identified the association between genetic susceptibility of the NPC1L1 gene and HCV infection, as well as biochemical characteristics of HCV-infected persons in Yunnan, China.
Wei W, Yang Y, Cai J, et al.MiR-30a-5p Suppresses Tumor Metastasis of Human Colorectal Cancer by Targeting ITGB3.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(3):1165-76 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIMS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are dysregulated in a wide range of malignant diseases, confirming their crucial role in tumor metastasis. MiRNA-30a-5p, a member of the miR-30 family, has been implicated in many types of cancers, including colorectal cancer, a leading cause of death worldwide.
METHODS: qRT-PCR, Western blot, Transwell assay,luciferase reporter assay were performed in the present study.
RESULTS: In this study, miR-30a-5p was found to be significantly downregulated in human colorectal cancer tissue specimens and cell lines compared with non-cancerous tissues and cells. The overexpression of miR-30a-5p inhibited the migratory and invasive abilities of colorectal cancer cells and suppressed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a crucial process in metastasis. Bioinformatic algorithms and luciferase reporter assays revealed that integrin β3 (ITGB3) is a direct target of miR-30a-5p. Importantly, overexpression of ITGB3 in colorectal cancer cells rescued these cells from miR-30a-5p-mediated suppression of metastasis and restored the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that miR-30a-5p suppresses colon cancer metastasis through the inhibition of ITGB3. Thus, targeting miR-30a-5p might serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
Chen X, Wei L, Zhao SmiR-338 inhibits the metastasis of lung cancer by targeting integrin β3.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(3):1467-74 [PubMed
] Related Publications
miR-338 as an intronic miRNA from apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase (AATK) is involved in tumor proliferation and apoptosis, but its function and regulatory mechanism in lung cancer is still obscure. In the present study, we found that miR-338 was strikingly downregulated in 115 lung cancer tissues and 5 lung cancer cell lines. Besides, low level of miR-338 was associated with tumor emboli, TNM stage, tumor recurrence and poor survival. Regaining the expression of miR-338 in lung cancer cell lines significantly impaired cellular adhesion, migration, invasion and lung tumor formation in nude mice. Furthermore, we also identified a metastasis related protein, integrin β3 (ITGB3), as a novel target gene of miR-338. Our results reveal a new regulatory mechanism of miR-338 which may help us better understand the metastasis of lung cancer.
Tang D, Tang WJ, Shi XL, et al.Association of the microsatellite (GT)n repeat polymorphisms of the HO-1 gene promoter and corresponding serum levels with the risk of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Acta Otolaryngol. 2016; 136(8):806-11 [PubMed
] Related Publications
CONCLUSION: Long (GT)n repeat polymorphisms in the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene promoter and decreased serum HO-1 levels are associated with a higher susceptibility to laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).
OBJECTIVE: In this case-control study, the association of HO-1 microsatellite (GT)n repeat polymorphisms and serum levels with the risk of LSCC was investigated.
METHODS: A total of 142 LSCC patients, 54 vocal leukoplakia patients and 98 healthy controls, were examined for (GT)n polymorphisms by sequencing, and the serum HO-1 levels were detected in a sub-set from participants above by ELISA.
RESULTS: Compared with the controls, the LSCC group had significantly higher frequencies of L-allele (> 29 repeats) and L-allele carriers (p < 0.001, OR = 2.037 and p = 0.005, OR = 2.152, respectively). The frequencies of lymph node metastasis and of moderate or poor differentiation were significantly higher in L-allele carriers compared to non-L-allele carriers (p < 0.05). Significantly lower serum HO-1 levels were detected in LSCC patients (p < 0.001), and patients with lower serum HO-1 levels had more advanced cancer stage and a higher lymph node metastasis rate (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the L-allele carriers had lower serum HO-1 concentrations compared with the non-L-allele carriers (p = 0.019).
Chhikara S, Sazawal S, Mishra P, et al.C1236T polymorphism in MDR1 gene correlates with therapeutic response to imatinib mesylate in Indian patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia.
Natl Med J India. 2015 Nov-Dec; 28(6):272-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia show an excellent response to treatment with imatinib. However, in some patients, the disease is resistant to imatinib. This resistance may be related to the presence of genetic variations on the drug's pharmacokinetics and metabolism. We therefore studied three polymorphisms (C1236T, G2677T and C3435T) in the human multidrug-resistance gene (MDR1) in 86 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia treated with imatinib. Imatinib resistance was more frequent in patients with TT genotype at locus 1236 than in those with CT/CC genotypes (p=0.003). For the other two loci (G2677T and C3435T), resistance was seen to be higher for TT genotype when compared to GG/GT and CT/CC but it was not statistically significant (p=0.13 and p=0.099). In conclusion, determination of C1236T MDR1 genotype may help to predict response to imatinib therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia.
BACKGROUND Recent genome-wide association studies have identified rs6983267 polymorphism as a key locus in the 8q24 region associated with multisite cancers. However, the information on its association with thyroid cancer is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine whether this locus is a risk factor for susceptibility to thyroid cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. RESULTS A total of 4 studies including 2825 cases and 9684 controls were enrolled to this meta-analysis. The pooled data showed the G allele of the rs6983267 polymorphism is a risk factor for susceptibility to thyroid cancer (OR=1.08, 95%CI: 1.02-1.16, P=0.01). Significant associations were also found in homozygote comparison (GG vs. TT: OR=1.17, 95%CI: 1.03-1.33, P=0.02) and dominant model (GG+GT vs. TT: OR=1.13, 95%CI: 1.01-1.26, P=0.03). Borderline significant associations in similar directions were found in the recessive model (GG vs. GT+TT: OR=1.10, 95%CI: 0.99-1.22, P=0.07) and heterozygote comparison (GT vs. TT: OR=1.10, 95%CI: 0.99-1.24, P=0.09). CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis shows that the rs6983267 G>T polymorphism might be associated with higher risk of thyroid cancer. Further research with larger sample sizes and full investigation of confounding risk factors is needed to confirm or revise our conclusions.
Diler SB, Öden AThe T -786C, G894T, and Intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) Polymorphisms of the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene in Prostate Cancer Cases.
Genetika. 2016; 52(2):249-54 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In previously conducted some studies it has been revealed that nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system play a significant role in carcinogenesis. Nitric oxide (NO) is regulated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme which is one of the isoenzymes of NO synthase (NOS). In this study we have tried to come to a conclusion about whether eNOS gene T -786C, G894T and Intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) polymorphisms might be considered as a risk factor causing prostate cancer (PCa) or not. A total of 200 subjects were included in this research. 84 patients with PCa (mean age 70.0 ± 6.4) and 116 healthy controls (mean age 69.9 ± 7.5) were recruited in this case-control study. Genomic DNA was extracted using the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (QIAGEN GmbH, Maryland, USA), according to the manufacturer's guidelines. The T-786C, G894T and Intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) polymorphisms were amplified using polymerase chain reation (PCR), detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). For T -786C polymorphism CC genotype [odds ratio (OR): 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15-0.78, P = 0.009)] and allele frequency (OR: 0.631, CI: 0.421-0.946, P = 0.026) is significant for control. In patients with PCa eNOS G894T polymorphism, both GT (OR: 0.069, CI: 0.027-0.174; P = 0.0001) and TT (OR: 0.040, CI: 0.013-0.123; P = = 0.0001) genotype distribution, and also T allele frequency (OR: 0.237, CI: 0.155-0.362, P = 0.0001) were considered significant statistically. While genotype distribution for the other polymorphism eNOS, intron 4 VNTR (4a/b), is insignificant statistically, "a" allele frequency was found out to be significant (OR: 2.223, CI: 1.311-3.769, P = 0.003). In this study we indicated that genotype and allele frequencies of eNOS T -786C and G894T polymorphisms are statistically significant in patients with PCa. eNOS T -786C and G894T polymorphisms may be associated with PCa susceptibility in the Turkish population. In contrast, intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) polymorphism may not be related to PCa susceptibility in these patients.
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy with docetaxel (Doc) remains the standard treatment for metastatic and castration-resistance prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the clinical success of Doc is limited by its chemoresistance and side effects. This study investigated whether natural products green tea (GT) and quercetin (Q) enhance the therapeutic efficacy of Doc in CRPC in mouse models.
METHODS: Male severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice (n = 10 per group) were inoculated with androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells subcutaneously. When tumors were established the intervention started. Mice were administered with GT + Q, Doc 5 mg/kg (LD), GT + Q + LD Doc, Doc 10 mg/kg (HD) or control. The concentration of GT polyphenols in brewed tea administered as drinking water was 0.07% and Q was supplemented in diet at 0.4%. Doc was intravenously injected weekly for 4 weeks, GT and Q given throughout the study.
RESULTS: GT + Q or LD Doc slightly inhibited tumor growth compared to control. However, the combination of GT and Q with LD Doc significantly enhanced the potency of Doc 2-fold and reduced tumor growth by 62% compared to LD Doc in 7-weeks intervention. A decrease of Ki67 and increase of cleaved caspase 7 were observed in tumors by the mixture, along with lowered blood concentrations of growth factors like VEGF and EGF. The mixture significantly elevated the levels of tumor suppressor mir15a and mir330 in tumor tissues. An increased risk of liver toxicity was only observed with HD Doc treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: These results provide a promising regimen to enhance the therapeutic effect of Doc in a less toxic manner.
Adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is widely used for stage III colorectal cancer (CRC) after curative surgery. CRC is a molecularly heterogeneous disease, and our current knowledge of therapeutic response-related genetic factors remains limited. N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 14 (GALNT14)-rs9679162 genotype is a prognostic predictor for chemotherapy response in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we investigated whether this genotype was related to the therapeutic outcome of stage III CRC.A cohort of 300 stage III CRC patients receiving curative resection followed by oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy was retrospectively recruited. GALNT14 genotypes and the clinicopathological factors were correlated with posttherapeutic prognosis.Of these patients, 18% patients had GALNT14-rs9679162 "TT" and 82% had the "GT" + "GG" genotypes. The analysis showed that the "TT" genotype was associated with unfavorable overall survival (OS, P = 0.009) but not with recurrence-free survival (RFS, P = 0.700). The subgroup analysis showed that the "TT" genotype was associated with unfavorable OS in the following subgroups: age ≤65 years, men, left side CRC, N2 stage, carcinoembryonic antigen >5 ng/mL, and mucinous histology (P = 0.012, 0.011, 0.009, 0.025, 0.013, and 0.007, respectively). Within the latter 2 subgroups, the "TT" genotype was the only independent predictor for OS. Finally, the "TT" genotype was associated with the T4 tumor stage (P = 0.017) and in patients with T4 tumors, the "TT" genotype was the only independent predictor for unfavorable RFS (P = 0.007).GALNT14 "TT" genotype was associated with unfavorable OS in stage III CRC patients receiving curative surgery and adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy.
Suthar SK, Sharma MRecent Developments in Chimeric NSAIDs as Anticancer Agents: Teaching an Old Dog a New Trick.
Mini Rev Med Chem. 2016; 16(15):1201-1218 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the widely used medications all over the world, indicated for pain, fever, and inflammation. It is now well established that inflammation and cancer are closely linked with each other. Inflammatory mediators, like cyclooxygenase (COX), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor growth factor (TGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), chemokines, and cytokines and related genes, such as inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B kinase (IKK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) have been shown to be up-regulated in various cancers. Till date, numerous anticancer agents of different classes have been discovered to treat and eradicate various forms of cancer; though, limitations like cytotoxicity to normal cells and acquired tumor resistance restrict the scope of present cancer therapeutics. NSAIDs have shown to decrease the incidence, recurrence, and proliferation of various cancers, viz. colon, breast, lung, and pancreatic, etc. Therefore, the developing agents, such as NO-and H<sub>2</sub>S-releasing NSAIDs, NSAID-metal complexes, natural product-NSAID conjugates, phospho-NSAIDs, and various other NSAIDs derivatives represent the next generation therapeutics to treat both inflammation and cancer.
Ho V, Ashbury JE, Taylor S, et al.Genetic and epigenetic variation in the DNMT3B and MTHFR genes and colorectal adenoma risk.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2016; 57(4):261-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Polymorphisms in DNMT3B and MTHFR have been implicated in cancer etiology; however, it is increasingly clear that gene-specific DNA methylation also affects gene expression. A cross-sectional study (N = 272) investigated the main and joint effects of polymorphisms and DNA methylation in DNMT3B and MTHFR on colorectal adenoma risk. Polymorphisms examined included DNMT3B c.-6-1045G > T, and MTHFR c.665C > T and c.1286A > C. DNA methylation of 66 and 28 CpG sites in DNMT3B and MTHFR, respectively, was quantified in blood leukocytes using Sequenom EpiTYPER®. DNA methylation was conceptualized using two approaches: (1) average methylation and (2) unsupervised principal component analysis to identify variables that represented methylation around the transcription start site and the gene coding area of both genes. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with the main and joint effects of polymorphisms and DNA methylation. DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) TT versus GG/GT genotypes was associated with increased colorectal adenoma risk (OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.03-4.34). In addition, increasing DNA methylation in the gene-coding area of DNMT3B was associated with higher risk of colorectal adenomas (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.01-1.79 per SD). In joint effect analyses, synergistic effects were observed among those with both the DNMT3B TT genotype and higher DNMT3B methylation levels compared to those with GT/GG genotypes and lower methylation levels (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.45-12.13 for average methylation; OR = 4.26; 95%CI: 1.31-13.87 for methylation in the transcription start site). This research provides novel evidence that genetic and epigenetic variations contribute to colorectal adenoma risk, precursor to the majority of colorectal cancer (CRC).
INTRODUCTION: Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Caucasian populations have identified an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene cluster on chromosome 15q25, lung cancer risk and smoking behaviors. However, these SNPs are rare in Asians, and there is currently no consensus on whether SNPs in CHRNA5-A3-B4 have a direct or indirect carcinogenic effect through smoking behaviors on lung cancer risk. Though some studies confirmed rs6495308 polymorphisms to be associated with smoking behaviors and lung cancer, no research was conducted in China. Using a case-control study, we decided to investigate the associations between CHRNA3 rs6495308, CHRNB4 rs11072768, smoking behaviors and lung cancer risk, as well as explore whether the two SNPs have a direct or indirect carcinogenic effect on lung cancer.
METHODS: A total of 1025 males were interviewed using a structured questionnaire (204 male lung cancer patients and 821 healthy men) to acquire socio-demographic status and smoking behaviors. Venous blood samples were collected to measure rs6495308 and rs11072768 gene polymorphisms. All subjects were divided into 3 groups: non-smokers, light smokers (1-15 cigarettes per day) and heavy smokers (>15 cigarettes per day).
RESULTS: Compared to wild genotype, rs6495308 and rs11072768 variant genotypes reported smoking more cigarettes per day and a higher pack-years of smoking (P<0.05). More importantly, among smokers, both rs6495308 CT/TT and rs11072768 GT/GG had a higher risk of lung cancer compared to wild genotype without adjusting for potential confounding factors (OR = 1.36, 95%CI = 1.09-1.95; OR = 1.11, 95%CI = 1.07-1.58 respectively). Furthermore, heavy smokers with rs6495308 or rs11072768 variant genotypes have a positive interactive effect on lung cancer after adjustment for potential confounding factors (OR = 1.13, 95%CI = 1.01-3.09; OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.01-3.41 respectively). However, No significant associations were found between lung cancer risk and both rs6495308 and rs11072768 genotypes among non-smokers and smokers after adjusting for age, occupation, and education.
CONCLUSION: This study confirmed both rs6495308 and rs11072768 gene polymorphisms association with smoking behaviors and had an indirect link between gene polymorphisms and lung cancer risk.
Overexpression of the nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) in breast cancer patients is a prognostic factor for decreased survival and increased metastasis, and this has been linked to NR4A1-dependent regulation of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling. Results of RNA interference studies demonstrate that basal migration of aggressive SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells is TGF-β independent and dependent on regulation of β1-integrin gene expression by NR4A1 which can be inhibited by the NR4A1 antagonists 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH) and a related p-carboxymethylphenyl [1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-carboxymethylphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhCO2Me)] analog. The NR4A1 antagonists also inhibited TGF-β-induced migration of MDA-MB-231 cells by blocking nuclear export of NR4A1, which is an essential step in TGF-β-induced cell migration. We also observed that NR4A1 regulates expression of both β1- and β3-integrins, and unlike other β1-integrin inhibitors which induce prometastatic β3-integrin, NR4A1 antagonists inhibit expression of both β1- and β3-integrin, demonstrating a novel mechanism-based approach for targeting integrins and integrin-dependent breast cancer metastasis.
We have previously shown that Protein Kinase C delta (PKCδ) functions as a tumor promoter in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), specifically in the context of K-ras addiction. Here we define a novel PKCδ -> integrin αVβ3 ->Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) pathway that regulates the transformed growth of K-ras dependent NSCLC cells. To explore how PKCδ regulates tumorigenesis, we performed mRNA expression analysis in four KRAS mutant NSCLC cell lines that stably express scrambled shRNA or a PKCδ targeted shRNA. Analysis of PKCδ-dependent mRNA expression identified 3183 regulated genes, 210 of which were specifically regulated in K-ras dependent cells. Genes that regulate extracellular matrix and focal adhesion pathways were most highly represented in this later group. In particular, expression of the integrin pair, αVβ3, was specifically reduced in K-ras dependent cells with depletion of PKCδ, and correlated with reduced ERK activation and reduced transformed growth as assayed by clonogenic survival. Re-expression of PKCδ restored ITGAV and ITGB3 mRNA expression, ERK activation and transformed growth, and this could be blocked by pretreatment with a αVβ3 function-blocking antibody, demonstrating a requirement for integrin αVβ3 downstream of PKCδ. Similarly, expression of integrin αV restored ERK activation and transformed growth in PKCδ depleted cells, and this could also be inhibited by pretreatment with PD98059.Our studies demonstrate an essential role for αVβ3 and ERK signalingdownstream of PKCδ in regulating the survival of K-ras dependent NSCLC cells, and identify PKCδ as a novel therapeutic target for the subset of NSCLC patients with K-ras dependent tumors.
Chen Z, Wang SH, Zhou J, et al.Contribution of PGR genetic polymorphisms to the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer: A meta-analysis.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2015 Oct-Dec; 11(4):810-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis is to identify whether two common genetic polymorphisms (rs1042838 G > T and rs10895068 C > T) in the PGR gene may contribute to the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MEDLINE (1966 ~ 2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), EMBASE (1980 ~ 2013), CINAHL (1982 ~ 2013), Web of Science (1945 ~ 2013) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1982 ~ 2013) were searched without language restrictions. Meta-analyses were conducted using the STATA software (Version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA). We calculated odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) to estimate the relationships between PGR genetic polymorphisms and the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer.
RESULTS: Six studies with a total of 6,285 patients with endometrial cancer and 12,120 control subjects met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Our findings suggested that PGR rs1042838 polymorphism was significantly correlated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer (T allele vs. G allele: OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.07 ~ 1.42, P = 0.005; GT + TT vs. GG: OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.06 ~ 1.40, P = 0.006; TT vs. GG + GT: OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.09 ~ 2.49, P = 0.017; TT vs. GG: OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.12 ~ 2.65, P = 0.013; TT vs. GT: OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.01 ~ 2.00, P = 0.044, respectively). We also observed positive associations between PGR rs10895068 polymorphism and the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer (T allele vs. C allele: OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02 ~ 1.29, P = 0.027; CT + TT vs. CC: OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00 ~ 1.29, P = 0.045, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Ethnicity-stratified analysis indicated that rs1042838 and rs10895068 polymorphisms in the PGR gene might be strongly related to the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer among Caucasians and mixed populations (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings provide empirical evidence that PGR rs1042838 and rs10895068 polymorphisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer.
Obradović J, Djordjević N, Tošic N, et al.Frequencies of EGFR single nucleotide polymorphisms in non-small cell lung cancer patients and healthy individuals in the Republic of Serbia: a preliminary study.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10479-86 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to determine the frequencies of EGFR -216G>T, -191C>A, and 181946C>T in Serbian non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, as well as to compare it with healthy individuals, in order to assess their potential importance for lung cancer in Serbia. The study involved 56 NSCLC patients and 53 unrelated healthy volunteers, and genotyping was performed on DNA samples obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tumor tissue and blood, respectively. This was the first time to show genotype frequencies of those single nucleotide polymorphisms for this study group from the territory of the Republic of Serbia. There was very strong evidence of association between age and death due to lung cancer (Pearson chi-square = 43.439, df = 2, p < 0,001), as well as between ever smoking and death due to lung cancer (Pearson chi-square = 31.727, df = 1, p < 0.001). When dominant genetic model (GG vs. GT+TT) was used for -216G>T, we have found significant association (p = 0.012) between -216GG genotype and NSCLC patients within smokers' subgroup. So, carriers of -216GG genotype had higher risk (OR = 4.33, 95 % CI = 1.324-14.179) than noncarriers (GT and TT) for developing non-small cell lung cancer in our patients.
Abuhaliema AM, Yousef AM, El-Madany NN, et al.Influence of Genotype and Haplotype of MDR1 (C3435T, G2677A/T, C1236T) on the Incidence of Breast Cancer--a Case-Control Study in Jordan.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(1):261-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women and the second in humans worldwide. Many published studies have suggested an association between MDR1 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Our aim was to study the association between genetic polymorphism of MDR1 at three sites (C3435T, G2677A/T, and C1236T) and their haplotype and the risk of breast cancer in Jordanian females.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study involving 150 breast cancer cases and 150 controls was conducted. Controls were age-matched to cases. The polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR- RFLP) technique and sequencing were performed to analyse genotypes.
RESULTS: The distribution of MDR1 C3435T genotypes differed between cases and controls [cases, CC 45.3%, CT 41.3%, and TT 13.3%; controls, CC 13.4%, CT 43.3%, and TT 30.2%, p < 0.001]. Similarly, the distribution of G2677A/T significantly differed [cases, GG 43.1 %, GT+GA 50.9% and AA+TT 6%; controls, GG 29.6 %, GT+GA 50.9%, and AA+TT 19.4%, p = 0.004]. On the other hand, genotype and allelotype distribution of C1236T was not statistically different between cases and controls (p=0.56 and 0.26, respectively). The CGC haplotype increased the risk to breast cancer by 2.5-fold compared to others, while TGC and TTC haplotypes carried 2.5- and 5-fold lower risk of breast cancer, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic polymorphisms of MDR1 C3435T and G2677A/T, but not C1236T, are associated with increased risk of breast cancer. In addition, CGC, TGC and TTC haplotypes have different impacts on the risk of breast cancer. Future, larger studies are needed to validate these findings.
OBJECTIVE: To find out if there are any relationship between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene (rs1234213, rs1234220, and rs2299939) and the susceptibility of liver cancer.
METHODS: Genotypes of the three SNPs in the PTEN gene were achieved utilizing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Comparison of genotypes and alleles distribution differences between the case and the control subjects was accomplished with χ(2) test. The analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotypes of the three SNPs was performed using SHEsis software. We adopted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to show the relative risk of liver cancer.
RESULTS: TC genotype and C allele of rs1234220 polymorphism showed much more frequently in cases than in controls, reflecting that the TC genotype and the C allele may be linked to the increased risk of liver cancer (OR=2.225, 95% CI=1.178-4.204; OR=1.941, 95% CI=1.124-3.351). Rs2299939 polymorphism showed an opposite result that the GT genotype probably reduce the risk of liver cancer (OR=0.483, 95% CI=0.259-0.900). Statistical significance was not found in the distribution differences of the genotypes of rs1234213 between two groups. LD and haplotype analysis results of the three SNPs showed that the T-C-G haplotype frequency was much higher in cases than in healthy objects, which proved that the T-C-G haplotype might be a susceptibility haplotype for liver cancer (OR=3.750, 95% CI=1.396-10.077).
CONCLUSIONS: PTEN gene polymorphisms might relate to liver cancer risk.
Zhu HS, Zhang JF, Zhou JD, et al.Association between the 8q24 rs6983267 T/G polymorphism and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):19329-41 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Recent studies have indicated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the 8q24 region may be a risk factor for prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the 8q24 rs6983267 T/G polymorphism and PCa risk. A systematic literature search was carried out in multiple electronic databases independently by two investigators. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for 8q24 rs6983267 T/G and PCa were calculated using a fixed-effect model (the Mantel-Haenszel method). In total, 24 case-control studies from 19 articles were included in our meta-analysis. Our analysis indicated that there is a significant PCa risk associated with the rs6983267 polymorphism in a dominant model (GG vs GT+TT, pooled OR = 1.298, P < 0.001); recessive model (GG+GT vs TT, pooled OR = 1.302, P < 0.001); and homozygote comparison (GG vs TT, pooled OR = 1.494, P < 0.001). Similarly, in a subgroup analysis of European and Asian descent, our results revealed that there are associations between rs6983267 T/G polymorphism and PCa susceptibility with the dominant model (GG vs GT+TT), recessive model (GG+GT vs TT), and homozygote comparison (GG vs TT). To investigate the association between rs6983267 and risk of PCa under different clinical conditions, further analyses were conducted regarding different clinical characteristics including the Gleason score, tumor stage, and PSA level to provide a more comprehensive view of PCa risk and this SNP. Publication bias was assed using the Begg test and the Egger test, and none was detected.
Li W, Liu C, Zhao C, et al.Downregulation of β3 integrin by miR-30a-5p modulates cell adhesion and invasion by interrupting Erk/Ets‑1 network in triple-negative breast cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(3):1155-64 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Integrins are adhesion receptors involved in bidirectional signaling and are crucial for various cellular responses during normal homeostasis and pathological conditions, such as cancer progression and metastasis. In the present study, we demonstrated that blockage of β3 integrin-mediated cell- extracellular matrix interactions restrained triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) growth, and elevated β3 integrin can trigger the rewiring of Erk/Ets-1 signaling pathways, thereby enhancing cell growth and invasion. Ectopic expression of miRNA has been implicated in the deregulation of integrin expression and activity, blocking of cancer tumor development and progression, and acquisition of metastatic phenotype. miR-30a-5p expression has been implicated in the progression of breast cancer. Overexpression of miR-30a-5p suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. On the contrary, inhibition of miR-30a-5p promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of TNBC cells by suppressing the expression of ERK/Ets-1 signal. An inverse correlation was found between the mRNA expressions of miR-30a-5p and β3 integrin in TNBC samples. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis revealed the putative miR-30 binding sites in the 3'-UTR of β3 integrin. Results of luciferase assay revealed a strong repression of luciferase activity after transfection with miR‑30a-5p and wild-type 3'-UTR of β3 integrin. In TNBC cells, miR-30a-5p promoted an epithelial phenotype and suppressed invasion by specifically targeting β3 integrin subunit to subsequently interdict the β3 integrin/Erk/Ets-1 network.
van Leeuwaarde RS, van Nesselrooij BP, Hermus AR, et al.Impact of Delay in Diagnosis in Outcomes in MEN1: Results From the Dutch MEN1 Study Group.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016; 101(3):1159-65 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Identifying a germline mutation in the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene in an index case has consequences for a whole family. Eligible family members should be offered genetic counseling and MEN1 mutation testing. Subsequently, clinical screening of mutation carriers according to the guidelines should be initiated. We assessed whether there is a lag time from MEN1 diagnosis of the index case to MEN1 diagnosis of family members. In addition, we determined whether this lag time was associated with an increased morbidity and mortality risk.
DESIGN: A cohort study was performed using the Dutch MEN1 database, including >90% of the Dutch MEN1 population >16 years of age (n = 393).
RESULTS: Fifty-eight MEN1 families were identified, of whom 57 were index cases and 247 were non-index cases (n = 304). The median lag time in MEN1 diagnosis of family members was 3.5 (range, 0-30) years. At the time of MEN1 diagnosis, 30 (12.1%) non-index cases had a duodenopancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, of whom 20% had metastases with a mean lag time of 10.9 years, in comparison with 7.1 years without metastases. Twenty-five (10.1%) non-index cases had a pituitary tumor, of whom 80% had a microadenoma and 20% had a macroadenoma, with mean lag times of 7.2 and 10.6 years, respectively. Ninety-five (38.4%) non-index cases had a primary hyperparathyroidism with a mean lag time of 9.5 years in comparison with seven patients without a primary hyperparathyroidism with a mean lag time of 3 years (P = .005). Ten non-index cases died because of a MEN1-related cause that developed during or before the lag time.
CONCLUSION: There is a clinically relevant delay in MEN1 diagnosis in families because of a lag time between the diagnosis of an index case and the rest of the family. More emphasis should be placed on the conduct of proper counseling and genetic testing in all eligible family members.
We conducted a prospective study to analyze whether six SNPs in ERCC1 gene could serve as potential biomarkers for prognosis of gastric cancer. Between January 2010 and December 2012, 270 patients with pathologically proven gastric cancer and receiving platinum-based chemotherapy were recruited in our study. Genotyping of the ERCC1 rs11615, rs2298881, rs3212955, rs3212961, rs3212986 and rs735482 were carried out using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. By logistic regression analysis, patients carrying the GT and TT genotypes of rs3212986 showed a significantly poorer response to chemotherapy than did those carrying the GG genotype, and the ORs (95% CI) were 0.47 (0.25-0.88) and 0.18 (0.08-0.41), respectively. By Cox proportional hazards models, the GT and TT genotypes of rs3212986 were correlated with increased risk of death when compared with the GG genotype, and the adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 1.79 (1.01-3.16) and 2.57 (1.18-5.62), respectively. However, we did not find significant association between ERCC1 rs11615, rs2298881, rs3212955, rs3212961 and rs735482 and response to chemotherapy and overall survival in patients with gastric cancer. In conclusion, the results of the present retrospective study indicate that there is a significant difference in biological behavior between ERCC1 rs3212986 gene polymorphism and treatment outcome of gastric cancer.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most lethal brain tumors with a short survival time. EGFR amplification and mutation is the most significant genetic signature in GBM. About half of the GBMs with EGFR amplification express a constitutively autophosphorylated variant of EGFR, known as EGFRvIII. Our in vitro data demonstrated further enhanced EGFRvIII activity and tumor cell invasion in the tumor microenvironment of hypoxia plus extracellular matrix (ECM) vitronectin, in which EGFRvIII and integrin β3 tended to form complexes. The treatment with ITGB3 siRNA or the integrin antagonist cilengetide preferentially interrupted the EGFRvIII/integrin β3 complex, effectively reduced tumor cell invasion and activation of downstream signaling effectors. Cilengitide is recently failed in Phase III CENTRIC trial in unselected patients with GBM. However, we found that cilengitide demonstrated efficacious tumor regression via inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis in EGFRvIII orthotopic xenografts. Bioinformatics analysis emphasized key roles of integrin β3, hypoxia and vitronectin and their strong correlations with EGFRvIII expression in malignant glioma patient samples in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrate that EGFRvIII/integrin β3 complexes promote GBM progression and metastasis in the environment of hypoxia and vitronectin-enrichment, and cilengitide may serve as a promising therapeutics for EGFRvIII-positive GBMs.
Hezova R, Kovarikova A, Srovnal J, et al.MiR-205 functions as a tumor suppressor in adenocarcinoma and an oncogene in squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):8007-18 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Esophageal cancer is a malignant disease with poor prognosis, increasing incidence, and ineffective treatment options. MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression involved in many biological processes including carcinogenesis. We determined miR-205 expression levels in tumor/non-tumor tissues of 45 esophageal cancer patients using qPCR and found that decreased level of miR-205 in tumor tissue correlates with poor overall survival in esophageal adenocarcinoma patients. Further, we observed significantly higher levels of miR-205 in tumor tissue of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Ectopic overexpression of miR-205 in adenocarcinoma cell line SK-GT-4 led to decreased cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest in G1, and decreased migration ability. Conversely, in squamous cell line KYSE-150, same effects like inhibition of proliferation, migration, and colony-forming potential and cell cycle arrest in G2 were observed after silencing of miR-205. We performed global gene expression profiling and revealed that suppressive functioning of miR-205 in adenocarcinoma could be realized through regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereas oncogenic in squamous cell carcinoma by regulation of metalloproteinase 10. Our results suggest that miR-205 could serve as biomarker in esophageal cancer and acts as a tumor suppressor in esophageal adenocarcinoma and oncogene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Laryngeal cancer (LC) is one of the most prevalent types of head and neck cancer. An increasing interest has been focused on the role of microRNA (miRNAs) in LC development. The study group consisted of 135 larynx cancer patients and 170 cancer-free individuals. Nine polymorphisms of pre-miRNA processing genes, DROSHA (rs6877842), DGCR8 (rs3757, rs417309, and rs1640299), RAN (rs14035), XPO5 (rs11077), DICER1 (rs13078 and rs3742330) and TARBP2 (rs784567), were performed by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay. It was found that the frequency of the GT and the TT polymorphic variants of XPO5 gene were higher in LC patients than in controls (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.000183, resp.). In turn, the frequency of the CT genotype of RAN gene was higher in controls than in LC patients (p < 0.0001). The TT and the AG of DICER1 gene (p = 0.034697 for rs13078 and p = 0.0004 for rs3742330) as well as the AG and the GG genotypes of TARBP2 gene (p = 0.008335 and p < 0.0001, resp.) were associated with higher risk of LC occurrence. Our data suggested that polymorphisms of miRNA processing genes might be useful as predictive factors for the LC development.
Nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/NOS3) is responsible for the endothelial synthesis of nitric oxide (NO(•)). G894T polymorphism leads to the amino acid substitution from Glu298Asp that causes lower NOS3 activity and basal NO(•) production in NOS3 894T (298Asp) allele carriers compared with the GG homozygotes. NO(•) acts as an antioxidant protecting against Fenton's reaction which generates highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Allelic variation of NOS3 may influence an individual's risk of laryngeal cancer (LC). In the current study we have examined the possible relationship between NOS3 G894T genotypes and various systemic oxidative damage markers such as protein carbonyl, advanced oxidation protein products, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, thiol group fractions, and lipid hydroperoxides in LC patients. Genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP. In LC patients with TT genotype, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase activities and nonprotein thiol levels were significantly higher than the controls. In patients with GT and GG genotype, high levels of lipid hydroperoxides showed statistical significance when compared to controls. Our results indicate a potential relationship among G894T polymorphism of NOS3, and impaired redox homeostasis. Further studies are required to determine the role of NOS3 gene polymorphism and impaired plasma redox homeostasis.
Huang X, Yang Y, Guo Y, et al.Association of a let-7 KRAS rs712 polymorphism with the risk of breast cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):16913-20 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Breast cancer (BC) is a common malignancy affecting women, with increasing incidences of this disease in China every year. Recent studies have extensively investigated a single nucleotide polymorphism in the let-7 miRNA binding site of the 3'-untranslated region of KRAS mRNA. The aim of this study was to determine the genotype frequency of the KRAS rs712 polymorphism, and evaluate its effect on BC risk. This hospital-based case-control study comprised 228 patients with histologically confirmed BC and 251 healthy controls. The let-7a KRAS rs712 polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. We observed no statistically significant association between BC risk and the let-7a KRAS rs712 polymorphism (GT vs GG, OR = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.66-1.46; TT vs GG, OR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.28-2.21). However, the rs712 polymorphism was significantly associated with the N status of BC patients (GG vs GT/TT, OR = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.30- 0.92; G allele vs T allele, OR = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.37-0.97). We found no association between the let-7 rs712 polymorphism and BC risk. However, the let-7 rs712 G/T polymorphism was discovered to play a potential role in BC tumor metastasis; therefore, it may be employed as a new biomarker or therapy targeted towards resistant tumor metastasis.
The role of FEN1 genetic variants on gallstone and gallbladder cancer susceptibility is unknown. FEN1 SNPs were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in blood samples from 341 gallbladder cancer patients and 339 healthy controls. The distribution of FEN1-69G > A genotypes among controls (AA, 20.6%; GA, 47.2% and GG 32.2%) was significantly different from that among gallbladder cancer cases (AA, 11.1%; GA, 48.1% and GG, 40.8%), significantly increased association with gallbladder cancer was observed for subjects with both the FEN1-69G > A GA (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.01-2.63) and the FEN1-69G > A GG (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.31-3.9). The distribution of FEN1 -4150T genotypes among controls (TT, 21.8%;GT, 49.3% and GG 28.9%) was significantly different from that among gallbladder cancer cases (TT, 12.9%; GT, 48.4% and GG 38.7%), significantly increased association with gallbladder cancer was observed for subjects with both the FEN1-4150T GT(OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.04-2.91) and the FEN1-4150T GG(OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.37-5.39). A significant trend towards increased association with gallbladder cancer was observed with potentially higher-risk FEN1-69G > A genotypes (P < 0.001, χ2 trend test) and FEN14150G > T (P < 0.001, χ2 trend test) in gallstone presence but not in gallstone absence (P = 0.81, P = 0.89, respectively). In conclusion, this study revealed firstly that FEN1 polymorphisms and haplotypes are associated with gallbladder cancer risk.