Gene Summary

Gene:KLK6; kallikrein related peptidase 6
Aliases: hK6, Bssp, Klk7, SP59, PRSS9, PRSS18
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the kallikrein subfamily of the peptidase S1 family of serine proteases. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protease. Expression of this protease is regulated by steroid hormones and may be elevated in multiple human cancers and in serum from psoriasis patients. The encoded protease may participate in the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and alpha-synuclein, thus implicating this protease in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, respectively. This gene is located in a gene cluster on chromosome 19. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes an isoform that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KLK6 (cancer-related)

Barry GS, Cheang MC, Chang HL, Kennecke HF
Genomic markers of panitumumab resistance including ERBB2/ HER2 in a phase II study of KRAS wild-type (wt) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):18953-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A prospective study was conducted to identify biomarkers associated with resistance to panitumumab monotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Patients with previously treated, codon 12/13 KRAS wt, mCRC were prospectively administered panitumumab 6 mg/kg IV q2weeks. Of 34 panitumumab-treated patients, 11 (32%) had progressive disease at 8 weeks and were classified as non-responders. A Nanostring nCounter-based assay identified a 5-gene expression signature (ERBB2, MLPH, IRX3, MYRF, and KLK6) associated with panitumumab resistance (P = 0.001). Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization determined that the HER2 (ERBB2) protein was overexpressed in 4/11 non-responding and 0/21 responding cases (P = 0.035). Two non-responding tumors had ERBB2 gene amplification only, and one demonstrated both ERBB2 amplification and mutation. A non-codon 12/13 KRAS mutation occurred in one panitumumab-resistant patient and was mutually exclusive with ERBB2/HER2 abnormalities. This study identifies a 5-gene signature associated with non-response to single agent panitumumab, including a subgroup of non-responders with evidence of aberrant ERBB2/HER2 signaling. KRAS wt tumors resistant to EGFRi may be identified by gene signature analysis, and the HER2 pathway plays an important role in resistance to therapy.

Hoff AM, Johannessen B, Alagaratnam S, et al.
Novel RNA variants in colorectal cancers.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(34):36587-602 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
With an annual estimated incidence of 1.4 million, and a five-year survival rate of 60%, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major clinical burden. To identify novel RNA variants in CRC, we analyzed exon-level microarray expression data from a cohort of 202 CRCs. We nominated 25 genes with increased expression of their 3' parts in at least one cancer sample each. To efficiently investigate underlying transcript structures, we developed an approach using rapid amplification of cDNA ends followed by high throughput sequencing (RACE-seq). RACE products from the targeted genes in 23 CRC samples were pooled together and sequenced. We identified VWA2-TCF7L2, DHX35-BPIFA2 and CASZ1-MASP2 as private fusion events, and novel transcript structures for 17 of the 23 other candidate genes. The high-throughput approach facilitated identification of CRC specific RNA variants. These include a recurrent read-through fusion transcript between KLK8 and KLK7, and a splice variant of S100A2. Both of these were overrepresented in CRC tissue and cell lines from external RNA-seq datasets.

Jimenez L, Sharma VP, Condeelis J, et al.
MicroRNA-375 Suppresses Extracellular Matrix Degradation and Invadopodial Activity in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015; 139(11):1349-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CONTEXT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly invasive cancer with an association with locoregional recurrence and lymph node metastasis. We have previously reported that low microRNA-375 (miR-375) expression levels correlate with poor patient survival, increased locoregional recurrence, and distant metastasis. Increasing miR-375 expression in HNSCC cell lines to levels found in normal cells results in suppressed invasive properties. HNSCC invasion is mediated in part by invadopodia-associated degradation of the extracellular matrix.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether elevated miR-375 expression in HNSCC cell lines also affects invadopodia formation and activity.
DESIGN: For evaluation of the matrix degradation properties of the HNSCC lines, an invadopodial matrix degradation assay was used. The total protein levels of invadopodia-associated proteins were measured by Western blot analyses. Immunoprecipitation experiments were conducted to evaluate the tyrosine phosphorylation state of cortactin. Human protease arrays were used for the detection of the secreted proteases. Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction measurements were used to evaluate the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the commonly regulated proteases.
RESULTS: Increased miR-375 expression in HNSCC cells suppresses extracellular matrix degradation and reduces the number of mature invadopodia. Higher miR-375 expression does not reduce cellular levels of selected invadopodia-associated proteins, nor is tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin altered. However, HNSCC cells with higher miR-375 expression had significant reductions in the mRNA expression levels and secreted levels of specific proteases.
CONCLUSIONS: MicroRNA-375 regulates invadopodia maturation and function potentially by suppressing the expression and secretion of proteases.

Leusink FK, van Diest PJ, Frank MH, et al.
The Co-Expression of Kallikrein 5 and Kallikrein 7 Associates with Poor Survival in Non-HPV Oral Squamous-Cell Carcinoma.
Pathobiology. 2015; 82(2):58-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) still has a poor prognosis. Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is a major determinant of treatment decisions and prognosis. Serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5 (SPINK5) is the inhibitor of kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and KLK7. SPINK5, KLK5 and KLK7 are three of the genes of a recently validated LNM-predicting gene expression profile in OSCC. This study evaluates their clinicopathological role and value as biomarkers in OSCC.
METHODS: Eighty-three patients with primary OSCC, treated surgically between 1996 and 2000, were included. Gene expression data were acquired from a previously reported study. Human papillomavirus (HPV) status was determined by an algorithm for HPV-16. Protein expression for KLK5, KLK7 and SPINK5 was semi-quantitatively determined in all 83 tumours by immunohistochemistry. All expression data were correlated with clinicopathological parameters.
RESULTS: Concurrent loss of KLK5 and KLK7 correlates with worse disease-specific and overall survival (DSS and OS). Multivariate analysis proved that co-expression is an independent prognostic factor for DSS (p = 0.029) and OS (p = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: This report demonstrates that concurrent loss of KLK5 and KLK7 associates with a poor clinical outcome in OSCC and could therefore serve as prognostic marker in this disease.

Schrader CH, Kolb M, Zaoui K, et al.
Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and serves as prognostic biomarker for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:107 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dysregulated expression of Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) is a common feature for many human malignancies and numerous studies evaluated KLK6 as a promising biomarker for early diagnosis or unfavorable prognosis. However, the expression of KLK6 in carcinomas derived from mucosal epithelia, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and its mode of action has not been addressed so far.
METHODS: Stable clones of human mucosal tumor cell lines were generated with shRNA-mediated silencing or ectopic overexpression to characterize the impact of KLK6 on tumor relevant processes in vitro. Tissue microarrays with primary HNSCC samples from a retrospective patient cohort (n = 162) were stained by immunohistochemistry and the correlation between KLK6 staining and survival was addressed by univariate Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis.
RESULTS: KLK6 expression was detected in head and neck tumor cell lines (FaDu, Cal27 and SCC25), but not in HeLa cervix carcinoma cells. Silencing in FaDu cells and ectopic expression in HeLa cells unraveled an inhibitory function of KLK6 on tumor cell proliferation and mobility. FaDu clones with silenced KLK6 expression displayed molecular features resembling epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, nuclear β-catenin accumulation and higher resistance against irradiation. Low KLK6 protein expression in primary tumors from oropharyngeal and laryngeal SCC patients was significantly correlated with poor progression-free (p = 0.001) and overall survival (p < 0.0005), and served as an independent risk factor for unfavorable clinical outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, detection of low KLK6 expression in primary tumors represents a promising tool to stratify HNSCC patients with high risk for treatment failure. These patients might benefit from restoration of KLK6 expression or pharmacological targeting of signaling pathways implicated in EMT.

Xi S, Inchauste S, Guo H, et al.
Cigarette smoke mediates epigenetic repression of miR-217 during esophageal adenocarcinogenesis.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(44):5548-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although microRNAs (miRs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various human malignancies, limited information is available regarding mechanisms by which these noncoding RNAs contribute to initiation and progression of tobacco-induced esophageal cancers. In this study, array and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR techniques were used to examine miR expression in immortalized esophageal epithelia (IEE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cells cultured in normal media with or without cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Under relevant exposure conditions, CSC significantly decreased miR-217 expression in these cells. Endogenous levels of miR-217 expression in cultured EAC cells (EACC)/primary EACs were significantly lower than those observed in IEE/ paired normal esophageal tissues. RNA crosslink immunoprecipitation, quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblot experiments demonstrated direct interaction of miR-217 with kallikrein 7 (KLK7), encoding a putative oncogene not previously implicated in EAC. Repression of miR-217 correlated with increased levels of KLK7 in primary EACs, particularly those from smokers. Chromatin and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that CSC-mediated repression of miR-217 coincided with DNMT3b-dependent hypermethylation and decreased occupancy of nuclear factor 1 within the miR-217 genomic locus. Deoxyazacytidine induced miR-217 expression and downregulated KLK7 in EACC; deoxyazacytidine also attenuated CSC-mediated miR-217 repression and upregulation of KLK7 in IEE and EACC. Overexpression of miR-217 significantly decreased, whereas overexpression of KLK7 increased proliferation, invasion and tumorigenicity of EACC. Collectively, these data demonstrate that epigenetic repression of miR-217 contributes to the pathogenesis of EAC via upregulation of KLK7 and suggest that restoration of miR-217 expression may be a novel treatment strategy for these malignancies.

Tamir A, Jag U, Sarojini S, et al.
Kallikrein family proteases KLK6 and KLK7 are potential early detection and diagnostic biomarkers for serous and papillary serous ovarian cancer subtypes.
J Ovarian Res. 2014; 7:109 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Early detection of ovarian cancer remains a challenge due to widespread metastases and a lack of biomarkers for early-stage disease. This study was conducted to identify relevant biomarkers for both laparoscopic and serum diagnostics in ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Bioinformatics analysis and expression screening in ovarian cancer cell lines were employed. Selected biomarkers were further validated in bio-specimens of diverse cancer types and ovarian cancer subtypes. For non-invasive detection, biomarker proteins were evaluated in serum samples from ovarian cancer patients.
RESULTS: Two kallikrein (KLK) serine protease family members (KLK6 and KLK7) were found to be significantly overexpressed relative to normal controls in most of the ovarian cancer cell lines examined. Overexpression of KLK6 and KLK7 mRNA was specific to ovarian cancer, in particular to serous and papillary serous subtypes. In situ hybridization and histopathology further confirmed significantly elevated levels of KLK6 and KLK7 mRNA and proteins in tissue epithelium and a lack of expression in neighboring stroma. Lastly, KLK6 and KLK7 protein levels were significantly elevated in serum samples from serous and papillary serous subtypes in the early stages of ovarian cancer, and therefore could potentially decrease the high "false negative" rates found in the same patients with the common ovarian cancer biomarkers human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125).
CONCLUSION: KLK6 and KLK7 mRNA and protein overexpression is directly associated with early-stage ovarian tumors and can be measured in patient tissue and serum samples. Assays based on KLK6 and KLK7 expression may provide specific and sensitive information for early detection of ovarian cancer.

Miners JS, Renfrew R, Swirski M, Love S
Accumulation of α-synuclein in dementia with Lewy bodies is associated with decline in the α-synuclein-degrading enzymes kallikrein-6 and calpain-1.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2014; 2:164 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Kallikrein-6 and calpain-1 are amongst a small group of proteases that degrade α-synuclein. We have explored the possibility that reduction in the level or activity of these enzymes contributes to the accumulation of α-synuclein in Lewy body diseases. We measured calpain-1 activity by fluorogenic activity assay, kallikrein-6 level by sandwich ELISA, and levels of α-synuclein and α-synuclein phosphorylated at serine 129 (α-synuclein-P129), in post-mortem brain tissue in pure dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n=12), Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=20) and age-matched controls (n=19). Calpain-1 activity was significantly reduced in DLB within the cingulate and parahippocampal cortex, regions with highest α-synuclein and α-synuclein-P129 load, and correlated inversely with the levels of α-synuclein and α-synuclein-P129. Calpain-1 was unaltered in the thalamus and frontal cortex, regions with less α-synuclein pathology. Kallikrein-6 level was reduced in the cingulate cortex in the DLB cohort, and correlated inversely with α-synuclein and α-synuclein-P129. Kallikrein-6 was also reduced in DLB in the thalamus but not in relation to α-synuclein or α-synuclein-P129 load and was unaltered in the frontal and parahippocampal cortex. In SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing wild-type α-synuclein there was partial co-localisation of kallikrein-6 and calpain-1 with α-synuclein, and siRNA-mediated knock-down of kallikrein-6 and calpain-1 increased the amount of α-synuclein in cell lysates. Our results indicate that reductions in kallikrein-6 and calpain-1 may contribute to the accumulation of α-synuclein in DLB.

Zhang CY, Zhu Y, Rui WB, et al.
Expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 is decreased in prostate cancer.
Asian J Androl. 2015 Jan-Feb; 17(1):106-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent evidence suggests that the human kallikrein 7 (KLK7) is differentially regulated in a variety of tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 and KLK7 in our large collection of prostate samples. Between August 2000 and December 2012, 116 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer (PCa) and 92 with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were recruited into the study. Using immunohistochemistry, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot, kallikrein-related peptidase 7 expression in BPH and PCa tissues was determined at the mRNA and protein levels. The relationships between kallikrein-related peptidase 7 mRNA expression and clinicopathological features were analyzed. A total of 64 of 92 (69.57%) benign cases showed positive staining for KLK7 and 23 of 116 (19.83%) malignant cases showed positive, the difference of KLK7 expression between PCa and BPH was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The expression level of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 mRNA was significantly decreased in PCa tissues compared with that in BPH tissues and normal prostate tissue. Kallikrein-related peptidase 7 mRNA exhibited different expression patterns in terms of localization depending on pathological category of PCa. Similarly, our western immunoblot analyses demonstrated that the protein expression levels of KLK7 was lower in PCa than in BPH tissues and normal prostate tissue. Kallikrein-related peptidase 7 and KLK7 expression are down-regulated in PCa and lower expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 closely correlates with higher Gleason score and higher prostate-specific antigen level.

Vakrakou A, Devetzi M, Papachristopoulou G, et al.
Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) expression in the progression of colon adenoma to carcinoma.
Biol Chem. 2014; 395(9):1105-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
KLK6 is a secreted trypsin-like serine protease. KLK6 mRNA expression and its association with colon cancer (CC) progression was studied using quantitative real-time PCR. We examined the expression of KLK6 in 232 colon tissues (cancerous, non-cancerous, and adenomatous). We proved that KLK6 expression in CC behaves as a continuous variable, as its expression correlates significantly with increasing tumor stage (p=0.004) and histological grade (p=0.007). Interestingly, the expression of KLK6 in adenomas was significantly higher than that in the cancerous or non-cancerous tissues examined (p<0.001). Cox proportional hazard regression model using univariate analysis revealed that positive KLK6 expression is a significant factor for disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.017) and overall survival (OS) (p=0.002) of patients. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated that KLK6-negative expression is significantly associated with longer DFS (p=0.009) and OS (p=0.001). ROC analysis showed that KLK6 expression has significant discriminatory power in distinguishing cancerous from non-cancerous colon tissues (p<0.001), or cancerous from adenoma tissues (p=0.001), or adenoma from non-cancerous colon tissues (p<0.001). Additionally, strong KLK6 immunostaining was seen in the cancer cells of selected CC sections, as well as in glandular cells and inflammatory cells of adenomas. In conclusion, KLK6 may represent a potential unfavorable prognostic biomarker for CC.

Walker F, Nicole P, Jallane A, et al.
Kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) is a proliferative factor that is aberrantly expressed in human colon cancer.
Biol Chem. 2014; 395(9):1075-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emerging evidence indicates that serine proteases of the tissue kallikrein-related peptidases family (KLK) are implicated in tumorigenesis. We recently reported the ectopic expression of KLK4 and KLK14 in colonic cancers and their signaling to control cell proliferation. Human tissue kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) is often dysregulated in many cancers; however, its role in colon tumorigenesis has not yet been established. In the present study, we analyzed expression of KLK7 in 15 colon cancer cell lines and in 38 human colonic tumors. In many human colon cancer cells, KLK7 mRNA was observed, which leads to KLK7 protein expression and secretion. Furthermore, KLK7 was detected in human colon adenocarcinomas, but it was absent in normal epithelia. KLK7 overexpression in HT29 colon cancer cells upon stable transfection with a KLK7 expression plasmid resulted in increased cell proliferation. Moreover, subcutaneous inoculation of transfected cells into nude mice led to increased tumor growth that was associated with increased tumor cell proliferation as reflected by a positive Ki-67 staining. Our results demonstrate the aberrant expression of KLK7 in colon cancer cells and tissues and its involvement in cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Thus, KLK7 may represent a potential therapeutic target for human colon tumorigenesis.

Qi L, Ding Y
Screening and regulatory network analysis of survival-related genes of patients with colorectal cancer.
Sci China Life Sci. 2014; 57(5):526-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to screen key survival-related genes from patients with colorectal cancer and explore signal transduction network of the involved genes. In a previous study, survival-related genes of patients with colorectal cancer were selected by colorectal cancer-related expression data GSE17538 using the Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM3.01) software, and 235 genes related to the survival of patients with colorectal cancer were obtained. Therefore, the following screening and analysis were conducted on these 235 genes in this study. First, the enrichment analysis of transcription factor binding sites was conducted on the 235 genes. Genes with more than seven transcription factor binding sites were screened. Then, these genes and upregulated genes in colorectal cancer were intersected. Finally, survival analysis and regulatory network analysis were conducted on the screened genes. This allowed clarification of the relationship between these genes and the survival of patients with colorectal cancer and the signaling network involving these genes in the cell signal transduction network of colorectal cancer. Through the above analysis, six upregulated genes in colorectal cancer related to the survival of colorectal cancer patients and highly regulated by transcription factors were selected, namely STX2, PODXL, KLK6, GRB10, EHBP1 and CREB5. These genes are involved in signal regulatory networks related to colorectal cancer metastasis-related signaling pathways. Therefore, the survival of patients with colorectal cancer is closely correlated with colorectal cancer metastasis. The six survival-related genes affect the survival of patients by regulating colorectal cancer metastasis-associated signaling pathways.

Michel N, Heuzé-Vourc'h N, Lavergne E, et al.
Growth and survival of lung cancer cells: regulation by kallikrein-related peptidase 6 via activation of proteinase-activated receptor 2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor.
Biol Chem. 2014; 395(9):1015-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
The dysregulated expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) is involved in non-small cancer (NSCLC) cell growth. However, the mechanism that sustains KLK6 signaling remains unknown. We used an isogenic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell model system to demonstrate that KLK6 promotes the proliferation of lung tumoral cells and restrains their apoptosis in vitro via ligand-dependent EGFR transactivation. KLK6 activated the ERK and Akt pathways and triggered the nuclear translocation of β-catenin. The stimulating effects of KLK6 required its proteolytic activity and were dependent on the protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). These observations support the concept of a role for KLK6 in the oncogenesis of NSCLC.

Yang TY, Hsu LI, Chiu AW, et al.
Comparison of genome-wide DNA methylation in urothelial carcinomas of patients with and without arsenic exposure.
Environ Res. 2014; 128:57-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Arsenic is a well-documented carcinogen of human urothelial carcinoma (UC) with incompletely understood mechanisms.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of arsenic-induced UC (AsUC) and non-arsenic-induced UC (Non-AsUC), and to assess associations between site-specific methylation levels and cumulative arsenic exposure.
METHODS: Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in 14 AsUC and 14 non-AsUC were analyzed by Illumina Infinium methylation27 BeadChip and validated by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Mean methylation levels (β¯) in AsUC and non-AsUC were compared by their ratio (β¯ ratio) and difference (Δβ¯). Associations between site-specific methylation levels in UC and cumulative arsenic exposure were examined.
RESULTS: Among 27,578 methylation sites analyzed, 231 sites had β¯ ratio >2 or <0.5 and 45 sites had Δβ¯ >0.2 or <-0.2. There were 13 sites showing statistically significant (q<0.05) differences in β¯ between AsUC and non-AsUC including 12 hypermethylation sites in AsUC and only one hypermethylation site in non-AsUC. Significant associations between cumulative arsenic exposure and DNA methylation levels of 28 patients were observed in nine CpG sites of nine gens including PDGFD (Spearman rank correlation, 0.54), CTNNA2 (0.48), KCNK17 (0.52), PCDHB2 (0.57), ZNF132 (0.48), DCDC2 (0.48), KLK7 (0.48), FBXO39 (0.49), and NPY2R (0.45). These associations remained statistically significant for CpG sites in CTNNA2, KLK7, NPY2R, ZNF132 and KCNK17 in 20 non-smoking women after adjustment for tumor stage and age.
CONCLUSIONS: Significant associations between cumulative arsenic exposure and methylation level of CTNNA2, KLK7, NPY2R, ZNF132 and KCNK17 were found in smoking-unrelated urothelial carcinoma. Arsenic exposure may cause urothelial carcinomas through the hypermethylation of genes involved in cell adhesion, proteolysis, transcriptional regulation, neuronal pathway, and ion transport. The findings of this study, which are limited by its small sample size and moderate dose-response relation, remain to be validated by further studies with large sample sizes.

Dorn J, Gkazepis A, Kotzsch M, et al.
Clinical value of protein expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) in ovarian cancer.
Biol Chem. 2014; 395(1):95-107 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression of the kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) is dysregulated in ovarian cancer. We assessed KLK7 expression by ELISA and quantitative immunohistochemistry and analyzed its association with clinicopathological parameters and patients' outcome. KLK7 antigen concentrations were determined in tumor tissue extracts of 98 ovarian cancer patients by ELISA. For analysis of KLK7 immunoexpression in ovarian cancer tissue microarrays, a manual quantitative scoring system as well as a software tool for quantitative high-throughput automated image analysis was used. In immunohistochemical analyses, expression levels of KLK7 were not associated with patients' outcome. However, in multivariate analyses, KLK7 antigen levels in tumor tissue extracts were significantly associated with both overall and progression-free survival: ovarian cancer patients with high KLK7 levels had a significantly, 2-fold lower risk of death [hazard ratio (HR)=0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.29-0.90, p=0.019] or relapse [HR=0.47, 95% CI=0.25-0.91, p=0.024), as compared with patients who displayed low KLK7 levels. Our results indicate that - in contrast to earlier findings - high KLK7 antigen levels in tumor tissue extracts may be associated with a better prognosis of ovarian cancer patients.

Liu X, Xiong H, Li J, et al.
Correlation of hK6 expression with tumor recurrence and prognosis in advanced gastric cancer.
Diagn Pathol. 2013; 8:62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human kallikrein gene 6 (KLK6) is a member of the human kallikrein gene family (Kallikreins, KLKs). Human kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (hK6) is a trypsin-like serine protease encoded by the KLK6, has been reported to be highly expressed in several cancers including gastric cancer. In this study, we investigated the the correlation of hK6 expression with clinicopathological characteristics, tumor recurrence and prognosis in advanced gastric carcinoma after curative resection.
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 129 cases advanced gastric cancer after curative gastrectomy. The expression of hK6 in advanced gastric cancer tissues compared to adjacent noncancerous tissues were examined, and the relationship between hK6 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated. In additional, these patients were followed up to investigate the relationship between hK6 expression and the survival time.
RESULTS: The positive rate of hK6 expression was significantly higher in advanced gastric cancer tissue, than that in adjacent noncancerous and gastric ulcer tissues (36.5%, 33.3%, respectively, P < 0.001). There was a close relationship between hK6 expression and TNM stage (P = 0.005), vascular invasion (P = 0.037) and perineural invasion (P = 0.035). Furthermore, patients with hK6 positive showed significantly higher recurrence and poorer prognosis than those with hK6 negative. Multivariate analysis showed that hK6 expression was a significant independent factor for tumor recurrence and overall survival.
CONCLUSION: hK6 is overexpressed in advanced gastric cancer tissues. Its clinical utility may be used as an unfavorable indicator in predicting tumor recurrence and prognosis for advanced gastric cancer after operation. This study also suggests that hK6 might be a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8558403578787206.

Wang YY, Lin YC, Hung HC, et al.
Polymorphisms in Kallikrein7 and 10 genes and oral cancer risks in Taiwan betel quid chewers and smokers.
Oral Dis. 2013; 19(8):824-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between mRNA levels, polymorphisms of Kallikrein7 (KLK7) and Kallikrein10 (KLK10), and the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 217 OSCC patients and 138 healthy controls. All were men, betel quid chewers, cigarette smokers, and Minnan ethnicity. Genotyping was performed using a TaqMan probe genotyping assay. Gene expression levels were determined using real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) for 20 pairs of cancerous and non-cancerous tissues.
RESULTS: Kallikrein10 rs3745535G>T polymorphisms were significantly associated with OSCC development [adjusted OR (AOR) = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.02-2.59], but KLK7 polymorphisms were not. The KLK7 rs10581213(wt/ins + ins/ins) genotypes were significantly associated with early-stage cancer (AOR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.14-0.78), but KLK10 polymorphisms were not. Relative expression analysis indicated that an increase in KLK7 and KLK10 mRNA levels was found in cancerous tissues (2(-ΔΔCT) = 25.23 ± 8.85 and 10.89 ± 4.97, respectively). A significantly higher level of KLK7 was expressed in early-stage cancer with the rs10581213(wt/ins + ins/ins) genotypes, but there was no significant difference in the mRNA levels of KLK7 and KLK10 between early- and advanced-stage cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first correlation of OSCC with KLK10 rs3745535G>T polymorphisms. Early-stage OSCC and high KLK7 mRNA levels were correlated with the rs10581213(wt/ins + ins/ins) genotypes. More studies with large sample sizes are needed to verify our findings.

Qin W, Zhang K, Kliethermes B, et al.
Differential expression of cancer-associated proteins in breastmilk.
Breastfeed Med. 2013; 8(1):120-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer that develops during or shortly after pregnancy is frequently more aggressive than cancer diagnosed at other times in a woman's life. To better understand the patterns of cancer-related protein expression in the breasts of lactating women, we determined the differences in total and individual protein expression in milk based on (a) three time points during lactation (early, mid, and late), (b) length of lactation, and (c) parity. Breastmilk was collected from 72 healthy lactating women within 10 days of starting lactation (transitional [T]), 2 months after lactation started, and during breast weaning (W). Sixteen proteins whose expression is altered in breast cancer (11 kallikreins [KLKs], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF], YKL-40, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and transforming growth factor [TGF] β1 and β2) were evaluated. The concentration of total milk protein decreased over time (p<0.01 at 2 months and W compared with T). After we controlled for total protein, KLK6 and TGFβ2 significantly increased, and bFGF decreased from T to W. Neither length of nursing nor parity significantly influenced individual protein expression at the W time point. On the other hand, length of nursing did influence the difference in KLK6, -7, and -8 expression between the W and T time points. Total milk protein concentration is lower in the mid and late phases of nursing. Biomarker differences between T and W milk samples in KLK6, TGFβ2, and bFGF are consistent with a protective effect of nursing.

Baumgartel KL, Conley YP
The utility of breastmilk for genetic or genomic studies: a systematic review.
Breastfeed Med. 2013; 8(3):249-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study synthesized scientific literature that applies genetic or genomic approaches to breastmilk. A literature search of PubMed was conducted in March 2012 using the key words "breast milk," "lactation," "genetic," "gene expression," and "epigenetic." Additional articles were identified/selected for evaluation with MeSH term searches, and a review of article reference lists was obtained from the search. The initial 657 abstracts retrieved from the literature search were reviewed, and 16 studies were selected for evaluation. Studies that examined the transmission of viruses/bacteria into breastmilk and/or measured concentration of specific proteins without examination of genetic material from milk were excluded. Data related to subjects, tissue, purpose, setting, gene/protein, approach (candidate versus genome-wide), platform, statistical analysis, and results were extracted. Gene expression and epigenetic/epigenomic study designs have been successfully implemented using breastmilk. A major weakness of both gene expression studies and epigenetic studies that examine breastmilk is the omission of maternal information known to influence milk composition. This review article is the first to synthesize evidence related to the application of breastmilk to evaluate RNA and epigenetic modifications. Additional research is needed that applies epigenetic analyses to human breastmilk samples. Findings from this review can be used for future research designs that use breastmilk for genetic analyses.

Devetzi M, Trangas T, Scorilas A, et al.
Parallel overexpression and clinical significance of kallikrein-related peptidases 7 and 14 (KLK7KLK14) in colon cancer.
Thromb Haemost. 2013; 109(4):716-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Currently available colon cancer (CC) markers lack sensitivity and specificity. Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) present a new class of biomarkers under investigation for diverse diseases, including cancer. KLKs are co-expressed in various tissues participating in proteolytic cascades. KLK7 in human tumours facilitates metastasis by degrading components of the extracellular matrix. KLK14 promotes tumourigenesis by activating proteinase-activated receptors. In the present study we examined the concomitant expression of KLK7 and KLK14 in245 colonic tissue specimens from 175 patients; 70 were pairs of cancerous-normal tissues, 31 were cancerous tissues and 74 were colonic adenomas. We used quantitative real-time PCR and proved that both genes are up-regulated in CC at the mRNA level. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of our results showed that both genes have discriminatory value between CC and adenoma tissues, with KLK14 obtaining greater distinguishing power (area under the curve [AUC]=0.708 for KLK14; AUC=0.669 for KLK7). Current work showed that the two genes are fairly co-expressed in all three types of colon tissues examined (normal rs=0.667, p<0.001, adenomas rs=0.373, p=0.001, carcinomas rs=0.478, p<0.001). KLK14 is associated with shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients (p=0.003, p=0.016 respectively), whereas KLK7only with shorter DFS (p=0.004). KLK7 and KLK14 gene expression can be regarded as markers of poor prognosis for CC patients with discriminating power between CC and adenoma patients.

Bayani J, Kuzmanov U, Saraon P, et al.
Copy number and expression alterations of miRNAs in the ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3: impact on kallikrein 6 protein expression.
Clin Chem. 2013; 59(1):296-305 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6), a member of the serine protease family of kallikrein (KLK) genes, is dysregulated in ovarian carcinomas (OCa) and its overexpression is associated with poor prognosis. Regulation of its expression is poorly understood and is likely to be influenced by multiple mechanisms. The KLK locus is subject to copy number changes and heterogeneity in serous OCas. These copy number imbalances generally correlate with KLK6 protein expression; however, this is not always the case. In this study we explored the role of miRNAs in the posttranscriptional control of KLK6 expression and the contributions of copy numbers, not only of the KLK locus, but also of the miRNAs predicted to regulate it.
METHODS AND RESULTS: By miRNA profiling of the KLK6-overexpressing OCa cell line, OVCAR-3, we identified overexpressed and underexpressed miRNAs. Publically available miRNA databases identified the human miRNA lethal 7 (hsa-let-7) family members as putative regulating miRNAs, from which hsa-let-7a was chosen for functional analysis. The transient transfection of hsa-let-7a to OVCAR-3 resulted in a decrease of KLK6 secreted protein. Moreover, such transfection was also able to weakly affect the expression of another member of the KLK gene family, KLK10 (kallikrein-related peptidase 10). Cytogenomic analysis, including array comparative genomic hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and spectral karyotyping revealed the overall net copy number losses of hsa-let-7a and other miRNAs predicted to target KLK6.
CONCLUSIONS: The hsa-let-7 family member hsa-let-7a is a modulator of KLK6 protein expression that is independent of the KLK6 copy number status.

Loessner D, Quent VM, Kraemer J, et al.
Combined expression of KLK4, KLK5, KLK6, and KLK7 by ovarian cancer cells leads to decreased adhesion and paclitaxel-induced chemoresistance.
Gynecol Oncol. 2012; 127(3):569-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Chemoresistance is a critical feature of advanced ovarian cancer with only 30% of patients surviving longer than 5 years. We have previously shown that four kallikrein-related (KLK) peptidases, KLK4, KLK5, KLK6 and KLK7 (KLK4-7), are implicated in peritoneal invasion and tumour growth, but underlying mechanisms were not identified. We also reported that KLK7 overexpression confers chemoresistance to paclitaxel, and cell survival via integrins. In this study, we further explored the functional consequenses of overexpression of all four KLKs (KLK4-7) simultaneously in the ovarian cancer cell line, OV-MZ-6, and its impact on integrin expression and signalling, cell adhesion and survival as contributors to chemoresistance and metastatic progression.
METHODS: Quantitative gene and protein expression analyses, confocal microscopy, cell adhesion and chemosensitivity assays were performed.
RESULTS: Expression of α5β1/αvβ3 integrins was downregulated upon combined stable KLK4-7 overexpression in OV-MZ-6 cells. Accordingly, the adhesion of these cells to vitronectin and fibronectin, the extracellular matrix binding proteins of α5β1/αvβ3 integrins and two predominant proteins of the peritoneal matrix, was decreased. KLK4-7-transfected cells were more resistant to paclitaxel (10-100 nmol/L: 38-54%), but not to carboplatin, which was associated with decreased apoptotic stimuli. However, the KLK4-7-induced paclitaxel resistance was not blocked by the MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that combined KLK4-7 expression by ovarian cancer cells promotes reduced integrin expression with consequently less cell-matrix attachment, and insensitivity to paclitaxel mediated by complex integrin and MAPK independent interactions, indicative of a malignant phenotype and disease progression suggesting a role for these KLKs in this process.

Olkhov-Mitsel E, Van der Kwast T, Kron KJ, et al.
Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of genes coding for kallikrein-related peptidases 6 and 10 as biomarkers for prostate cancer.
Epigenetics. 2012; 7(9):1037-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA methylation plays an important role in carcinogenesis and is being recognized as a promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for a variety of malignancies including Prostate cancer (PCa). The human kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) have emerged as an important family of cancer biomarkers, with KLK3, encoding for Prostate Specific Antigen, being most recognized. However, few studies have examined the epigenetic regulation of KLKs and its implications to PCa. To assess the biological effect of DNA methylation on KLK6 and KLK10 expression, we treated PC3 and 22RV1 PCa cells with a demethylating drug, 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine, and observed increased expression of both KLKs, establishing that DNA methylation plays a role in regulating gene expression. Subsequently, we have quantified KLK6 and KLK10 DNA methylation levels in two independent cohorts of PCa patients operated by radical prostatectomy between 2007-2011 (Cohort I, n = 150) and 1998-2001 (Cohort II, n = 124). In Cohort I, DNA methylation levels of both KLKs were significantly higher in cancerous tissue vs. normal. Further, we evaluated the relationship between DNA methylation and clinicopathological parameters. KLK6 DNA methylation was significantly associated with pathological stage only in Cohort I while KLK10 DNA methylation was significantly associated with pathological stage in both cohorts. In Cohort II, low KLK10 DNA methylation was associated with biochemical recurrence in univariate and multivariate analyses. A similar trend for KLK6 DNA methylation was observed. The results suggest that KLK6 and KLK10 DNA methylation distinguishes organ confined from locally invasive PCa and may have prognostic value.

Seiz L, Dorn J, Kotzsch M, et al.
Stromal cell-associated expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) indicates poor prognosis of ovarian cancer patients.
Biol Chem. 2012; 393(5):391-401 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several members of the human kallikrein-related peptidase family, including KLK6, are up-regulated in ovarian cancer. High KLK6 mRNA or protein expression, measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunoassay, respectively, was previously found to be associated with a shortened overall and progression-free survival (OS and PFS, respectively). In the present study, we aimed at analyzing KLK6 protein expression in ovarian cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry. Using a newly developed monospecific polyclonal antibody, KLK6 immunoexpression was initially evaluated in normal tissues. We observed strong staining in the brain and moderate staining in the kidney, liver, and ovary, whereas the pancreas and the skeletal muscle were unreactive, which is in line with previously published results. Next, both tumor cell- and stromal cell-associated KLK6 immunoexpression were analyzed in tumor tissue specimens of 118 ovarian cancer patients. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, only stromal cell-associated expression, besides the established clinical parameters FIGO stage and residual tumor mass, was found to be statistically significant for OS and PFS [high vs. low KLK6 expression; hazard ratio (HR), 1.92; p=0.017; HR, 1.80; p=0.042, respectively]. These results indicate that KLK6 expressed by stromal cells may considerably contribute to the aggressiveness of ovarian cancer.

Talieri M, Zoma M, Devetzi M, et al.
Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6)gene expression in intracranial tumors.
Tumour Biol. 2012; 33(5):1375-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) are emerging novel new biomarkers for prognosis, diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of cancer. Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) has the highest expression in normal brain among other tissues. Although its expression has been extensively studied in many types of cancer and in neurodegenerative diseases, very little is known for its expression in intracranial tumors. In the present study, 73 intracranial tumor samples were examined for KLK6 messenger ribunucleic acid (mRNA) gene expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Statistical analysis revealed the significant association of KLK6 expression with clinical and pathological parameters. Follow-up information was available for a median time of 20 months (range 1-59 months). KLK6 is expressed more frequently in tumors of high malignancy like the glioblastomas (70.6 %) and less in tumors of low malignancy like the meningiomas (12.5 %). KLK6 positive expression is associated with tumor grade (p < 0.001), malignancy status (p < 0.001), and tumor histologic type (p = 0.001). Cox proportional hazard regression model using univariate analysis revealed for the first time that positive KLK6 expression is a significant factor for disease-free survival (DFS; p = 0.041) of patients suffering from intracranial tumors. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated that negative KLK6 expression is significantly associated with longer DFS (p = 0.032). KLK6 gene expression may have clinical utility as a marker of unfavorable prognosis for intracranial tumors, and consequently, it could be used as target for therapeutic intervention.

Qin W, Zhang K, Kliethermes B, et al.
Differential expression of cancer associated proteins in breast milk based on age at first full term pregnancy.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: First full term pregnancy (FFTP) completed at a young age has been linked to low long term breast cancer risk, whereas late FFTP pregnancy age confers high long term risk, compared to nulliparity. Our hypothesis was that proteins linked to breast cancer would be differentially expressed in human milk collected at three time points during lactation based on age at FFTP.
METHODS: We analyzed breast milk from 72 lactating women. Samples were collected within 10 days of the onset of lactation (baseline-BL), two months after lactation started and during breast weaning (W). We measured 16 proteins (11 kallikreins (KLKs), basic fibroblast growth factor, YKL-40, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and transforming growth factor (TGF) β-1 and -2) associated with breast cancer, most known to be secreted into milk.
RESULTS: During lactation there was a significant change in the expression of 14 proteins in women < 26 years old and 9 proteins in women > = 26 at FFTP. The most significant (p < .001) changes from BL to W in women divided by FFTP age (< 26 vs. > = 26) were in KLK3,6, 8, and TGFβ2 in women < 26; and KLK6, 8, and TGFβ2 in women > = 26. There was a significant increase (p = .022) in KLK8 expression from BL to W depending on FFTP age. Examination of DNA methylation in the promoter region of KLK6 revealed high levels of methylation that did not explain the observed changes in protein levels. On the other hand, KLK6 and TGFβ1 expression were significantly associated (r2 = .43, p = .0050).
CONCLUSIONS: The expression profile of milk proteins linked to breast cancer is influenced by age at FFTP. These proteins may play a role in future cancer risk.

Kim JJ, Kim JT, Yoon HR, et al.
Upregulation and secretion of kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) in gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2012; 33(3):731-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
KLK6 encoding kallikrein-related peptidase 6, a trypsin-like serine protease, has been shown to be upregulated in several cancers, although the tumorigenic role of KLK6 has not been elucidated. In this study, KLK6 was identified as a highly upregulated gene in gastric cancer; therefore, the possibility that KLK6 might be a suitable candidate tumor marker was examined. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis showed overexpression of KLK6 in gastric cancer tissues compared to nontumor regions. Sera from gastric cancer patients had a 1.7-fold increase in KLK6 (373.1 μg/L, P = 0.048) compared to healthy individuals (214.2 μg/L), although there was no significant difference among patients with various tumor stages. Cellular invasiveness decreased by 45% in cells transfected with KLK6-specific small interfering RNA. Exogenous overexpression of KLK6 led to decreased activity of the E-cadherin promoter. This study shows that KLK6 is significantly upregulated and secreted in gastric cancer tissues and sera, suggesting that KLK6 might be used as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

Petraki C, Dubinski W, Scorilas A, et al.
Evaluation and prognostic significance of human tissue kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) in colorectal cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2012; 208(2):104-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is assessed through conventional clinicopathological parameters, which are not always accurate. Members of the human kallikrein-related peptidases gene family represent potential cancer biomarkers. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of human tissue kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) by immunohistochemistry in CRC to correlate this expression with various histopathological and clinical variables, and to evaluate its significance as a predictor of disease outcome. KLK6 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and an expression score was calculated for each case. In CRC, KLK6 expression was decreased compared to normal colonic mucosa. A statistically significant, positive association was observed between KLK6 and tumor stage (p=0.036), lymph node metastases (p=0.030), and liver metastases (p=0.025). Univariate analysis showed that KLK6 expression and stage had statistically significant correlation with disease-free survival (p=0.045 and p<0.001, respectively) and overall survival (p=0.027 and p<0.001, respectively). Cox multivariate analysis showed that KLK6 expression was an independent predictor of unfavorable overall survival (p=0.041). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that KLK6-positive patients have statistically significant lower disease-free and overall survival. In conclusion, KLK6 immunostaining is an independent prognostic marker in patients with CRC.

Gyorffy B, Lánczky A, Szállási Z
Implementing an online tool for genome-wide validation of survival-associated biomarkers in ovarian-cancer using microarray data from 1287 patients.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2012; 19(2):197-208 [PubMed] Related Publications
The validation of prognostic biomarkers in large independent patient cohorts is a major bottleneck in ovarian cancer research. We implemented an online tool to assess the prognostic value of the expression levels of all microarray-quantified genes in ovarian cancer patients. First, a database was set up using gene expression data and survival information of 1287 ovarian cancer patients downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and The Cancer Genome Atlas (Affymetrix HG-U133A, HG-U133A 2.0, and HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays). After quality control and normalization, only probes present on all three Affymetrix platforms were retained (n=22,277). To analyze the prognostic value of the selected gene, we divided the patients into two groups according to various quantile expressions of the gene. These groups were then compared using progression-free survival (n=1090) or overall survival (n=1287). A Kaplan-Meier survival plot was generated and significance was computed. The tool can be accessed online at www.kmplot.com/ovar. We used this integrative data analysis tool to validate the prognostic power of 37 biomarkers identified in the literature. Of these, CA125 (MUC16; P=3.7×10(-5), hazard ratio (HR)=1.4), CDKN1B (P=5.4×10(-5), HR=1.4), KLK6 (P=0.002, HR=0.79), IFNG (P=0.004, HR=0.81), P16 (P=0.02, HR=0.66), and BIRC5 (P=0.00017, HR=0.75) were associated with survival. The combination of several probe sets can further increase prediction efficiency. In summary, we developed a global online biomarker validation platform that mines all available microarray data to assess the prognostic power of 22,277 genes in 1287 ovarian cancer patients. We specifically used this tool to evaluate the effect of 37 previously published biomarkers on ovarian cancer prognosis.

Agesen TH, Sveen A, Merok MA, et al.
ColoGuideEx: a robust gene classifier specific for stage II colorectal cancer prognosis.
Gut. 2012; 61(11):1560-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several clinical factors have an impact on prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer (CRC), but as yet they are inadequate for risk assessment. The present study aimed to develop a gene expression classifier for improved risk stratification of patients with stage II CRC.
METHODS: 315 CRC samples were included in the study. Gene expression measurements from 207 CRC samples (stage I-IV) from two independent Norwegian clinical series were obtained using Affymetrix exon-level microarrays. Differentially expressed genes between stage I and stage IV samples from the test series were identified and used as input for L1 (lasso) penalised Cox proportional hazards analyses of patients with stage II CRC from the same series. A second validation was performed in 108 stage II CRC samples from other populations (USA and Australia).
RESULTS: An optimal 13-gene expression classifier (PIGR, CXCL13, MMP3, TUBA1B, SESN1, AZGP1, KLK6, EPHA7, SEMA3A, DSC3, CXCL10, ENPP3, BNIP3) for prediction of relapse among patients with stage II CRC was developed using a consecutive Norwegian test series from patients treated according to current standard protocols (n=44, p<0.001, HR=18.2), and its predictive value was successfully validated for patients with stage II CRC in a second Norwegian CRC series collected two decades previously (n=52, p=0.02, HR=3.6). Further validation of the classifier was obtained in a recent external dataset of patients with stage II CRC from other populations (n=108, p=0.001, HR=6.5). Multivariate Cox regression analyses, including all three sample series and various clinicopathological variables, confirmed the independent prognostic value of the classifier (p≤0.004). The classifier was shown to be specific to stage II CRC and does not provide prognostic stratification of patients with stage III CRC.
CONCLUSION: This study presents the development and validation of a 13-gene expression classifier, ColoGuideEx, for prognosis prediction specific to patients with stage II CRC. The robustness was shown across patient series, populations and different microarray versions.

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