Research IndicatorsGraph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
Numbers shown below represent number of publications held in OncomiRDB database for Oncogenic and Tumor-Suppressive MicroRNAs.
|Tissue||Target Gene(s)||Regulator(s)||MIRLET7G Function in Cancer||Effect|
-non-small cell lung cancer (2)
|HMGA2 (1)||inhibit cell migration (1)|
induce cell cycle arrest (1)
induce cell death (1)
inhibit cell proliferation (1)
-hepatocellular carcinoma (2)
|promote sorafenib-induced apoptosis (1)|
inhibit cell migration (1)
inhibit cell growth (1)
-breast cancer (1)
|inhibit metastasis (1)|
inhibit cell invasion (1)
Source: OncomiRDB Wang D. et al. Bioinformatics 2014, 30(15):2237-2238.
miRBase, University of Manchester
Annotated database entry including the location and sequence of the mature miRNA sequence.
miRCancer, East Carolina University
Search miRCancer for let-7g associations with cancer and associated genes.
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: MIRLET7G (cancer-related)
BACKGROUND: Aberrant AKT activation contributes to gastric cancer cell survival and chemotherapy resistance, however its regulation is poorly understood. microRNAs have been established to be important regulators in gastric carcinogenesis. Here, we showed the functional role and putative target of let-7b and let-7g (let-7b/g) in gastric carcinogenesis.
METHODS: The expression of let-7b/g in gastric cancer cell lines and primary tumors were evaluated by miRNA qRT-PCR. The putative target gene of let-7b/g was explored by TargetScan followed by further validation. Functional analyses including MTT proliferation, monolayer colony formation, cell invasion assays and in vivo study were performed in both ectopic expression and knockdown approaches.
RESULTS: let-7b/g was found down-regulated in gastric cancer and its downregulation was associated with poor survival and correlated with lymph node metastasis. let-7b/g inhibited AKT2 expression by directly binding to its 3'UTR, reduced p-AKT (S473) activation and suppressed expression of the downstream effector pS6. AKT2 mRNA expression showed negative correlation with the expression of let-7b/g in primary tumors. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated knockdown of AKT2 phenocopied the tumor-suppressive effects of let-7b/g. Moreover, AKT2 re-expression partly abrogated the growth-inhibitory effect of let-7b/g.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our findings reveal decreased let-7b/g contributes to aberrant AKT activation in gastric tumorigenesis and provide a potential therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.
Accumulating studies revealed that the expression levels of several miRNAs are up or down-regulated in osteosarcoma (OS). The aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance and molecular of the let-7g in OS cells. The expression levels of let-7g was significantly down-regulated in OS cell lines U2-OS and HOS cell compared to osteoblast cell lines HOB cell. Moreover, bioinformatic prediction suggested that Aurora-B, which is overexpressed and functions as an oncogene in OS cells, is a putative target gene of let-7g. Using mRNA and protein expression analysis and luciferase assays, we further identified let-7g directly regulated Aurora-B expression in OS cells. Functional investigation revealed both restoration of let-7g and silencing Aurora-B induce cell apoptosis and suppressed cell viability, migratory and invasive ability in OS cells. Finally, we found that silencing Aurora-B in OS cells could partly dampen anti-let-7g mediated tumor promotion. Thus, our findings suggested that let-7g inhibits OS cell malignant phenotype at least partly through targeting Aurora-B. Targeting of let-7g and Aurora-B may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating OS.
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most lethal form of thyroid neoplasia and represents an end stage of thyroid tumor progression. No effective treatment exists so far. In this study, we analyzed the miRNA expression profiles of 11 ATC by microarrays and their relationship with the mRNA expression profiles of the same 11 ATC samples. ATC show distinct miRNA expression profiles compared to other less aggressive thyroid tumor types. ATC show 18 commonly deregulated miRNA compared to normal thyroid tissue (17 downregulated and 1 upregulated miRNA). First, the analysis of a combined approach of the mRNA gene expression and of the bioinformatically predicted mRNA targets of the deregulated miRNA suggested a role for these regulations in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in ATC. Second, the direct interaction between one of the upregulated mRNA target, the LOX gene which is an EMT key player, and a downregulated miRNA, the miR-29a, was experimentally validated by a luciferase assay in HEK cell. Third, we confirmed that the ATC tissue is composed of about 50% of tumor associated macrophages (TAM) and suggested, by taking into account our data and published data, their most likely direct or paracrine intercommunication between them and the thyroid tumor cells, amplifying the tumor aggressiveness. Finally, we demonstrated by in situ hybridization a specific thyrocyte localization of 3 of the deregulated miRNA: let-7g, miR-29a and miR-30e and we pointed out the importance of identifying the cell type localization before drawing any conclusion on the physiopathological role of a given gene.
Dong L, Li Y, Han C, et al.miRNA microarray reveals specific expression in the peripheral blood of glioblastoma patients.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(2):746-56 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently dysregulated in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. It has been discovered that highly stable extracellular miRNAs circulate in the blood of both healthy individuals and patients. miRNAs in serum of patients with GBM and normal controls were analyzed by microarray analysis. The relevant bioinformatic analysis of the predicted target genes (gene ontology, pathway, gene network analysis) were performed. The miRNA microarray reveals differentially expressed miRNAs in serum between the GBM and normal controls. Of the 752 miRNAs, 115 miRNAs were upregulated in the GBM group, and 24 miRNAs were downregulated (fold change ≥2.0, P<0.01). By further analysis, we found that miR-576-5p, miR-340 and miR-626 were significantly overexpressed, but miR-320, let-7g-5p and miR-7-5P showed significantly low expression in GBM patients. By further bioinformatic analysis, we found that they possibly play important roles in the regulation of glioma signaling pathways. In summary, the six miRNAs are significant distinct in the peripheral blood of patients with GBM pathologies. These data suggest that the miRNA profile of the peripheral blood may serve as a new biomarker for glioma diagnosis with high specificity and sensitivity.
Tang H, Zhang P, Xiang Q, et al.Let-7 g microRNA sensitizes fluorouracil-resistant human hepatoma cells.
Pharmazie. 2014; 69(4):287-92 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Let-7 microRNA is expressed in lower lever in a variety of human tumors and is involved in tumorigenesis. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of the let-7g microRNA on the expression of the HMGA2 gene in the fluorouracil (5-Fu)-resistant human hepatoma cell line Bel-7402/5-Fu, and the effect of let-7 g microRNA on drug sensitization in Bel-7402/5-Fu cells. Let-7 g microRNA and negative microRNA plasmids were constructed and transient transfected into Bel-7402/5-Fu cells. Expression levels of HMGA2 mRNA and protein in microRNA transient transfectants were clearly reduced as compared with negative microRNA transfectants and untreated cells. Flow cytometry revealed increased in S phase in let-7 g microRNA cells. dimethylthiazol-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) results indicated that microRNA transfectants had a higher cell inhibition rate than the negative vector or untreated cells after treatment with 0.13-13 microg/ml 5-Fu. In addition, cyclin A was down-regulated in the let-7 g transfectants cells.The results showed that let-7 g microRNA contributed to an increase of 5-Fu-induced cell cycle inhibit in human hepatoma cell and sensitized cells to 5-Fu, leading to increased the effectiveness of the drug in treating hepatoma cancer.
Let-7 family microRNAs have been reported to be downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma in comparison with normal hepatic tissues. Among them, let-7g was identified as the lowest expression using real-time RT-PCR. However, the mechanism by which let-7g works in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. Here, in our present study, we have had let-7g reexpressed in vitro in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines MHCC97-H and HCCLM3 via transfection. The proliferation after reexpression of let-7g was assayed using MTT method; the migration and invasion after restoration were detected by wound-healing and Transwell assay, respectively. We found using Western-blotting that let-7g can regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by downregulating K-Ras and HMGA2A after reexpresssion. Xenografted nude mice were used to observe whether or not reexpression of let-7g could have potential therapeutic ability. In vivo, to observe the association with let-7g expression and overall prognosis, 40 paired cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed using in situ hybridization (ISH). It was found that reexpression of let-7g can inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion significantly, and that low expression of let-7g was significantly associated with poorer overall survival. Taken together, let-7g could be used as a promising therapeutic agent in vivo in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma at the earlier stage.
Prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is generally poor because of the lack of simple, convenient, and noninvasive tools for CRC detection at the early stage. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their different expression profiles among different kinds of diseases has opened a new avenue for tumor diagnosis. We built a serum microRNA expression profile signature and tested its specificity and sensitivity as a biomarker in the diagnosis of CRC. We also studied its possible role in monitoring the progression of CRC. We conducted a two phase case-control test to identify serum miRNAs as biomarkers for CRC diagnosis. Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions, we tested ten candidate miRNAs in a training set (30 CRCs vs 30 controls). Risk score analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of the serum miRNA profiling system. Other independent samples, including 83 CRCs and 59 controls, were used to validate the diagnostic model. In the training set, six serum miRNAs (miR-21, let-7g, miR-31, miR-92a, miR-181b, and miR-203) had significantly different expression levels between the CRCs and healthy controls. Risk score analysis demonstrated that the six-miRNA-based biomarker signature had high sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing the CRC samples from cancer-free controls. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the six-miRNA signature profiles were 0.900 and 0.923 for the two sets of serum samples, respectively. However, for the same serum samples, the areas under the ROC curve used by the tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) were only 0.649 and 0.598, respectively. The expression levels of the six serum miRNAs were also correlated with CRC progression. Thus, the identified six-miRNA signature can be used as a noninvasive biomarker for the diagnosis of CRC, with relatively high sensitivity and specificity.
While microRNAs (miRNAs) clearly regulate multiple pathways integral to disease development and progression, the lack of safe and reliable means for specific delivery of miRNAs to target tissues represents a major obstacle to their broad therapeutic application. Our objective was to explore the use of nucleic acid aptamers as carriers for cell-targeted delivery of a miRNA with tumor suppressor function, let-7g. Using an aptamer that binds to and antagonizes the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase Axl (GL21.T), here we describe the development of aptamer-miRNA conjugates as multifunctional molecules that inhibit the growth of Axl-expressing tumors. We conjugated the let-7g miRNA to GL21.T and demonstrate selective delivery to target cells, processing by the RNA interference machinery, and silencing of let-7g target genes. Importantly, the multifunctional conjugate reduced tumor growth in a xenograft model of lung adenocarcinoma. Therefore, our data establish aptamer-miRNA conjugates as a novel tool for targeted delivery of miRNAs with therapeutic potential.
Clear cell RCC is the most common, and more likely to metastasize, of the three main histological types of RCC. Pathologic stage is the most important prognostic indicator and nuclear grade can predict outcome within stages of localized RCC. Epithelial tumors are thought to accumulate a series of genetic and epigenetic changes as they progress through well-defined clinical and histopathological changes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of mRNA expression from many human genes and miRNA expression is dysregulated in cancer. To better understand the contribution of dysregulated miRNA expression to the progression and biology of ccRCC, we examined the differences in expression levels of 723 human miRNAs through a series of analyses by stage, grade, and disease progression status in a large series of 94 ccRCC. We found a consistent signature that included significant upregulation of miR-21-5p, 142-3p, let-7g-5p, let-7i-5p and 424-5p, as well as downregulation of miR-204-5p, to be associated with ccRCC of high stage, or high grade, or progression. Discrete signatures associated with each of stage, grade, or progression were also identified. The let-7 family was significantly downregulated in ccRCC compared with normal renal parenchyma. Expression of the 6 most significantly differentially expressed miRNAs between ccRCC was verified by stem-loop qRT-PCR. Pathways predicted as targets of the most significantly dysregulated miRNAs included signaling, epithelial cancers, metabolism, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our studies help to further elucidate the biology underlying the progression of ccRCC and identify miRNAs for potential translational application.
Salendo J, Spitzner M, Kramer F, et al.Identification of a microRNA expression signature for chemoradiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells, involving miRNAs-320a, -224, -132 and let7g.
Radiother Oncol. 2013; 108(3):451-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) represents the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Tumor response and progression vary considerably. MicroRNAs represent master regulators of gene expression, and may therefore contribute to this diversity.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) profiling was performed for 12 colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and an individual in vitro signature of chemoradiosensitivity was established. Functional relevance of selected miRNAs was established by transfecting miRNA-mimics into SW480 and SW837 cells. The prognostic value of selected miRNAs was assessed in 128 pretherapeutic patient biopsies.
RESULTS: Thirty-six miRNAs were identified to significantly correlate with sensitivity to CRT (Q < 0.05) including miR-320a and other miRNAs involved in the MAPK-, TGF- and Wnt-pathway. Transfection of selected miRNAs (let-7g, miR-132, miR-224, miR-320a) each induced a shift of sensitivity. High expression of let-7 g was associated with a good prognosis in rectal cancer patients (P = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a miRNA expression signature for in vitro chemoradiosensitivity of CRC cell lines. Many of the identified miRNAs have not been linked to the response to CRT and may represent potential molecular targets to sensitize resistant cancers. If further validated, let7g expression may serve as predictive biomarker.
Ren J, Chu Y, Ma H, et al.Epigenetic interventions increase the radiation sensitivity of cancer cells.
Curr Pharm Des. 2014; 20(11):1857-65 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epigenetic changes including DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and microRNAs play critical roles in tumorigenesis and tumor development. Reversal of epigenetic changes sensitizes some tumor cells to radiation. DNMT-I enhances the response of tumor cells to radiotherapy. AZA demethylated promoters of genes related to ionizing radiation response, such as p16 and hMLH1. The genes expression of the p53, RASSF1, and DAPK gene families was increased by 5-aza-CdR, which induces G2-M phase arrest and increased apoptosis. HDAC-I has both anti-tumor activity and radiation sensitization activity. HDAC-I disrupts both DNA damage sensing and repair processes: HDAC-I disrupts the association between HDAC enzyme and DNA sensor proteins 53BP1 and ATM. HDAC-I changes the acetylation status of both proteins involved in homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway which include BRCA1, Rad51, and Rad50, and proteins involved in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway which include Ku70, and DNA-PK. HDACs are also implicated as essential components in the DNA repair process itself. Besides the radiosensitizing mechanism of intervention of DNA repair, other possible mechanisms including cell cycle redistribution, acetylation of Hsp90, increased apoptosis, and decreased survival signals are also suggested. Some miRNAs also regulate the radiosensitivity of tumor cells. Inhibition of miR-34 expression or function, downregulation of miR-155, upregulation of miR-18a, Overexpression let-7g or knocking down LIN28B, and ectopically overexpressed miR-10 in cells with low endogenous miR-101 level increase the response of cells to irradiation. For radiation-resistant cancer cells, miR-7 sensitizes the radiation for cells which activated EGFR-PI3K-AKT signaling pathway.
Mao XG, Hütt-Cabezas M, Orr BA, et al.LIN28A facilitates the transformation of human neural stem cells and promotes glioblastoma tumorigenesis through a pro-invasive genetic program.
Oncotarget. 2013; 4(7):1050-64 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cellular reprogramming factor LIN28A promotes tumorigenicity in cancers arising outside the central nervous system, but its role in brain tumors is unknown. We detected LIN28A protein in a subset of human gliomas observed higher expression in glioblastoma (GBM) than in lower grade tumors. Knockdown of LIN28A using lentiviral shRNA in GBM cell lines inhibited their invasion, growth and clonogenicity. Expression of LIN28A in GBM cell lines increased the number and size of orthotopic xenograft tumors. LIN28A expression also enhanced the invasiveness of GBM cells in vitro and in vivo. Increasing LIN28A was associated with down-regulation of tumor suppressing microRNAs let-7b and let-7g and up-regulation of the chromatin modifying protein HMGA2. The increase in tumor cell aggressiveness in vivo and in vitro was accompanied by an upregulation of pro-invasive gene expression, including SNAI1. To further investigate the oncogenic potential of LIN28A, we infected hNSC with lentiviruses encoding LIN28A together with dominant negative R248W-TP53, constitutively active KRAS and hTERT. Resulting subclones proliferated at an increased rate and formed invasive GBM-like tumors in orthotopic xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Similar to LIN28A-transduced GBM neurosphere lines, hNSC-derived tumor cells showed increased expression of HMGA2. Taken together, these data suggest a role for LIN28A in high grade gliomas and illustrate an HMGA2-associated, pro-invasive program that can be activated in GBM by LIN28A-mediated suppression of let-7 microRNAs.
Capodanno A, Boldrini L, Proietti A, et al.Let-7g and miR-21 expression in non-small cell lung cancer: correlation with clinicopathological and molecular features.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(3):765-74 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in cancer pathogenesis and are involved in several human cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study evaluated Let-7g and miR-21 expression by quantitative real-time PCR in 80 NSCLC patients and correlated the results with their main clinicopathological and molecular features. MiR-21 expression was significantly higher in NSCLC tissues compared to non-cancer lung tissues (p<0.0001), while no significant changes in Let-7g expression were observed between the tumor and normal lung tissues. Target prediction analysis led to the identification of 26 miR-21 and 24 Let-7g putative target genes that play important roles in cancer pathogenesis and progression. No significant association was observed between the analysed miRNAs and the main clinicopathological or molecular characteristics of the NSCLC patients, although both miRNAs were downregulated in squamous cell carcinomas compared to adenocarcinomas. Noteworthy, we observed a significant association between low Let-7g expression and metastatic lymph nodes at diagnosis (p=0.046), as well as between high miR-21 expression and K-Ras mutations (p=0.0003). Survival analysis did not show any significant correlation between prognosis and the analysed miRNAs, although the patients with a high Let-7g and miR-21 expression showed a significantly lower short-term progression-free survival (p=0.01 and p=0.0003, respectively) and overall survival (p=0.023 and p=0.0045, respectively). In conclusion, we showed that Let-7g and miR-21 expression was deregulated in NSCLC and we demonstrated a strong relationship between miR-21 overexpression and K-Ras mutations. Our data indicate that Let-7g and miR-21 profiling combined with the determination of K-Ras mutational status may be considered a useful biomarker for a more effective molecular characterization and clinical management of NSCLC patients.
Uterine sarcomas and mixed epithelial-mesenchymal uterine tumors are a heterogeneous group of rare tumors for which there are very few diagnostic markers available. As aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns represent putative diagnostic cancer markers, we aimed to identify miRNA expression profiles of the major uterine sarcoma subtypes and mixed epithelial-mesenchymal tumors of the uterus. Eighty-eight miRNAs were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in cancerous and non-cancerous tissue samples collected from 29 patients with endometrial sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and mixed epithelial-mesenchymal tumors. Tumor and control samples significantly (P < 0.05) differed in the expression of miR-23b, miR-1, let-7f, and let-7c in endometrial sarcomas, and miR-1, let-7c, miR-133b, let-7b, miR-143, let-7a, let-7d, let-7e, let-7g, miR-222, let-7i, and miR-214 in mixed epithelial-mesenchymal tumors. All the significantly changed miRNAs were down-regulated in the malignant tissues as compared to their normal counterparts. This may suggest their tumor suppressor role in these malignancies. No statistically significant changes in miRNA expression levels were found between leiomyosarcoma tumors and controls. The identified miRNAs warrant further studies as valuable candidate markers for the differential diagnosis of uterine sarcomas from benign uterine lesions and between uterine sarcoma subtypes.
The heterochronic gene let-7 serves as a tumor suppressor microRNA by targeting various oncogenic pathways in cancer cells. Considerable evidence indicates that reduced expression of let-7 might be associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with cancer. Here, we report that the expression levels of three let-7 family members, let-7a, let-7b, and let-7g, were significantly decreased in the patients with breast cancer with lymph node metastasis compared with those without lymph node metastasis. Enforced expression of let-7b significantly inhibits breast cancer cell motility and affects actin dynamics. Using bioinformatic and experimental approaches, four genes in the actin cytoskeleton pathway, including PAK1, DIAPH2, RDX, and ITGB8, were identified as let-7 direct targets. Blocking the expression of PAK1, DIAPH2, and RDX significantly inhibits breast cancer cell migration induced by let-7b repression. Our results indicate that reconstitution of let-7 expression in tumor cells could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of metastatic disease.
Zhao L, Sun Y, Hou Y, et al.MiRNA expression analysis of cancer-associated fibroblasts and normal fibroblasts in breast cancer.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012; 44(11):2051-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promote tumorigenesis, growth, invasion and metastasis of cancer, whereas normal fibroblasts (NFs) are thought to suppress tumor progression. Little is known about miRNAs expression differences between CAFs and NFs or the patient-to-patient variability in miRNAs expression in breast cancer. We established primary cultures of CAFs and paired NFs from six resected breast tumor tissues that had not previously received radiotherapy or chemotherapy treatment and analyzed with miRNAs microarrays. The array data were analyzed using paired SAM t-test and filtered according to α and q values. Pathway analysis was conducted using DAVID v6.7. We identified 11 dysregulated miRNAs in CAFs: three were up-regulated (miR-221-5p, miR-31-3p, miR-221-3p), while eight were down-regulated (miR-205, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-141, miR-101, miR-342-3p, let-7g, miR-26b). Their target genes are known to affect cell differentiation, adhesion, migration, proliferation, secretion and cell-cell interaction. By our knowledge it is firstly identify the expression profiles of miRNAs between CAFs and NFs and revealed their regulation on the associated signaling pathways.
Sohn EJ, Park J, Kang SI, Wu YPAccumulation of pre-let-7g and downregulation of mature let-7g with the depletion of EWS.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012; 426(1):89-93 [PubMed
] Related Publications
EWS functions in RNA splicing and transcription by encoding an RNA binding protein, which results in the chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12) found in Ewing sarcoma. EWS interacts with the microprocessor complex involving Drosha and DGCR8, which play roles as the cofactors of primary microRNA processing. However, the role of EWS in microRNA biogenesis has not been investigated. Here, we show that endogenous EWS interacts with endogenous Drosha by IP-western blotting. In addition, EWS knockout mouse decreased the expression of Drosha. The depletion of EWS results in the accumulation of precursor let-7g but down-regulates mature let-7g in U2OS cells. Consistently, mature let 7g was suppressed in both Ewing sarcoma cell and primary Ewing sarcoma. Also, expression levels of Dicer and CCND1 (Cyclin D1), which are known target genes of the let-7 family were upregulated. Our findings suggest that EWS mediates generation of mature let-7g from pre-let-7g.
Ishihara K, Sasaki D, Tsuruda K, et al.Impact of miR-155 and miR-126 as novel biomarkers on the assessment of disease progression and prognosis in adult T-cell leukemia.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2012; 36(6):560-5 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Micro RNAs (miRNAs) provide new insight in the development of cancer, but little is known about their clinical relevance as biomarkers in the assessment of diagnosis, classification, progression and prognosis of various cancers. To explore a potential novel biomarker, we examined the cellular and plasma miRNA profiles in adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) characterized by diverse clinical features.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Using CD4-positive cells isolated from 2 non-infected healthy individuals, 3 chronic ATL patients and 3 acute ATL patients, cellular miRNAs were profiled by microarray. The microarray screened 5 miRNAs namely miR-155, let-7g, miR-126, miR-130a and let-7b because of the large difference in their expression in diseased vs. that of healthy controls. The expression levels of before 5 miRNAs re-quantified by reverse transcription quantifiable polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were not always accordant in cells and plasma. The high and low plasma levels of miR-155 and miR-126 changed with ATL stage.
CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that there is a quantitative discrepancy between cellular and plasma miRNAs. The elevation of plasma miR-155 and the reduction in miR-126 correlated with poor prognosis, indicating their usefulness as a novel biomarker for the assessment of disease stage.
Zhou CH, Yang SF, Li PQHuman lung cancer cell line SPC-A1 contains cells with characteristics of cancer stem cells.
Neoplasma. 2012; 59(6):685-92 [PubMed
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Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play important roles in occurrence, development, recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Isolation and identification of CSCs have been performed from some cancer tissues or cells. In this paper, human lung adenocarcinoma stem cells were induced and isolated from SPC-A1 cells and their characteristics were determined. SPC-A1 cells were cultured in serum-free medium and epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor were added into the medium to induce the formation of multicellular tumor spheroids. The results showed that floating multicellular tumor spheroids (named pulmospheres) were formed 5-10 d after the induction of SPC-A1 cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that in the pulmospheres, the marker of bronchioalveolar stem cells, Clara cell secretary protein and the marker of AT2 cells, alveolar surfactant protein C were highly expressed. Furthermore, such embryonic stem cell markers as octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT-4), Bmi-1, and thyroid transcription factor -1 (TTF-1) were also highly expressed. Some miRNAs as hsa-miR-126, hsa-miR-145, hsa-let-7g, hsa-let-7d, hsa-let-7c, hsa-let-7e and hsa-miR-98, which were lowly expressed in SPC-A1 cells, were not expressed in the pulmospheres. Cell cycle analysis showed that 94.29 % of the pulmosphere cells were in G1 stages. Further study showed that these cells possessed higher proliferation and invasion activity than SPC-A1 cells. Tumorigenicity activity experiments on BALB/c nude mice showed that 1 × 103 of the pulmosphere cells could form tumors with similar pathological features with lung adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, lung adenocarcinoma stem cells were enriched in the pulmosphere cells and were with high tumorigenicity.
Schultz NA, Andersen KK, Roslind A, et al.Prognostic microRNAs in cancer tissue from patients operated for pancreatic cancer--five microRNAs in a prognostic index.
World J Surg. 2012; 36(11):2699-707 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to identify a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) that can predict overall survival (OS) in non micro-dissected cancer tissues from patients operated for pancreatic cancer (PC).
METHODS: MiRNAs were purified from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) cancer tissue from 225 patients operated for PC. Only a few of those patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Expressions of miRNAs were determined with the TaqMan MicroRNA Array v2.0. Two statistical methods, univariate selection and the Lasso (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) method, were applied in conjunction with the Cox proportional hazard model to relate miRNAs to OS.
RESULTS: High expression of miR-212 and miR-675 and low expression of miR-148a, miR-187, and let-7g predicted short OS independent of age, gender, calendar year of operation, KRAS mutation status, tumor stage, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, localization (not miR-148a), and differentiation of tumor. A prognostic index (PI) based on these five miRNAs was calculated for each patient. The median survival was 1.09 years (Confidence Interval [CI] 0.98-1.43) for PI > median PI compared to 2.23 years (CI 1.84-4.36) for PI < median. MiR-212, miR-675, miR-187, miR-205, miR-944, miR-431, miR-194, miR-148a, and miR-769-5p showed the strongest prediction ability by the Lasso method. Thus miR-212, miR-675, miR-187, and miR-148a were predictors for OS in both statistical methods.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of five miRNAs expression in non micro-dissected FFPE PC tissue can identify patients with short OS after radical surgery. The results are independent of chemotherapy treatment. Patients with a prognostic index > median had a very short median OS of only 1 year.
Cookson VJ, Bentley MA, Hogan BV, et al.Circulating microRNA profiles reflect the presence of breast tumours but not the profiles of microRNAs within the tumours.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2012; 35(4):301-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Extra-cellular microRNAs have been identified within blood and their profiles reflect various pathologies; therefore they have potential as disease biomarkers. Our aim was to investigate how circulating microRNA profiles change during cancer treatment. Our hypothesis was that tumour-related profiles are lost after tumour resection and therefore that comparison of profiles before and after surgery would allow identification of biomarker microRNAs. We aimed to examine whether these microRNAs were directly derived from tumours, and whether longitudinal expression monitoring could provide recurrence diagnoses.
METHODS: Plasma was obtained from ten breast cancer patients before and at two time-points after resection. Tumour tissue was also obtained. Quantitative PCR were used to determine levels of 367 miRNAs. Relative expressions were determined after normalisation to miR-16, as is typical in the field, or to the mean microRNA level.
RESULTS: 210 microRNAs were detected in at least one plasma sample. Using miR-16 normalisation, we found few consistent changes in circulating microRNAs after resection, and statistical analyses indicated that this normalisation was not justifiable. However, using data normalised to mean microRNA expression we found a significant bias for levels of individual circulating microRNAs to be reduced after resection. Potential biomarker microRNAs were identified, including let-7b, let-7g and miR-18b, with higher levels associated with tumours. These microRNAs were over-represented within the more highly expressed microRNAs in matched tumours, suggesting that circulating populations are tumour-derived in part. Longitudinal monitoring did not allow early recurrence detection.
CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that specific circulating microRNAs may act as breast cancer biomarkers but methodological issues are critical.
Morales-Prieto DM, Chaiwangyen W, Ospina-Prieto S, et al.MicroRNA expression profiles of trophoblastic cells.
Placenta. 2012; 33(9):725-34 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded RNA molecules working as post-transcriptional modulators of gene expression. Trophoblast cells are a heterogenous group of fetal cells forming the feto-maternal interface and displaying a wide spectrum of functions. The regulation of their behavior may partly underly the control through miRNAs. Therefore, we aimed to compare the miRNA profile of primary first and third trimester trophoblast cells with that of different trophoblastic cell lines.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total RNA was obtained from isolated cytotrophoblast cells from healthy term and first trimester placentae and the cell lines HTR-8/SVneo (immortalized trophoblast cells), JEG-3 (choriocarcinoma), ACH-3P and AC1-M59, which are choriocarcinoma cells fused with first and third trimester trophoblast cells, respectively. The expression level of 762 different miRNAs was quantitatively analyzed by using a TaqMan Human MicroRNA Array. For testing the reproducibility of the array technique, the expression of 9 selected miRNAs has been re-analyzed by individual qPCR.
RESULTS: The analyzed cell types share many similar patterns of miRNAs, but are significantly distinct in the expression of three miRNA clusters: chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC; containing 54 different miRNAs), C14MC (34 miRNAs) and a minor cluster (miRNA-371 to miRNA-373 cluster), also located on chromosome 19. Expression of miRNAs within C19MC increases significantly from first to third trimester trophoblast while that of C14MC members decreases. MiRNAs within the miR-371-3 cluster augment slightly. C19MC and the miR-371-3 cluster are not expressed by HTR-8/SVneo cells whilst C14MC is almost not detectable in the choriocarcinoma-derived cell lines complete array data available at NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus accession number GSE32346: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE32346). Beside the miRNAs within the mentioned clusters, further 27 miRNAs are differentially expressed (>100 fold) between term and first trimester trophoblast cells. The placenta-specific miRNAs miR-141 and miR-21 as well as let-7g are expressed in all tested cells with the highest expression in primary trophoblast cells.
CONCLUSION: Primary first trimester and term trophoblast cells and trophoblastic cell lines display major differences in their miRNA fingerprints which may be involved in their different behavior and characteristics.
We examined the microRNA signature that distinguishes the most common melanoma histological subtypes, superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) and nodular melanoma (NM). We also investigated the mechanisms underlying the differential expression of histology-specific microRNAs. MicroRNA array performed on a training cohort of 82 primary melanoma tumors (26 SSM, 56 NM), and nine congenital nevi (CN) revealed 134 microRNAs differentially expressed between SSM and NM (P<0.05). Out of 134 microRNAs, 126 remained significant after controlling for thickness and 31 were expressed at a lower level in SSM compared with both NM and CN. For seven microRNAs (let-7g, miR-15a, miR-16, miR-138, miR-181a, miR-191, and miR-933), the downregulation was associated with selective genomic loss in SSM cell lines and primary tumors, but not in NM cell lines and primary tumors. The lower expression level of six out of seven microRNAs in SSM compared with NM was confirmed by real-time PCR on a subset of cases in the training cohort and validated in an independent cohort of 97 melanoma cases (38 SSM, 59 NM). Our data support a molecular classification in which SSM and NM are two molecularly distinct phenotypes. Therapeutic strategies that take into account subtype-specific alterations might improve the outcome of melanoma patients.
PURPOSE: microRNAs have emerged as key regulators of gene expression, and their altered expression has been associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Thus, microRNAs have potential as both cancer biomarkers and/or potential novel therapeutic targets. Although accumulating evidence suggests the role of aberrant microRNA expression in endometrial carcinogenesis, there are still limited data available about the prognostic significance of microRNAs in endometrial cancer. The goal of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of selected key microRNAs in endometrial cancer by the analysis of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Total RNAs were extracted from 48 paired normal and endometrial tumor specimens using Trizol based approach. The expression of miR-26a, let-7g, miR-21, miR-181b, miR-200c, miR-192, miR-215, miR-200c, and miR-205 were quantified by real time qRT-PCR expression analysis. Targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were quantified using immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed by GraphPad Prism 5.0.
RESULTS: The expression levels of miR-200c (P<0.0001) and miR-205 (P<0.0001) were significantly increased in endometrial tumors compared to normal tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that high levels of miR-205 expression were associated with poor patient overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.377; Logrank test, P = 0.028). Furthermore, decreased expression of a miR-205 target PTEN was detected in endometrial cancer tissues compared to normal tissues.
CONCLUSION: miR-205 holds a unique potential as a prognostic biomarker in endometrial cancer.
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer diagnosis in the United States has increased by 2.3-folds in the last three decades. Up to 30% of thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results are inconclusive. Several differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as candidate diagnostic markers for thyroid nodules. We hypothesized that these differentially expressed miRNAs may improve the accuracy of FNAB in difficult to diagnose thyroid nodules.
METHODS: Expression levels of four miRNAs (miR-7, -126, -374a, and let-7g) were analyzed using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 95 FNAB samples as the training set. A predictor model was formulated based on the most differentially expressed miRNA (miR-7) ΔCt value and the model was applied on a separate cohort of 59 FNAB samples as the validation set.
RESULTS: miR-7 was the best predictor to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid FNAB samples. The other three miRNAs were co-expressed and did not significantly contribute to the predictor model. miR-7 had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 29%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 36%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%, and overall accuracy of 76% when applied to the validation set. In subgroup analysis of preoperative nondiagnostic, indeterminate, or suspicious FNAB samples, the predictor model had an overall accuracy of 37% with sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 20%, PPV of 25%, and NPV of 100%.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-7 may be a helpful adjunct marker to thyroid FNAB in tumor types which are inconclusive. Given the high NPV of miR-7, a patient with a benign result based on the predictor model may be followed as opposed to performing an immediate diagnostic thyroidectomy. Future prospective clinical trials evaluating its accuracy in a larger cohort are warranted to determine its clinical utility.
BACKGROUND: Identification of patients who likely will or will not benefit from cytotoxic chemotherapy through the use of biomarkers could greatly improve clinical management by better defining appropriate treatment options for patients. microRNAs may be potentially useful biomarkers that help guide individualized therapy for cancer because microRNA expression is dysregulated in cancer. In order to identify miRNA signatures for gastric cancer and for predicting clinical resistance to cisplatin/fluorouracil (CF) chemotherapy, a comprehensive miRNA microarray analysis was performed using endoscopic biopsy samples.
METHODS: Biopsy samples were collected prior to chemotherapy from 90 gastric cancer patients treated with CF and from 34 healthy volunteers. At the time of disease progression, post-treatment samples were additionally collected from 8 clinical responders. miRNA expression was determined using a custom-designed Agilent microarray. In order to identify a miRNA signature for chemotherapy resistance, we correlated miRNA expression levels with the time to progression (TTP) of disease after CF therapy.
RESULTS: A miRNA signature distinguishing gastric cancer from normal stomach epithelium was identified. 30 miRNAs were significantly inversely correlated with TTP whereas 28 miRNAs were significantly positively correlated with TTP of 82 cancer patients (P<0.05). Prominent among the upregulated miRNAs associated with chemosensitivity were miRNAs known to regulate apoptosis, including let-7g, miR-342, miR-16, miR-181, miR-1, and miR-34. When this 58-miRNA predictor was applied to a separate set of pre- and post-treatment tumor samples from the 8 clinical responders, all of the 8 pre-treatment samples were correctly predicted as low-risk, whereas samples from the post-treatment tumors that developed chemoresistance were predicted to be in the high-risk category by the 58 miRNA signature, suggesting that selection for the expression of these miRNAs occurred as chemoresistance arose.
CONCLUSIONS: We have identified 1) a miRNA expression signature that distinguishes gastric cancer from normal stomach epithelium from healthy volunteers, and 2) a chemoreresistance miRNA expression signature that is correlated with TTP after CF therapy. The chemoresistance miRNA expression signature includes several miRNAs previously shown to regulate apoptosis in vitro, and warrants further validation.
Qian P, Zuo Z, Wu Z, et al.Pivotal role of reduced let-7g expression in breast cancer invasion and metastasis.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(20):6463-74 [PubMed
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Screening of the entire let-7 family of microRNAs (miRNA) by in situ hybridization identified let-7g as the only member, the diminished expression of which was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and poor survival in breast cancer patients. Abrogation of let-7g expression in otherwise nonmetastatic mammary carcinoma cells elicited rapid metastasis from the orthotopic location, through preferential targets, Grb2-associated binding protein 2 (GAB2) and fibronectin 1 (FN1), and consequent activation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and specific matrix metalloproteinases. Treatment with estrogen or epidermal growth factor specifically reduced the expression of mature let-7g through activation of p44/42 MAPK and subsequently stimulated expression of GAB2 and FN1, which, in turn, promoted tumor invasion. We thus identify let-7g as a unique member of the let-7 miRNA family that can serve as a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer and also propose a paradigm used by specific signaling molecules via let-7g to cooperatively promote breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Thus, let-7 family members neither possess equivalent clinicopathologic correlation nor function in breast cancer.
Fassina A, Cappellesso R, Fassan MClassification of non-small cell lung carcinoma in transthoracic needle specimens using microRNA expression profiling.
Chest. 2011; 140(5):1305-11 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Emerging targeted lung cancer therapies require the accurate morphologic subclassification of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), even in scant and distorted specimens obtained by transthoracic needle aspiration (TTNA). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding genes recently reported as useful in differentiating squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from adenocarcinoma (AD) in resected tumor specimens. We investigated their ability to do so in TTNA specimens.
METHODS: Smears, immunocytochemistry slides, and corresponding cell blocks of 31 NSCLC TTNA specimens were retrieved and classified as AD or SCC based on their cytologic features and immunocytochemical profiles. Data on EGFR and K-RAS mutational status were available for all cases of AD. We quantified the hsa-let-7 family and hsa-miR-205 by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and compared the miRNA expression levels in AD and SCC using Student t test.
RESULTS: Eighteen cases were classified as AD and 13 as SCC by light microscopy and immunocytochemistry. miRNA expression profiles demonstrated considerable, statistically significant differences between AD and SCC, showing an upregulation of hsa-let-7a, hsa-let-7b, hsa-let-7c,hsa-let-7f, hsa-let-7g, hsa-let-7i, and hsa-miR-98 and a downregulation of hsa-miR-205 in AD specimens (all P < .05; t test).
CONCLUSIONS: Profiling the hsa-let-7 family and hsa-miR-205 is a promising method for differentiating AD from SCC, even in such small specimens as transthoracic aspirates. Subject to the validation of these findings in further, larger studies, this could prove to be a reliable, standardizable tool for the subclassification of NSCLC.
Ovarian cancer patients frequently develop resistance to chemotherapy regiments using Taxol and carboplatin. One of the resistance factors that protects cancer cells from Taxol-based therapy is multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1). micro(mi)RNAs are small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate protein expression. Members of the let-7 family of miRNAs are downregulated in many human cancers, and low let-7 expression has been correlated with resistance to microtubule targeting drugs (Taxanes), although little is known that would explain this activity. We now provide evidence that, although let-7 is not a universal sensitizer of cancer cells to Taxanes, it affects acquired resistance of cells to this class of drugs by targeting IMP-1, resulting in destabilization of the mRNA of MDR1. Introducing let-7g into ADR-RES cells expressing both IMP-1 and MDR1 reduced expression of both proteins rendering the cells more sensitive to treatment with either Taxol or vinblastine without affecting the sensitivity of the cells to carboplatin, a non-MDR1 substrate. This effect could be reversed by reintroducing IMP-1 into let-7g high/MDR1 low cells causing MDR1 to again become stabilized. Consistently, many relapsed ovarian cancer patients tested before and after chemotherapy were found to downregulate let-7 and to co-upregulate IMP-1 and MDR1, and the increase in the expression levels of both proteins after chemotherapy negatively correlated with disease-free time before recurrence. Our data point at IMP-1 and MDR1 as indicators for response to therapy, and at IMP-1 as a novel therapeutic target for overcoming multidrug resistance of ovarian cancer.
Pan L, Gong Z, Zhong Z, et al.Lin-28 reactivation is required for let-7 repression and proliferation in human small cell lung cancer cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2011; 355(1-2):257-63 [PubMed
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The let-7 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to act as tumor suppressors and down-regulated in lung cancer. Recently, the RNA-binding protein Lin-28 was demonstrated to inhibit biogenesis of let-7 miRNAs by blocking both Drosha- and Dicer-mediated cleavage and accelerating decay of let-7 precursors. We selected NCI-H446 lung small cell lung cancer cell to determine whether it is broadly representative that Lin-28 can promote cell proliferation and affect cell cycle through negatively regulating let-7 biogenesis. Here, we showed that Lin-28 mRNA was up-regulated in NCI-H446 cell with a high c-Myc state. The result of real-time RT-PCR further indicated that pri-let-7a-1/7g and mature let-7g were remarkably down-regulated. The expression of lin-28 was down-regulated while the mature let-7g transcript was up-regulated inversely. The MTT assay indicated that the proliferation of lung cancer cells with lin-28 inhibition was signally impaired. The cells with lin-28 knockdown revealed a higher proportion of cells at G1/G0 phase and less at S phase. The results presented here demonstrate that induction of Lin-28 could mediate repression of let-7 family members, promote cell cycle progression and suppress cell proliferation.