Gene Summary

Gene:BCL2L1; BCL2 like 1
Aliases: BCLX, BCL2L, Bcl-X, PPP1R52, BCL-XL/S
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL-2 protein family. BCL-2 family members form hetero- or homodimers and act as anti- or pro-apoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities. The proteins encoded by this gene are located at the outer mitochondrial membrane, and have been shown to regulate outer mitochondrial membrane channel (VDAC) opening. VDAC regulates mitochondrial membrane potential, and thus controls the production of reactive oxygen species and release of cytochrome C by mitochondria, both of which are the potent inducers of cell apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding two different isoforms. The longer isoform acts as an apoptotic inhibitor and the shorter isoform acts as an apoptotic activator. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:bcl-2-like protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (46)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BCL2L1 (cancer-related)

Steele TM, Talbott GC, Sam A, et al.
Obatoclax, a BH3 Mimetic, Enhances Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis and Decreases the Clonogenicity of Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Cells via Mechanisms That Involve the Inhibition of Pro-Survival Molecules as Well as Cell Cycle Regulators.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several studies by our group and others have determined that expression levels of Bcl-2 and/or Bcl-xL, pro-survival molecules which are associated with chemoresistance, are elevated in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (MI-BC). The goal of this study was to determine whether combining Obatoclax, a BH3 mimetic which inhibits pro-survival Bcl-2 family members, can improve responses to cisplatin chemotherapy, the standard of care treatment for MI-BC. Three MI-BC cell lines (T24, TCCSuP, 5637) were treated with Obatoclax alone or in combination with cisplatin and/or pre-miR-34a, a molecule which we have previously shown to inhibit MI-BC cell proliferation via decreasing Cdk6 expression. Proliferation, clonogenic, and apoptosis assays confirmed that Obatoclax can decrease cell proliferation and promote apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Combination treatment experiments identified Obatoclax + cisplatin as the most effective treatment. Immunoprecipitation and Western analyses indicate that, in addition to being able to inhibit Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, Obatoclax can also decrease cyclin D1 and Cdk4/6 expression levels. This has not previously been reported. The combined data demonstrate that Obatoclax can inhibit cell proliferation, promote apoptosis, and significantly enhance the effectiveness of cisplatin in MI-BC cells via mechanisms that likely involve the inhibition of both pro-survival molecules and cell cycle regulators.

Soriano A, Masanas M, Boloix A, et al.
Functional high-throughput screening reveals miR-323a-5p and miR-342-5p as new tumor-suppressive microRNA for neuroblastoma.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019; 76(11):2231-2243 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Current therapies for most non-infectious diseases are directed at or affect functionality of the human translated genome, barely 2% of all genetic information. By contrast, the therapeutic potential of targeting the transcriptome, ~ 70% of the genome, remains largely unexplored. RNA therapeutics is an emerging field that widens the range of druggable targets and includes elements such as microRNA. Here, we sought to screen for microRNA with tumor-suppressive functions in neuroblastoma, an aggressive pediatric tumor of the sympathetic nervous system that requires the development of new therapies. We found miR-323a-5p and miR-342-5p to be capable of reducing cell proliferation in multiple neuroblastoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo, thereby providing a proof of concept for miRNA-based therapies for neuroblastoma. Furthermore, the combined inhibition of the direct identified targets such as CCND1, CHAF1A, INCENP and BCL-XL could reveal new vulnerabilities of high-risk neuroblastoma.

Haikala HM, Anttila JM, Marques E, et al.
Pharmacological reactivation of MYC-dependent apoptosis induces susceptibility to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):620 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Elevated MYC expression sensitizes tumor cells to apoptosis but the therapeutic potential of this mechanism remains unclear. We find, in a model of MYC-driven breast cancer, that pharmacological activation of AMPK strongly synergizes with BCL-2/BCL-X

Li H, Fu L, Liu B, et al.
Ajuba overexpression regulates mitochondrial potential and glucose uptake through YAP/Bcl-xL/GLUT1 in human gastric cancer.
Gene. 2019; 693:16-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ajuba dysregulation has been reported in several human cancers. However, its expression patterns and biological roles in human gastric cancers have not yet been characterized. In the current study, we found that Ajuba protein was increased in gastric cancer tissues and in cell lines. High Ajuba expression positively correlated with the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Oncomine microarray data mining also suggested that Ajuba mRNA upregulation in gastric cancer tissues. We used SGC-7901 and NCI-N87 cell lines for Ajuba overexpression and siRNA knockdown respectively. MTT and colony formation assays indicated that Ajuba overexpression increased proliferation rate and colony formation ability while Ajuba siRNA inhibited proliferation rate and colony formation ability. AnnexinV and JC1 staining showed that Ajuba downregulated cisplatin induced apoptosis while it upregulated mitochondrial membrane potential. Ajuba overexpression also inhibited caspase-3 and PARP cleavage, while Ajuba depletion showed the opposite effects. Notably, Ajuba enhanced glucose metabolism by upregulating glucose uptake, glucose consumption, lactate production and ATP production. We further revealed that Ajuba positively regulated cyclin D1, Bcl-xL and GLUT1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Analysis of TCGA dataset revealed that there were positive correlations between Ajuba and cyclin D1, Bcl-xL, GLUT1 at the mRNA levels. Further investigation demonstrated that Ajuba overexpression inhibited Hippo signaling by upregulating YAP protein expression. Depletion of YAP by siRNA abolished the effect of Ajuba on cyclin D1, Bcl-xL and GLUT1. Together, our study showed that Ajuba was overexpressed in human gastric cancers, where it increased cell growth and chemoresistance. Our data also identified novel roles of Ajuba in gastric cancer progression involving regulating glucose uptake and mitochondrial function through the YAP-GLUT1/Bcl-xL axis, making it a potential therapeutic target.

Inoue K, Hatano K, Hanamatsu Y, et al.
Pathobiological role of cleft palate transmembrane protein 1 family proteins in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(4):851-859 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Cleft palate transmembrane protein 1 (Clptm1) and its paralog protein, Cisplatin resistance-related protein 9 (CRR9) constitute a highly conserved protein family, from Caenorhabditis elegans to Homo sapiens. In the present study, we examined the clinicopathological and biological significance of Clptm1 and CRR9 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
METHODS: Ninety-eight OSCC tissue specimens were immunohistochemically stained with specific antibodies to Clptm1 and CRR9. The immunoreactivity of Clptm1 and CRR9 was then correlated with clinicopathological factors, including the prognosis of patients. siRNA-mediated gene silencing of CRR9 followed by cell proliferation, Matrigel invasion, anoikis assay, and gelatin zymography were performed using cultured OSCC cells. Subsequently, immunohistochemical examination including double staining was performed to determine the correlation between CRR9 and Bcl-xL expression in OSCC cells.
RESULTS: Non-tumorous oral squamous cells exhibited vague, weak, or little cytoplasmic staining with anti-Clptm1 and CRR9 antibodies. By contrast, robust Clptm1 and CRR9 immunoreactivity was found at the cancer invasion front in 55 and 54 of the 98 OSCC tissue specimens, respectively. Notably, CRR9 immunoreactivity was associated with more than 5 mm of depth of invasion, poor prognosis of the patients, and smoking habits (P < 0.05). siRNA-mediated gene silencing of CRR9 did not alter the cell proliferation but decreased Matrigel invasion and impaired anoikis resistance in cultured Ca9-22 and SAS cells. CRR9 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL expression levels were correlated in pT1 OSCC tissue specimens.
CONCLUSIONS: Clptm1 and CRR9 were overexpressed in many OSCC tissues. In particular, CRR9 expression may promote tumor development and have a significant poor prognostic value in OSCC, possibly through conferring invasion ability and resistance to apoptotic stimuli possibly related to Bcl-xL expression. CRR9 could be a novel molecular target for patients with OSCC.

Aird D, Teng T, Huang CL, et al.
Sensitivity to splicing modulation of BCL2 family genes defines cancer therapeutic strategies for splicing modulators.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):137 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulation of RNA splicing by spliceosome mutations or in cancer genes is increasingly recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Small molecule splicing modulators have been introduced into clinical trials to treat solid tumors or leukemia bearing recurrent spliceosome mutations. Nevertheless, further investigation of the molecular mechanisms that may enlighten therapeutic strategies for splicing modulators is highly desired. Here, using unbiased functional approaches, we report that the sensitivity to splicing modulation of the anti-apoptotic BCL2 family genes is a key mechanism underlying preferential cytotoxicity induced by the SF3b-targeting splicing modulator E7107. While BCL2A1, BCL2L2 and MCL1 are prone to splicing perturbation, BCL2L1 exhibits resistance to E7107-induced splicing modulation. Consequently, E7107 selectively induces apoptosis in BCL2A1-dependent melanoma cells and MCL1-dependent NSCLC cells. Furthermore, combination of BCLxL (BCL2L1-encoded) inhibitors and E7107 remarkably enhances cytotoxicity in cancer cells. These findings inform mechanism-based approaches to the future clinical development of splicing modulators in cancer treatment.

Ge Y, Schuster MB, Pundhir S, et al.
The splicing factor RBM25 controls MYC activity in acute myeloid leukemia.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):172 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer sequencing studies have implicated regulators of pre-mRNA splicing as important disease determinants in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. We hypothesized that "non-mutated" splicing regulators may also play a role in AML biology and therefore conducted an in vivo shRNA screen in a mouse model of CEBPA mutant AML. This has led to the identification of the splicing regulator RBM25 as a novel tumor suppressor. In multiple human leukemic cell lines, knockdown of RBM25 promotes proliferation and decreases apoptosis. Mechanistically, we show that RBM25 controls the splicing of key genes, including those encoding the apoptotic regulator BCL-X and the MYC inhibitor BIN1. This mechanism is also operative in human AML patients where low RBM25 levels are associated with high MYC activity and poor outcome. Thus, we demonstrate that RBM25 acts as a regulator of MYC activity and sensitizes cells to increased MYC levels.

Ziai H, Alenazi A, Hearn M, et al.
The association of Bcl-xL and p53 expression with survival outcomes in oropharyngeal cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(2):141-151 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The role of molecular biomarkers in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has recently been increasingly recognized. There is conflicting evidence in the literature with regards to the prognostic value of p53 and Bcl-xL.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between p53 and Bcl-xL expression profiles and survival outcomes in OPSCC.
METHODS: Patients diagnosed with OPSCC and treated with curative intent between 1998 and 2009 were included in the study. Patient demographics, disease, treatment, and oncologic outcomes were collected prospectively. A tissue microarray (TMA) from patients' biopsies or surgical specimens was retrospectively constructed. The expression levels of p53, Bcl-xL, and p16 were digitally quantified and correlated to patient survival outcomes.
RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-six patients were included (mean age 56.7 years; standard deviation (SD) ± 10.0; 78% male). High expression of Bcl-xL (p= 0.04) was significantly associated with nodal disease at presentation, and decreased overall survival (OS) (p= 0.04). Combined expression of low Bcl-xL and low p53 conferred a survival advantage in non-smokers (p= 0.04). Multivariate analysis supported smoking and p16 status as independent prognosticators for OS.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that biomarker profiling using Bcl-xL and p53 levels may be of prognostic value in select patients with OPSCC.

Pang C, Gu Y, Ding Y, et al.
Several genes involved in the JAK-STAT pathway may act as prognostic markers in pancreatic cancer identified by microarray data analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(50):e13297 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify the underlying mechanisms in pancreatic cancer (PC) carcinogenesis and those as potential prognostic biomarkers, which can also be served as new therapeutic targets of PC.
METHODS: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between PC tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissue samples from a public GSE62452 dataset, followed by functional and pathway enrichment analysis. Then, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and prognosis-related genes were screened based on genes in the PPI network, before which prognostic gene-related miRNA regulatory network was constructed. Functions of the prognostic gene in the network were enriched before which Kaplan-Meier plots were calculated for significant genes. Moreover, we predicted related drug molecules based on target genes in the miRNA regulatory network. Furthermore, another independent GSE60979 dataset was downloaded to validate the potentially significant genes.
RESULTS: In the GSE62452 dataset, 1017 significant DEGs were identified. Twenty-six important prognostic-related genes were found using multivariate Cox regression analysis. Through pathway enrichment analysis and miRNA regulatory analysis, we found that the 5 genes, such as Interleukin 22 Receptor Subunit Alpha 1 (IL22RA1), BCL2 Like 1 (BCL2L1), STAT1, MYC Proto-Oncogene (MYC), and Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription 2 (STAT2), involved in the Jak-STAT signaling pathway were significantly associated with prognosis. Moreover, the expression change of these 5 genes was further validated using another microarray dataset. Additionally, we identified camptothecin as an effective drug for PC.
CONCLUSION: IL22RA1, BCL2L1, STAT1, MYC, and STAT2 involved in the Jak-STAT signaling pathway may be significantly associated with prognosis of PC.

Li J, Hu B, Wang T, et al.
C-Src confers resistance to mitotic stress through inhibition DMAP1/Bub3 complex formation in pancreatic cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):174 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chromatin modification at mitosis is closely related to transcriptional reactivation in the subsequent cell cycle. We reasoned this process is deregulated by oncogenic signals, which would contribute to mitotic stress resistance in pancreatic cancer. Here, we show DMAP1/Bub3 complex mediates mitotic stress-induced cellular apoptosis, while this effect is counteracted by c-Src in pancreatic cancer cells. Our study aims to uncover an unidentified mechanism underlying the distinct response to mitotic stress between normal cells and pancreatic cancer cells.
METHODS: The interaction between Bub3 and DMAP1 upon mitotic stress signaling was determined through molecular and cell biological methods. The inhibitory effect of c-Src on DMAP1/Bub3-mediated DNA methylation and gene transcription profile was investigated. The association between c-Src-mediated DMAP1 phosphorylation and paclitaxel activity in vivo and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed.
RESULTS: Mitotic arrest induced p38-dependent phosphorylation of Bub3 at Ser211, which promotes DMAP1/Bub3 interaction. DMAP1/Bub3 complex is recruited by TAp73 to the promoter of anti-apoptotic gene BCL2L1, thus mediates the DNA methylation and represses gene transcription linked to cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, DMAP1 was highly phosphorylated at Tyr 246 by c-Src in pancreatic cancer cells, which impedes DMAP1/Bub3 interaction and the relevant cellular activites. Blocking DMAP1 pTyr-246 potentiates paclitaxel-inhibited tumor growth. Clinically, DMAP1 Tyr 246 phosphorylation correlates with c-Src activity in human pancreatic cancer specimens and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal a regulatory role of Bub3 in DMAP1-mediated DNA methylation upon mitotic stress and provide the relevance of DMAP1 pTyr-246 to mitotic stress resistance during pancreatic cancer treatment.

Khaki-Khatibi F, Ghorbani M, Sabzichi M, et al.
Adjuvant therapy with stattic enriches the anti-proliferative effect of doxorubicin in human ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells via arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 109:1240-1248 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adjuvant therapy with novel and effective component has been presented as a contrivance in breast cancer treatment versus the conventional methods. The current research was done to evaluate the implement of stattic, specific STAT3 inhibitor on the anti-proliferative and apoptotic behavior of doxorubicin on ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells. Cell viability was investigated by MTT assay, the percentage of apoptosis by DAPI staining, and Annexin V. Real Time-PCR was applied to find out the correlation between mechanistic roles of the STAT3 pathway and apoptotic signal in the modulation of Bcl-2 and Bax gene expressions axis. The IC

Ahsanul Kabir KM, Amin R, Hasan I, et al.
Geodorum densiflorum rhizome lectin inhibits Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell growth by inducing apoptosis through the regulation of BAX, p53 and NF-κB genes expression.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2019; 125:92-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
A lectin with a molecular mass of 12 ± 1 kDa was isolated for the first time from Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) rhizome (GDL). The lectin exhibited hemagglutination activity both in mice and human erythrocytes which was inhibited by 4-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside among the tested 26 sugars. The lectin was heat stable and showed its full activity in the pH range from 5.0 to 9.0. The lectin did not lose its activity in the presence of urea but the activity lost significantly when treated with EDTA. Divalent cation Ca

Zhang L, Hao C, Zhai R, et al.
Downregulation of exosomal let-7a-5p in dust exposed- workers contributes to lung cancer development.
Respir Res. 2018; 19(1):235 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Either chronic or acute exposure to dust particles may lead to pneumoconiosis and lung cancer, and lung cancer mortality among patients diagnosed with pneumoconiosis is increasing. Utilizing genome-wide sequencing technology, this study aimed to identify methods to decrease the number of patients with pneumoconiosis who die from lung cancer.
METHODS: One hundred fifty-four subjects were recruited, including 54 pneumoconiosis patients and 100 healthy controls. Exosomes were isolated from the venous blood of every subject. Distinctive miRNAs were identified using high throughput sequencing technology, and bioinformatics analysis predicted target genes involved in lung cancer as well as their corresponding biological functions. Moreover, cross-cancer alterations of genes related to lung cancer were investigated, and survival analysis was performed using 2437 samples with an average follow-up period of 49 months.
RESULTS: Let-7a-5p was revealed to be downregulated by 21.67% in pneumoconiosis. Out of the 683 let-7a-5p target genes identified from bioinformatics analysis, four genes related to five signaling pathways were confirmed to be involved in lung cancer development. Alterations in these four target genes were then explored in 4105 lung cancer patients, and BCL2L1 and IGF1R were demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed. Survival analysis further revealed that high expression of BCL2L1 corresponded to reduced survival of lung cancer patients (HR (95%CI) = 1.75(1.33~2.30)), while patient survival time was unaffected by expression of IGF1R (HR (95%CI) = 1.15 (0.98~1.36)).
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with lung adenocarcinoma, simultaneous downregulation of exosomal let-7a-5p and elevated expression of BCL2L1 are useful as predictive biomarkers for poor survival.

Lee SD, Yu D, Lee DY, et al.
Upregulated microRNA-193a-3p is responsible for cisplatin resistance in CD44(+) gastric cancer cells.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(2):662-673 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cisplatin is a well-known anticancer drug used to treat various cancers. However, development of cisplatin resistance has hindered the efficiency of this drug in cancer treatment. Development of chemoresistance is known to involve many signaling pathways. Recent attention has focused on microRNAs (miRNAs) as potentially important upstream regulators in the development of chemoresistance. CD44 is one of the gastric cancer stem cell markers and plays a role in regulating self-renewal, tumor initiation, metastasis and chemoresistance. The purpose of the present study was to examine the mechanism of miRNA-mediated chemoresistance to cisplatin in CD44-positive gastric cancer stem cells. We sorted gastric cancer cells according to level of CD44 expression by FACS and analyzed their miRNA expression profiles by microarray analysis. We found that miR-193a-3p was significantly upregulated in CD44(+) cells compared with CD44(-) cells. Moreover, SRSF2 of miR-193a-3p target gene was downregulated in CD44(+) cells. We studied the modulation of Bcl-X and caspase 9 mRNA splicing by SRSF2 and found that more pro-apoptotic variants of these genes were generated. We also found that downstream anti-apoptotic genes such as Bcl-2 were upregulated, whereas pro-apoptotic genes such as Bax and cytochrome C were downregulated in CD44(+) cells compared to CD44(-) cells. In addition, we found that an elevated level of miR-193a-3p triggered the development of cisplatin resistance in CD44(+) cells. Inhibition of miR-193a-3p in CD44(+) cells increased SRSF2 expression and also altered the levels of multiple apoptotic genes. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-193a-3p reduced cell viability and increased the number of apoptotic cells. Therefore, miR-193a-3p may be implicated in the development of cisplatin resistance through regulation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. miR-193a-3p could be a promising target for cancer therapy in cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer.

Gayle SS, Sahni JM, Webb BM, et al.
Targeting BCL-xL improves the efficacy of bromodomain and extra-terminal protein inhibitors in triple-negative breast cancer by eliciting the death of senescent cells.
J Biol Chem. 2019; 294(3):875-886 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/01/2020 Related Publications
Inhibitors of bromodomain and extra-terminal proteins (BETi) suppress oncogenic gene expression and have been shown to be efficacious in many

Jiang Y, Jiang J, Jia H, et al.
Recovery of miR-139-5p in Ovarian Cancer Reverses Cisplatin Resistance by Targeting C-Jun.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(1):129-141 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In platinum-based chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, acquired drug resistance is a frequent occurrence. Because recent studies have demonstrated that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is partly responsible for the induction of acquired drug resistance in cancers, we hypothesized that correcting the dysregulation of key miRNAs would reverse the acquired resistance to platinum-based drugs in ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Cisplatin-resistant SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3-R and A2780-R, respectively) were established by long-term exposure to cisplatin. MTT assays were performed to evaluate the viability of SKOV3, SKOV3-R, A2780, and A2780-R cells. Quantitative PCR was used to examine the expression of miR-139-5p in these cell lines. The regulatory mechanism was confirmed by western blot analysis and luciferase reporter assays. After treatment with miR-139-5p and cisplatin, mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis were measured by using flow cytometry. Interaction with c-Jun and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) was evaluated by co-immunoprecipitation. Expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl) and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were detected by western blotting.
RESULTS: Expression of miR-139-5p was decreased in SKOV3-R and A2780-R cells. Recovery of miR-139-5p increased the sensitivity of SKOV3-R and A2780-R cells to cisplatin treatment, inhibited the interaction of c-Jun and ATF2, and decreased Bcl-xl expression in SKOV3-R and A2780-R cells. Expression of miR-139-5p promoted cisplatin-induced mitochondrial apoptosis through binding the 3' untranslated region of c-Jun mRNA.
CONCLUSION: Recovery of miR-139-5p suppressed the expression of c-Jun and thus reversed cisplatin-resistance in ovarian cancer.

Kontos CK, Avgeris M, Vassilacopoulou D, et al.
Molecular Effects of Treatment of Human Colorectal Cancer Cells with Natural and Classical Chemotherapeutic Drugs: Alterations in the Expression of Apoptosis-related BCL2 Family Members, Including BCL2L12.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2018; 19(13):1064-1075 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Current chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) include oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and fluorouracil along with leucovorin. Cytotoxicity involves the induction of programmed cell death.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the molecular effects of doxorubicin (a 14-OH derivative of the natural product daunorubicin) and common chemotherapeutic drugs (used in the clinical practice to treat CRC) on the expression of the most prominent members of the BCL2 family, namely BCL2, BAX, BCLX, and MCL1. Moreover, we sought to define the role of BCL2L12, another member of the BCL2 family, the apoptotic role of which is ambiguous.
METHODS: The MTT cell proliferation assay was used to determine the IC50 of each chemotherapeutic drug at 72 hours of treatment of Caco-2 and DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Real-time PCR was used to quantify the antiapoptotic BCL2-α, BLCX-L, and MCL1-L transcripts, the proapoptotic BAX, BLCX-S, BLCX-ES, MCL1-S, and MCL1-ES transcripts, and BCL2L12 expression in relation to GAPDH mRNA levels.
RESULTS: We constructed growth curves of Caco-2 and DLD-1 cells and determined the IC50 of each drug at 72 hours of treatment. Significant alterations in the expression levels of the studied BCL2 family genes and/or particular transcripts were observed.
CONCLUSION: The intrinsic apoptotic pathway is activated during treatment of CRC cells with common chemotherapeutic drugs. Moreover, BCL2L12 mRNA expression increases progressively during treatment, similarly to the expression of other BCL2 family genes favoring apoptosis and/or particular proapoptotic transcripts, thus suggesting a proapoptotic role for BCL2L12 in chemotherapy-treated CRC cells.

Vallet S, Fan F, Malvestiti S, et al.
Rationally derived drug combinations with the novel Mcl-1 inhibitor EU-5346 in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 173(3):585-596 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Recent studies have emphasized a key role for the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1 in conferring tumor cell survival and drug resistance in breast cancer (BC). Mcl-1 inhibitors, such as the BH3-mimetic EU-5346, therefore represent an exciting new class of targeting agents and are a current focus of widespread cancer-drug development efforts.
METHODS: ONCOMINE analysis was utilized to compare expression profiles of Bcl-2 family members across all major BC subgroups. Potential toxicities of EU-5346 were evaluated using iPS-generated cardiomyocytes, blood cells and astrocytes. The anti-BC cell activity of EU-5346-based therapies was evaluated using [
RESULTS: We previously demonstrated significant anti-tumor activity of EU-5346 in all BC subtypes. Our present results go further and suggest that EU-5346 may induce limited adverse events such as cardiotoxicity, hematotoxicity, and neurotoxicity, frequently observed with other BH3 mimetics. As demonstrated by our mathematical scoring model, the prediction of EU-5643-induced IC
CONCLUSION: These data strongly support the further clinical development of EU-5346 to improve BC patient survival.

Othman N, Nagoor NH
Overexpression of miR‑361‑5p plays an oncogenic role in human lung adenocarcinoma through the regulation of SMAD2.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(1):306-314 [PubMed] Related Publications
The silencing of Bcl‑xL in the non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, A549, downregulates miR‑361‑5p expression. This study aimed to determine the biological effects of miR‑361‑5p on NSCLC, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms through which apoptosis is regulated. MicroRNA (miRNA or miR) functional analyses were performed via transfection of miR‑361‑5p mimics and inhibitors, demonstrating that the inhibition of miR‑361‑5p induced the apoptosis of NSCLC cells. To elucidate the function of miR‑361‑5p in vivo, cells transfected with miR‑361‑5p inhibitors were microinjected into zebrafish embryos, and immunostained using antibodies to detect the active form of caspase‑3. Co-transfection with siBcl‑xL and miR‑361‑5p mimics illustrated the association between Bcl‑xL, miR‑361‑5p and apoptosis; miR‑361‑5p mimics blocked the apoptosis initiated by siBcl‑xL. Luciferase reporter assays identified mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (SMAD2) as a novel target of miR‑361‑5p and the reduction of its protein level was validated by western blot analysis. To confirm the molecular mechanisms through which apoptosis is regulated, gene rescue experiments revealed that the ectopic expression of SMAD2 attenuated the inhibitory effects on apoptosis induced by miR‑361‑5p. In this study, to the best of our knowledge, we provide the first evidence that miR‑361‑5p functions as an oncomiR in A549 and SK‑LU‑1 cells through the regulation of SMAD2, suggesting that miR‑361‑5p may be employed as a potential therapeutic target for the miRNA-based therapy of NSCLC.

Yu J, Cao X, Zheng Y, et al.
Abnormal expression of miR‑133a in patients with acute myocardial infarction following radical surgery for gastric cancer and the underlying mechanism.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(6):5023-5029 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/01/2020 Related Publications
The present study aimed to investigate the expression of microRNA (miR)‑133a in patients with or without acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following radical surgery for gastric cancer, and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Blood samples were collected from patients with or without AMI in order to detect the expression levels of miR‑133a and endothelial injury markers. In addition, an AMI rat model was established. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of miR‑133a and B‑cell lymphoma 2‑like 1 (Bcl2l1). In addition, an ELISA assay was used for endothelial injury marker analysis. To investigate the effects of miR‑133a on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), a miR‑133a inhibitor was used. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were subsequently detected using an MTT assay and flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was also conducted to detect Bcl2l1 protein expression. The results suggested that patients with AMI exhibited significantly increased expression of endothelial injury markers (von Willebrand factor, heart‑type fatty acid‑binding protein and cardiac troponin I) and miR‑133a in blood samples compared with patients without AMI. In addition, treatment with a miR‑133a mimic was able to upregulate the expression of endothelial injury markers in an AMI rat model, whereas treatment with a miR‑133a inhibitor had the opposite effect. Furthermore, cellular experiments indicated that a miR‑133a inhibitor could promote HUVEC proliferation and reduce cell apoptosis. The present results also confirmed that miR‑133a directly targets Bcl2l1 and negatively regulates Bcl2l1 expression. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that miR‑133a was involved in the endothelial injury process after AMI by targeting Bcl2l1.

Kim H, Moon JY, Burapan S, et al.
Induction of ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis by the Major Component 5,7,4'-Trimethoxyflavone Isolated from Kaempferia parviflora Tea Infusion.
Nutr Cancer. 2018 Aug-Sep; 70(6):984-996 [PubMed] Related Publications
Kaempferia parviflora (KP) is a famous medicinal plant from Thailand, and is a rich source of various kinds of methoxyflavones (MFs). Many kinds of food products such as tea, capsule, and liquor are manufactured from the rhizomes of KP. In this study, KP infusions were prepared with different brewing conditions, and the amounts of three major methoxylflavones, 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF), 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (TMF), and 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF), were analyzed. The antiproliferative activities of DMF, TMF, and PMF isolated from the brewed tea samples were evaluated. TMF was discovered to be significantly effective at inhibiting proliferation of SNU-16 human gastric cancer cells in a concentration dependent manner. TMF induced apoptosis, as evidenced by increments of sub-G1 phase, DNA fragmentation, annexin-V/PI staining, the Bax/Bcl-xL ratio, proteolytic activation of caspase-3,-7,-8, and degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein. Furthermore, it was found that TMF induced apoptosis via ER stress, verified by an increase in the level of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 α (IRE1α), activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4), and the splice isoform of X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1) mRNA.

Samadi P, Saki S, Dermani FK, et al.
Emerging ways to treat breast cancer: will promises be met?
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2018; 41(6):605-621 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women and it is responsible for more than 40,000 deaths in the United States and more than 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. In previous decades, the development of improved screening, diagnosis and treatment methods has led to decreases in BC mortality rates. More recently, novel targeted therapeutic options, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors that target specific cancer cell-related components, have been developed. These components include ErbB family members (HER1, HER2, HER3 and HER4), Ras/MAPK pathway components (Ras, Raf, MEK and ERK), VEGF family members (VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, VEGF and PGF), apoptosis and cell cycle regulators (BAK, BAX, BCL-2, BCL-X, MCL-1 and BCL-W, p53 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway components) and DNA repair pathway components such as BRCA1. In addition, long noncoding RNA inhibitor-, microRNA inhibitor/mimic- and immunotherapy-based approaches are being developed for the treatment of BC. Finally, a novel powerful technique called CRISPR-Cas9-based gene editing is emerging as a precise tool for the targeted treatment of cancer, including BC.
CONCLUSIONS: Potential new strategies that are designed to specifically target BC are presented. Several clinical trials using these strategies are already in progress and have shown promising results, but inherent limitations such as off-target effects and low delivery efficiencies still have to be resolved. By improving the clinical efficacy of current therapies and exploring new ones, it is anticipated that novel ways to overcome BC may become attainable.

Wu K, Ma J, Zhan Y, et al.
Down-Regulation of MicroRNA-214 Contributed to the Enhanced Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A and Inhibited Proliferation of Colorectal Cancer Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 49(2):545-554 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colon cancer, also known as colorectal cancer (CRC), is one of the most common malignant tumors globally. Although significant advances have been made for developing novel therapeutics, the mechanisms of progression of colorectal cancer are still poorly understood.
METHODS: In this study, we identified down-regulation of microRNA-214 (miR-214) as the contributing factor for CRC. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and miR-214 expression in tumor samples from colorectal cancer patients and cancer cell lines were examined by reverse transcription and real-Time PCR (qPCR) or Western Blotting.
RESULTS: Our data demonstrated that miR-214 was significantly down-regulated in the tissue samples from CRC patients as well as CRC derived cell lines. TFAM overexpression was also observed in CRC patients and identified as a target for miR-214. Knockdown of TFAM by miR-214 mimics significantly inhibited the proliferation of CRC cell lines. Also, down-regulation of TFAM inhibited nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) nuclear translocation and the expression of NF-κB depended genes.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data suggested that down-regulation of MiR-214 contributed to the enhanced TFAM expression and decreased proliferation of CRC cells.

Shang HS, Lu HF, Lee CH, et al.
Quercetin induced cell apoptosis and altered gene expression in AGS human gastric cancer cells.
Environ Toxicol. 2018; 33(11):1168-1181 [PubMed] Related Publications
Quercetin is one of the natural components from natural plant and it induces cell apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines. However, no available reports show that quercetin induces apoptosis and altered associated gene expressions in human gastric cancer cells, thus, we investigated the effect of quercetin on the apoptotic cell death and associated gene expression in human gastric cancer AGS cells. Results indicated that quercetin induced cell morphological changes and reduced total viability via apoptotic cell death in AGS cells. Furthermore, results from flow cytometric assay indicated that quercetin increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, decreased the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ

Greenhough A, Bagley C, Heesom KJ, et al.
Cancer cell adaptation to hypoxia involves a HIF-GPRC5A-YAP axis.
EMBO Mol Med. 2018; 10(11) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/01/2020 Related Publications
Hypoxia is a hallmark of solid tumours and a key physiological feature distinguishing cancer from normal tissue. However, a major challenge remains in identifying tractable molecular targets that hypoxic cancer cells depend on for survival. Here, we used SILAC-based proteomics to identify the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPRC5A as a novel hypoxia-induced protein that functions to protect cancer cells from apoptosis during oxygen deprivation. Using genetic approaches

Ostadrahimi S, Abedi Valugerdi M, Hassan M, et al.
miR-1266-5p and miR-185-5p Promote Cell Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(8):2305-2311 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/01/2020 Related Publications
Objective: Small non-coding RNA molecules are dysregulated in prostate cancer (PCa). In our previous study, downregulation of miR-1266 and miR-185 was demonstrated in PCa tissues and cell lines. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether miR-1266 and miR-185 are involved in the regulation of B-cell lymphoma (BCL) 2 and BCL2L1, respectively, and whether transfection of PCa cell lines with miR-1266 and miR-185 mimics can alter tumorigenic phenotypes. Methods: In order to investigate the regulation of BCL2 and BCL2L1 mRNA levels by miR-1266 and miR-185, respectively, a luciferase reporter assay was used. Real-time PCR was also used to analyze changes in the levels of BCL2 and BCL2L1 mRNAs in PCa cell lines following transfection with synthetic miR-1266 and miR-185. Cell apoptosis was determined by Annexin V protein expression analysis via flow cytometry. In addition to the MTT assay, a cell proliferation assay was performed. Result: A luciferase assay confirmed that the BCL2 and BCL2L1 genes may be targeted by miR-1266 and miR-185, respectively, through binding to their 3′UTR regions. Transfection of PC3 and DU145 cells with miR-1266 and miR-185 induced apoptosis and reduced proliferation, which also revealed an inverse correlation with BCL2 and BCL2L1 gene expression in the treated cells. Conclusion: Our data suggests that miR-1266 and miR-185 may be novel candidates for further research in PCa treatment through the anti-apoptotic pathway.

Ni F, Yan CY, Zhou S, et al.
Repression of GRIM19 expression potentiates cisplatin chemoresistance in advanced bladder cancer cells via disrupting ubiquitination-mediated Bcl-xL degradation.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2018; 82(4):593-605 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The mainstay of treatment for advanced bladder cancer (BC) is cisplatin (CDDP)-based systematic chemotherapy. However, acquired chemoresistance induced by as yet unidentified mechanisms is encountered frequently and often results in treatment failure and disease progression. The present study was designed to elucidate the expression and potential role of the gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality-19 (GRIM19) in the pathogenesis of CDDP resistance in BC.
METHODS: RT-qPCR and immunoblotting were employed to evaluate the expression profile of GRIM19 in clinical BC samples and in different BC cells. Using cell viability assay, apoptotic ELISA, xenografts mouse model, and Transwell assay, the effects of GRIM19 inhibition or GRIM19 overexpression on CDDP resistance were determined in different BC cells. Lastly, using co-immunoprecipitation, we provided the molecular evidence for the interaction between GRIM19 and Bcl-xL.
RESULTS: Expression levels of GRIM19 were significantly down-regulated in recurrent BC specimens, and in experimentally induced CDDP-resistant BC cells. Functionally, overexpression of the exogenous GRIM19 potentiated CDDP sensitivity and suppressed the survival and invasion of BC cells in the presence of CDDP challenge. Mechanistically, the compromised CDDP chemosensitization induced by GRIM19 loss was at least partially attributed to the attenuation of Bcl-xL polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation, because (1) GRIM19 colocalized with Bcl-xL in the mitochondria of BC cells and (2) GRIM19 overexpression promoted the ubiquitination of Bcl-xL, and this event could be effectively reversed by pretreatment with inhibitors of p38-MAPK and JNK pathways, indicating that GRIM19 overexpression-induced Bcl-xL ubiquitination may achieve in a p38/JNK-dependent manner. Using the UMUC-3 cells stably depleted of endogenous GRIM19, we further show that inhibition of Bcl-xL rectified GRIM19 deficiency-caused CDDP resistance in BC cells. In addition, BCL2L1 mRNA levels were negatively correlated with GRIM19 mRNA levels in CDDP-associated clinical BC tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: Disruption of GRIM19/Bcl-xL is a key mechanism of CDDP resistance in advanced BC. Therapeutically, enhancement of GRIM19 expression or employment of p38/JNK inhibitors may serve as resensitizing therapies for subgroups of CDDP-resistant or refractory BC patients.

Vera-Lozada G, Segges P, Stefanoff CG, et al.
Pathway-focused gene expression profiles and immunohistochemistry detection identify contrasting association of caspase 3 (CASP3) expression with prognosis in pediatric classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Hematol Oncol. 2018; 36(4):663-670 [PubMed] Related Publications
The search for clinically relevant molecular markers in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is hampered by the histopathological complexity of the disease, resulting from the admixture of a small number of neoplastic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) cells with an abundant and heterogeneous microenvironment. In this study, we evaluated gene expression profiles of 11 selected genes previously proposed as a molecular score for adult cHL, aiming to validate its application in the pediatric setting. Assays were performed by RT-qPCR from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lymph nodes in 80 patients with cHL. Selected genes were associated with cell cycle (CENPF, CDK1, CCNA2, CCNE2, and HMMR), apoptosis (BCL2, BCL2L1, and CASP3), and monocytes/macrophages (LYZ and STAT1). Despite using controlled preanalytical and analytical strategies, we were not able to validate the 11-gene score to be applied in pediatric cHL. Principal component analysis (PCA) disclosed 3 components that accounted for 65.7% of the total variability. The second PC included microenvironment and apoptosis genes, from which CASP3 expression was associated with a short time of progression-free survival, which impact was maintained in the unfavorable risk group, Epstein-Barr virus-negative cases, and multivariate analysis (P < .05). Because this is a counterintuitive association, CASP3 active expression was assessed at the protein level in H-RS cells by double immunohistochemistry. In contrast to the association of mRNA levels with a poor therapeutic response, a high number of cleaved CASP3+ cells were associated with longer progression-free survival (P = .03) and overall survival (P = .002). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using FFPE samples as RNA source for molecular prognostication, but argue against the concept of direct and wide applicability of molecular scores in cHL. We reinforce the potential of CASP3 as an interesting target to be explored in adult and pediatric cHL, and alert for its dual biological role in H-RS cells and tumor microenvironment.

Li D, Wang Q, Li N, Zhang S
miR‑205 targets YAP1 and inhibits proliferation and invasion in thyroid cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(2):1674-1681 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA‑205 (miR‑205) has been reported to be downregulated, and serves critical roles in the pathogenesis and progression of several types of cancer, including breast, prostate and lung cancer. However, the underlying mechanism of miR‑205 in thyroid cancer remains unclear. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the expression of miR‑205 was reduced in thyroid cancer tissues compared with non‑cancer tissues. In addition, miR‑205‑knockdown models in the BHT‑101 cell line and ectopic expression models in the 8505‑C cell line were used to measure the biological functions of miR‑205. The results indicated that miR‑205 inhibited certain aspects of thyroid cancer, including cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, Yes‑associated protein 1 (YAP1) was identified as a target gene of miR‑205 and its expression was negatively correlated with that of miR‑205 in thyroid cancer tissues. Depletion of YAP1 partially reduced the anti‑miR‑205‑induced cell growth and invasion. The results of the present study suggested that the tumor suppressive functions of miR‑205 via targeting YAP1 could be a novel target for the treatment of thyroid cancer.

Sood S, Patel FD, Srinivasan R, Dhaliwal LK
Chemoradiation therapy induces
Indian J Med Res. 2018; 147(2):151-157 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 18/01/2020 Related Publications
Background & objectives: Invasive cervical cancer patients are primarily treated with chemoradiation therapy. The overall and disease-free survival in these patients is variable and depends on the tumoral response apart from the tumour stage. This study was undertaken to assess whether in vivo changes in gene promoter methylation and transcript expression in invasive cervical cancer were induced by chemoradiation. Hence, paired pre- and post-treatment biopsy samples were evaluated for in vivo changes in promoter methylation and transcript expression of 10 genes (ESR1, BRCA1, RASSF1A, MYOD1, MLH1, hTERT, MGMT, DAPK1, BAX and BCL2L1) in response to chemoradiation therapy.
Methods: In patients with locally advanced invasive cervical cancer, paired pre- and post-treatment biopsies after 10 Gy chemoradiation were obtained. DNA/RNA was extracted and gene promoter methylation status was evaluated by custom-synthesized methylation PCR arrays, and the corresponding gene transcript expression was determined by absolute quantification method using quantitative reverse transcription PCR.
Results: Changes in the gene promoter methylation as well as gene expression following chemoradiation therapy were observed. BAX promoter methylation showed a significant increase (P< 0.01) following treatment. There was a significant increase in the gene transcript expression of BRCA1 (P< 0.01), DAPK1 and ESR1 (P< 0.05), whereas MYOD1 and MLH1 gene transcript expression was significantly decreased (P< 0.05) following treatment.
Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our study show that chemoradiation therapy can induce epigenetic alterations as well as affect gene expression in tissues of invasive cervical cancer which may have implications in determining radiation response.

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