Gene Summary

Gene:MMP8; matrix metallopeptidase 8
Aliases: HNC, CLG1, MMP-8, PMNL-CL
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of proteins. These proteins are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Proteolysis at different sites on this protein results in multiple active forms of the enzyme with distinct N-termini. This protein functions in the degradation of type I, II and III collagens. The gene is part of a cluster of MMP genes which localize to chromosome 11q22.3. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:neutrophil collagenase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MMP8 (cancer-related)

Cirauqui B, Margelí M, Quiroga V, et al.
DNA repair pathways to regulate response to chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13435-13443 [PubMed] Related Publications
Platinum-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a preferred standard of care for locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). However, survival benefit is small, with substantial toxicity and biomarkers of CRT resistance that could guide treatment selection and spare morbidity. Increased DNA repair in solid tumors may contribute to cancer cells' ability to survive in genotoxic stress environments afforded by therapy. We assessed mRNA expression levels of DNA repair-related genes BRCA1, RAP80, 53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1), and RNF8. We correlated our findings with response and overall survival in 72 head and neck patients treated with weekly carboplatin AUC 2 and radiotherapy. Complete response (CR) to CRT was 50 % in patients with low levels of 53BP1 compared to 6.3 % in patients with high levels (p = 0.0059). Of high BRCA1 mRNA expressors, 41.2 % had CR compared to 29.4 % of low expressors (p = 0.72). For a small group of patients with low 53BP1 and either high BRCA1 or RAP80, CRs were 66.7 and 71.4 %, respectively. A trend for better overall survival (OS) was found for patients with low 53BP1 (15 vs 8 m; p = 0.056). Our findings highlight the potential usefulness of 53BP1 mRNA as a predictive biomarker of response and overall survival in HNC patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Those with high 53BP1 expression could derive only a meager benefit from treatment. Analysis of BRCA1 and RAP80 could further reinforce the predictive value of 53BP1. Although this was a retrospective study with small sample size, it could inform larger translational studies in HNC.

Tonissi F, Lattanzio L, Astesana V, et al.
Reoxygenation Reverses Hypoxia-related Radioresistance in Head and Neck Cancer Cell Lines.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(5):2211-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is characterized by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression and radiotherapy (RT) resistance. Cancer cells are able to survive and proliferate in hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia can be transiently interrupted by phases of reoxygenation. This work aimed to analyze the reoxygenation effect on proliferation in response to radiation in HNC cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: HNC cell lines CAL33 and CAL166 were subjected to an 8-Gy radiation dose in hypoxia and/or after reoxygenation. Cell proliferation and molecular factors involved in response to treatments were studied.
RESULTS: Cytotoxicity test confirmed radioresistance in hypoxia and highlighted that reoxygenation before RT restores sensitivity in both cell lines. Our results showed a similar proliferation inhibition effect and EGFR modulation but a different cell death mechanism in the two cell lines after treatment.
CONCLUSION: Reoxygenation before RT rescued radiosensitivity in HNC cells.

Moz S, Basso D, Padoan A, et al.
Blood expression of matrix metalloproteinases 8 and 9 and of their inducers S100A8 and S100A9 supports diagnosis and prognosis of PDAC-associated diabetes mellitus.
Clin Chim Acta. 2016; 456:24-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Based on the knowledge that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and S100A8/A9 synergistically work in causing PDAC-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we verified whether tissue and blood MMP8, MMP9, S100A8 and S100A9 expression might help in distinguishing PDAC among diabetics.
METHODS: Relative quantification of MMP8, MMP9, S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA was performed in tissues obtained from 8 PDAC, 4 chronic pancreatitis (ChrPa), 4 non-PDAC tumors and in PBMCs obtained from 30 controls, 43 T2DM, 41 ChrPa, 91 PDAC and 33 pancreatic-biliary tract tumors.
RESULTS: T2DM was observed in PDAC (66%), in pancreatic-biliary tract tumors (64%) and in ChrPa (70%). In diabetics, with or without PDAC, MMP9 tissue expression was increased (p<0.05). Both MMPs increased in PDAC and MMP9 increased also in pancreatic-biliary tract tumors PBMCs. In diabetics, MMP9 was independently associated with PDAC (p=0.025), but failed to enhance CA 19-9 discriminant efficacy. A highly reduced S100A9 expression, found in 7 PDAC, was significantly correlated with a reduced overall survival (p=0.015).
CONCLUSIONS: An increased expression of tissue and blood MMP9 reflects the presence of PDAC-associated diabetes mellitus. This finding fits with the hypothesized role of MMPs as part of the complex network linking cancer to diabetes.

Brauswetter D, Dános K, Gurbi B, et al.
Copy number gain of PIK3CA and MET is associated with poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Virchows Arch. 2016; 468(5):579-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
The incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas is still growing, and the long-term prognosis of advanced disease remains poor. Only a fraction of head and neck cancers are sensitive to the EGFR-inhibitor cetuximab, which is the only registered targeted therapy available today. In several cancers, gene copy number alterations of MET and PIK3CA have been found to be prognostic and predictive for therapy response. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze in head and neck cancers the pathological characteristics and prognostic significance of copy number changes of MET and PIK3CA genes. MET and PIK3CA copy numbers were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in tumor samples of 152 patients. Expression of EGFR, p16, and Ki67 was studied by immunohistochemistry. High polysomy of PIK3CA (chromosome 3) was found in 20 % of cases and amplification in 4.5 %. Regarding MET, 35 % of cases showed low or high polysomy of the gene (chromosome 7), while no intra-chromosomal amplification of MET was detected. PIK3CA copy number gain (high polysomy or amplification) was significantly associated with shorter disease-specific survival, larger tumor volume, and lower p16 expression. MET copy number gain (low or high polysomy) in tumors was significantly associated with shorter disease-specific survival and lower level of EGFR. PIK3CA and MET may play an important role in oncogenesis of certain specific subtypes of head and neck cancer. There is an urgent need for the development of novel targeted therapies against these tumors associated with poor prognosis.

Roh JL, Park JY, Kim EH, Jang HJ
Targeting acid ceramidase sensitises head and neck cancer to cisplatin.
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 52:163-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acid ceramidase (AC), a key enzyme in ceramide metabolism, plays a role in cancer progression and resistance to therapy. However, the role of AC in head and neck cancer (HNC) has not been addressed. Here, we investigate the effect of AC inhibition on the response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy for HNC.
METHODS: AC protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were examined in primary tumours and paired normal tissues, and in HNC cell lines. The effects of genetic and pharmacological AC inhibition using small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and N-oleoyl-ethanolamine (NOE), alone and in combination with cisplatin, were assessed in human HNC cells by measuring cell viability, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, mRNA, and protein expression, and in preclinical tumour xenograft mouse models.
FINDINGS: AC overexpression was observed in four of six primary tumour tissues and six of nine HNC cell lines. Cisplatin sensitivity was significantly decreased by AC overexpression and significantly increased by AC downregulation in HNC cells (P<0.01). NOE or AC shRNA-mediated AC inhibition enhanced cisplatin-induced HNC cell death by increasing ceramide production and activating pro-apoptotic proteins, and these effects were abrogated by PUMA small interfering RNA transfection. AC inhibition promoted cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HNC cells in vitro and in vivo.
INTERPRETATIONS: AC overexpression is associated with cisplatin sensitivity, suggesting its potential role as a chemotherapeutic target for HNC. Genetic or pharmacological AC inhibition promotes cisplatin cytotoxicity in HNC cells.

Mao JH, Guo H, Si N, et al.
Regulating effect of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in pituitary adenoma invasion.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):17091-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pituitary adenomas can cause endocrine disorder and organ damage, with some aggressive ones leading to a high postoperative recurrence rate. The occurrence and development of these type of tumors is closely related with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and endogenous specific tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMPs). In this study, the relationship between pituitary adenoma invasion and the changes in MMP-8 and TIMP-1 expressions is analyzed. Specimens from sixty patients with pituitary adenoma were collected in our hospital after surgery, including thirty cases of invasive pituitary adenomas and thirty cases of noninvasive pituitary adenomas. Western blotting and real-time PCR were used to detect MMP-8/TIMP-1 protein and mRNA levels, respectively, in the two types of pituitary adenomas, while ELISA was used to detect both compounds' levels in the patient's serum. Compared with noninvasive pituitary adenomas, MMP-8 was significantly overexpressed in invasive pituitary adenomas, while TIMP-1 was obviously lower (P < 0.05 for both). Moreover, MMP-8 mRNA expression in invasive pituitary adenomas was significantly higher than in noninvasive pituitary adenomas, while TIMP-1 mRNA expression was markedly lower (P < 0.05 for both). Finally, MMP-8 expression in the serum is upregulated in patients with invasive pituitary adenomas relative to the noninvasive ones, and the expression of TIMP-1 significantly reduced (P < 0.05 for both). These results show that increased MMP-8 and decreased TIMP-1 expressions are closely related to the invasive pituitary adenoma, and can be helpful for the evaluation.

Zafeer M, Mahjabeen I, Kayani MA
Increased expression of ERCC2 gene in head and neck cancer is associated with aggressive tumors: a systematic review and case-control study.
Int J Biol Markers. 2016; 31(1):e17-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The excision repair cross-complementation group 2 (ERCC2) ATP-dependent helicase is an essential member of the DNA repair pathway. It has been observed to be differentially expressed in different cancers, which shows its involvement in carcinogenesis.
AIM: In the present study we have tried to determine the association of expression patterns of this gene with head and neck carcinogenesis.
METHOD: We first carried out a systematic review of the available studies on the role of ERCC2 in head and neck cancer (HNC). In order to test the hypothesis that the expression patterns of XPD/ERCC2 play a critical role in HNC pathogenesis, we then conducted a population based case-control study on 81 head and neck tumor samples and adjacent normal-tissue control samples. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to assess ERCC2 deregulation at the mRNA level.
RESULT: Expression analysis showed that the ERCC2 expression level was significantly upregulated (p<0.05) in HNC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, the expression pattern of ERCC2 was correlated with the expression pattern of Ki-67 and a significant correlation (r = 0.230, p<0.03) was observed between ERCC2 and Ki-67. Spearman's correlation also showed a significant correlation between ERCC2 expression and tumor stage (r = 0.271, p<0.02) and grade (r = 0.228, p<0.02) of HNC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that deregulation of ERCC2 in HNC has the potential to predict a more aggressive cancer phenotype and may be considered a possible biomarker for improved diagnosis and prognosis of HNC.

Peng J, Chen B, Shen Z, et al.
DNA promoter hypermethylation contributes to down-regulation of galactocerebrosidase gene in lung and head and neck cancers.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(9):11042-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Galactocerebrosidase (GALC) is a lysosomal enzyme responsible for glycosphingolipids degradation byproducts of which are important for synthesis of apoptosis mediator ceramide. Reduced expression of GALC has been identified in human malignancies; however, molecular mechanisms underlying down-regulation of GALC expression in cancer remain unknown. We performed methylation and expression analysis on GALC gene in a panel of head and neck cancer (HNC) and lung cancer cell lines, attempting to understand the regulation of GALC in human cancer. QRT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to detect the expression of GALC in HNC. Bisulfite DNA sequencing and real-time qMSP were used to detect the methylation of GALC in HNC and lung cancer cell lines. 5aza-dC treatment assay was used to analysis the functional effect of GALC methylation on GALC expression in HNC. Reduction or complete absence of GALC expression was observed in more than a half of the tested HNC cell lines (8/14). 7 out of 8 cell lines with down-regulated expression harbored heavy CpG island methylation, while all cell lines with abundant expression of the gene contained no methylation. Hypermethylation was also found in primary HNC tumor tissues and lung cancer cell lines whereas absent in normal oral mucosa tissues. Demethylating treatment demonstrated that 5aza-dC significantly restored GALC expression in cell lines with methylated promoter while showed no effect on cell lines without promoter hypermethylation. Our findings for the first time demonstrated that promoter hypermethylation contributed to down-regulation of GALC Gene, implicating epigenetic inactivation of GALC may play a role in tumorigenesis of cancer.

Niu YM, Du XY, Cai HX, et al.
Increased risks between Interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms and haplotype and head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:17149 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Molecular epidemiological research suggests that interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms may be associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), but results remain controversial. To derive a more precise evaluation, we performed a meta-analysis focused on genetic polymorphisms of IL-10. PubMed, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang databases were searched for studies that examined the relationship between IL-10 polymorphisms or haplotypes and HNC risk. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess the relationship strength. Publication bias, sensitivity and cumulative analyses were conducted to measure the robustness of our findings. Overall, nine related studies involving 2,258 patients and 2,887 control samples were analyzed. Significant associations between the IL-10-1082A > G polymorphism and HNC risk were observed (G vs. A: OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.27-1.92, P < 0.01, I(2) = 69.4%; AG vs. AA: OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.32-2.05, P < 0.01, I(2) = 55.6%; GG vs. AA: OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.69-2.97, P < 0.01, I(2) = 38.5%; AG + GG vs. AA: OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.36-2.14, P = 0.02, I(2) = 61.8%; GG vs. AA + AG: OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.23-2.90, P = 0.01, I(2) = 46.3%) in the total population, as well as in subgroup analysis. Moreover, increased HNC risks were also associated with the IL-10 -819T > C polymorphism and the GCC haplotype. In conclusion, our meta-analyses suggest that IL-10 polymorphisms, specifically the -1082A > G polymorphism, may be associated with increased risk of HNC development.

Xiao C, Beitler JJ, Higgins KA, et al.
Fatigue is associated with inflammation in patients with head and neck cancer before and after intensity-modulated radiation therapy.
Brain Behav Immun. 2016; 52:145-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) receiving intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) have particularly high rates of fatigue, and pre- and post-radiotherapy fatigue are prognostic factors for pathologic tumor responses and poor survival. Although inflammation has been proposed as one of the potential mechanisms of fatigue in cancer patients, findings have not been consistent, and there is a dearth of longitudinal studies. Accordingly, we conducted a prospective study in 46 HNC patients pre- and one-month post-IMRT. Fatigue was measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI)-20 at both time points along with the assessment of peripheral blood inflammatory markers including interleukin (IL)-6, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and gene expression. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between inflammatory markers and fatigue. Gene enrichment analysis using MetaCore software was performed using up-regulated genes that were significantly associated with IMRT and fatigue. Significant associations between fatigue and IL-6 as well as CRP, which were independent of time, were observed. In addition the change in fatigue from pre- to post-IMRT was positively associated with the change in IL-6 and CRP. Analysis of up-regulated gene transcripts as a function of IMRT and fatigue revealed overrepresentation of transcripts related to the defense response and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, our findings support the hypotheses that inflammation is associated with fatigue over time in HNC patients. Future studies on how inflammation contributes to fatigue as well as strategies targeting inflammation to reduce fatigue are warranted.

Singh SA, Choudhury JH, Kapfo W, et al.
Influence of the CYP1A1 T3801C Polymorphism on Tobacco and Alcohol-Associated Head and Neck Cancer Susceptibility in Northeast India.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(16):6953-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol contain or may generate carcinogenic compounds related to cancers. CYP1A1 enzymes act upon these carcinogens before elimination from the body. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CYP1A1 T3801C polymorphism modulates the relationship between tobacco and alcohol- associated head and neck cancer (HNC) susceptibility among the northeast Indian population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and seventy histologically confirmed HNC cases and 230 controls were included within the study. The CYP1A1 T3801C polymorphism was determined using PCR-RFLP, and the results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Logistic regression (LR) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) approaches were applied for statistical analysis.
RESULTS: The CYP1A1 CC genotype was significantly associated with HNC risk (P=0.045). A significantly increased risk of HNC (OR=6.09; P<0.0001) was observed in individuals with combined habits of smoking, alcohol drinking and tobacco-betel quid chewing. Further, gene-environment interactions revealed enhanced risks of HNC among smokers, alcohol drinkers and tobacco-betel quid chewers carrying CYP1A1 TC or CC genotypes. The highest risk of HNC was observed among smokers (OR=7.55; P=0.009) and chewers (OR=10.8; P<0.0001) carrying the CYP1A1 CC genotype. In MDR analysis, the best model for HNC risk was the three-factor model combination of smoking, tobacco-betel quid chewing and the CYP1A1 variant genotype (CVC=99/100; TBA=0.605; P<0.0001); whereas interaction entropy graphs showed synergistic interaction between tobacco habits and CYP1A1.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that the CYP1A1 T3801C polymorphism modifies the risk of HNC and further demonstrated importance of gene-environment interaction.

Sannigrahi MK, Singh V, Sharma R, et al.
Detection of active human papilloma virus-16 in head and neck cancers of Asian North Indian patients.
Oral Dis. 2016; 22(1):62-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancers (HNC) are one of the most common cancers in India. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an emerging risk factor for HNC.
METHODS: The present study was carried out to determine the active form of HPV-16 using a combination of PCR, viral load determination, HPV-16 E7 mRNA expression, p16, p53, and pRB immuno-histochemistry (IHC).
RESULTS: A total of 226 HNC patients were enrolled in the present study. Sixty-seven (29.7%) of HNC cases were found to be HPV DNA positive. Thirty-two (14%) cases were HPV-16 DNA positive and 20 (9%) cases expressed HPV-16 E7 mRNA. HPV-16 mRNA/p16 positive cases had significantly increased viral load and integrated HPV-16 DNA. In summary, of total HNC patients, 6% cases were positive for both HPV-16 DNA and p16, and 5% were positive for both E7 mRNA and p16 IHC. We observed similar HPV-16 DNA/E7mRNA prevalence in oropharynx and oral cavity sites, however, oropharynx SCC had significantly higher viral load.
CONCLUSION: Our results show low prevalence of active HPV-16 in North Indian HNC patients. HPV-16 E7 mRNA expression correlated with p16 nuclear positivity and increased viral load. Therefore, E7 mRNA expression may be used as a good surrogate indicator for active form of HPV-16 infection.

Kim SY, Kim HJ, Kang SU, et al.
Non-thermal plasma induces AKT degradation through turn-on the MUL1 E3 ligase in head and neck cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(32):33382-96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent research on non-thermal plasma (NTP, an ionized gas) has identified it as a novel cancer therapeutic tool. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated NTP induced cell death of head and neck cancer (HNC) through the AKT ubiquitin-proteasome system. NTP increased the gene expression of mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (MUL1), an E3 ligase for AKT, and NTP-induced HNC cell death was prevented by MUL1 siRNA. We also showed that MUL1 inhibited the level of AKT and p-AKT and MUL1 expression was increased by NTP-induced ROS. Furthermore, we optimized and manufactured a new type of NTP, a liquid type of NTP (LTP). In syngeneic and xenograft in vivo tumor models, LTP inhibited tumor progression by increasing the MUL1 level and reducing p-AKT levels, indicating that LTP also has an anti-cancer effect through the same mechanism as that of NTP. Taken together, our results suggest that NTP and LTP have great potential for HNC therapy.

Jin H, Wang W
MicroRNA-539 suppresses osteosarcoma cell invasion and migration in vitro and targeting Matrix metallopeptidase-8.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(7):8075-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small, non-coding RNA that involved in different cancer-related processes. Previous studies have been indicated miR-539 as a tumor suppressor during tumorigenesis. However, the role of miR-539 in osteosarcoma is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrate miR-539 was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues compared to adjacent normal tissue. Functional study suggests miR-539 inhabits the osteosarcoma cell proliferation, invasion and migration. We also identified that MMP8 was a direct target of miR-539 by the luciferase activity assay. These findings provide evidence that miR-539 plays a key role in inhibiting osteosarcoma cell invasion and migration and can regulating MMP8 expression in osteosarcoma cells. These strongly suggest that exogenous miR-539 may have therapeutic value in treating osteosarcoma.

Bhowmik A, Das S, Bhattacharjee A, et al.
MDM2 and TP53 Polymorphisms as Predictive Markers for Head and Neck Cancer in Northeast Indian Population: Effect of Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(14):5767-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in the MDM2 309 (T>G) and TP53 72 (G>C) genes are reported to increase the susceptibility to head and neck cancer (HNC) in various populations. The risk for HNC is also strongly associated with etiologic habits such as smoking, alcohol consumption and/or chewing of betel quid (BQ). In a case-control study, we investigated the significance of the above polymorphisms alone, and upon interaction with one another as well as with various etiologic habits in determining HNC risk in a Northeast Indian population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genotyping at 309 MDM2 and 72 TP53 in 122 HNC patients and 86 cancer free healthy controls was performed by PCR using allele specific primers, and the results were confirmed by DNA sequencing.
RESULTS: Individuals with the GG mutant allele of MDM2 showed a higher risk for HNC in comparison to those with the TT wild type allele (OR=1.9, 95%CI: 1.1-3.3) (p=0.022). The risk was further increased in females by ~4-fold (OR=4.6, 95% CI: 1.1-19.4) (P=0.04). TP53 polymorphism did not contribute to HNC risk alone; however, interaction between the TP53 GC and MDM2 GG genotypes resulted in significant risk (OR=4.9, 95% CI: 0.2-105.1) (p=0.04). Smokers, BQ- chewers and alcohol consumers showed statistically significant and dose- dependent increase in HNC risk, irrespective of the MDM2 genotype.
CONCLUSIONS: MDM2 genotype could serve as an important predictive biomarker for HNC risk in the population of Northeast India.

Xie SZ, Liu ZZ, Yu JH, et al.
Association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risk of cancer: evidence from 446 case-control studies.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(11):8953-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many molecular epidemiological studies have been performed to explore the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and cancer risk in diverse populations. However, the results were inconsistent. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between cancer risk and MTHFR C677T (150,086 cases and 200,699 controls from 446 studies) polymorphism. Overall, significantly increased cancer risk was found when all eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. In the further stratified and sensitivity analyses, significantly increased breast cancer risk was found in Asians and Indians, significantly decreased colon cancer risk was found, significantly decreased colorectal cancer risk was found in male population, significantly increased gastric cancer risk was found in Caucasians and Asians, significantly increased hepatocellular cancer risk was found in Asians, significantly decreased adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (AALL) risk was found in Caucasians, significantly decreased childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (CALL) risk was found in Asians, and significantly increased multiple myeloma and NHL risk was found in Caucasians. In summary, this meta-analysis suggests that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with increased breast cancer, gastric cancer, and hepatocellular cancer risk in Asians, is associated with increased gastric cancer, multiple myeloma, and NHL risk in Caucasians, is associated with decreased AALL risk in Caucasians, is associated with decreased CALL risk in Asians, is associated with increased breast cancer risk in Asians, is associated with decreased colon cancer risk, and is associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk in male population. Moreover, this meta-analysis also points out the importance of new studies, such as Asians of HNC, Asians of lung cancer, and Indians of breast cancer, because they had high heterogeneity in this meta-analysis (I(2) > 75%).

Roh JL, Kim EH, Park JY, Kim JW
Inhibition of Glucosylceramide Synthase Sensitizes Head and Neck Cancer to Cisplatin.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2015; 14(8):1907-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) overexpression is associated with multidrug resistance in several human cancers. GCS blockade, which overcomes multidrug resistance by downregulating P-glycoprotein (P-gp), has not been tested in head and neck cancer (HNC). This study investigates whether GCS is targetable in HNC by assessing whether GCS inhibition sensitizes HNC to cisplatin. The effect of genetic or pharmacologic GCS inhibition (using GCS siRNA/shRNA or d,l-threo-PPMP, respectively) on cisplatin sensitivity was assessed in several human HNC cells and acquired cisplatin-resistant HNC cells by measuring cell viability, cell cycle, death, mRNA and protein expression, ceramide production, and in preclinical tumor xenograft mouse models. GCS and P-gp expression were significantly associated with cisplatin resistance in several HNC cell lines (P = 0.007). Both were significantly increased in HN9-cisR cells, which display acquired cisplatin resistance (P < 0.001). Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of GCS induced accumulation of increased ceramide levels. GCS inhibition increased cisplatin-induced cell death in HNC cells via P-gp downregulation and proapoptotic protein activation, which were abrogated by siPUMA transfection. Genetic and pharmacologic GCS inhibition sensitized resistant HNC cells to cisplatin in vitro and in vivo. GCS and P-gp overexpression is associated with acquired cisplatin resistance, suggesting a role for these molecules as therapeutic targets for HNC. Genetic or pharmacologic GCS blockade may have therapeutic benefit in cisplatin-resistant HNC.

Zhuo X, Song J, Li D, et al.
MTHFR C677T polymorphism interaction with heavy alcohol consumption increases head and neck carcinoma risk.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:10671 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MTHFR C677T polymorphism has been indicated to be a risk factor for cancers, but its association with head and neck cancer (HNC) risk remains inconclusive. In the present study, we aimed to get a more precise estimation by performing a quantitative meta-analysis. Published papers up to Jun 2014 was searched and screened. Necessary information was rigorously extracted for data pooling and analyzing, and then, subgroup analyses on ethnicity, source of controls, sample size, tumor type, smoking and drinking status were also carried out. As a result, twenty-three case-control studies including 14298 subjects were included. The overall data failed to reveal a significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and HNC risk (homozygote comparison model: OR = 1.16; 95%CI = 0.93-1.45; dominant model: OR = 1.05; 95%CI =  .90-1.21; recessive model: OR = 1.14; 95%CI = 0.93-1.38). However, in the subgroup analysis about drinking status, increase risk was shown in the heavy drinking subgroup (TT vs CC: OR = 3.11; 95%CI = 1.52-3.02). In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Homozygous TT alleles of MTHFR C677T polymorphism might be a risk factor for HNC among individuals who have a heavy drinking history. Further studies are needed to get a more definitive conclusion.

Lee CC, Ho HC, Su YC, et al.
MCP1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Head and Neck Cancer by AKT Activation.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(6):3299-306 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To explore whether monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1) is associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and neck metastases in head and neck cancer (HNC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: MCP1 and its related protein were evaluated using western blotting, and a migration assay for HNC cell lines. Thirty-five patients with HNC were recruited for the evaluation of MCP1 expression and pathologically-proven neck metastases from their tissue specimens.
RESULTS: MCP1 changed the phenotype of OML-1 cells to a spindle shape, with increased mobility. In OML3 cells, MCP1 knockdown with siRNA blocked EMT. Activation of protein kinase B (AKT) was positively associated with the EMT phenotype, and this transition was abrogated with a phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. By comparing clinical outcomes, the histological MCP1 score was associated with pathological neck metastases (p=0.027).
CONCLUSION: The overexpression of MCP1 in HNC cells may partially induce EMT through the AKT pathway. A high cellular expression of MCP1 was associated with pathological neck metastases.

Kotula E, Berthault N, Agrario C, et al.
DNA-PKcs plays role in cancer metastasis through regulation of secreted proteins involved in migration and invasion.
Cell Cycle. 2015; 14(12):1961-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) plays a major role in DNA damage signaling and repair and is also frequently overexpressed in tumor metastasis. We used isogenic cell lines expressing different levels of DNA-PKcs to investigate the role of DNA-PKcs in metastatic development. We found that DNA-PKcs participates in melanoma primary tumor and metastasis development by stimulating angiogenesis, migration and invasion. Comparison of conditioned medium content from DNA-PKcs-proficient and deficient cells reveals that DNA-PKcs controls secretion of at least 103 proteins (including 44 metastasis-associated with FBLN1, SERPINA3, MMP-8, HSPG2 and the inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases, such as α-2M and TIMP-2). High throughput analysis of secretomes, proteomes and transcriptomes, indicate that DNA-PKcs regulates the secretion of 85 proteins without affecting their gene expression. Our data demonstrate that DNA-PKcs has a pro-metastatic activity via the modification of the tumor microenvironment. This study shows for the first time a direct link between DNA damage repair and cancer metastasis and highlights the importance of DNA-PKcs as a potential target for anti-metastatic treatment.

Srivastava RM, Trivedi S, Concha-Benavente F, et al.
STAT1-Induced HLA Class I Upregulation Enhances Immunogenicity and Clinical Response to Anti-EGFR mAb Cetuximab Therapy in HNC Patients.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2015; 3(8):936-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The goal of this study was to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying cetuximab-mediated upregulation of HLA class I antigen-processing machinery components in head and neck cancer (HNC) cells and to determine the clinical significance of these changes in cetuximab-treated HNC patients. Flow cytometry, signaling studies, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed using HNC cells treated with cetuximab alone or with Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-bearing lymphocytes to establish the mechanism of EGFR-dependent regulation of HLA APM expression. A prospective phase II clinical trial of neoadjuvant cetuximab was used to correlate HLA class I expression with clinical response in HNC patients. EGFR blockade triggered STAT1 activation and HLA upregulation, in a src homology-containing protein (SHP)-2-dependent fashion, more prominently in HLA-B/C than in HLA-A alleles. EGFR signaling blockade also enhanced IFNγ receptor 1 (IFNAR) expression, augmenting induction of HLA class I and TAP1/2 expression by IFNγ, which was abrogated in STAT1(-/-) cells. Cetuximab enhanced HNC cell recognition by EGFR853-861-specific CTLs, and notably enhanced surface presentation of a non-EGFR peptide (MAGE-3271-279). HLA class I upregulation was significantly associated with clinical response in cetuximab-treated HNC patients. EGFR induces HLA downregulation through SHP-2/STAT1 suppression. Reversal of HLA class I downregulation was more prominent in clinical responders to cetuximab therapy, supporting an important role for adaptive immunity in cetuximab antitumor activity. Abrogating EGFR-induced immune escape mechanisms and restoring STAT1 signaling to reverse HLA downregulation using cetuximab should be combined with strategies to enhance adaptive cellular immunity.

Chen H, Ge L, Sui Q, Lin M
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between EPHX1 Polymorphisms and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0123347 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To evaluate the association between the EPHX1 Tyr113His and His139Arg polymorphisms in the EPHX1 gene and the risk of head and neck cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies on the association of EPHX1 Tyr113His and His139Arg polymorphisms with HNC performed up until June 1st, 2014, were identified using a predefined search strategy. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of these associations.
RESULTS: In this meta-analysis, 10 case-control studies, which included 9 studies of Tyr113His (1890 cases and 1894 controls) and 10 studies of His139Arg polymorphisms (1982 cases and 2024 controls), were considered eligible for inclusion. Overall, the pooled results indicated that the EPHX1 Tyr113His polymorphism was significantly associated with increased HNC risk (Tyr/His vs. Tyr/Tyr, OR = 1.26, 95%1.02-1.57;His/His+ Tyr/His vs. Tyr/Tyr, OR = 1.29, 95% I = 1.03-1.61). However, no significant association was found between the His139Arg polymorphism and HNC risk. In the subgroup analysis, a statistically significant association between the EPHX1 Tyr113His polymorphism and HNC was observed in population-based case-control studies (PCC), which involved less than 500 participants and genotype frequencies in HWE. This association showed minimal heterogeneity after excluding studies that were determined to contribute to heterogeneity. After categorizing the studies by publication time, a sensitivity analysis and cumulative meta-analysis of the two associations were conducted, and the results of the two analyses were consistent.
CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis suggests that EPHX1 Tyr113His polymorphism may be a risk factor for HNC, while the EPHX1 His139Arg polymorphism has no association with HNC risk.

Das S, Bhowmik A, Bhattacharjee A, et al.
XPD, APE1, and MUTYH polymorphisms increase head and neck cancer risk: effect of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(10):7569-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present study, we investigated the effect of the DNA repair gene polymorphisms XPD Asp312Asn (G>A), APE1 Asp148Glu (T>G), and MUTYH Tyr165Cys (G>A) on the risk for head and neck cancer (HNC) in association with tobacco use in a population of Northeast India. The study subjects comprised of 80 HNC patients and 92 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed using amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (ARMS-PCR) for XPD Asp312Asn (G>A) and PCR using confronting two-pair primers (PCR-CTPP) for APE1 Asp148Glu (T>G) and MUTYH Tyr165Cys (G>A). The XPD Asp/Asn genotype increased the risk for HNC by 2-fold (odds ratio, OR = 2.072; 95 % CI, 1.025-4.190; p < 0.05). Interaction between APE1 Asp/Asp and XPD Asp/Asn as well as MUTYH Tyr/Tyr and XPD Asp/Asn genotypes further increased the risk by 2.9 (OR = 2.97; 95 % CI, 1.16-7.61; p < 0.05) and 2.3 (OR = 2.37; 95 % CI, 1.11-5.10; p < 0.05) folds, respectively. The risk was further increased in heavy smokers with the XPD Asp/Asn genotype and heavy tobacco chewers with XPD Asn/Asn genotype by 7.7-fold (OR = 7.749; 95 % CI, 2.53-23.70; p < 0.05) and 10-fold (OR = 10; 95 % CI, 1.26-79.13; p < 0.05), respectively. We thus conclude that the XPD Asp312Asn and APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphisms increase the risk for HNC in association with smoking and/or tobacco chewing in the population under study.

Chen CH, Chang AY, Li SH, et al.
Suppression of Aurora-A-FLJ10540 signaling axis prohibits the malignant state of head and neck cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a highly invasive cancer. Aurora-A has been reported for a number of malignancies. However, the identity of downstream effectors responsible for its aggressive phenotype in HNC remains underinvestigated.
METHODS: The mRNA and protein expression levels of Aurora-A and FLJ10540 were assessed in HNC specimens and cell lines using RT-qPCR, western blot, Oncomine, and microarray database analysis. The downstream molecular mechanisms of Aurora-A were confirmed by RT-qPCR, western blot, luciferase reporter, confocal microscopy analyses, immunoprecipitation, colony formation, cell viability, and xenograft model. Cellular functions in response to Aurora-A-modulated downstream targets such as FLJ10540 and MMPs were examined in vitro and in vivo, including cell growth, motility and chemosensitivity. Aurora-A/FLJ10540/MMPs expression was determined in cancer and adjacent normal tissues from HNC patients by immunohistochemistry approach.
RESULTS: In the current study, Aurora-A exhibited similar gene expression profiles with FLJ10540 by using accessibly public microarray and Oncomine database analysis, raising the possibility that these molecules might coordinately participate in cancer progression and metastasis of HNC. These two molecules connection were also examined in cell lines and tissues of HNC. Aurora-A overexpression could not only bind to the promoter of FLJ10540 to induce FLJ10540 expression, but also increase both mRNA and protein levels of MMP-7 and MMP-10 in HNC cells. Conversely, depletion of Aurora-A expression by using siRNA or Aurora-A kinase inhibitor, MLN8237, suppressed FLJ10540, MMP-7 and MMP-10 mRNA and protein expressions in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the FLJ10540-PI3K complex was destroyed by inhibition the Aurora-A kinase activity. Forced overexpression of FLJ10540 in Aurora-A-depleted or in MLN8237-treated HNC cells attenuated the effect on cytotoxicity to cisplatin. Elevated Aurora-A expression in HNC cells led to the characteristics of more aggressive malignancy, including enhanced chemoresistance and increased the abilities of proliferation, migration and invasion, which was required for FLJ10540/MMP-7 or FLJ10540/MMP-10 expressions. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis of human HNC specimens showed a significant positively correlation among Aurora-A, FLJ10540, MMP-7 and MMP-10 expressions.
CONCLUSION: Together, our findings define a novel mechanism by which Aurora-A promotes cell malignancy, with potential implications for understanding the clinical action of Aurora-A.

Ekizoglu S, Dogan S, Ulker D, et al.
The effect of LKB1 on the PI3K/Akt pathway activation in association with PTEN and PIK3CA in HNC.
Clin Otolaryngol. 2015; 40(6):622-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: PI3K/Akt signalling pathway is frequently activated in several types of cancer. However, activator molecules have not been analysed systematically in HNSCC. The aim of this study was to investigate upstream activators and inhibitors of this pathway.
DESIGN: Prospective study.
SETTING: University hospital.
PARTICIPANTS: 108 patients with HNC who were operated at the Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Otorhinolaryngology.
METHODS: Mutations in the coding exons and the flanking intronic sequences of the PIK3CA, PIK3R1 and AKT1 genes were analysed by direct sequencing. Expression levels in the tumours and non-cancerous tissue samples were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blotting was performed to determine the phosphorylation levels of the Akt1 protein.
RESULTS: Two synonymous alterations in exon 20 of the PIK3CA gene, a 6-bp duplication in the coding region of the PIK3R1 and two different alterations in the non-coding regions of the AKT1 and PIK3R1 genes were observed. Significant downregulation of LKB1 and PTEN mRNA expression levels were detected in tumour tissues compared to non-cancerous tissues. However, we did not observe any difference between the PIK3CA and AKT1 mRNA expression levels in the tumours and non-cancerous tissue samples. Akt1 phosphorylation was increased in 53.57% of the patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the PI3K pathway has an important function in HNSCC progression with the contribution of more than one gene of this pathway. Our data suggest that in a high number of HNSCC tumours, PI3K/Akt signalling is activated by different molecules or by the combination of these molecules.

Niu YM, Deng MH, Chen W, et al.
MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and head and neck cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on 23 publications.
Dis Markers. 2015; 2015:681313 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting results on the association between MTHFR polymorphism and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk were reported. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to derive a more precise relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and HNC risk.
METHODS: Three online databases of PubMed, Embase, and CNKI were researched on the associations between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and HNC risk. Twenty-three published case-control studies involving 4,955 cases and 8,805 controls were collected. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and HNC risk. Sensitivity analysis, cumulative analyses, and publication bias were conducted to validate the strength of the results.
RESULTS: Overall, no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and HNC risk was found in this meta-analysis (T versus C: OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.92-1.18; TT versus CC: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.90-1.46; CT versus CC: OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.85-1.17; CT + TT versus CC: OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.87-1.18; TT versus CC + CT: OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.98-1.26). In the subgroup analysis by HWE, ethnicity, study design, cancer location, and negative significant associations were detected in almost all genetic models, except for few significant risks that were found in thyroid cancer.
CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrates that MTHFR C677T polymorphism may not be a risk factor for the developing of HNC.

Fonseca J, Adriana C, Fróis-Borges M, et al.
Ostomy metastasis after pull endoscopic gastrostomy: a unique favorable outcome.
Nutr Hosp. 2015; 31(4):1879-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients tend to develop dysphagia. In order to preserve the nutritional support, many undergo endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). In HNC patients, ostomy metastasis is considered a rare complication of PEG, but there are no reports of successful treatment of these metastatic cancers. We report the case of a 65 years old pharyngeal/laryngeal cancer patient who underwent a PEG before the neck surgery. He was considered to be cured, resumed oral intake and the PEG tube was removed. Ten months after, he returned with a metastasis at the ostomy site. A block resection of the stomach and abdominal wall was performed. Two years after the abdominal surgery, he is free of disease. Although usually considered a rare complication of the endoscopic gastrostomy, ostomy metastasis may be more frequent than usually considered and the present case report demonstrates that these patients may have a favourable outcome.

Raju SC, Hauff SJ, Lemieux AJ, et al.
Combined TP53 mutation/3p loss correlates with decreased radiosensitivity and increased matrix-metalloproteinase activity in head and neck carcinoma.
Oral Oncol. 2015; 51(5):470-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) containing TP53 mutation and 3p deletion ("double-hit") have poorer prognosis compared to patients with either event alone ("single-hit"). The etiology for worse clinical outcomes in patients with "double-hit" cancers is unclear. We compared radiosensitivity of cell lines containing both TP53 mutations and deletion of Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT, the gene most commonly associated with 3p deletion) to "single-hit" lines with only TP53 mutation. We compared radiosensitivity in a "single-hit" cell line with TP53 mutation converted to "double-hit" using RNA interference targeting FHIT. Finally, we compared matrixmetalloproteinase-2/9 (MMP-2/9) activity, a previously-established biomarker for tumor aggressiveness, in xenograft tumors derived from these cell lines.
MATERIALS/METHODS: TP53 mutation and FHIT deletion profiles of HNSCC lines were established using Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). We used RNA-interference to convert a "single-hit" cell line (SCC4) to "double-hit". Cultured cells were examined for radiosensitivity and cisplatin sensitivity. MMP-2/9 activity was evaluated in "double-hit" versus "single-hit" tumors using ratiometric activatable cell-penetrating peptide (RACPP) in tongue (n=17) and flank xenografts (n=4).
RESULTS: Radiotherapy caused greater double-stranded DNA breaks in "single-hit" vs naturally occurring and engineered "double-hit" cells. In-vivo, "double-hit" xenografts demonstrated higher MMP-2/9 activity compared to "single-hit" xenografts (p<0.01). There was no difference in cisplatin sensitivity between the cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: TP53 mutation combined with FHIT deletion correlates with decreased radiosensitivity in HNC cell lines. Xenograft from "double-hit" cells exhibit increased MMP-2/9 activity. These findings may in part account for the worse clinical outcome seen in patients with HNSCC "double-hit" tumors.

Choudhury JH, Singh SA, Kundu S, et al.
Tobacco carcinogen-metabolizing genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms and their interaction with tobacco exposure influence the risk of head and neck cancer in Northeast Indian population.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(8):5773-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic polymorphisms in tobacco-metabolizing genes may modulate the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC). In Northeast India, head and neck cancers and tobacco consumption remains most prevalent. The aim of the study was to investigate the combined effect of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) T3801C, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) genes polymorphisms and smoking and tobacco-betel quid chewing in the risk of HNC. The study included 420 subjects (180 cases and 240 controls) from Northeast Indian population. Polymorphisms of CYP1A1 T3801C and GST (M1 & T1) were studied by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and multiplex PCR, respectively. Logistic regression (LR) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) approach were applied for statistical analysis. LR analysis revealed that subjects carrying CYP1A1 TC/CC + GSTM1 null genotypes had 3.52-fold (P < 0.001) increase the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Smokers carrying CYP1A1 TC/CC + GSTM1 null and CYP1A1 TC/CC + GSTT1 null genotypes showed significant association with HNC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 6.42; P < 0.001 and 3.86; P = 0.005, respectively). Similarly, tobacco-betel quid chewers carrying CYP1A1 TC/CC + GSTM1 null genotypes also had several fold increased risk of HNC (P < 0.001). In MDR analysis, the best model for HNSCC risk was the four-factor model of tobacco-betel quid chewing, smoking, CYP1A1 TC/CC, and GSTM1 null genotypes (testing balance accuracy [TBA] = 0.6292; cross-validation consistency [CVC] = 9/10 and P < 0.0001). These findings suggest that interaction of combined genotypes of carcinogen-metabolizing genes with environmental factors might modulate susceptibility of HNC in Northeast Indian population.

Kayani MA, Khan S, Baig RM, Mahjabeen I
Association of RAD 51 135 G/C, 172 G/T and XRCC3 Thr241Met gene polymorphisms with increased risk of head and neck cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(23):10457-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homologous recombination repair (HRR) plays an important role in protection against carcinogenic factors. Genes regulating the HRR mechanisms may impair their functions and consequently result in increased cancer susceptibility. RAD 51 and XRCC3 are key regulators of the HRR pathway and genetic variability in these may contribute to the appearance and progression of various cancers including head and neck cancer (HNC). The aim of the present study was to compare the distribution of genotypes of RAD51 (135G/C, 172 G/T) and XRCC3 (Thr241Met) polymorphisms between HNC patients and controls. Each polymorphism was genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymerase (PCR-RFLP) technique in 200 pathologically confirmed HNC patients along with 150 blood samples from normal, disease free healthy individuals. We observed that homozygous variant CC genotype of RAD51 135G/C was associated with a 2.5 fold increased HNC risk (OR=2.5; 95%CI=0.69-9.53; p<0.02), while second polymorphism of RAD 51 172 G/T, heterozygous variant GT genotype was associated with a 1.68 fold (OR=1.68; 95%CI=1.08-2.61; p<0.02) elevation when compared with controls. In the case of the Thr241Met polymorphism of XRCC3, we observed a 16 fold (OR=16; 95% CI= 3.78-69.67; p<0.0002) increased HNC risk in patients compared to controls. These results further suggested that RAD51 (135G/C, 172 G/T) and XRCC3 (Thr241Met) polymorphisms may be effective biomarkers for genetic susceptibility to HNC. Larger studies are needed to confirm our findings and identify the underlying mechanisms.

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