Gene Summary

Gene:PWWP3A; PWWP domain containing 3A, DNA repair factor
Aliases: MUM1, MUM-1, EXPAND1, HSPC211
Databases:HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:PWWP domain-containing DNA repair factor 3A
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (5)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Young Adult
  • Stomach
  • Staging
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6
  • Messenger RNA
  • Interferon Regulatory Factors
  • Mutation
  • Germinal Center
  • FISH
  • BCL2 protein
  • myc Genes
  • Chromosome 19
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Phenotype
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Risk Factors
  • Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Chromosome 14
  • BAD
  • Adolescents
  • Follicular Lymphoma
  • Syndecan-1
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Neprilysin
  • B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Childhood Cancer
  • beta 2-Microglobulin
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MUM1 (cancer-related)

Gerbe A, Alame M, Dereure O, et al.
Systemic, primary cutaneous, and breast implant-associated ALK-negative anaplastic large-cell lymphomas present similar biologic features despite distinct clinical behavior.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 475(2):163-174 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite distinct clinical presentation and outcome, systemic, primary cutaneous, and breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphomas (S-, PC-, BI-ALCL) ALK-negative (ALK-) show similar histopathological features including the presence of the "hallmark" cells with horseshoe-shaped nuclei and CD30 protein expression. The purpose was to better characterize these three entities using immunohistochemistry and FISH (Fluorescent in situ hybridization) to identify biomarkers differently expressed and that might be involved in their pathogenesis. Twenty-two S-ALCL ALK-, 13 PC-ALCL, and 2 BI-ALCL were included. Cases were tested for P53, P63, MUM1, MYC, GATA3, p-STAT3, PD1, and PDL1 protein expression and DUP22, TP53, TP63, MYC, and PDL1 chromosomal aberrations. As expected, S-ALCL ALK- patients had adverse outcome compare to PC and BI-ALCL. No difference was observed between the three groups concerning protein expression except for MUM1 that was significantly more frequently expressed in S-ALCL ALK- compared to PC-ALCL. In particular, constitutive activation of the STAT3 pathway and PDL1/PD1 immune-checkpoint expression was present in the three entities. TP53 deletion and PDL1 gene amplification were the commonest cytogenetic alterations and were present in the three entities. None of the studied biological parameters was associated with prognosis. Despite distinct clinical behavior, S-ALCL ALK-, PC-ALCL, and BI-ALCL share similar biological features. Larger series should be investigated with the current approach to determine more precisely the activity and the prognostic value of these biomarkers and pathways in each group.

Qiu L, Zheng H, Zhao X
The prognostic and clinicopathological significance of PD-L1 expression in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a meta-analysis.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):273 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death receptor 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in various tumors, including hematologic malignancies, has recently become a research topic of great interest. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic and clinicopathological value of PD-L1 expressed in tumor cells of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
METHODS: Relevant studies were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were used for analyzing survival outcomes, and the odds ratio (OR) was used for analyzing clinicopathological parameters.
RESULTS: Pooled results showed that tumor cell PD-L1 expression is associated with poor overall survival (OS) (HR = 2.128, 95% CI: 1.341-3.378, P = 0.001), the non-germinal center B-cell-like subtype (OR = 2.891, 95% CI: 2.087-4.003, P < 0.000), high international prognostic index score (3-5) (OR = 1.552, 95% CI: 1.111-2.169, P = 0.010), B symptoms (OR = 1.495, 95% Cl: 1.109-2.015, P = 0.008), positive MUM1 expression (OR = 3.365, 95% Cl: 1.578-7.175, P = 0.002) and negative BCL6 expression (OR = 0.414, 95% Cl: 0.217-0.792, P = 0.008). Sensitivity analysis showed that there was no publication bias among these studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis supported the idea that tumor cell PD-L1 expression may represent a promising biomarker for predicting poor prognosis and is associated with adverse clinicopathologic features in DLBCL patients.

Gabeeva NG, Zvonkov EE, Koroleva DA, et al.
Successful experience of treatment of a patient with generalized non-GCB- DLBCL using the R-mNHL-BFM-90 protocol with lenalidomide: case report and review of literature.
Ter Arkh. 2018; 90(7):96-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is categorized by gene expression profiling into germinal center (GCB) and activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, also referred to as non-germinal center B-cell (non-GCB) by immunohistochemistry. ABC DLBCL is characterized by NF-κB pathway activation and high expression of IRF4/MUM1, a key transcription factor in B cell differentiation. Patients with ABC DLBCL have a significantly worse outcome when treated with standard chemotherapy (R-CHOP). Lenalidomide have shown activity in the ABC-DLBCL in combination with R-CHOP. But about 40% of patients remain resistant. We present the experience of treatment of a patient with generalized non-GCB-DLBCL using the intensive protocol R-mNHL-BFM-90 with lenalidomide.

Wang RC, Sakata S, Chen BJ, et al.
Mycosis fungoides in Taiwan shows a relatively high frequency of large cell transformation and CD56 expression.
Pathology. 2018; 50(7):718-724 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mycosis fungoides (MF) is an indolent cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and may transform into large cell lymphoma in the disease course. The incidence of MF in Taiwan is lower as compared to that in the West. In this study we aimed to characterise the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and genetic features of transformed MF (t-MF) in Taiwan. We retrospectively collected MF cases from April 2004 to April 2015 from four medical centres in Taiwan, reviewed the clinical history and histopathology, and performed immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridisation for EBV (EBER), and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for DUSP22/MUM1 gene translocation. Fifty-one specimens from 32 patients with MF were identified with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1 and a median age of 50.5 (range 16-82). Tumours from 11 patients (34%) underwent large cell transformation, with the median age at 61 (range 26-82). The tumour cells of t-MF expressed CD30 and MUM1 in 82% and 100% cases, respectively. CD56 was expressed in two (10%) of 21 MF cases and two (18%) of 11 t-MF cases, respectively; and all four CD56-positive cases were of a helper T-cell phenotype. All CD56 expressing MF and t-MF tumours tested for EBER were negative. FISH study showed rearranged DUSP22/IRF4 in one (9%) of 11 t-MF cases, but not in any of the 19 non-transformed MF specimens. Four patients with t-MF died of disease and six were alive with disease in a median follow-up time of 25 months (mean 44.7 months). Large cell transformation and aberrant CD56 expression were more frequent in patients with MF in Taiwan compared to those in the West. Larger case series and/or national studies are needed to clarify the significance and impact of large cell transformation on the prognosis of patients with MF.

Reinke S, Richter J, Fend F, et al.
Round-robin test for the cell-of-origin classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma-a feasibility study using full slide staining.
Virchows Arch. 2018; 473(3):341-349 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is subdivided by gene expression analysis (GEP) into two molecular subtypes named germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and activated B-cell-like (ABC) after their putative cell-of-origin (COO). Determination of the COO is considered mandatory in any new-diagnosed DLBCL, not otherwise specified according to the updated WHO classification. Despite the fact that pathologists are free to choose the method for COO classification, immunohistochemical (IHC) assays are most widely used. However, to the best of our knowledge, no round-robin test to evaluate the interlaboratory variability has been published so far. Eight hematopathology laboratories participated in an interlaboratory test for COO classification of 10 DLBCL tumors using the IHC classifier comprising the expression of CD10, BCL6, and MUM1 (so-called Hans classifier). The results were compared with GEP for COO signature and, in a subset, with results obtained by image analysis. In 7/10 cases (70%), at least seven laboratories assigned a given case to the same COO subtype (one center assessed one sample as not analyzable), which was in agreement with the COO subtype determined by GEP. The results in 3/10 cases (30%) revealed discrepancies between centers and/or between IHC and GEP subtype. Whereas the CD10 staining results were highly reproducible, staining for MUM1 was inconsistent in 50% and for BCL6 in 40% of cases. Image analysis of 16 slides stained for BCL6 (N = 8) and MUM1 (N = 8) of the two cases with the highest disagreement in COO classification were in line with the score of the pathologists in 14/16 stainings analyzed (87.5%). This study describes the first round-robin test for COO subtyping in DLBCL using IHC and demonstrates that COO classification using the Hans classifier yields consistent results among experienced hematopathologists, even when variable staining protocols are used. Data from this small feasibility study need to be validated in larger cohorts.

Gong QX, Wang Z, Liu C, et al.
CD30 expression and its correlation with MYC and BCL2 in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
J Clin Pathol. 2018; 71(9):795-801 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: CD30+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has emerged as a new immunophenotypic variant of
METHODS: A total of 241 patients with
RESULTS: Using a >0% threshold, CD30 expression was detected in approximately 10% patient with
CONCLUSION: CD30+ DLBCL may be a subset of

Horn H, Kohler C, Witzig R, et al.
Gene expression profiling reveals a close relationship between follicular lymphoma grade 3A and 3B, but distinct profiles of follicular lymphoma grade 1 and 2.
Haematologica. 2018; 103(7):1182-1190 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A linear progression model of follicular lymphomas (FL) FL1, FL2 and FL3A has been favored, since FL3A often co-exist with an FL1/2 component. FL3B, in contrast, is thought to be more closely related to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and both are often simultaneously present in one tumor (DLBCL/FL3B). To obtain more detailed insights into follicular lymphoma progression, a comprehensive analysis of a well-defined set of FL1/2 (n=22), FL3A (n=16), FL3B (n=6), DLBCL/FL3B (n=9), and germinal center B-cell-type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n=45) was undertaken using gene expression profiling, immunohistochemical stainings and genetic analyses by fluorescence

Fujii M, Takata K, Chuang SS, et al.
A20 (TNFAIP3) Alterations in Primary Intestinal Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma.
Acta Med Okayama. 2018; 72(1):23-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the most frequently involved site of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common subtype occurring in the GI tract. TNFAIP3 (A20) genetic alterations were reported to be involved in DLBCL's pathogenesis and a portion of GI-DLBCL cases harbor this alteration. However, the frequency and clinicopathological relations focusing on small and large intestinal DLBCL are unclear. Here, we examined A20 deletion and protein expression and analyzed the clinicopathological features of 52 cases of primary intestinal DLBCL. The most frequently involved site was the ileocecal region (75%), followed by small bowel (13.5%) and large intestine. Immunohistochemically, the ileocecal cases expressed BCL6 (p=0.027) and MUM1 (p=0.0001) significantly more frequently than the small intestinal cases. Six of 47 cases (13%) had A20 heterozygous deletion, whereas all 6 heterozygously deleted cases had detectable A20 protein expression. In summary, A20 abnormality was less prevalent among intestinal DLBCLs with some discordancy between gene deletion and protein expression. Although the A20 alteration status did not affect any clinicopathological characteristics in this series, further studies exploring alterations of A20 and other NF-κB components in primary intestinal DLBCL are needed.

Sakakibara A, Inagaki Y, Imaoka E, et al.
Autopsy case report of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma with neoplastic PD-L1 expression.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2018; 58(1):32-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare and clinically distinctive entity characterized by the almost exclusive growth of large cells within the lumen of blood vessels in particular capillaries. Reports of this peculiar disease, do not commonly address the PD-L1 expression on IVLBCL tumor cells. Here, we describe a 51-year-old Japanese woman who presented with rapidly progressive cognitive decline and higher brain dysfunction. CT scan and MRI revealed multiple ischemic foci in the cerebral hemispheres, ground-glass opacity in the lungs, and splenomegaly. Random skin biopsy for IVLBCL diagnosis yielded negative results. The patient experienced a rapidly deteriorating clinical course with no treatment, and died from the disease after 3 months of hospitalization. Post-mortem examination revealed systemic intravascular plugging of lymphoma cells, without mass lesions in the central nervous system or in visceral organs such as the lungs, liver, pituitary gland, ovaries, and uterus. The tumor cells were positive for CD10, CD20, BCL2, BCL6, and MUM1, but not other lineage-specific markers. Notably, the tumor cells showed strong PD-L1 expression. Our case was diagnosed as IVLBCL with neoplastic PD-L1 expression. These findings suggest that PD-L1 is associated with immune evasion of IVLBCL and may play a role in the pathogenesis and peculiar biological behavior of this unique disease. Additionally, PD-L1 may represent a possible therapeutic target for immune check-point inhibitors.

Rymkiewicz G, Grygalewicz B, Chechlinska M, et al.
A comprehensive flow-cytometry-based immunophenotypic characterization of Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(5):732-743 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously described a subset of MYC translocation-negative aggressive B-cell lymphomas resembling Burkitt lymphoma, characterized by proximal gains and distal losses in chromosome 11. In the 2016 WHO classification, these MYC-negative lymphomas were recognized as a new provisional entity, 'Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration'. Here we present an immunophenotype analysis of Burkitt-like lymphomas with 11q aberration. Cells were acquired by fine needle aspiration biopsy from 10 young adult patients, 80% of whom presented recurrence-free 5-year survival. Twenty-three MYC-positive Burkitt lymphomas, including three carrying both MYC rearrangement and 11q aberration, served as controls. By immunohistochemistry, all Burkitt-like lymphomas with 11q aberration were CD20+/CD10+/BCL6+/BCL2-/MUM1-/MYC+/EBV-, usually LMO2+/CD44-/CD43- and sometimes CD56+, and showed high proliferation rate. By flow cytometry, Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration immunophenotypically resembled MYC-positive Burkitt lymphoma, except for significantly (adjusted P<0.001) more frequent CD38

Bosch M, Akhter A, Chen BE, et al.
A bioclinical prognostic model using MYC and BCL2 predicts outcome in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Haematologica. 2018; 103(2):288-296 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The objective of this study was to create a bioclinical model, based on clinical and molecular predictors of event-free and overall survival for relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated on the Canadian Cancer Trials Group (CCTG) LY12 prospective study. In 91 cases, sufficient histologic material was available to create tissue microarrays and perform immunohistochemistry staining for CD10, BCL6, MUM1/IRF4, FOXP1, LMO2, BCL2, MYC, P53 and phosphoSTAT3 (pySTAT3) expression. Sixty-seven cases had material sufficient for fluorescent

Pham-Ledard A, Prochazkova-Carlotti M, Deveza M, et al.
Molecular analysis of immunoglobulin variable genes supports a germinal center experienced normal counterpart in primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type.
J Dermatol Sci. 2017; 88(2):238-246 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Immunophenotype of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type (PCLBCL-LT) suggests a germinal center-experienced B lymphocyte (BCL2+ MUM1+ BCL6+/-).
OBJECTIVES: As maturation history of B-cell is "imprinted" during B-cell development on the immunoglobulin gene sequence, we studied the structure and sequence of the variable part of the genes (IGHV, IGLV, IGKV), immunoglobulin surface expression and features of class switching in order to determine the PCLBCL-LT cell of origin.
METHODS: Clonality analysis with BIOMED2 protocol and VH leader primers was done on DNA extracted from frozen skin biopsies on retrospective samples from 14 patients. The clonal DNA IGHV sequence of the tumor was aligned and compared with the closest germline sequence and homology percentage was calculated. Superantigen binding sites were studied. Features of selection pressure were evaluated with the multinomial Lossos model.
RESULTS: A functional monoclonal sequence was observed in 14 cases as determined for IGHV (10), IGLV (2) or IGKV (3). IGV mutation rates were high (>5%) in all cases but one (median:15.5%), with superantigen binding sites conservation. Features of selection pressure were identified in 11/12 interpretable cases, more frequently negative (75%) than positive (25%). Intraclonal variation was detected in 3 of 8 tumor specimens with a low rate of mutations. Surface immunoglobulin was an IgM in 12/12 cases. FISH analysis of IGHM locus, deleted during class switching, showed heterozygous IGHM gene deletion in half of cases. The genomic PCR analysis confirmed the deletions within the switch μ region. IGV sequences were highly mutated but functional, with negative features of selection pressure suggesting one or more germinal center passage(s) with somatic hypermutation, but superantigen (SpA) binding sites conservation. Genetic features of class switch were observed, but on the non functional allele and co-existing with primary isotype IgM expression.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that cell-of origin is germinal center experienced and superantigen driven selected B-cell, in a stage between germinal center B-cell and plasma cell.

Yang XL, Liu YB
Advances in Pathobiology of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2017; 130(16):1973-1979 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a specific type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with poor prognosis. The rare incidence of this disease and difficulty to obtain sufficient tissue material impede deep research into PCNSL. However, application of modern molecular techniques makes it possible to find biological characteristics exclusive to PCNSL. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the latest research progress on biological characteristics and pathogenesis of PCNSL.
DATA SOURCES: The data analyzed in this review were from the articles listed in PubMed database.
STUDY SELECTION: Articles focusing on the biology of PCNSL at the cytogenetic or molecular level were reviewed, including clinical, basic research, and review articles.
RESULTS: With respect to histopathology, perivascular growth pattern and reactive perivascular T-cell infiltration are regarded as typical histopathological manifestations of tumor cells in PCNSL. Moreover, tumor cells of PCNSL predominantly express an activated B-cell-like phenotype, including CD10- BCL-6+ MUM1+, CD10- BCL-6- MUM1+, and CD10- BCL-6- MUM1-. On the molecular level, some molecular and genetic alterations may contribute to malignant transformation, including mutations of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, gains and losses of genetic material, as well as aberrant activation of some important signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor-κB and JAK/STAT pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: The integrated molecular mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of PCNSL are not well understood. The important biomarkers indicating prognosis are not identified. Multicenter studies should be carried out to elucidate pathogenesis of PCNSL to find novel and effective therapeutic strategies.

Pizzi M, Agostinelli C, Righi S, et al.
Aberrant expression of CD10 and BCL6 in mantle cell lymphoma.
Histopathology. 2017; 71(5):769-777 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by distinctive histological and molecular features. Aberrant expression of BCL6 and CD10 has been reported occasionally, but the biological features of such cases are largely unknown. This study aimed to define the epidemiological, histological and cytogenetic characteristics of BCL6 and CD10-positive MCLs, also investigating possible biological features.
METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 165 cases of cyclin D1 and t(11;14)(q13;q34)-positive MCLs were studied for CD10 and BCL6 immunohistochemical expression, which was documented in 26 of 165 (15.8%) cases (BCL6 17 of 165; CD10 11 of 165; BCL6 and CD10 co-expression two of 165). CD10-positivity was significantly more frequent in females (63.3%; P < 0.01). Either expression correlated significantly with higher mean proliferation index and higher prevalence of MUM1 positivity (P < 0.05). Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) for BCL6 (3q27) gene derangements was performed on the BCL6- and CD10-positive cases and 98 matched controls: amplifications were documented more frequently in BCL6-positive than -negative cases (50.0% versus 19.4% of cases) (P < 0.05). The mutational status of the variable immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (IGVH) was investigated by Sanger sequencing: five of the six successfully tested cases (83.3%) showed no somatic hypermutations.
CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant CD10 and BCL6 expression defines a subset of MCLs with higher mean Ki-67 index and higher prevalence of MUM1 expression. BCL6 protein positivity correlates with cytogenetic aberrations involving the BCL6 gene. Although examined successfully in few cases, the high prevalence of unmutated IGVH genes also points at a pregerminal cell origin for these phenotypically aberrant cases.

Yoon N, Ahn S, Yong Yoo H, et al.
Cell-of-origin of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas determined by the Lymph2Cx assay: better prognostic indicator than Hans algorithm.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(13):22014-22022 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are clinically heterogeneous and need a biomarker that can predict the outcome of treatments accurately. To assess the prognostic significance of the cell-of-origin type for DLBCLs, we applied the Lymph2Cx assay using a NanoString gene expression platform on formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded pretreatment tissues obtained from 82 patients with de novo DLBCL, not otherwise specified. All patients were treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) as the first line of chemotherapy. Based on the expression levels of Bcl-6, CD10, and MUM-1 measured by immunohistochemistry, cases were subdivided into germinal center B-cell (GCB) and non-GCB types according to the Hans algorithm. NanoString assay was performed on 82 cases. The Lymph2Cx assay successfully classified 82 cases into three categories: activated B-cell (ABC), GCB, and unclassified types. The concordance rate between the Lymph2Cx assay and the Hans algorithm was 73.6%. The Lymph2Cx-defined ABC type had significantly poorer outcomes compared with the GCB type (5-year overall survival, GCB vs. ABC, 96.6% vs. 77.1%, P = 0.020; 5-year disease-free survival, GCB vs. ABC, 96.6% vs. 79.2%, P = 0.018). In contrast, no significant differences were observed in survival between the two patient subgroups with DLBCL types classified by the Hans algorithm. The Lymph2Cx assay is a robust, reliable method for predicting the outcome of patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy.

Nakatsuka SI, Yutani C, Kurashige M, et al.
An unusual case of Epstein-Barr virus-positive large B-cell lymphoma lacking various B-cell markers.
Diagn Pathol. 2017; 12(1):15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUD: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with B-cell lymphoma in various conditions, such as immunodeficiency and chronic inflammation. We report an unusual case of EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) lacking the expression of many B-cell markers.
CASE PRESENTATION: An 83-year-old man presented with a submandibular tumor. Histology of a lymph node biopsy specimen revealed diffuse proliferation of centroblast- or immunoblast-like lymphoid cells with plasmacytic differentiation. Scattered Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg-like cells were also visible. A routine immunohistochemistry antibody panel revealed that the tumor cells were negative for B-cell and T-cell markers (i.e., CD3, CD19, CD20, CD38, CD45RO, CD79a, CD138, and Pax-5), but were positive for CD30 and MUM-1, not defining the lineage of tumor cells. The final diagnosis of EBV-positive DLBCL was confirmed based on the expression of B-cell-specific transcription factors (Oct-2 and BOB.1), PCR-based identification of monoclonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin genes, and the presence of EBV-encoded small RNAs in the tumor cells (identified using in situ hybridization).
CONCLUSION: The downregulation of broad band of B-cell markers in the present case with EBV-positive DLBCL posed a diagnostic dilemma, as the possible diagnoses included differentiation from anaplastic large cell lymphoma and CD20-negative B-cell lymphomas. Results of immunohistochemical panel including B-cell-specific transcription factors and gene rearrangement analyses critically support the correct diagnosis.

Oliveira CC, Maciel-Guerra H, Kucko L, et al.
Double-hit lymphomas: clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic study in a series of Brazilian patients with high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Diagn Pathol. 2017; 12(1):3 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Double-hit lymphomas (DHL) are rare high-grade neoplasms characterized by two translocations: one involving the gene MYC and another involving genes BCL2 or BCL6, whose diagnosis depends on cytogenetic examination. This research studied DHL and morphological and/or immunophenotypic factors associated with the detection of these translocations in a group of high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases.
METHOD: Clinical and morphological reviews of 120 cases diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma were conducted. Immunohistochemistry (CD20, CD79a, PAX5, CD10, Bcl6, Bcl2, MUM1, TDT and Myc) and fluorescence in situ hybridization for detection of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 gene translocations were performed in a tissue microarray platform.
RESULTS: Three cases of DHL were detected: two with translocations of MYC and BCL2 and one with translocations of MYC and BCL6, all leading to death in less than six months. Among 90 cytogenetically evaluable biopsies, associations were determined between immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYC (p = 0.036) and BCL2 (p = 0.001). However, these showed only regular agreement, indicated by Kappa values of 0.23 [0.0;0.49] and 0.35 [0.13;0.56], respectively. "Starry sky" morphology was strongly associated with MYC positivity (p = 0.01). The detection of three cases of DHL, all resulting in death, confirms the rarity and aggressiveness of this neoplasm.
CONCLUSIONS: The "starry sky" morphological pattern and immunohistochemical expression of Myc and Bcl2 represent possible selection factors for additional cytogenetic diagnostic testing.

Morscio J, Finalet Ferreiro J, Vander Borght S, et al.
Identification of distinct subgroups of EBV-positive post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Mod Pathol. 2017; 30(3):370-381 [PubMed] Related Publications
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder is an aggressive complication of transplantation, most frequently of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma morphology and associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection/reactivation. In this study the microenvironment of EBV

Yang G, Deisch J, Tavares M, et al.
Primary B-cell lymphoma of the uterine cervix: Presentation in Pap-test slide and cervical biopsy.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2017; 45(3):235-238 [PubMed] Related Publications
This case involved a 69-year-old female who presented with irritative urinary voiding. Imaging studies showed an 18-cm uterine mass centering on the cervix and extending into the bladder. The Pap test slide demonstrated necrotic background and degenerative changes in single and grouped atypical "small round blue cells" with high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio, scant cytoplasm, and hyperchromatic focally cleaved nuclei with occasional nuclear membrane "snout projections." Cervical biopsies showed similar findings. The tumor cells were positive for CD45, CD20, and PAX-5, and negative with epithelial, neuroendocrine, and muscle markers. A Ki-67 immunostain showed a markedly elevated proliferative index and the MUM1 stain was diffusely positive. Molecular study identified clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement. Owing to its rarity, cervical lymphoma may sometimes be confused with other types of malignant neoplasms or inflammatory processes. Therefore, it is important to recognize the cytological features of cervical lymphomas and be aware of the potential diagnostic pitfalls for timely diagnosis and therapy. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:235-238. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Tadic L, Marjanovic G, Macukanovic-Golubovic L, et al.
The importance of Myd88 L265P mutation, clinical and immunohistochemical prognostic factors for the survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated by immunochemotherapy in southeast Serbia.
J BUON. 2016 Sept-Oct; 21(5):1259-1267 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Immunochemotherapy used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) modifies the course of disease and has a positive effect on overall survival (OS). The purpose of this study was to verify the existence of the important Myd 88 mutation and other immunohistochemical factors on disease prognosis in patients with DLBCL in southeast Serbia.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical expression of CD10, Bcl- 2, Bcl-6, Ki-67 and MUM 1 was performed using paraffin blocks of DLBCL. Molecular-genetic study of MyD88 L265P gene polymorphism was done by isolation of genomic DNA from paraffin embedded tissue by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: Immunochemotherapy (rituximab+CHOP/R-CHOP) significantly improved the overall survival (OS) of patients with DLBCL compared with patients treated with CHOP alone (p<0.0001). OS in the R-CHOP group was longest in patients with International Prognostic Index (IPI) 2 score (p=0.012) and IPI 4 score (p=0.024). Patients with Bcl-2 +, and MUM 1+ benefited from R-CHOP and their expression had no effect on OS. Analysis of restriction fragment length on the genomic DNA showed a homozygous normal TT genotype.
CONCLUSION: Addition of rituximab to CHOP standard protocol improved the OS rate in patients with DLBCL and altered the character and significance of previously recognized prognostic factors. IPI score in the immunochemotherapy era could not reveal possible predictive factors of poor prognosis which would help identify a high-risk subgroup of newly diagnosed DLBCL. In the patient population from Southeast Serbia pathological signaling pathway achieved by Myd 88 L265 mutation was not responsible for the development of DLBCL.

Samei L, Yaling P, Lihua Y, et al.
Effects and Mechanism of Imatinib in Inhibiting Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation.
Med Sci Monit. 2016; 22:4126-4131 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND This study investigated the effects and mechanism of imatinib in inhibiting colon cancer cell proliferation. MATERIAL AND METHODS The SW480 cells were divided into 4 imatinib-treated groups: 0 μM, 1.25 μM, 2.5 μM, and 5μM. We analyzed the apoptosis and cell cycle of the 4 groups. The gene and protein expressions of p21, p27, HGF, and GAPDH were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. RESULTS Compared with the 0-μM imatinib-treated group, the apoptosis of 1.25-μM, 2.5-μM, and 5.0-μM treated groups was significantly induced (P<0.05, all). The G1 phase was significantly up-regulated in the 1.25-μM, 2.5-μM, and 5.0-μM treated groups compared with the 0-μM imatinib-treated group (P<0.05, respectively), but the S and G2 phase of 3 imatinib-treated groups were significantly down-regulated (P<0.05, all). The gene and protein expressions of p27 and HGF were significantly different among the 4 groups (P<0.05, all). CONCLUSIONS Imatinib inhibits proliferation of colon cancer cells by reducing HGF and increasing p27 in a dose-dependent manner.

Chang ST, Chen SW, Ho CH, et al.
Immunophenotypic and genetic characteristics of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in Taiwan.
J Formos Med Assoc. 2016; 115(11):961-967 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma type. The immunophenotypic and genetic features of DLBCL in Taiwan have not been characterized.
METHODS: In this study, we performed immunohistochemical analysis and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using tissue microarray sections to investigate a cohort of unselected DLBCL cases in a single institution in Taiwan from 1990 to 2010.
RESULTS: Of the 153 cases investigated, CD10, bcl-6, and MUM1 were expressed in 16.3%, 71.2%, and 71.9% cases, respectively, with 27.5% (n = 42) of cases being classified as having a germinal center B-cell (GCB) origin by the Hans algorithm. By FISH analysis, 19.6%, 4.6%, 26.1%, and 3.9% cases showed rearrangement at IGH, BCL2, BCL6, and MYC loci, respectively, including three (2.0%) cases of double-hit lymphoma. As compared with the non-GCB tumors, GCB tumors more frequently expressed CD10 (p < 0.001) and bcl-6 (p = 0.001) with less frequent expression of MUM1 (p = 0.007). Moreover, GCB tumors more frequently exhibited rearrangement at the BCL2 (p = 0.024) and MYC (p = 0.038) loci than non-GCB tumors. However, there was no survival difference between these two groups.
CONCLUSION: In this first series of DLBCL evaluation from Taiwan, we found that the relative frequency of GCB tumors among DLBCL was low in most East Asian countries. There is a wide range of BCL2 rearrangement rates, higher in the West and lower in East Asia. A larger and/or national study is warranted to better understand the immunophenotypic and molecular features of DLBCL in Taiwan and their respective impact on patient survival.

Sakr H, Cruise M, Chahal P, et al.
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive large B-cell lymphoma: Literature review and report of an endoscopic fine needle aspiration case with tigroid backgrounds mimicking seminoma.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2017; 45(2):148-155 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive large B-cell lymphoma (ALK+ LBCL) is a rare distinct type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that arises in association with alterations of the ALK gene. This distinct disease entity is typically associated with an aggressive clinical course and appears in light microscopic preparations as a monomorphic population of large, immunoblast-like cells. In this report, we describe a case of ALK+ LBCL diagnosed by transgastric endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS FNA) of splenic hilar lymph nodes. Modified Giemsa stained direct smears from the FNA sample demonstrated large lesional cells with foamy cytoplasm and macronucleoli admixed with small lymphocytes in tigroid backgrounds, mimicking the cytologic appearance of seminoma. Ancillary immunohistochemical studies subsequently confirmed the diagnosis of ALK+ LBCL with the lesional cells being immunoreactive for CD138, VS38c, MUM1, ALK1, and lambda light chain. The cohesiveness of the cells, the cellular morphology, and the tigroid backgrounds were all pitfalls for accurate diagnosis of this rare specific type of lymphoid malignancy by cytology. To our knowledge this is the first case report detailing the diagnosis of ALK+ LBCL by EUS FNA and the first report describing a glycogen-rich tigroid background in direct FNA smears. Establishing a refined diagnosis in cases of this rare form of LBCL is necessary, as therapies targeting ALK may be of value in clinical management. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:148-155. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sharma MC, Gupta RK, Kaushal S, et al.
A clinicopathological study of primary central nervous system lymphomas & their association with Epstein-Barr virus.
Indian J Med Res. 2016; 143(5):605-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) are relatively uncommon, accounting for 2-3 per cent of primary brain tumours. Majority of these are diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) occurring both in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. We undertook this study to classify PCNSL into germinal centre (GC) and non-germinal centre (NGC) type based on Hans classification and to find the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in pathogenesis both by conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH).
METHODS: The consecutive cases of PCNSL during a 10 years period were analysed by IHC for CD45, CD20, CD3, B-cell lymphoma 2 and 6 (Bcl-2 and Bcl-6), B-cell specific octamer binding protein-1 (BOB-1), multiple myeloma oncogene-1 (MUM-1), EBV latent-membrane protein 1 (LMP-1), cyclin-D1, CD10, CD5 and CD23, as well as by CISH for EBV.
RESULTS: During a period of 10 years, 65 PCNSL were diagnosed which comprised 0.69 per cent (65/9476) of all intracranial tumours. The mean age of presentation was 49 yr with sex ratio (M:F) of 1.4:1. Most common location was supratentorial region with predominant involvement of frontal lobe. Single lesions were seen in 38 (58.4%) and multifocal lesions in 27 (41.5%) patients. None of the patients were immunocompromised. All cases were B cell immunophenotype and were DLBCL except one case of follicular lymphoma. According to Hans classification, majority of them were NGC (n=51, 79.6%) and 13 (20.3%) were GC type. Bcl-2 expression was noted in 34 (52.3%) tumours. EBV was positive in three (4.6%) cases; two were detected both by IHC and CISH and one case by CISH only.
INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: In Indian population, PCNSL occurs mainly in immunocompetent patients, and a decade earlier than in western population. Immunophenotyping revealed that all cases were DLBCL with predominance of NGC type. No prognostic difference was seen between GC and NGC DLBCL. Association of EBV was rare and this virus was possibly not involved in the pathogenesis of PCNSL in immunocompetent individuals. CISH was an easy, economical and less cumbersome method for detection of EBV in PCNSL.

Alikhan M, Song JY, Sohani AR, et al.
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas of follicular helper T-cell type frequently display an aberrant CD3(-/dim)CD4(+) population by flow cytometry: an important clue to the diagnosis of a Hodgkin lymphoma mimic.
Mod Pathol. 2016; 29(10):1173-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nodal follicular helper T-cell-derived lymphoproliferations (specifically the less common peripheral T-cell lymphomas of follicular type) exhibit a spectrum of histologic features that may mimic reactive hyperplasia or Hodgkin lymphoma. Even though angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and peripheral T-cell lymphoma of follicular type share a common biologic origin from follicular helper T-cells and their morphology has been well characterized, flow cytometry of peripheral T-cell lymphomas of follicular type has not been widely discussed as a tool for identifying this reactive hyperplasia/Hodgkin lymphoma mimic. We identified 10 peripheral T-cell lymphomas of follicular type with available flow cytometry data from five different institutions, including two cases with peripheral blood evaluation. For comparison, we examined flow cytometry data for 8 classical Hodgkin lymphomas (including 1 lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin lymphoma), 15 nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphomas, 15 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas, and 26 reactive nodes. Lymph node histology and flow cytometry data were reviewed, specifically for the presence of a CD3(-/dim)CD4(+) aberrant T-cell population (described in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas), besides other T-cell aberrancies. Nine of 10 (90%) peripheral T-cell lymphomas of follicular type showed a CD3(-/dim)CD4(+) T-cell population constituting 29.3% (range 7.9-62%) of all lymphocytes. Five of 10 (50%) had nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma or lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin lymphoma-like morphology with scattered Hodgkin-like cells that expressed CD20, CD30, CD15, and MUM1. Three cases had a nodular growth pattern and three others exhibited a perifollicular growth pattern without Hodgkin-like cells. Epstein-Barr virus was positive in 1 of 10 cases (10%). PCR analysis showed clonal T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement in all 10 peripheral T-cell lymphomas of follicular type. By flow cytometry, 11 of 15 (73.3%) angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas showed the CD3(-/dim)CD4(+) population (mean: 19.5%, range: 3-71.8%). Using a threshold of 3% for CD3(-/dim)CD4(+) T cells, all 15 nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma controls and 8 classical Hodgkin lymphomas were negative (Mann-Whitney P=0.01, F-PTCL vs Hodgkin lymphomas), as were 25 of 26 reactive lymph nodes. The high frequency of CD3(-/dim)CD4(+) aberrant T cells is similar in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas and peripheral T-cell lymphomas of follicular type, and is a useful feature in distinguishing peripheral T-cell lymphomas of follicular type from morphologic mimics such as reactive hyperplasia or Hodgkin lymphoma.

Akkaya B, Salim O, Akkaya H, et al.
C-MYC and BCL2 translocation frequency in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas: A study of 97 patients.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2016 Jan-Mar; 59(1):41-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. MYC and BCL2 rearrangements have been reported in a proportion of DLBCLs, where they may be associated with an adverse clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of MYC and BCL2 translocations in DLBCL and assess the prognostic impact in DLBCL patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated the expression patterns of CD 10, BCL6, and MUM 1 by immunohistochemistry in 121 cases with DLBCL in tissue microarray (TMA): 62 cases in germinal center B-cells (GCBs); and 59 cases in activated B-cells (ABCs) of which 60 were females and 61 were males. MYC and BCL2 rearrangements were investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on TMAs in 97 DLBCLs.
RESULT: MYC rearrangements were observed in 11 of 97 cases. There was no association with other clinical features, including age, sex, and nodal/extranodal disease. MYC rearrangement was associated with significantly worse overall survival (P < 0.01). BCL2 rearrangements were observed in 14 of 97 cases. There was no association with other clinical features including age and sex. BCL2 rearrangement had a worse outcome (P < 0.01). MYC and BCL2 rearrangements were observed in 3 of 97 cases with the age of  53 (female), 53, 63 years old, respectively, died in 24, 18, and 35 months after the diagnosis. Two cases had primary nodal and one case primary extranodal presentations. All these patients had stage IV disease.
CONCLUSION: We concluded that C-MYC and BCL2 may contribute to aggressive transformation, and more mechanism-based therapy should be explored. Targeted therapies involving these rearrangements and its associated pathways may change the fate of DLBCLs. Analysis of MYC gene rearrangement along with BCL2 is critical in the identification of high-risk patients with poor prognosis.

Xu-Monette ZY, Zhang S, Li X, et al.
p63 expression confers significantly better survival outcomes in high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates p53-like and p53-independent tumor suppressor function.
Aging (Albany NY). 2016; 8(2):345-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The role of p53 family member p63 in oncogenesis is the subject of controversy. Limited research has been done on the clinical implications of p63 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In this study, we assessed p63 expression in de novo DLBCL samples (n=795) by immunohistochemistry with a pan-p63-monoclonal antibody and correlated it with other clinicopathologic factors and clinical outcomes. p63 expression was observed in 42.5% of DLBCL, did not correlate with p53 levels, but correlated with p21, MDM2, p16INK4A, Ki-67, Bcl-6, IRF4/MUM-1 and CD30 expression, REL gains, and BCL6 translocation. p63 was an independent favorable prognostic factor in DLBCL, which was most significant in patients with International Prognostic Index (IPI) >2, and in activated-B-cell-like DLBCL patients with wide- type TP53. The prognostic impact in germinal-center-B-cell-like DLBCL was not apparent, which was likely due to the association of p63 expression with high-risk IPI, and potential presence of ∆Np63 isoform in TP63 rearranged patients (a mere speculation). Gene expression profiling suggested that p63 has both overlapping and distinct functions compared with p53, and that p63 and mutated p53 antagonize each other. In summary, p63 has p53-like and p53-independent functions and favorable prognostic impact, however this protective effect can be abolished by TP53 mutations.

Tomonari T, Takeishi S, Taniguchi T, et al.
MRP3 as a novel resistance factor for sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(6):7207-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mechanism of resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to sorafenib is unknown and no useful predictive biomarker for sorafenib treatment has been reported. Accordingly, we established sorafenib-resistant HCC cells and investigated the underlying mechanism of resistance to sorafenib. Sorafenib-resistant cell lines were established from the HCC cell line PLC/PRF5 by cultivation under continuous exposure to increasing concentration of sorafenib. The IC50 values of the 2 resistant clones PLC/PRF5-R1 and PLC-PRF5-R2 were 9.2±0.47 μM (1.8-fold) and 25±5.1 μM (4.6-fold) respectively, which were significantly higher than that of parental PLC/PRF5 cells (5.4±0.17 μM) (p < 0.01 respectively), as determined by MTT assay. Western blot analysis of signal transduction-related proteins showed no significant differences in expression of AKT/pAKT, mTOR/pmTOR, or ERK/pERK between the 2 resistant clones versus parent cells, suggesting no activation of an alternative signal transduction pathway. Likewise, when expression of membrane transporter proteins was determined, there were no significant differences in expression levels of BSEP, MDR1, MRP2, BCRP, MRP4 and OCT1 between resistant clones and parent cells. However, the expression levels of MRP3 in the 2 resistant clones were significantly higher than that of parent cells. When MRP3 gene was knocked down by siRNA in PLC-PRF5-R2 cells, the sensitivity of the cells to sorafenib was restored. In the analysis of gene mutation, there was no mutation in the activation segment of Raf1 kinase in the resistant clones. Our data clearly demonstrate that the efflux transporter MRP3 plays an important role in resistance to sorafenib in HCC cells.

Leich E, Hoster E, Wartenberg M, et al.
Similar clinical features in follicular lymphomas with and without breaks in the BCL2 locus.
Leukemia. 2016; 30(4):854-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 15% of follicular lymphomas (FLs) lack breaks in the BCL2 locus. The aim of this study was to better define molecular and clinical features of BCL2-breakpoint/t(14;18)-negative FLs. We studied the presence of BCL2, BCL6 and MYC breaks by fluorescence in situ hybridization and the expression of BCL2, MUM1, CD10, P53 and Ki67 in large clinical trial cohorts of 540 advanced-stage FL cases and 116 early-stage disease FL patients treated with chemotherapy regimens and radiation, respectively. A total of 86% and 53% of advanced- and early-stage FLs were BCL2-breakpoint-positive, respectively. BCL2 was expressed in almost all FLs with BCL2 break and also in 86% and 69% of BCL2-breakpoint-negative advanced- and early-stage FLs, respectively. CD10 expression was significantly reduced in BCL2-breakpoint-negative FLs of all stages and MUM1 and Ki67 expression were significantly increased in BCL2-break-negative early-stage FLs. Patient characteristics did not differ between FLs with and without BCL2 breaks and neither did survival times in advanced-stage FLs. These results suggest that the molecular profile differs to some extent between FLs with and without BCL2 breaks and support the notion that FLs with and without BCL2 breaks belong to the same lymphoma entity.

Wei J, Lin C, Xu C, et al.
Primary Burkitt's lymphoma of the breast without Epstein-Barr virus infection: A case report and literature review.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2015 Oct-Dec; 58(4):546-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which arising from the germinal center or post germinal center B-cell. Primary breast lymphomas are extremely rare, and the most common histologic type is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Primary BL of the breast is much less common than the other types of lymphoma. Here, we report an extremely rare case of a 37-year-old Chinese female with localized bilateral breast, who was referred to our institution for bilateral breast swelling. The left breast tissue ultrasonography showed the short axis measuring 20.3 mm × 18.8 mm and the long axis measuring 22.1 mm × 20.8 mm soft tissue mass. The right breast tissue ultrasonography showed the short axis measuring 30.2 mm × 26.9 mm and the long axis measuring 33.5 mm × 2.18 mm. Coarse needle biopsy of breast masses demonstrated a non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma. The patient underwent a bilateral mastectomy. Histological examination of the tumor showed a characteristic "starry sky" pattern, the medium-sized tumor cells were a monotonous pattern of growth, and there were many abnormal mitotic figures. The neoplastic cells strongly expressed CD20, CD79-μ, MUM-1, PAX-5, CD43 and Bcl-6, Ki-67 were nearly 100% positive, but negative for CD10, Bcl-2 and TdT. By fluorescence in situ hybridization an IGH-MYC gene fusion was detected in the tumor tissue which indicating the presence of a typical BL translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32). The final histopathological diagnosis was primary BL of the breast.

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