Gene Summary

Gene:MUM1; melanoma associated antigen (mutated) 1
Aliases: MUM-1, EXPAND1, HSPC211
Databases:VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:PWWP domain-containing protein MUM1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Chromosome 19
  • Germinal Center
  • Staging
  • Risk Factors
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Syndecan-1
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Adolescents
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • BAD
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Young Adult
  • Mutation
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Stomach
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6
  • Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
  • Follicular Lymphoma
  • Chromosome 14
  • FISH
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • BCL2 protein
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Chromosome 18
  • Interferon Regulatory Factors
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Phenotype
  • Neprilysin
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • beta 2-Microglobulin
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MUM1 (cancer-related)

Nakatsuka SI, Yutani C, Kurashige M, et al.
An unusual case of Epstein-Barr virus-positive large B-cell lymphoma lacking various B-cell markers.
Diagn Pathol. 2017; 12(1):15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUD: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with B-cell lymphoma in various conditions, such as immunodeficiency and chronic inflammation. We report an unusual case of EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) lacking the expression of many B-cell markers.
CASE PRESENTATION: An 83-year-old man presented with a submandibular tumor. Histology of a lymph node biopsy specimen revealed diffuse proliferation of centroblast- or immunoblast-like lymphoid cells with plasmacytic differentiation. Scattered Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg-like cells were also visible. A routine immunohistochemistry antibody panel revealed that the tumor cells were negative for B-cell and T-cell markers (i.e., CD3, CD19, CD20, CD38, CD45RO, CD79a, CD138, and Pax-5), but were positive for CD30 and MUM-1, not defining the lineage of tumor cells. The final diagnosis of EBV-positive DLBCL was confirmed based on the expression of B-cell-specific transcription factors (Oct-2 and BOB.1), PCR-based identification of monoclonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin genes, and the presence of EBV-encoded small RNAs in the tumor cells (identified using in situ hybridization).
CONCLUSION: The downregulation of broad band of B-cell markers in the present case with EBV-positive DLBCL posed a diagnostic dilemma, as the possible diagnoses included differentiation from anaplastic large cell lymphoma and CD20-negative B-cell lymphomas. Results of immunohistochemical panel including B-cell-specific transcription factors and gene rearrangement analyses critically support the correct diagnosis.

Oliveira CC, Maciel-Guerra H, Kucko L, et al.
Double-hit lymphomas: clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic study in a series of Brazilian patients with high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Diagn Pathol. 2017; 12(1):3 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Double-hit lymphomas (DHL) are rare high-grade neoplasms characterized by two translocations: one involving the gene MYC and another involving genes BCL2 or BCL6, whose diagnosis depends on cytogenetic examination. This research studied DHL and morphological and/or immunophenotypic factors associated with the detection of these translocations in a group of high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases.
METHOD: Clinical and morphological reviews of 120 cases diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma were conducted. Immunohistochemistry (CD20, CD79a, PAX5, CD10, Bcl6, Bcl2, MUM1, TDT and Myc) and fluorescence in situ hybridization for detection of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 gene translocations were performed in a tissue microarray platform.
RESULTS: Three cases of DHL were detected: two with translocations of MYC and BCL2 and one with translocations of MYC and BCL6, all leading to death in less than six months. Among 90 cytogenetically evaluable biopsies, associations were determined between immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYC (p = 0.036) and BCL2 (p = 0.001). However, these showed only regular agreement, indicated by Kappa values of 0.23 [0.0;0.49] and 0.35 [0.13;0.56], respectively. "Starry sky" morphology was strongly associated with MYC positivity (p = 0.01). The detection of three cases of DHL, all resulting in death, confirms the rarity and aggressiveness of this neoplasm.
CONCLUSIONS: The "starry sky" morphological pattern and immunohistochemical expression of Myc and Bcl2 represent possible selection factors for additional cytogenetic diagnostic testing.

Yang G, Deisch J, Tavares M, et al.
Primary B-cell lymphoma of the uterine cervix: Presentation in Pap-test slide and cervical biopsy.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2017; 45(3):235-238 [PubMed] Related Publications
This case involved a 69-year-old female who presented with irritative urinary voiding. Imaging studies showed an 18-cm uterine mass centering on the cervix and extending into the bladder. The Pap test slide demonstrated necrotic background and degenerative changes in single and grouped atypical "small round blue cells" with high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio, scant cytoplasm, and hyperchromatic focally cleaved nuclei with occasional nuclear membrane "snout projections." Cervical biopsies showed similar findings. The tumor cells were positive for CD45, CD20, and PAX-5, and negative with epithelial, neuroendocrine, and muscle markers. A Ki-67 immunostain showed a markedly elevated proliferative index and the MUM1 stain was diffusely positive. Molecular study identified clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement. Owing to its rarity, cervical lymphoma may sometimes be confused with other types of malignant neoplasms or inflammatory processes. Therefore, it is important to recognize the cytological features of cervical lymphomas and be aware of the potential diagnostic pitfalls for timely diagnosis and therapy. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:235-238. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sakr H, Cruise M, Chahal P, et al.
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive large B-cell lymphoma: Literature review and report of an endoscopic fine needle aspiration case with tigroid backgrounds mimicking seminoma.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2017; 45(2):148-155 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive large B-cell lymphoma (ALK+ LBCL) is a rare distinct type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that arises in association with alterations of the ALK gene. This distinct disease entity is typically associated with an aggressive clinical course and appears in light microscopic preparations as a monomorphic population of large, immunoblast-like cells. In this report, we describe a case of ALK+ LBCL diagnosed by transgastric endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS FNA) of splenic hilar lymph nodes. Modified Giemsa stained direct smears from the FNA sample demonstrated large lesional cells with foamy cytoplasm and macronucleoli admixed with small lymphocytes in tigroid backgrounds, mimicking the cytologic appearance of seminoma. Ancillary immunohistochemical studies subsequently confirmed the diagnosis of ALK+ LBCL with the lesional cells being immunoreactive for CD138, VS38c, MUM1, ALK1, and lambda light chain. The cohesiveness of the cells, the cellular morphology, and the tigroid backgrounds were all pitfalls for accurate diagnosis of this rare specific type of lymphoid malignancy by cytology. To our knowledge this is the first case report detailing the diagnosis of ALK+ LBCL by EUS FNA and the first report describing a glycogen-rich tigroid background in direct FNA smears. Establishing a refined diagnosis in cases of this rare form of LBCL is necessary, as therapies targeting ALK may be of value in clinical management. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:148-155. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Akkaya B, Salim O, Akkaya H, et al.
C-MYC and BCL2 translocation frequency in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas: A study of 97 patients.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2016 Jan-Mar; 59(1):41-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. MYC and BCL2 rearrangements have been reported in a proportion of DLBCLs, where they may be associated with an adverse clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of MYC and BCL2 translocations in DLBCL and assess the prognostic impact in DLBCL patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated the expression patterns of CD 10, BCL6, and MUM 1 by immunohistochemistry in 121 cases with DLBCL in tissue microarray (TMA): 62 cases in germinal center B-cells (GCBs); and 59 cases in activated B-cells (ABCs) of which 60 were females and 61 were males. MYC and BCL2 rearrangements were investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on TMAs in 97 DLBCLs.
RESULT: MYC rearrangements were observed in 11 of 97 cases. There was no association with other clinical features, including age, sex, and nodal/extranodal disease. MYC rearrangement was associated with significantly worse overall survival (P < 0.01). BCL2 rearrangements were observed in 14 of 97 cases. There was no association with other clinical features including age and sex. BCL2 rearrangement had a worse outcome (P < 0.01). MYC and BCL2 rearrangements were observed in 3 of 97 cases with the age of  53 (female), 53, 63 years old, respectively, died in 24, 18, and 35 months after the diagnosis. Two cases had primary nodal and one case primary extranodal presentations. All these patients had stage IV disease.
CONCLUSION: We concluded that C-MYC and BCL2 may contribute to aggressive transformation, and more mechanism-based therapy should be explored. Targeted therapies involving these rearrangements and its associated pathways may change the fate of DLBCLs. Analysis of MYC gene rearrangement along with BCL2 is critical in the identification of high-risk patients with poor prognosis.

Xu-Monette ZY, Zhang S, Li X, et al.
p63 expression confers significantly better survival outcomes in high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates p53-like and p53-independent tumor suppressor function.
Aging (Albany NY). 2016; 8(2):345-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The role of p53 family member p63 in oncogenesis is the subject of controversy. Limited research has been done on the clinical implications of p63 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In this study, we assessed p63 expression in de novo DLBCL samples (n=795) by immunohistochemistry with a pan-p63-monoclonal antibody and correlated it with other clinicopathologic factors and clinical outcomes. p63 expression was observed in 42.5% of DLBCL, did not correlate with p53 levels, but correlated with p21, MDM2, p16INK4A, Ki-67, Bcl-6, IRF4/MUM-1 and CD30 expression, REL gains, and BCL6 translocation. p63 was an independent favorable prognostic factor in DLBCL, which was most significant in patients with International Prognostic Index (IPI) >2, and in activated-B-cell-like DLBCL patients with wide- type TP53. The prognostic impact in germinal-center-B-cell-like DLBCL was not apparent, which was likely due to the association of p63 expression with high-risk IPI, and potential presence of ∆Np63 isoform in TP63 rearranged patients (a mere speculation). Gene expression profiling suggested that p63 has both overlapping and distinct functions compared with p53, and that p63 and mutated p53 antagonize each other. In summary, p63 has p53-like and p53-independent functions and favorable prognostic impact, however this protective effect can be abolished by TP53 mutations.

Tomonari T, Takeishi S, Taniguchi T, et al.
MRP3 as a novel resistance factor for sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(6):7207-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mechanism of resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to sorafenib is unknown and no useful predictive biomarker for sorafenib treatment has been reported. Accordingly, we established sorafenib-resistant HCC cells and investigated the underlying mechanism of resistance to sorafenib. Sorafenib-resistant cell lines were established from the HCC cell line PLC/PRF5 by cultivation under continuous exposure to increasing concentration of sorafenib. The IC50 values of the 2 resistant clones PLC/PRF5-R1 and PLC-PRF5-R2 were 9.2±0.47 μM (1.8-fold) and 25±5.1 μM (4.6-fold) respectively, which were significantly higher than that of parental PLC/PRF5 cells (5.4±0.17 μM) (p < 0.01 respectively), as determined by MTT assay. Western blot analysis of signal transduction-related proteins showed no significant differences in expression of AKT/pAKT, mTOR/pmTOR, or ERK/pERK between the 2 resistant clones versus parent cells, suggesting no activation of an alternative signal transduction pathway. Likewise, when expression of membrane transporter proteins was determined, there were no significant differences in expression levels of BSEP, MDR1, MRP2, BCRP, MRP4 and OCT1 between resistant clones and parent cells. However, the expression levels of MRP3 in the 2 resistant clones were significantly higher than that of parent cells. When MRP3 gene was knocked down by siRNA in PLC-PRF5-R2 cells, the sensitivity of the cells to sorafenib was restored. In the analysis of gene mutation, there was no mutation in the activation segment of Raf1 kinase in the resistant clones. Our data clearly demonstrate that the efflux transporter MRP3 plays an important role in resistance to sorafenib in HCC cells.

Leich E, Hoster E, Wartenberg M, et al.
Similar clinical features in follicular lymphomas with and without breaks in the BCL2 locus.
Leukemia. 2016; 30(4):854-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 15% of follicular lymphomas (FLs) lack breaks in the BCL2 locus. The aim of this study was to better define molecular and clinical features of BCL2-breakpoint/t(14;18)-negative FLs. We studied the presence of BCL2, BCL6 and MYC breaks by fluorescence in situ hybridization and the expression of BCL2, MUM1, CD10, P53 and Ki67 in large clinical trial cohorts of 540 advanced-stage FL cases and 116 early-stage disease FL patients treated with chemotherapy regimens and radiation, respectively. A total of 86% and 53% of advanced- and early-stage FLs were BCL2-breakpoint-positive, respectively. BCL2 was expressed in almost all FLs with BCL2 break and also in 86% and 69% of BCL2-breakpoint-negative advanced- and early-stage FLs, respectively. CD10 expression was significantly reduced in BCL2-breakpoint-negative FLs of all stages and MUM1 and Ki67 expression were significantly increased in BCL2-break-negative early-stage FLs. Patient characteristics did not differ between FLs with and without BCL2 breaks and neither did survival times in advanced-stage FLs. These results suggest that the molecular profile differs to some extent between FLs with and without BCL2 breaks and support the notion that FLs with and without BCL2 breaks belong to the same lymphoma entity.

Dwivedi A, Mehta A, Solanki P
Evaluation of immunohistochemical subtypes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and its impact on survival.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2015 Oct-Dec; 58(4):453-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Indian population. The disease could be divided into the prognostically important subtypes, germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like and activated B-cell-like, using gene expression profiling (GEP). The molecular subtype as defined by GEP could also be predicted by using immunohistochemistry (IHC) based algorithms using three biomarkers CD10, BCL-6, and multiple myeloma oncogene-1 (MUM1). It has been confirmed that patients belonging to the GCB subtype have a better outcome and survival than those belonging to the second subtype. The present study was conducted to study the prevalence of these two subgroups and their correlation with survival of the patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 83 patients of DLBCL were included in the study. Hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections were prepared from the paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. The staining for all the three antibodies was considered positive when more than 30% cells were stained with the respective antibody.
RESULTS: The results showed that 44 patients (53%) had GCB immunophenotype and 39 patients (47%) had non-GCB phenotype. However, no statistically significant difference in overall and disease-free survival was noted between the subgroups.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that frequency of GCB subtype of DLBCL is significantly higher than the non-GCB subtype, and the non-GCB immunophenotype has better relapse-free survival 78% (standard error = 0.10) at the end of 3 years, while GCB has 56% (standard error = 0.23). Further studies should be performed with larger number of patients to show difference in clinical outcome between GCB and non-GCB subgroups.

Cozzolino I, Varone V, Picardi M, et al.
CD10, BCL6, and MUM1 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma on FNA samples.
Cancer Cytopathol. 2016; 124(2):135-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene expression profiling has divided diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into 2 main subgroups: germinal center B (GCB) and non-GCB type. This classification is reproducible by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies such as CD10, B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6), and multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1). Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) plays an important role in the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and in some cases FNA may be the only available pathological specimen. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate CD10, BCL6, and MUM1 immunostaining on FNA samples by testing the CD10, BCL6, and MUM1 algorithm on both FNA cell blocks (CB) and conventional smears (CS), evaluating differences in CB and CS immunocytochemical (ICC) performance, and comparing results with histological data.
METHODS: Thirty-eight consecutive DLBCL cases diagnosed by FNA were studied. Additional passes were used to prepare CB in 22 cases and CS in 16 cases; the corresponding sections and smears were immunostained using CD10, BCL6, and MUM1 in all cases. The data obtained were compared with histological immunostaining in 24 cases.
RESULTS: ICC was successful in 33 cases (18 CB and 15 CS) and not evaluable in 5 cases (4 CB and 1 CS). The CD10-BCL6-MUM1 algorithm subclassified DLBCL as GCB (9 cases) and non-GCB (24 cases). ICC data were confirmed on histologic staining in 24 cases.
CONCLUSIONS: CD10, BCL6, and MUM1 ICC staining can be performed on FNA samples. The results herein prove it is reliable both on CB and CS, and is equally effective and comparable to immunohistochemistry data.

Jovanovic MP, Mihaljevic B, Jakovic L, et al.
BCL2 positive and BCL6 negative diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients benefit from R-CHOP therapy irrespective of germinal and non germinal center B cell like subtypes.
J BUON. 2015 May-Jun; 20(3):820-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Despite major advances in the treatment of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), approximately one third of the patients progress or die, suggesting the existence of additional oncogenic events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the "Hans classifier", and BCL2 and MYC protein expression and gene alterations in DLBCL patients treated with CHOP or R-CHOP chemotherapy over a 5-year period. Furthermore, we tried to correlate these parameters with the International Prognostic Index (IPI).
METHODS: The immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of CD10, BCL6, MUM1 and BCL2 on paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tumor samples from 103 centroblastic DLBCLs was analyzed. IHC expression of MYC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for MYC and BCL2 gene alterations was performed on 67 samples using the tissue microarray (TMA) method.
RESULTS: The Hans algorithm was not predictive of survival in both therapy groups. No significant difference in BCL2 and MYC alterations or MYC protein expression in relation to complete response (CR), event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) was observed in our study. High IPI correlated significantly with poor outcome and it was identified as independent prognostic factor for OS and EFS (both p=0.000). The 5-year OS was 61% in the R-CHOP compared to 38% in the CHOP group (p=0.007). Rituximab significantly improved the OS in the BCL2 positive (60 vs 29%, p=0.008), and the BCL6 negative (73 vs 25%, p=0.001) cases.
CONCLUSION: IPI is an independent prognosticator for DL-BCL patients and the addition of rituximab significantly improved survival. Furthermore, patients with BCL2+ and BCL6-DLBCL benefited from R-CHOP.

Wang LL, Hu RC, Dai AG, Tan SX
Bevacizumab induces A549 cell apoptosis through the mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress in vitro.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(5):5291-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: To observe the effect of bevacizumab on human A549 cells and explore its mechanism.
METHODS: After different concentrations (0 μM, 1 μM, 5 μM, 25 μM) of bevacizumab treating in A549 cells, CCK8 assay detect the impact of bevacizumab on A549 cell proliferation and flow cytometry determine the effect of bevacizumab on human A549 cells apoptosis. Real-time PCR and Western blotting detect the changing expression of the target gene (CHOP, caspase-4, IRE1, XBP-1) on mRNA and Protein level.
RESULTS: Treatment with bevacizumab for 24-hr have induced cell death in a does-dependent manner dramatically (P<0.05). In terms of the mRNA level, expression of XBP-1 has increased obviously in each group (1 μM, 5 μM, 25 μM) (P<0.01); the expression of CHOP (25 μM) and caspase-4 (5 μM) have increased slightly (P<0.05). In terms of the protein level, the expression of CHOP has increased obviously in each group (1 μM, 5 μM, 25 μM) when compared with the control group (0 μM) (P<0.05). As for caspase-4 (5 μM, 25 μM), the expression have increased slightly when compared with the control group (0 μM) (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Bevacizumab can induce A549 cell apoptosis through the mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Wagener R, Aukema SM, Schlesner M, et al.
The PCBP1 gene encoding poly(rC) binding protein I is recurrently mutated in Burkitt lymphoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(9):555-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
The genetic hallmark of Burkitt lymphoma is the translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32), or one of its light chain variants, resulting in IG-MYC juxtaposition. However, these translocations alone are insufficient to drive lymphomagenesis, which requires additional genetic changes for malignant transformation. Recent studies of Burkitt lymphoma using next generation sequencing approaches have identified various recurrently mutated genes including ID3, TCF3, CCND3, and TP53. Here, by using similar approaches, we show that PCBP1 is a recurrently mutated gene in Burkitt lymphoma. By whole-genome sequencing, we identified somatic mutations in PCBP1 in 3/17 (18%) Burkitt lymphomas. We confirmed the recurrence of PCBP1 mutations by Sanger sequencing in an independent validation cohort, finding mutations in 3/28 (11%) Burkitt lymphomas and in 6/16 (38%) Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. PCBP1 is an intron-less gene encoding the 356 amino acid poly(rC) binding protein 1, which contains three K-Homology (KH) domains and two nuclear localization signals. The mutations predominantly (10/12, 83%) affect the KH III domain, either by complete domain loss or amino acid changes. Thus, these changes are predicted to alter the various functions of PCBP1, including nuclear trafficking and pre-mRNA splicing. Remarkably, all six primary Burkitt lymphomas with a PCBP1 mutation expressed MUM1/IRF4, which is otherwise detected in around 20-40% of Burkitt lymphomas. We conclude that PCBP1 mutations are recurrent in Burkitt lymphomas and might contribute, in cooperation with other mutations, to its pathogenesis.

Elyamany G, Alzahrani AM, Aljuboury M, et al.
Clinicopathologic features of plasmablastic lymphoma: Single-center series of 8 cases from Saudi Arabia.
Diagn Pathol. 2015; 10:78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Characterized by its aggressive nature and plasmacytic differentiation, PBL remains a therapeutic and diagnostic challenge; it generally has a poor prognosis with very few long-term survivors and most patients dying within 2 years from initial presentation. PBL has been reported in several other countries; however, there have been no reported cases from Saudi Arabia. Here, we report 8 cases of PBL depicting the clinical presentation, immunocompetency, immunphenotypic characterization, diagnostic challenges and treatment outcome.
METHODS: The medical records were reviewed for clinical presentation, staging, laboratory data, radiological studies, treatments, and outcomes. A broad immunohistochemical panel consisting of CD45, CD3, CD20, CD79a, Pax5, CD38, CD138, MUM1, EMA, Kappa, Lambda, CD 56, CD30, Bcl-2, Bcl-6, Alk-1, Ki-67, EBV-LMP-1, and HHV8 was performed.
RESULTS: The tumors predominantly exhibited immunoblastic/plasmablastic or plasmacytic morphologic features and had a plasma cell-like immunophenotype. All cases were immunoreactive for CD38, CD138 and MUM1 confirming plasma cell differentiation of the tumor cells. CD20 was negative for all cases; whereas CD79a and Pax5 were weakly positive in 2cases. All 8 cases were EBV-LMP-1/EBER-1 negative, and 1 case was HHV8 positive. Similar to previously published studies, PBL in Saudi Arabia is characterized by male predominance (6/8), median age 51.5 years (mean age 46 years), associated with early dissemination, poor response to therapy, and limited survival (average survival time, 6.4 months, median overall survival 5.5 months). However, it does have some unique features. It occurs more commonly in immunocompetent persons (6/8, 75%), is not associated with EBV infection (0/8), and nodal involvement (either primary or secondary) is common among patients (6/8). In addition, extra-oral sites are more common than oral/nasal cavities (7/8) and the c-myc gene is not common (1/8, 12.5%).
CONCLUSION: It appears that PBL is heterogeneous in terms of clinical presentation and morphology. PBL is a therapeutic challenge with a clinical course that is characterized by its high rate of relapse and death. To date, treatment responses are usually partial and temporary. Therapies that are more intensive than CHOP do not seem to prolong survival. Further research is needed to understand the biology and molecular pathogenesis of PBL in order to improve therapies.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slides for this article can be found here:

Wang X, Zhang Y, Nilsson CL, et al.
Association of chromosome 19 to lung cancer genotypes and phenotypes.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2015; 34(2):217-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Chromosome 19 Consortium, a part of the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP, ), is tasked with the understanding chromosome 19 functions at the gene and protein levels, as well as their roles in lung oncogenesis. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) studies revealed chromosome aberration in lung cancer subtypes, including ADC, SCC, LCC, and SCLC. The most common abnormality is 19p loss and 19q gain. Sixty-four aberrant genes identified in previous genomic studies and their encoded protein functions were further validated in the neXtProt database ( ). Among those, the loss of tumor suppressor genes STK11, MUM1, KISS1R (19p13.3), and BRG1 (19p13.13) is associated with lung oncogenesis or remote metastasis. Gene aberrations include translocation t(15, 19) (q13, p13.1) fusion oncogene BRD4-NUT, DNA repair genes (ERCC1, ERCC2, XRCC1), TGFβ1 pathway activation genes (TGFB1, LTBP4), Dyrk1B, and potential oncogenesis protector genes such as NFkB pathway inhibition genes (NFKBIB, PPP1R13L) and EGLN2. In conclusion, neXtProt is an effective resource for the validation of gene aberrations identified in genomic studies. It promises to enhance our understanding of lung cancer oncogenesis.

Panizo C, Rodríguez AJ, Gutiérrez G, et al.
Evaluation of clinical and biological prognostic factors in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients after previous treatment with rituximab and chemotherapy: results of the PRO-R-IPI study.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2015; 15(7):398-403 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous entity, showing a highly variable outcome. In patients with DLBCL relapsed/refractory to first-line treatment with rituximab the usefulness of the revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI) as a prognostic tool remains unexplored. Some biological parameters (B-cell lymphoma 6 [Bcl-6], Bcl-2, p53, and multiple myeloma 1 [MUM1]) and blood populations (lymphocyte and monocyte counts) have been described as International Prognostic Index-independent prognostic factors. The objective was to evaluate the R-IPI to predict the outcome of DLBCL patients at the time of relapse after a front-line treatment with chemotherapy and rituximab and to establish in this population the relationship between biological parameters and outcome.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included patients with refractory/relapsed DLBCL after first-line treatment with rituximab-containing regimens; patients must have already finished a rescue treatment also including rituximab. Immunohistochemical assessment of Bcl-2, Bcl-6, p53, and MUM1 expression were undertaken in available biopsies. R-IPI factors were identified from the clinical data at diagnosis and at relapse. Response was assessed using National Cancer Institute-sponsored Working Group guidelines.
RESULTS: R-IPI prognosis at relapse was not significantly associated with overall response rate (ORR) after Rituximab-chemotherapy rescue therapy. None of the immunohistochemical parameters analyzed correlated with rescue therapy results. In contrast, patients with absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ≥ 1 × 10(9)/L at relapse were more likely to respond than patients with ALC < 1 × 10(9)/L (P = .05).
CONCLUSION: The R-IPI score calculated at relapse could not predict the ORR to second-line treatment. Lymphopenia is a simple and useful predictor for outcome in relapsed/refractory DLBCL and the only prognostic factor that in our hands could predict the overall response to a second-line treatment with rituximab and chemotherapy.

Wang W, Hu S, Lu X, et al.
Triple-hit B-cell Lymphoma With MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 Translocations/Rearrangements: Clinicopathologic Features of 11 Cases.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(8):1132-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymphomas with translocations/rearrangements of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6, so-called triple-hit B-cell lymphoma, are rare, and few studies on these tumors are available in the literature. We report 11 cases of triple-hit B-cell lymphoma and characterize their clinicopathologic findings. All patients were men, with a median age of 64 years (range, 45 to 80 y), and 4 patients had antecedent or concurrent follicular lymphoma. Using the 2008 World Health Organization classification, these cases were classified as: 5 B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma; 4 DLBCL; 1 DLBCL with concurrent follicular lymphoma; and 1 low-grade follicular lymphoma. All cases were positive for CD10, BCL2, and FOXP1. Ten of 11 cases were positive for CD20. MYC expression was high in 10/11 (91%), BCL6 was positive in 8/11 (73%), and MUM1/IRF4 was positive in 6/11 (55%) cases. T-cell antigens, TdT, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA were negative in all cases. Ten of 11 cases showed a high proliferation index-70% to 100%, and the follicular lymphoma had a 30% proliferation rate. Using most algorithms, all cases belonged to germinal center B-cell-like group. All patients received standard or more aggressive immunochemotherapy regimens. Three patients had no response to chemotherapy; 4 patients showed a partial response; 2 patients had complete remission after chemotherapy; and 2 patients had just begun chemotherapy. Three patients underwent a stem cell transplant. The median follow-up time was 5.3 months. Five patients died, and 6 patients were alive at last follow-up. Two patients who underwent stem cell transplant after complete response to chemotherapy were in remission with 16 to 19 months of clinical follow-up. In summary, triple-hit lymphomas are clinically aggressive tumors associated with a poor prognosis. Patients often respond poorly to chemotherapy, but a subset may completely respond to chemotherapy followed by stem cell transplant.

Papoudou-Bai A, Goussia A, Batistatou A, et al.
The expression levels of JunB, JunD and p-c-Jun are positively correlated with tumor cell proliferation in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2016; 57(1):143-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
We analyzed the expression of Jun family in relation to CD30 expression, cell proliferation and B-cell differentiation immunophenotypes [Germinal Center and non-Germinal Center] in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). Expression and high expression of phosphorylated-c-Jun (p-c-Jun), JunB, JunD and CD30 (cut-off scores 20% and 50%, respectively) was found in 18/103, 49/103, 72/101 and 26/102 cases, respectively, and in 6/103, 27/103, 60/101 and 21/102 cases, respectively. The following significant positive correlations were observed: (a) JunB with cyclin A (p = 0.046), cyclin B1 (p = 0.033), cyclin E (p = 0.003), MUM-1 (p = 0.002) and CD30 (p < 0.001), (b) JunD with Ki67 (p = 0.002) and cyclin E (p = 0.014), (c) p-c-Jun with CD30 (p = 0.015), and (d) high p-c-Jun with cyclin A (p = 0.034). The positive correlation between expression of JunB, JunD and p-c-Jun and tumor cell proliferation in DLBCL, suggests that increased JunB, JunD and p-c-Jun expression may be involved in the pathogenesis of DLBCL by increasing tumor cell proliferation.

Uccini S, Al-Jadiry MF, Scarpino S, et al.
Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in children: a disease reminiscent of Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(5):716-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pediatric Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV+ DLBCL) is a rare disease in nonimmunocompromised hosts. In a review of 231 cases of malignant lymphoma (87 Hodgkin lymphoma and 144 non-Hodgkin lymphoma) occurring in Iraqi children, 7 cases (5% of NHLs) were classified as EBV+ DLBCL. Six children presented with nodal disease, and 1 presented with extranodal localization (bone). In all cases, the disease was at an advanced clinical stage (III/IV). Evidence of immunodeficiency (Evans syndrome and selective IgA deficiency) was observed in a single case. Two cases were "monomorphic" with immunoblastic histology, and 5 cases were "polymorphic" with histologic aspects reminiscent of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (2 cases) and of CD30+ classical Hodgkin lymphoma (3 cases). In all cases, tumor cells were EBV infected (EBER+/LMP-1+), were medium-large B-cells (CD20+/CD79a+/PAX-5+/BOB-1+/OCT-2+) of non-germinal center (non-GC) origin (CD10-/MUM-1+), and had high proliferative activity (50%-70%). Chromosomal translocations involving BCL2, MYC, and IGH genes were not observed. IGH monoclonality could be demonstrated in 3 of 3 investigated cases. Six cases of EBV-negative DLBCL (4% of NHL) were present in the same series. All had monomorphic histology with centroblastic/immunoblastic morphology; 3 cases were of GC type and 3 of non-GC type. Our findings indicate that in Iraq, DLBCLs are 9% of NHLs. Moreover, 2 different types of the disease do exist; the EBV-positive cases, with strong histologic and immunohistochemical resemblance with EBV+ DLBCL of the elderly, and the EBV-negative cases, which are similar to the pediatric DLBCL usually observed in Western populations.

Alapat DV, Ramos JM, Anderson J, Post GR
The utility of B-cell receptor gene rearrangement studies in diagnosing diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with plasmacytic differentiation.
Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2015; 45(1):79-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present the case of a 50-year-old man with nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma characterized by CD10, BCL-6, and BCL-2 expression and a complex karyotype, including t(14;18)(q32;q21) and del6q, suggesting transformation from an antecedent follicular lymphoma. Following rituximab-based chemotherapy, residual nodal disease was characterized by a proliferation of plasmacytoid cells positive for CD138, MUM-1, and cytoplasmic kappa light chain. Immunoglobulin heavy chain and kappa light chain gene rearrangement studies detected the same clone in the diagnostic and post-therapy lymph node specimens. This case illustrates the diagnostic utility of B-cell receptor gene rearrangement studies in detecting a clonal relationship in lymphoma cases with extensive morphologic and immunophenotypic variation following chemotherapy.

Huang H, Liu ZL, Zeng H, et al.
Clinicopathological study of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma in children.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2015; 128(4):510-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the fourth most common malignant tumors in children, Burkitt lymphoma (BL) accounts for 30-50% of all pediatric lymphomas. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features, immunophenotype, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and c-myc gene rearrangement of sporadic BL in children.
METHODS: Ninety-two cases of pediatric BL were retrospectively analyzed for clinical features, immunohistochemistry, EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) status by in situ hybridization and c-myc gene rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
RESULTS: In the 92 cases, male is predominant in sex distribution (M: F = 3.38:1). The average age at diagnosis was 4.97 years. Polypoid BL showed a lower clinical stage (P = 0.002), and advanced clinical stage and low serum albumin level at diagnosis were associated with poor outcome (P = 0.024 and 0.053, respectively). The positive expression of CDl0, B-cell lymphoma-6, MUMl and EBER were 95.7% (88 cases), 92.4% (85 cases), 22.8% (21 cases), 41.3% (38 cases), respectively. The expression of MUM1 were not associated with EBV infection status (P = 1.000). c-myc gene rearrangement was detected in 94.6% (87/92). Clinical treatment information for 54 cases was collected, 21 patients died of tumor after surgery alone, 33 patients received surgery and chemotherapy, and of which six patients died shortly afterwords (MUM1 positive expression in 3 cases, P = 0.076).
CONCLUSIONS: The anatomical location, growth pattern and serum albumin level of BL were associated with biological behavior. MUM1 may be a potential adverse prognostic marker, and not associated with EBV infection status.

Rahimi H, Jafarian A, Samadi A, et al.
Evaluation of BCL6 and MUM1 expression in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma and their correlations with staging and prognosis in Iran.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(1):83-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL), accounting for approximately 25% of NHL cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the BCL6 and MUM1 gene expression and patient prognosis and stage.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: After ethical approval, in a cross-sectional study, tissue samples of 80 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were analyzed for BCL6 and MUM1 gene expression. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with division into categories of 0-5%, 5-25%, 26-50%, 51-75% and more than 75%. Other clinical and histological information such as lymph node involvement, T-stage, B symptoms and patient outcome were also recorded. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16 and a P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.
RESULTS: The patient mean age was 46.9±10.5 years (47.6±10.7 and 46.1±9.6 for males and females, respectively). A significant association was seen between lymphoma stage and BCL6 (p=0.045) but not MUM1 expression (p=0.09). However, the latter was associated with mortality (p=0.006) as was also the BCL6 level (p=0.006).
CONCLUSIONS: : Overexpression of MUM1 and BCL6 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Huang X, Zhang Y, Gao Z
Plasmablastic lymphoma of the stomach with C-MYC rearrangement in an immunocompetent young adult: a case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(4):e470 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare B-cell neoplasm mostly described in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Herein, we described a case of PBL presenting as gastric mass in a 21-year-old young adult without known immunodeficiency. The histological examination of the specimen showed a diffuse proliferation of round- to oval-shaped large cells with scant cytoplasm, and prominent nucleoli. The neoplasm stained positively for CD45, CD38, MUM1, and Vs38C, but typical B-cell and T-cell markers (PAX5, CD20, CD79a, and CD3) were absent. The proliferative index (Ki-67) was about 95%. And the neoplastic cells diffusely expressed the c-myc protein. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA in situ hybridization was negative. Molecular genetic study via interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization disclosed the rearrangement involving c-myc gene. Awareness of this distinctive lymphoma can prevent misdiagnosis by the clinicians and/or the pathologists.

Al-Kawaaz M, Mathew S, Liu Y, et al.
Cyclin D1-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with IGH-CCND1 translocation and BCL6 rearrangement: a report of two cases.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2015; 143(2):288-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate and confirm the existence of cyclin D1-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with IGH-CCND1 rearrangement and discuss the rationale of differentiating this entity from blastoid and pleomorphic variants of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
METHODS: Two cyclin D1-positive lymphomas with morphologic features of DLBCL and IGH-CCND1 translocations were characterized with respect to clinical features, as well as morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular findings.
RESULTS: The large tumor cells were CD20+, CD5-, CD10-, BCL6+, MUM1+, and cyclin D1+ in both cases. SOX11 was negative. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA in situ hybridization demonstrated diffuse positivity in case 1. BCL6 and IGH-CCND1 rearrangements were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in both cases. Specifically, the diagnosis of a relapsed DLBCL with acquisition of IGH-CCND1 was rendered for case 1, molecularly confirmed by the detection of identical monoclonal IGH rearrangements between the initial diagnostic DLBCL and relapse lymphoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates convincingly that IGH-CCND1 rearrangement leading to cyclin D1 overexpression can occur in DLBCL and pose a potential diagnostic pitfall, requiring thorough knowledge of the clinicopathologic findings to allow accurate discrimination from a blastoid or pleomorphic MCL. The coexistence of IGH-CCND1 and IGH-BCL6 rearrangements suggest that BCL6 and cyclin D1 may cooperate in the pathogenesis of DLBCL.

Song MK, Chung JS, Lee JJ, et al.
High Ki-67 expression in involved bone marrow predicts worse clinical outcome in diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP therapy.
Int J Hematol. 2015; 101(2):140-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 10-25 % of patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) at the time of diagnosis exhibit bone marrow involvement (BMI). After introduction of rituximab, immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers lost to prognostic value in DLBCL patients. However, the specimens used have mainly been diagnostic tissues, not bone marrow (BM). It would thus be useful to determine the prognostic value of specific IHC markers of pathologic BM in DLBCL patients with BMI in the rituximab era. In the present study, a total of 580 DLBCL patients were analyzed 67 of whom had BMI. CD10, Bcl-6, MUM-1, Bcl-6 and Ki-67 dyeing on pathologic BM were applied. Bcl-2 positivity was more frequent in discordant BMI (P = 0.039) and high Ki-67 expression was more frequent in concordant BMI (P = 0.016). High Ki-67 expression independently predicted poor prognosis between the negative BMI group and each of the following BMI-positive groups: entire BMI (PFS, P < 0.001; OS, P < 0.001), concordant BMI (PFS, P = 0.024; OS, P = 0.007), and discordant BMI (PFS, P = 0.033; OS, P = 0.026). We found that Ki-67 expression in pathologic BM is a novel significant prognostic parameter of worse prognosis in DLBCL patients with BMI in the rituximab era.

Gheith S, Cornfield D, Chen W, et al.
Immunoblastic follicular lymphoma: a very unusual transformation of low-grade follicular lymphoma.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(11):2359-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 73-year-old man, in clinical remission 17 years after radiation therapy for a localized low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL), developed extensive lymphadenopathy, ascites, and splenomegaly with splenic masses. Axillary lymph node biopsy showed FL composed of nodules of centrocytes side by side with nodules of immunoblasts rather than centroblasts. Immunophenotyping revealed conventional FL markers (BCL-2, BCL-6, and CD10) as well as MUM-1 in the immunoblastic component, suggesting postgerminal center differentiation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed t(14;18) in both centrocytic and immunoblastic components and a copy gain of BCL-6 predominantly in the immunoblastic component. Areas of centrocytic and of immunoblastic nodules were macrodissected separately and underwent molecular evaluation for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement. Identical base-pair peaks were found, attesting to their clonal identity. This case represents a very unusual example of transformation of a low-grade FL to a nodular immunoblastic FL.

Zhao H, Zhang L, Guo S, et al.
Downregulated expression of Dicer1 predicts inferior survival in primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with CHOP-like regimen and rituximab.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(10):206 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to detect the expression levels of Dicer1, Drosha, DGCR8, and Ago2 messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) in patients with primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PGI-DLBCL) and determine their associations with clinical parameters and prognostic significance. The mRNA level expressions of Dicer1, Drosha, DGCR8, and Ago2 were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical staining of CD10, BCL6, and MUM1 was performed using EnVision™ system. The clinicopathologic features and follow-up data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier estimator. The results show that the expression of Dicer1 (P=0.001), Drosha (P=0.01), DGCR8 (P=0.02), and Ago2 (P=0.002) mRNAs in cancer tissues of patients with PGI-DLBCL was significantly lower than those in normal tissues of healthy controls. Among the expression of CD10, BCL6, and MUM1, 27.4% (17/62) of the patients belonged to the germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype and 72.6% (45/62) belonged to the non-GCB subtype. Dicer1 expression was significantly decreased in the non-GCB subgroup (P=0.02) and in the high International Prognostic Index (3-5 score) subgroup (P=0.03). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the low-Dicer1 subgroup had a shorter overall survival (P=0.02) and shorter progression-free survival (P=0.015) than the high-Dicer1 subgroup. Multivariate analysis identified Dicer1 as an independent prognostic factor in PGI-DLBCL. In Conclusion, Dicer1, Drosha, DGCR8, and Ago2 play key roles in the pathogenesis of PGI-DLBCL. Dicer1, an independent prognostic factor for predicting shortened survival of patients with PGI-DLBCL, can be used as a biomarker to guide the prognosis.

Guo Y, Takeuchi I, Karnan S, et al.
Array-comparative genomic hybridization profiling of immunohistochemical subgroups of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma shows distinct genomic alterations.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(4):481-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) displays striking heterogeneity at the clinical, genetic and molecular levels. Subtypes include germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL and activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL, according to microarray analysis, and germinal center type or non-germinal center type by immunohistochemistry. Although some reports have described genomic aberrations based upon microarray classification system, genomic aberrations based upon immunohistochemical classifications have rarely been reported. The present study aimed to ascertain the relationship between genomic aberrations and subtypes identified by immunohistochemistry, and to study the pathogenetic character of Chinese DLBCL. We conducted immunohistochemistry using antibodies against CD10, BCL6 and MUM1 in 59 samples of DLBCL from Chinese patients, and then performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization for each case. Characteristic genomic differences were found between GCB and non-GCB DLBCL from the array data. The GCB type was characterized by more gains at 7q (7q22.1, P < 0.05) and losses at 16q (P ≤ 0.05), while the non-GCB type was characterized by gains at 11q24.3 and 3q13.2 (P < 0.05). We found completely different mutations in BCL6+ and BCL6- non-GCB type DLBCL, whereby the BCL6- group had a higher number of gains at 1q and a loss at 14q32.13 (P ≤ 0.005), while the BCL6+ group showed a higher number of gains at 14q23.1 (P = 0.15) and losses at 6q (P = 0.07). The BCL6- group had a higher frequency of genomic imbalances compared to the BCL6+ group. In conclusion, the BCL6+ and BCL6- non-GCB type of DLBCL appear to have different mechanisms of pathogenesis.

Somja J, Bisig B, Bonnet C, et al.
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma with t(6;14)(p25;q11.2) translocation presenting with massive splenomegaly.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 464(6):735-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recurrent chromosomal translocations associated to peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are rare. Here, we report a case of PTCL, not otherwise specified (NOS) with the karyotype 46,Y,add(X)(p22),t(6;14)(p25;q11) and FISH-proved breakpoints in the IRF4 and TCRAD loci, leading to juxtaposition of both genes. A 64-year-old male patient presented with mild cytopenias and massive splenomegaly. Splenectomy showed diffuse red pulp involvement by a pleomorphic medium- to large-cell T-cell lymphoma with a CD2+ CD3+ CD5- CD7- CD4+ CD8+/- CD30- TCRbeta-F1+ immunophenotype, an activated cytotoxic profile, and strong MUM1 expression. The clinical course was marked by disease progression in the bone marrow under treatment and death at 4 months. In contrast with two t(6;14)(p25;q11.2)-positive lymphomas previously reported to be cytotoxic PTCL, NOS with bone marrow and skin involvement, this case was manifested by massive splenomegaly, expanding the clinical spectrum of PTCLs harboring t(6;14)(p25;q11.2) and supporting consideration of this translocation as a marker of biological aggressiveness.

Yang T, Zheng XF, Li M, et al.
Stimulation of osteogenic differentiation in stromal cells of giant cell tumour of bone by zoledronic acid.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(9):5379-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Therapeutic effects of zoledronic acid (ZOL) on giant cell tumour of bone (GCT) have been proven. Apoptosis induction was considered to be one of the mechanisms of ZOL tumour inhibition. In this study, we presented the possibility of an osteogenic differentiation stimulation mechanism of ZOL and further investigated dosage and time effects. We treated stromal cells of GCT (GCTSC) with ZOL for 48 hours at different concentrations (0 μM, 0.01 μM, 0.1 μM, 1 μM, 5 μM, 30 μM) and assessed apoptotic and osteogenic differentiation markers with immunohistochemical techniques and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Our results suggested that ZOL enhanced mRNA expression of Cbfa-1, osterix and osteocalcin genes with a maximum effect at 1 μM in GCTSC. Time course experiments indicated a time dependent osteogenic differentiation effect. In conclusion, ZOL may be considered as an adjuvant in the treatment of GCT not only by inducing apoptosis but also by stimulating osteogenic differentiation of remaining tumor stromal cells after surgery.

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