Gene Summary

Gene:NFIB; nuclear factor I B
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nuclear factor 1 B-type
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: NFIB (cancer-related)

Yang W, Lee KW, Srivastava RM, et al.
Immunogenic neoantigens derived from gene fusions stimulate T cell responses.
Nat Med. 2019; 25(5):767-775 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Anti-tumor immunity is driven by self versus non-self discrimination. Many immunotherapeutic approaches to cancer have taken advantage of tumor neoantigens derived from somatic mutations. Here, we demonstrate that gene fusions are a source of immunogenic neoantigens that can mediate responses to immunotherapy. We identified an exceptional responder with metastatic head and neck cancer who experienced a complete response to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, despite a low mutational load and minimal pre-treatment immune infiltration in the tumor. Using whole-genome sequencing and RNA sequencing, we identified a novel gene fusion and demonstrated that it produces a neoantigen that can specifically elicit a host cytotoxic T cell response. In a cohort of head and neck tumors with low mutation burden, minimal immune infiltration and prevalent gene fusions, we also identified gene fusion-derived neoantigens that generate cytotoxic T cell responses. Finally, analyzing additional datasets of fusion-positive cancers, including checkpoint-inhibitor-treated tumors, we found evidence of immune surveillance resulting in negative selective pressure against gene fusion-derived neoantigens. These findings highlight an important class of tumor-specific antigens and have implications for targeting gene fusion events in cancers that would otherwise be less poised for response to immunotherapy, including cancers with low mutational load and minimal immune infiltration.

Xu LH, Zhao F, Yang WW, et al.
MYB promotes the growth and metastasis of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(5):1579-1590 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
The incidence of recurrent t(6;9) translocation of the MYB proto‑oncogene to NFIB (the gene that encodes nuclear factor 1 B‑type) in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) tumour tissues is high. However, MYB [the gene that encodes transcriptional activator Myb (MYB)] overexpression is more common, indicating that MYB serves a key role in ACC. The current study aimed to investigate the role of MYB in salivary (S)ACC growth and metastasis. A total of 50 fresh‑frozen SACC tissues and 41 fresh‑frozen normal submandibular gland (SMG) tissues were collected to measure MYB mRNA expression, and to analyse the associations between MYB and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Compared with normal SMG tissue, SACC tissues demonstrated significantly increased MYB expression, with a high expression rate of 90%. Interestingly, MYB tended to be negatively correlated with CDH1 [the gene that encodes cadherin‑1 (E‑cadherin)] and positively correlated with VIM (the gene that encodes vimentin), suggesting that MYB is associated with SACC metastasis. To explore the role of MYB in SACC, the authors stably overexpressed and knocked down MYB in SACC cells. The authors of the current study demonstrated that MYB overexpression promoted SACC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas its knockdown inhibited these activities. Additionally, when MYB was overexpressed, CDH1 expression was downregulated, and CDH2 (the gene that encodes cadherin‑2), VIM and ACTA2 (the gene that encodes actin, aortic smooth muscle) expression was upregulated. Then, the effect of MYB on lung tumour metastasis was investigated in vivo in non‑obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice. MYB overexpressing and control cells were injected into the mice through the tail vein. The results revealed that MYB promoted SACC lung metastasis. Collectively, these results demonstrated that MYB is aberrantly overexpressed in SACC tissues, and promotes SACC cell proliferation and metastasis, indicating that MYB may be a novel therapeutic target for SACC.

D'Almeida O, Mothar O, Bondzie EA, et al.
Encapsulated miR-200c and Nkx2.1 in a nuclear/mitochondria transcriptional regulatory network of non-metastatic and metastatic lung cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):136 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are noncoding RNA molecules of ~ 22 nucleotides with diagnostic and therapeutic action [Curr Drug Targets, 2015. 16(12): p. 1381-403], affecting the expression of mRNAs involved in invasion, migration, and development [Oncotarget, 2015. 6(9): p. 6472-98, Cancer Manag Res, 2014. 6: p. 205-16]. miR-200c is part of the miR-200c/141 cluster on chromosome 12p13. Its mechanism of action when encapsulated is critical in lung cancer when patients express changes in miRNAs. miR-200c be a potential biomarkers for various lung diseases. As a potential therapy, miR-200c can impacts lives as target lung cancer is a leading cause of death with about 234,000 cases annually, high heterogeneity, complex screening, and a 5-year survival rate of 16% [CA Cancer J Clin, 2016.66(1): p. 7-30]. Encapsulated miR-200c efficiently enhances bioavailability, pharmacokinetics of therapeutics and targeting to cells, improves efficacy and provides potential cure.
METHODS: The functions of miR-200c were determined in non-metastatic KW-634 and metastatic 821-T4 and 821-LN mouse lung cancer cell lines after various Nano vehicle treatments. Viability and cytotoxicity were determined by cell cycle and quantitative real-time PCR analyses were used to quantify levels of miR-200c and its target genes. In situ hybridization was used to visualize patterns of expression of miR-200c and others in the lung and many organs. Next-generation sequencing accession number GSE125000, invasion and migration assays using transwell chambers, and ActivSignal were used to elucidate the activation and inhibition profiles and perform direct expression measurements and modification of cellular components.
RESULTS: Due to their effectiveness as intracellular vesicles transporting miR-200c into, out, and between parts of the cells, miR-200c is encapsulated with cholesterol, an integral part of the biological membranes with very important physical properties of the vehicle. Nano miR-200c showed efficient cellular uptake in KW-634, 821-T4, and 821-LN cells with important changes in gene expression and new isoforms. In KW-634, when treated with encapsulated miR-200c and compare to the non-encapsulated control; miR-29b increased by 5261-fold, and in 821-T4/LN, miR-1247 increased by 150-fold. Conversely, miR-1247 and miR-675 decreased by 348 and 1029.5-fold, respectively. miR-189 decreased by 34-fold in treated 821-T4 cells. A reduction of growth was observed only after 48 h of treatment with Nano miR-200c. Moreover, labeling the vehicle with carboxy-fluorescein showed that the encapsulated particles enter the nucleus and mitochondria. Encapsulated miR-200c by entering the cells, the nucleus and mitochondria, trigger changes in cell cycle phases with 4 up to 12 fold percentage in G2 and S phase respectively compare to miR-200c. Endogenous expression of Nkx2.1, miR-200c, and their targets Myb, Nfib, Six4 and Six1 showed an inverse correlation, as observed in development.
CONCLUSIONS: Little is known about miR-200c involvement in regulatory processes. Nano miR-200c affects invasion and migration mechanisms. The expression of encapsulated miR-200c contributes to the inhibition/activation of Kras, EMT, Hippo, regulatory pathways and blockers of metastasis. Delivery of miR-200c increases the expression of miR-29b, an EMY regulator, and miR-1247, an inhibitor of cancer genes, both tumor suppressors involved in lung metastasis. Encapsulated miR-200c act on different proteins that regulates cell cycle pathways. These findings represent a part of a regulatory network providing new insights towards improvement of therapy.

Clemenceau A, Gaudreault N, Henry C, et al.
Tumor-based gene expression biomarkers to predict survival following curative intent resection for stage I lung adenocarcinoma.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0207513 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prognostic biomarkers are needed in clinical setting to predict outcome after resection for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. The goal of this study is to validate tumor-based single-gene expression biomarkers with demonstrated prognostic value in order to move them along the clinical translation pipeline.
METHODS: Prognostic genes were selected from the literature and the best candidates measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in tumors of 233 patients with stage I adenocarcinoma. Significant prognostic genes were then validated in an independent set of 210 patients matching the first set in terms of histology, stage, and clinical data.
RESULTS: Eleven genes with demonstrated prognostic value were selected from the literature. Complementary analyses in public databases and our own microarray dataset led to the investigation of six genes associated with good (BTG2, SELENBP1 and NFIB) or poor outcome (RRM1, EZH2 and FOXM1). In the first set of patients, EZH2 and RRM1 were significantly associated with better survival on top of age, sex and pathological stage (EZH2 p = 3.2e-02, RRM1 p = 5.9e-04). The prognostic values of EZH2 and RRM1 were not replicated in the second set of patients. A trend was observed for both genes in the joint analyses (n = 443) with higher expression associated with worse outcome.
CONCLUSION: Adenocarcinoma-specific mRNA expression levels of EZH2 and RRM1 are associated with poor post-surgical survival in the first set of patients, but not replicated in a clinically and pathologically matched independent validation set. This study highlights challenges associated with clinical translation of prognostic biomarkers.

Liu Z, Chen J, Yuan W, et al.
Nuclear factor I/B promotes colorectal cancer cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and 5-fluorouracil resistance.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(1):86-98 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Nuclear factor I/B (NFIB) is a widely studied transcription factor that participates in tumor progression; nevertheless, studies on NFIB in colorectal cancer (CRC) are limited. In our study, Western blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that NFIB was overexpressed in CRC tissues and cell lines, which was consistent with our bioinformatic analysis results. Furthermore, NFIB expression was closely related to the TNM stage of CRC. NFIB promoted cell proliferation and migration and inhibited cell apoptosis in vitro. Meanwhile, we discovered that NFIB accelerated xenograft tumor growth in vivo. In addition, NFIB weakened the sensitivity of CRC cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). NFIB induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by upregulating snail expression, which was accompanied by decreased E-cadherin and Zo-1 expression and increasedd Vimentin expression. Because the Akt pathway plays an important role in CRC progression, we examined whether there was a correlation between NFIB and the Akt pathway in cell proliferation and migration. Our results showed that NFIB promoted cell proliferation and increased 5-FU resistance by activating the Akt pathway. In summary, our findings suggested that NFIB induced EMT of CRC cells via upregulating snail expression and promoted cell proliferation and 5-FU resistance by activating the Akt pathway.

Brun M, Jain S, Monckton EA, Godbout R
Nuclear Factor I Represses the Notch Effector HEY1 in Glioblastoma.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(10):1023-1037 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly aggressive brain tumors with a dismal prognosis. Nuclear factor I (NFI) is a family of transcription factors that controls glial cell differentiation in the developing central nervous system. NFIs have previously been shown to regulate the expression of astrocyte markers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in both normal brain and GBM cells. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip to identify additional NFI targets in GBM cells. Analysis of our ChIP data revealed ~400 putative NFI target genes including an effector of the Notch signaling pathway, HEY1, implicated in the maintenance of neural stem cells. All four NFIs (NFIA, NFIB, NFIC, and NFIX) bind to NFI recognition sites located within 1 kb upstream of the HEY1 transcription site. We further showed that NFI negatively regulates HEY1 expression, with knockdown of all four NFIs in GBM cells resulting in increased HEY1 RNA levels. HEY1 knockdown in GBM cells decreased cell proliferation, increased cell migration, and decreased neurosphere formation. Finally, we found a general correlation between elevated levels of HEY1 and expression of the brain neural stem/progenitor cell marker B-FABP in GBM cell lines. Knockdown of HEY1 resulted in an increase in the RNA levels of the GFAP astrocyte differentiation marker. Overall, our data indicate that HEY1 is negatively regulated by NFI family members and is associated with increased proliferation, decreased migration, and increased stem cell properties in GBM cells.

Andreasen S, Tan Q, Agander TK, et al.
MicroRNA dysregulation in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland in relation to prognosis and gene fusion status: a cohort study.
Virchows Arch. 2018; 473(3):329-340 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is among the most frequent malignancies of the salivary gland, and is notorious for its prolonged clinical course characterized by frequent recurrences often years after initial treatment. No molecular marker has been shown to have independent prognostic value in ACC, including characteristic gene fusions involving MYB, MYBL1, and NFIB. MicroRNA has been shown to be associated with clinical outcome in numerous malignancies, including one study of ACC, warranting further validation of this class of markers in this disease. Here, we investigate the prognostic value of microRNA in two ACC cohorts: a training cohort (n = 64) and a validation cohort (n = 120) with microarray and qPCR. In the training cohort, multivariate analysis of microarray data found high expression of hsa-miR-6835-3p to be associated with reduced recurrence-free survival (RFS) (p = 0.016). Measuring the highest ranking microRNAs identified in survival analysis in the same cohort, qPCR identified high expression of hsa-miR-4676 to be associated with reduced overall survival (OS) and high expression of hsa-mir-1180 to be associated with improved RFS. This was not confirmed in the validation cohort, in which qPCR identified high expression of hsa-mir-21, hsa-mir-181a-2, and hsa-mir-152 to be associated with reduced OS and high expression of hsa-miR-374c to be associated with improved RFS. Interestingly, two distinct subsets of ACC separated in microRNA expression irrespective of gene fusion status, but without significant difference in outcome. Collectively, qPCR identified several microRNAs associated with OS and RFS, and different subsets of ACC separated according to microRNA expression, suggestive of ACC being a heterogeneous group of malignancies in its microRNA profile.

Wu C, Zhu X, Liu W, et al.
NFIB promotes cell growth, aggressiveness, metastasis and EMT of gastric cancer through the Akt/Stat3 signaling pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(3):1565-1573 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear factor I/B (NFIB) plays a crucial role in the progression of several types of cancers. However, its role in gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. The present study revealed that NFIB was highly expressed in GC tissues and was positively associated with the clinicopathological features of GC patients. Downregulation of NFIB inhibited the tumor growth, migration and aggression of MKN45 and HGC27 cells in vitro. In addition, NFIB expression promoted epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was accompanied with decreased E‑cadherin and increased vimentin expression. Since AKT and Stat3 play an important role in EMT and tumor progression, we examined whether there is a correlation between NFIB and AKT/Stat3 signaling pathways in GC. Our results revealed that NFIB exhibits its oncogenic functions in GC development by regulating the phosphorylation of both AKT and Stat3 molecules. Knocking down the NFIB expression may enhance the phosphorylation of AKT while inhibiting the Stat3 phosphorylation, suggesting that the AKT/Stat3 signaling pathway may be the downstream target of NFIB with which it exerts its roles on GC development. These results revealed that NFIB promotes tumor growth and aggressiveness of GC. In addition, downregulation of NFIB alters the protein kinase B/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (AKT/Stat3) axis, which could be a potential molecular mechanism for precise target treatment of GC.

Šteiner P, Andreasen S, Grossmann P, et al.
Prognostic significance of 1p36 locus deletion in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands.
Virchows Arch. 2018; 473(4):471-480 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) of the salivary glands is characterized by MYB-NFIB or MYBL1-NFIB fusion, prolonged but relentlessly progressive clinical course with frequent recurrences, and development of distant metastasis resulting in high long-term mortality. Currently, no effective therapy is available for patients with advanced non-resectable and/or metastatic disease. Complicating the clinical management of this patient group is the lack of prognostic markers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of 1p36 loss in patients with AdCC. The presence of 1p36 deletion and gene fusions involving the MYB, NFIB, and MYBL1 genes in a cohort of 93 salivary gland AdCCs was studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization. These results were statistically correlated with clinical data and outcome. Deletion of 1p36 in AdCC was identified in 13 of 85 analyzable cases (15.29%). MYB-NFIB fusion was detected in 57/85 (67.1%), MYBL1-NFIB fusion in 12/85 (14.1%), MYB-X fusion in 4/85 (4.7%), MYBL1-X in 4/85 (4.7%), and NFIB-X in 2/85 (2.4%) of AdCC cases. None of the 1p36-deleted samples showed MYBL1 rearrangement. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between 1p36 deletion and advanced tumor stage and solid histology (p = 0.0061 and 0.0007, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant correlations between 1p36 deletion and decreased overall survival, disease-specific survival, recurrence-free interval, and recurrence-free survival, all of which were maintained in multivariate analysis. We demonstrate that 1p36 deletion can serve as an indicator of unfavorable outcome of patients with salivary gland AdCC.

Chahal M, Pleasance E, Grewal J, et al.
Personalized oncogenomic analysis of metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma: using whole-genome sequencing to inform clinical decision-making.
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2018; 4(2) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Metastatic adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Because of their slow growth and relative rarity, there is limited evidence for systemic therapy regimens. Recently, molecular profiling studies have begun to reveal the genetic landscape of these poorly understood cancers, and new treatment possibilities are beginning to emerge. The objective is to use whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing and analysis to better understand the genetic alterations underlying the pathology of metastatic and rare ACCs and determine potentially actionable therapeutic targets. We report five cases of metastatic ACC, not originating in the salivary glands, in patients enrolled in the Personalized Oncogenomics (POG) Program at the BC Cancer Agency. Genomic workup included whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing, detailed analysis of tumor alterations, and integration with existing knowledge of drug-target combinations to identify potential therapeutic targets. Analysis reveals low mutational burden in these five ACC cases, and mutation signatures that are commonly observed in multiple cancer types. Notably, the only recurrent structural aberration identified was the well-described

Kyrpychova L, Vanecek T, Grossmann P, et al.
Small Subset of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Skin Is Associated With Alterations of the MYBL1 Gene Similar to Their Extracutaneous Counterparts.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2018; 40(10):721-726 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the skin is a rare malignant neoplasm histologically identical to homonymous tumors in other organs. Cutaneous ACC has been found to harbor MYB gene activations, either through MYB chromosomal abnormalities or by generation of the MYB-NFIB fusion. In salivary gland ACC, in addition to the MYB gene, alterations in MYBL1, the gene closely related to MYB, have been reported. We studied 10 cases of cutaneous ACC (6 women, 4 men; and age range 51-83 years) for alterations in the MYB, NFIB, and MYBL1 genes, using FISH and PCR. MYB break-apart and NFIB break-apart tests were positive in 4 and 5 cases, respectively. MYB-NFIB fusions were found in 4 cases. The break of MYBL1 was found in 2 cases, and in one of them, the NFIB break-apart probe was positive, strongly indicating a MYBL1-NFIB fusion. In 2 cases, the MYB break-apart test was positive, whereas no MYB-NFIB was detected, strongly suggesting another fusion partner. It is concluded that MYBL1 alterations are detected in primary cutaneous ACC but are apparently less common compared with MYB and NFIB alterations.

Andreasen S, Tan Q, Agander TK, et al.
Adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary gland, lacrimal gland, and breast are morphologically and genetically similar but have distinct microRNA expression profiles.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(8):1211-1225 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma is among the most frequent malignancies in the salivary and lacrimal glands and has a grave prognosis characterized by frequent local recurrences, distant metastases, and tumor-related mortality. Conversely, adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare type of triple-negative (estrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2) and basal-like carcinoma, which in contrast to other triple-negative and basal-like breast carcinomas has a very favorable prognosis. Irrespective of site, adenoid cystic carcinoma is characterized by gene fusions involving MYB, MYBL1, and NFIB, and the reason for the different clinical outcomes is unknown. In order to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the discrepancy in clinical outcome, we characterized the phenotypic profiles, pattern of gene rearrangements, and global microRNA expression profiles of 64 salivary gland, 9 lacrimal gland, and 11 breast adenoid cystic carcinomas. All breast and lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinomas had triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes, while salivary gland tumors were indeterminate in 13% of cases. Aberrations in MYB and/or NFIB were found in the majority of cases in all three locations, whereas MYBL1 involvement was restricted to tumors in the salivary gland. Global microRNA expression profiling separated salivary and lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma from their respective normal glands but could not distinguish normal breast adenoid cystic carcinoma from normal breast tissue. Hierarchical clustering separated adenoid cystic carcinomas of salivary gland origin from those of the breast and placed lacrimal gland carcinomas in between these. Functional annotation of the microRNAs differentially expressed between salivary gland and breast adenoid cystic carcinoma showed these as regulating genes involved in metabolism, signal transduction, and genes involved in other cancers. In conclusion, microRNA dysregulation is the first class of molecules separating adenoid cystic carcinoma according to the site of origin. This highlights a novel venue for exploring the biology of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

Togashi Y, Dobashi A, Sakata S, et al.
MYB and MYBL1 in adenoid cystic carcinoma: diversity in the mode of genomic rearrangement and transcripts.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(6):934-946 [PubMed] Related Publications
MYB-NFIB and MYBL1-NFIB have been reported in ~60% of adenoid cystic carcinoma cases, but driver alterations in the remaining ~40% of adenoid cystic carcinoma remain unclear. We examined 100 adenoid cystic carcinoma cases for MYB and MYBL1 locus rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with originally designed probe sets using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials. Approximately one-third of samples were also analyzed by fusion transcript-specific RT-PCR and capture RNA sequencing. In the 27 cases with frozen materials, MYB-NFIB and MYBL1-NFIB fusion transcripts were detected in 9 (33%) and 6 cases (22%) by RT-PCR, respectively. Meanwhile, high expression of MYB (18 cases, 67%) or MYBL1 (9 cases, 33%) was detected in all 27 cases in a mutually exclusive manner, regardless of its form (full-length, truncation, or fusion transcript). Interestingly, genomic rearrangements around the corresponding highly-expressed gene were observed in all 27 cases by FISH, suggesting a causative relationship between genomic rearrangements and gene expression. Among the 100 cases, including additional 73 cases, 97 harbored genomic rearrangements in the MYB (73 cases) or MYBL1 locus (24 cases) including 10 cases with atypical FISH patterns undetectable through ordinary split FISH approaches: breakpoints far distant from MYB (5 cases) and a small NFIB locus insertion into the MYB (3 cases) or MYBL1 locus (2 cases). In clinicopathological analyses, histological grade, primary tumor size, and lymph node metastasis were identified as prognostic factors, whereas MYB/MYBL1 rearrangements were not, but were associated with histological grade. In the present study, MYB or MYBL1 locus rearrangement was detected in nearly all adenoid cystic carcinoma cases, and therefore it would be a good diagnostic marker for adenoid cystic carcinoma. However, fusion transcript-specific RT-PCR for MYB-NFIB and MYBL1-NFIB and ordinary split FISH assays for MYB and MYBL1 were less sensitive, and thus detection methods should be judiciously designed because of the diversity of rearrangement modes in adenoid cystic carcinoma.

Ono J, Okada Y
Study of MYB-NFIB chimeric gene expression, tumor angiogenesis, and proliferation in adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary gland.
Odontology. 2018; 106(3):238-244 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is one of the common malignant tumors in salivary glands, and the clinical prognosis is poor with frequent distant metastasis which may lead to death. Expression of the MYB-NFIB chimeric gene in ACC has been reported recently. MYB is an oncogene with transcription regulating functions, and NFIB encodes nuclear transcription factor although detailed functions are unknown. This study investigated whether MYB-NFIB chimeric gene expression affects tumor angiogenesis and proliferation in salivary gland ACC. In 26 salivary gland ACC cases, MYB-NFIB chimeric gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and direct sequencing. Immunohistochemical studies for CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Ki-67 were performed. Tumor angiogenesis was evaluated by blood vessel (CD31-positive) density and tumor proliferation by Ki-67 labeling index, and the relationship with MYB-NFIB chimeric gene expression was analyzed. MYB-NFIB chimeric gene expression was detected in nine of 26 ACC cases. Blood vessel density was significantly higher in chimeric gene-expressing cases compared to non-expressing cases. VEGF score tended to be higher in chimeric gene-expressing cases than in non-expressing cases, while Ki-67 labeling index was not significantly different. The number of chimeric gene-expressing cases increased with age, peaking in the sixties age group and declining thereafter, while the number of non-expressing cases increased with age continuously. In ACC, blood vessel density was significantly higher in MYB-NFIB chimeric gene-expressing cases compared to non-expressing cases, which may be due to higher VEGF production capability. MYB-NFIB chimeric gene expression may also be related to the onset age of ACC.

Campbell TM, Castro MAA, de Oliveira KG, et al.
ERα Binding by Transcription Factors NFIB and YBX1 Enables FGFR2 Signaling to Modulate Estrogen Responsiveness in Breast Cancer.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(2):410-421 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Two opposing clusters of transcription factors (TF) have been associated with the differential risks of estrogen receptor positive or negative breast cancers, but the mechanisms underlying the opposing functions of the two clusters are undefined. In this study, we identified NFIB and YBX1 as novel interactors of the estrogen receptor (ESR1). NFIB and YBX1 are both risk TF associated with progression of ESR1-negative disease. Notably, they both interacted with the ESR1-FOXA1 complex and inhibited the transactivational potential of ESR1. Moreover, signaling through FGFR2, a known risk factor in breast cancer development, augmented these interactions and further repressed ESR1 target gene expression. We therefore show that members of two opposing clusters of risk TFs associated with ESR1-positive and -negative breast cancer can physically interact. We postulate that this interaction forms a toggle between two developmental pathways affected by FGFR2 signaling, possibly offering a junction to exploit therapeutically.

Kim J, Geyer FC, Martelotto LG, et al.
MYBL1 rearrangements and MYB amplification in breast adenoid cystic carcinomas lacking the MYB-NFIB fusion gene.
J Pathol. 2018; 244(2):143-150 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Breast adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), a rare type of triple-negative breast cancer, has been shown to be driven by MYB pathway activation, most often underpinned by the MYB-NFIB fusion gene. Alternative genetic mechanisms, such as MYBL1 rearrangements, have been reported in MYB-NFIB-negative salivary gland AdCCs. Here we report on the molecular characterization by massively parallel sequencing of four breast AdCCs lacking the MYB-NFIB fusion gene. In two cases, we identified MYBL1 rearrangements (MYBL1-ACTN1 and MYBL1-NFIB), which were associated with MYBL1 overexpression. A third AdCC harboured a high-level MYB amplification, which resulted in MYB overexpression at the mRNA and protein levels. RNA-sequencing and whole-genome sequencing revealed no definite alternative driver in the fourth AdCC studied, despite high levels of MYB expression and the activation of pathways similar to those activated in MYB-NFIB-positive AdCCs. In this case, a deletion encompassing the last intron and part of exon 15 of MYB, including the binding site of ERG-1, a transcription factor that may downregulate MYB, and the exon 15 splice site, was detected. In conclusion, we demonstrate that MYBL1 rearrangements and MYB amplification probably constitute alternative genetic drivers of breast AdCCs, functioning through MYBL1 or MYB overexpression. These observations emphasize that breast AdCCs probably constitute a convergent phenotype, whereby activation of MYB and MYBL1 and their downstream targets can be driven by the MYB-NFIB fusion gene, MYBL1 rearrangements, MYB amplification, or other yet to be identified mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Xie M, Wu X, Zhang J, et al.
The Prognostic Significance of Notch1 and Fatty Acid Binding Protein 7 (FABP7) Expression in Resected Tracheobronchial Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.
Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 50(4):1064-1073 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the trachea and bronchus is a rare tumor. Although MYB-NFIB oncogene fusion and Notch1 mutation have been identified in ACC, little is known about the expression and clinical significance of Notch1 and its target gene fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7) in tracheobronchial ACC.
Materials and Methods: Primary tracheobronchial ACC that were resected between 1998 and 2014 were identified through the pathology and oncology database from five thoracic oncology centers in China. A tissue array was constructed from the patients' samples and the expressions of Notch1 and FABP7 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The association between the expression of both markers and survival was determined.
RESULTS: Overexpression of Notch1 and FABP7, detected in 37.8% and 38.3% of 368 patients with tracheobronchial ACC, respectively, was an independent prognostic indicator for recurrencefree survival (RFS) by multivariable Cox proportional hazard model (p=0.032 and p=0.048, respectively). Overexpression of Notch1, but not of FABP7, predicted overall survival (OS) (p=0.018). When categorized into four groups according to coexpression of Notch1 and FABP7, patients with overexpression of both Notch1 and FABP7 belonged to the group with the shortest RFS and OS (p=0.01 and p=0.048, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Expression of Notch1 and FABP7, and coexpression of Notch1 and FABP7, is strongly associated with poor survival in resected tracheobronchial ACC. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that poor differentiation of tracheobronchial ACC correlates with the activation of Notch signaling.

Bishop JA, Westra WH
MYB Translocation Status in Salivary Gland Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma: Evaluation of Classic, Variant, and Hybrid Forms.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(3):319-325 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a malignant salivary gland neoplasm comprised of a biphasic arrangement of inner luminal ductal cells and outer myoepithelial cells. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is also a biphasic tumor comprised of ductal and myoepithelial cells, but these components tend to be arranged in a more cribriform pattern. The occurrence of "hybrid carcinomas" that show mixed patterns of EMC and AdCC raises questions about the relationship of these morphologically overlapping but clinically distinct tumors. AdCCs frequently harbor MYB-NFIB gene fusions. Mapping of EMCs (including hybrid forms with an AdCC component) for this fusion could help clarify the true nature of EMC as a distinct entity or simply as some variant form of AdCC. Twenty-nine cases of EMC were evaluated including 15 classic low-grade EMCs, 7 intermediate-grade EMCs, 2 EMCs with myoepithelial anaplasia, 1 EMC with high-grade transformation, and 4 hybrid EMCs with an AdCC component. Break apart fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYB was performed, as was MYB immunohistochemistry. For the hybrid carcinomas and those with high-grade transformation, the divergent tumor components were separately analyzed. A MYB translocation was identified in 5 of 28 (18%) tumors including 3 of 4 (75%) hybrid carcinomas and 2 of 7 (29%) intermediate-grade EMCs. For the positive hybrid carcinomas, the fusion was detected in both the EMC and AdCC components. The MYB fusion was not detected in any of the classic EMCs (0/15) or in any of the EMCs with myoepithelial anaplasia (0/2) or high-grade transformation (0/1). The fluorescence in situ hybridization assay was unsuccessful in 1 case. MYB immunostaining was seen in 5 of 5 fusion-positive cases, and also 9 of 23 fusion-negative tumors. Classic low-grade EMCs are genetically distinct from AdCCs in that they do not harbor MYB fusions. The presence of a MYB fusion in EMCs showing hybrid features of AdCC or exhibiting highly infiltrative growth points to a subset of these tumors that may well be true AdCCs masquerading as EMCs.

Skálová A, Stenman G, Simpson RHW, et al.
The Role of Molecular Testing in the Differential Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Carcinomas.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(2):e11-e27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Salivary gland neoplasms are a morphologically heterogenous group of lesions that are often diagnostically challenging. In recent years, considerable progress in salivary gland taxonomy has been reached by the discovery of tumor type-specific fusion oncogenes generated by chromosome translocations. This review describes the clinicopathologic features of a selected group of salivary gland carcinomas with a focus on their distinctive genomic characteristics. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma is a recently described entity characterized by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma is a low-grade tumor with infrequent nodal and distant metastasis, recently shown to harbor an EWSR1-ATF1 gene fusion. The CRTC1-MAML2 fusion gene resulting from a t(11;19)(q21;p13) translocation, is now known to be a feature of both low-grade and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas associated with improved survival. A t(6;9)(q22-23;p23-34) translocation resulting in a MYB-NFIB gene fusion has been identified in the majority of adenoid cystic carcinomas. Polymorphous (low-grade) adenocarcinoma and cribriform adenocarcinoma of (minor) salivary gland origin are related entities with partly differing clinicopathologic and genomic profiles; they are the subject of an ongoing taxonomic debate. Polymorphous (low-grade) adenocarcinomas are characterized by hot spot point E710D mutations in the PRKD1 gene, whereas cribriform adenocarcinoma of (minor) salivary glands origin are characterized by translocations involving the PRKD1-3 genes. Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a high-grade adenocarcinoma with morphologic and molecular features akin to invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, including HER2 gene amplification, mutations of TP53, PIK3CA, and HRAS and loss or mutation of PTEN. Notably, a recurrent NCOA4-RET fusion has also been found in SDC. A subset of SDC with apocrine morphology is associated with overexpression of androgen receptors. As these genetic aberrations are recurrent they serve as powerful diagnostic tools in salivary gland tumor diagnosis, and therefore also in refinement of salivary gland cancer classification. Moreover, they are promising as prognostic biomarkers and targets of therapy.

Lacaria M, El Demellawy D, McGowan-Jordan J
A rare case of pediatric lipoma with t(9;12)(p22;q14) and evidence of HMGA2-NFIB gene fusion.
Cancer Genet. 2017; 216-217:100-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lipoma is a benign tumor, typically of adulthood, with characteristic cytogenetic findings, including rearrangement of 12q13-15; these rearrangements often lead to the fusion of the HMGA2 gene at this locus to the transcriptional regulatory domain of its fusion partner, resulting in neomorphic activity that presumably facilitates the neoplastic process. Herein, we report a rare case of pediatric lipoma with t(9;12)(p22;q14) and evidence of HMGA2-NFIB gene fusion in a 9 year-old boy. This case provides further evidence of the link between NFIB rearrangement and early-onset, deep-seated lipomatous tumors.

Chen KS, Lim JWC, Richards LJ, Bunt J
The convergent roles of the nuclear factor I transcription factors in development and cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 410:124-138 [PubMed] Related Publications
The nuclear factor I (NFI) transcription factors play important roles during normal development and have been associated with developmental abnormalities in humans. All four family members, NFIA, NFIB, NFIC and NFIX, have a homologous DNA binding domain and function by regulating cell proliferation and differentiation via the transcriptional control of their target genes. More recently, NFI genes have also been implicated in cancer based on genomic analyses and studies of animal models in a variety of tumours across multiple organ systems. However, the association between their functions in development and in cancer is not well described. In this review, we summarise the evidence suggesting a converging role for the NFI genes in development and cancer. Our review includes all cancer types in which the NFI genes are implicated, focusing predominantly on studies demonstrating their oncogenic or tumour-suppressive potential. We conclude by presenting the challenges impeding our understanding of NFI function in cancer biology, and demonstrate how a developmental perspective may contribute towards overcoming such hurdles.

Andersson MK, Afshari MK, Andrén Y, et al.
Targeting the Oncogenic Transcriptional Regulator MYB in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma by Inhibition of IGF1R/AKT Signaling.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017; 109(9) [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive cancer with no curative treatment for patients with recurrent/metastatic disease. The MYB-NFIB gene fusion is the main genomic hallmark and a potential therapeutic target.
Methods: Oncogenic signaling pathways were studied in cultured cells and/or tumors from 15 ACC patients. Phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) arrays were used to study the activity of RTKs. Effects of RTK inhibition on cell proliferation were analyzed with AlamarBlue, sphere assays, and two ACC xenograft models (n = 4-9 mice per group). The molecular effects of MYB-NFIB knockdown and IGF1R inhibition were studied with quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, and gene expression microarrays. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results: The MYB-NFIB fusion drives proliferation of ACC cells and is crucial for spherogenesis. Intriguingly, the fusion is regulated through AKT-dependent signaling induced by IGF1R overexpression and is downregulated upon IGF1R-inhibition (% expression of control ± SD = 27.2 ± 1.3, P < .001). MYB-NFIB regulates genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication/repair, and RNA processing. The transcriptional program induced by MYB-NFIB affects critical oncogenic mediators normally controlled by MYC and is reversed by pharmacological inhibition of IGF1R. Co-activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and MET promoted proliferation of ACC cells, and combined targeting of IGFR1/EGFR/MET induced differentiation and synergistically inhibited the growth of patient-derived xenografted ACCs (ACCX5M1, % growth of control ± SD = 34.9 ± 20.3, P = .006; ACCX6, % growth of control ± SD = 24.1 ± 17.5, P = .04).
Conclusions: MYB-NFIB is an oncogenic driver and a key therapeutic target in ACC that is regulated by AKT-dependent IGF1R signaling. Our studies uncover a new strategy to target an oncogenic transcriptional master regulator and provide new important insights into the biology and treatment of ACC.

Rito M, Fonseca I
Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Does Morphological Diversity Reflect Tumor Heterogeneity.
Pathobiology. 2018; 85(1-2):85-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Salivary gland tumor classification encompasses a vast list of benign and malignant neoplasms. Their morphological diversity is recognized not only between different entities but also within individual tumors. Tumor categories as described by the World Health Organization reflect, in part, a true genetic heterogeneity (e.g., translocations involving CRTC1 and CRTC3-MAML2 genes in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and MYB-NFIB fusion in adenoid cystic carcinoma). Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma shows diversity in its histological appearance, but recurrent rearrangements on PLAG1 and HMGA2 are common to its benign precursor. More recently, new categories have been defined, like secretory carcinoma with the t(12;15) (p13;q25) ETV6-NTRK3 translocation and clear-cell carcinoma with EWSR1-ATF1 fusion. Recent studies on cribriform adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland origin and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma point to a correlation with their morphological features. All of these advances show that the search of a histogenetic and genetic basis for salivary gland tumors is helping to clarify morphological categories and unraveling new ones. Nevertheless, currently morphology is still the hallmark of tumor classification and the gold standard. The therapeutic options for advanced tumors remain very limited but the discovery of translocation-generated gene fusions and increased knowledge of the genomic information of salivary gland tumors is creating opportunities for the development of specific targeted therapies.

Chen C, Choudhury S, Wangsa D, et al.
A multiplex preclinical model for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland identifies regorafenib as a potential therapeutic drug.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):11410 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) are rare salivary gland cancers with a high incidence of metastases. In order to study this tumor type, a reliable model system exhibiting the molecular features of this tumor is critical, but none exists, thereby inhibiting in-vitro studies and the analysis of metastatic behavior. To address this deficiency, we have coupled an efficient method to establish tumor cell cultures, conditional reprogramming (CR), with a rapid, reproducible and robust in-vivo zebrafish model. We have established cell cultures from two individual ACC PDX tumors that maintain the characteristic MYB translocation. Additional mutations found in one ACC culture also seen in the PDX tumor. Finally, the CR/zebrafish model mirrors the PDX mouse model and identifies regorafenib as a potential therapeutic drug to treat this cancer type that mimic the drug sensitivity profile in PDX model, further confirming the unique advantages of multiplex system.

Bishop JA, Andreasen S, Hang JF, et al.
HPV-related Multiphenotypic Sinonasal Carcinoma: An Expanded Series of 49 Cases of the Tumor Formerly Known as HPV-related Carcinoma With Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma-like Features.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2017; 41(12):1690-1701 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related multiphenotypic sinonasal carcinoma (HMSC), originally known as HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features, is a peculiar neoplasm that is restricted to the sinonasal tract, exhibits features of both a surface-derived and salivary gland carcinoma (particularly adenoid cystic carcinoma), and is associated with high-risk HPV. Given the limited number of published cases, the full clinicopathologic spectrum of this neoplasm is unclear. Here, we present an updated experience of 49 cases. All cases of HMSC were obtained from the authors' files. Immunohistochemistry for p16, c-kit, and myoepithelial cell markers (S100, actin, calponin, p63, and/or p40) was performed along with RNA in situ hybridization for HPV (type 33-specific as well as a high-risk cocktail). Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies for fusions of MYB, NFIB, and MYBL1 was performed on a subset of cases. Clinical follow-up was obtained from medical records. A total of 49 cases of HMSC were collected. Twenty-eight (57%) were from women and 18 (43%) from men, ranging in age from 28 to 90 years (mean, 54 y). Of 40 cases with detailed staging information, 43% of HMSCs presented with a high T-stage (T3 or T4). Histologically, most grew predominantly as solid nests of basaloid cells exhibiting high mitotic rates and frequent necrosis, with histologic and immunohistochemical evidence of myoepithelial differentiation. Most cases also demonstrated foci of cribriform and/or tubular growth, along with an inconspicuous population of ducts. Thirty-four (69%) cases demonstrated an unusual pattern of surface involvement where markedly atypical squamous cells colonized tracts of the sinonasal mucosa. Less consistent histologic features included squamous differentiation within the invasive tumor (n=6), sarcomatoid transformation (n=5) including overt chondroid differentiation (n=3), and prominent epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma-like growth (n=3). All cases were positive for p16 by immunostaining and HPV by RNA in situ hybridization. Thirty-three (67%) were positive for HPV 33. No cases tested for MYB, MYBL1, or NFIB gene fusions were positive. In the 38 cases with follow-up data, (mean follow-up, 42 mo) 14 recurred locally and 2 metastasized (lung, finger). There were no regional lymph node metastases, and no tumor-related deaths. HMSC is a distinct sinonasal neoplasm characterized by myoepithelial differentiation, frequent surface epithelial involvement, and the presence of high-risk HPV (especially type 33). Although it classically exhibits a cribriforming pattern that closely resembles adenoid cystic carcinoma, our expanded series highlights a histologic spectrum that is much broader than previously recognized, warranting a change in terminology. HMSC usually presents as a large and destructive sinonasal mass with high-grade histologic features, but it paradoxically behaves in a relatively indolent manner, underscoring the importance of distinguishing HMSC from true adenoid cystic carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and other histologic mimickers.

Becker-Santos DD, Lonergan KM, Gronostajski RM, Lam WL
Nuclear Factor I/B: A Master Regulator of Cell Differentiation with Paradoxical Roles in Cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2017; 22:2-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Emerging evidence indicates that nuclear factor I/B (NFIB), a transcription factor required for proper development and regulation of cellular differentiation in several tissues, also plays critical roles in cancer. Despite being a metastatic driver in small cell lung cancer and melanoma, it has become apparent that NFIB also exhibits tumour suppressive functions in many malignancies. The contradictory contributions of NFIB to both the inhibition and promotion of tumour development and progression, corroborates its diverse and context-dependent roles in many tissues and cell types. Considering the frequent involvement of NFIB in cancer, a better understanding of its multifaceted nature may ultimately benefit the development of novel strategies for the management of a broad spectrum of malignancies. Here we discuss recent findings which bring to light NFIB as a crucial and paradoxical player in cancer.

Fujii K, Murase T, Beppu S, et al.
MYB, MYBL1, MYBL2 and NFIB gene alterations and MYC overexpression in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Histopathology. 2017; 71(5):823-834 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is one of the most common salivary gland malignancies and the long-term prognosis is poor. In this study, we examined alterations of AdCC-associated genes, MYB, MYBL1, MYBL2 and NFIB, and their target molecules, including MYC. The results were correlated to clinicopathological profile of the patients.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Using paraffin tumour sections from 33 cases of salivary gland AdCC, we performed a detailed fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for gene splits and fusions of MYB, MYBL1, MYBL2 and NFIB. We found that 29 of 33 (88%) AdCC cases showed gene splits in either MYB, MYBL1 or NFIB. None of the cases showed an MYBL2 gene alteration. AdCCs were divided genetically into six gene groups, MYB-NFIB (n = 16), MYB-X (n = 4), MYBL1-NFIB (n = 2), MYBL1-X (n = 1), NFIB-X (n = 6) and gene-split-negative (n = 4). AdCC patients showing the MYB or MYBL1 gene splits were associated with microscopically positive surgical margins (P = 0.0148) and overexpression of MYC (P = 0.0164). MYC expression was detected in both ductal and myoepithelial tumour cells, and MYC overexpression was associated with shorter disease-free survival of the patients (P = 0.0268).
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that (1) nearly 90% of AdCCs may have gene alterations of either MYB, MYBL1 or NFIB, suggesting the diagnostic utility of the FISH assay, (2) MYB or MYBL1 gene splits may be associated with local aggressiveness of the tumours and overexpression of MYC, which is one of the oncogenic MYB/MYBL1 targets and (3) MYC overexpression may be a risk factor for disease-free survival in AdCC.

Panaccione A, Zhang Y, Ryan M, et al.
MYB fusions and CD markers as tools for authentication and purification of cancer stem cells from salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Stem Cell Res. 2017; 21:160-166 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSC) are considered the major cause of aggressive tumor behavior, recurrence, metastases, and resistance to radiation, making them an attractive therapeutic target. However, isolation of CSC from tumor tissue and their characterization are challenging due to uncertainty about their molecular markers and conditions for their propagation. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), which arises predominantly in the salivary glands, is a slow-growing but relentless tumor that frequently invades nerves and metastasizes. New effective treatment approaches for ACC have not emerged over the last 40years. Previously, based on a highly conserved SOX10 gene signature that we identified in the majority of ACC tumors, we suggested the existence in ACC of SOX10+ cells with neural stem properties and corroborated this hypothesis via isolation from ACC tissue a novel population of CSC, termed ACC-CSC. These cells activated NOTCH1 signaling and co-expressed SOX10 and other ACC-intrinsic neural crest stem cell markers with CD133, a CSC cell surface marker, suggesting that ACC is driven by a previously uncharacterized population of SOX10+/CD133+ cells with neural stem cell properties. Here, we authenticated ACC identity of our primary cultures by demonstrating that most of them harbor MYB-NFIB fusions, which are found in 86% of ACC. We demonstrated using CyTOF, a novel mass cytometry technology, that these cells express high β-catenin and STAT3 levels and are marked by CD24 and CD44. Finally, to streamline development of ACC cell lines, we developed RT-PCR tests for distinguishing mouse and human cells and used immunomagnetic cell sorting to eliminate mouse cells from long-term cell cultures. Overall, this study describes a new population of CSC that activates signaling pathways associated with poor prognosis, validates their ACC identity, and optimizes approaches that can be used for purification of ACC-CSC and generation of cell lines.

Poling JS, Yonescu R, Subhawong AP, et al.
MYB Labeling by Immunohistochemistry Is More Sensitive and Specific for Breast Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma than MYB Labeling by FISH.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2017; 41(7):973-979 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a primary breast carcinoma that, like salivary gland ACC, displays the t(6;9) translocation resulting in the MYB-NFIB gene fusion and immunopositivity for MYB by immunohistochemistry (IHC). However, it is not well established whether MYB immunoreactivity or rearrangement can be used to support a diagnosis of ACC in a malignant basaloid or benign cribriform breast lesion. Whole sections of primary breast ACC (n=11), collagenous spherulosis (CS; n=7), and microglandular adenosis (MGA; n=5) and tissue microarrays containing 16 basal-like, triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBC) were labeled for MYB by IHC and underwent MYB fluorescence in situ hybridization using a break-apart probe. Strong, diffuse nuclear MYB labeling was seen in 100% ACC compared with no cases of basal-like TNBC, CS, or MGA (P=0.0001). Any degree of nuclear MYB labeling was seen in 100% ACC compared with 54% of all other cases (P=0.007), with any labeling seen in 71% CS, 63% basal-like TNBC, and 0% MGA. MYB rearrangement was detected in 89% (8/9) of evaluable ACC compared with 4% (1/26) of all other evaluable cases (P=0.0001), with a rearrangement detected in 1 (7%; n=1/15) evaluable basal-like TNBC. Strong, diffuse nuclear labeling for MYB is more sensitive than MYB fluorescence in situ hybridization for breast ACC and can be used to support a diagnosis of ACC in a cribriform or basaloid lesion in the breast. However, weak and focal labeling should be interpreted with caution as it can be seen in other benign cribriform and malignant basaloid lesions.

Channir HI, van Overeem Hansen T, Andreasen S, et al.
Genetic Characterization of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Glands: A Potential Familial Occurrence in First-Degree Relatives.
Head Neck Pathol. 2017; 11(4):546-551 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/10/2019 Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a malignant salivary gland tumor. To date, no cases of AdCC in first-degree relatives have been reported in the literature. We present a 50-year-old female (Case 1) and this patients' father (Case 2), both of whom were diagnosed with AdCC of the minor salivary glands. Histology of Case 1 demonstrated a tubulocribriform AdCC whereas Case 2 primarily was an AdCC of solid type. Both cases harbored the MYB-NFIB gene fusion as demonstrated by FISH and RNA-sequencing. After filtering and selection of putative deleterious variants, whole exome sequencing identified 18 germline variants in common between Case 1 and Case 2. However, none of the variants were associated with AdCC or other head and neck cancers. To our knowledge, we present the first potential case of familial AdCC. The presented genetic data may contribute to further investigations of the underlying genetic mechanisms for AdCC susceptibility.

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