Gene Summary

Gene:OSCAR; osteoclast associated, immunoglobulin-like receptor
Aliases: PIGR3, PIgR-3
Summary:Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that resorb bone and are essential for bone homeostasis. This gene encodes an osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), which is a member of the leukocyte receptor complex protein family that plays critical roles in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. The encoded protein may play a role in oxidative stress-mediated atherogenesis as well as monocyte adhesion. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:osteoclast-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
OSCAR is implicated in:
- extracellular region
- integral to membrane
- plasma membrane
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: OSCAR (cancer-related)

Peckova K, Martinek P, Pivovarcikova K, et al.
Cystic and necrotic papillary renal cell carcinoma: prognosis, morphology, immunohistochemical, and molecular-genetic profile of 10 cases.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2017; 26:23-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Conflicting data have been published on the prognostic significance of tumor necrosis in papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). Although the presence of necrosis is generally considered an adverse prognostic feature in PRCC, we report a cohort of 10 morphologically distinct cystic and extensively necrotic PRCC with favorable biological behavior. Ten cases of type 1 PRCC with a uniform morphologic pattern were selected from the 19 500 renal tumors, of which 1311 were PRCCs in our registry. We focused on precise morphologic diagnosis supported by immunohistochemical and molecular-genetic analysis. Patients included 8 men and 2 women with an age range of 32-85 years (mean, 62.6 years). Tumor size ranged from 6 to 14 cm (mean, 9.4 cm). Follow-up data were available in 7 patients, ranging from 0.5 to 14 years (mean, 4 years). All tumors were spherical, cystic, and circumscribed by a thick fibrous capsule, filled with hemorrhagic/necrotic contents. Limited viable neoplastic tissue was present only as a thin rim in the inner surface of the cyst wall, consistent with type 1 PRCC. All cases were positive for AMACR, OSCAR, CAM 5.2, HIF-2, and vimentin. Chromosome 7 and 17 polysomy was found in 5 of 9 analyzable cases, 2 cases demonstrated chromosome 7 and 17 disomy, and 1 case showed only chromosome 17 polysomy. Loss of chromosome Y was found in 5 cases, including 1 case with disomic chromosomes 7 and 17. No VHL gene abnormalities were found. Papillary renal cell carcinoma type 1 can present as a large hemorrhagic/necrotic unicystic lesion with a thick fibroleiomyomatous capsule. Most cases showed a chromosomal numerical aberration pattern characteristic of PRCC. All tumors followed a nonaggressive clinical course. Large liquefactive necrosis should not necessarily be considered an adverse prognostic feature, particularly in a subset of type 1 PRCC with unilocular cysts filled with necrotic/hemorrhagic material.

Pivovarcikova K, Peckova K, Martinek P, et al.
"Mucin"-secreting papillary renal cell carcinoma: clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic analysis of seven cases.
Virchows Arch. 2016; 469(1):71-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mucin and mucin-like material are features of mucinous tubular and spindle renal cell carcinoma (MTS RCC) but are rarely seen in papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). We reviewed 1311 PRCC and identified 7 tumors containing extracellular and/or intracellular mucinous/mucin-like material (labeled as PRCCM). We analyzed these using morphological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic methods (arrayCGH, FISH). Clinical data were available for six of the seven patients (five males and one female, age range 61-78 years). Follow-up was available for four patients (2-4 years); one patient died of widespread metastases. Tumor size ranged from 3 to 5 cm (mean 3.8). Of all cases, histological architecture showed a predominantly papillary pattern. Mucin or mucin-like was extracellular in one, intracellular in three, and both intra/extracellular in three cases. All tumors were positive for AMACR, vimentin, and OSCAR, while CK7 was positive in four. Mucicarmine stain was positive in all cases, PAS in six and Alcian blue in three cases. Five tumors were positive for MUC 1, but none were positive for MUC 2, MUC 4, or MUC 6. In only four cases, genetic analysis could be performed. Gain of chromosomes 7 and 17 was found in two cases; gain of 17 only was found in one case. Loss of heterozygosity of 3p was found in one case together with polysomy of chromosomes 7 and 17. No abnormalities of VHL, fumarate dehydrogenase, and TFE3 genes were detected. We conclude that PRCCM is a rare but challenging subtype of RCC that deserves to be further studied. In all the tumors, the mucin-like material was found in those stained with mucicarmin, but other conventional and immunohistochemical stains did not reveal consistent features of a single mucin. The molecular-genetic profile of these tumors was most consistent with that of typical papillary RCC, although one case had mixed genetic features of papillary and clear RCC. PRCCM has metastatic potential, as evidenced by one case with widespread metastases. It remains to be determined whether PRCCM represents a unique tumor subtype, deserving to be distinguished from other subtypes of PRCC.

Murcia O, Juárez M, Hernández-Illán E, et al.
Serrated colorectal cancer: Molecular classification, prognosis, and response to chemotherapy.
World J Gastroenterol. 2016; 22(13):3516-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Molecular advances support the existence of an alternative pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis that is based on the hypermethylation of specific DNA regions that silences tumor suppressor genes. This alternative pathway has been called the serrated pathway due to the serrated appearance of tumors in histological analysis. New classifications for colorectal cancer (CRC) were proposed recently based on genetic profiles that show four types of molecular alterations: BRAF gene mutations, KRAS gene mutations, microsatellite instability, and hypermethylation of CpG islands. This review summarizes what is known about the serrated pathway of CRC, including CRC molecular and clinical features, prognosis, and response to chemotherapy.

Chang HR, Park HS, Ahn YZ, et al.
Improving gastric cancer preclinical studies using diverse in vitro and in vivo model systems.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:200 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: "Biomarker-driven targeted therapy," the practice of tailoring patients' treatment to the expression/activity levels of disease-specific genes/proteins, remains challenging. For example, while the anti-ERBB2 monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, was first developed using well-characterized, diverse in vitro breast cancer models (and is now a standard adjuvant therapy for ERBB2-positive breast cancer patients), trastuzumab approval for ERBB2-positive gastric cancer was largely based on preclinical studies of a single cell line, NCI-N87. Ensuing clinical trials revealed only modest patient efficacy, and many ERBB2-positive gastric cancer (GC) patients failed to respond at all (i.e., were inherently recalcitrant), or succumbed to acquired resistance.
METHOD: To assess mechanisms underlying GC insensitivity to ERBB2 therapies, we established a diverse panel of GC cells, differing in ERBB2 expression levels, for comprehensive in vitro and in vivo characterization. For higher throughput assays of ERBB2 DNA and protein levels, we compared the concordance of various laboratory quantification methods, including those of in vitro and in vivo genetic anomalies (FISH and SISH) and xenograft protein expression (Western blot vs. IHC), of both cell and xenograft (tissue-sectioned) microarrays.
RESULTS: The biomarker assessment methods strongly agreed, as did correlation between RNA and protein expression. However, although ERBB2 genomic anomalies showed good in vitro vs. in vivo correlation, we observed striking differences in protein expression between cultured cells and mouse xenografts (even within the same GC cell type). Via our unique pathway analysis, we delineated a signaling network, in addition to specific pathways/biological processes, emanating from the ERBB2 signaling cascade, as a potential useful target of clinical treatment. Integrated analysis of public data from gastric tumors revealed frequent (10 - 20 %) amplification of the genes NFKBIE, PTK2, and PIK3CA, each of which resides in an ERBB2-derived subpathway network.
CONCLUSION: Our comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of highly heterogeneous cancer cells, combined with tumor "omics" profiles, can optimally characterize the expression patterns and activity of specific tumor biomarkers. Subsequent in vitro and in vivo validation, of specific disease biomarkers (using multiple methodologies), can improve prediction of patient stratification according to drug response or nonresponse.

Sinilnikova OM, Dondon MG, Eon-Marchais S, et al.
GENESIS: a French national resource to study the missing heritability of breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Less than 20% of familial breast cancer patients who undergo genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carry a pathogenic mutation in one of these two genes. The GENESIS (GENE SISter) study was designed to identify new breast cancer susceptibility genes in women attending cancer genetics clinics and with no BRCA1/2 mutation.
METHODS: The study involved the French national network of family cancer clinics. It was based on enrichment in genetic factors of the recruited population through case selection relying on familial criteria, but also on the consideration of environmental factors and endophenotypes like mammary density or tumor characteristics to assess potential genetic heterogeneity. One of the initial aims of GENESIS was to recruit affected sibpairs. Siblings were eligible when index cases and at least one affected sister were diagnosed with infiltrating mammary or ductal adenocarcinoma, with no BRCA1/2 mutation. In addition, unrelated controls and unaffected sisters were recruited. The enrolment of patients, their relatives and their controls, the collection of the clinical, epidemiological, familial and biological data were centralized by a coordinating center.
RESULTS: Inclusion of participants started in February 2007 and ended in December 2013. A total of 1721 index cases, 826 affected sisters, 599 unaffected sisters and 1419 controls were included. 98% of participants completed the epidemiological questionnaire, 97% provided a blood sample, and 76% were able to provide mammograms. Index cases were on average 59 years old at inclusion, were born in 1950, and were 49.7 years of age at breast cancer diagnosis. The mean age at diagnosis of affected sisters was slightly higher (51.4 years). The representativeness of the control group was verified.
CONCLUSIONS: The size of the study, the availability of biological specimens and the clinical data collection together with the detailed and complete epidemiological questionnaire make this a unique national resource for investigation of the missing heritability of breast cancer, by taking into account environmental and life style factors and stratifying data on endophenotypes to decrease genetic heterogeneity.

Patrikidou A, Domont J, Chabaud S, et al.
Long-term outcome of molecular subgroups of GIST patients treated with standard-dose imatinib in the BFR14 trial of the French Sarcoma Group.
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 52:173-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The added value of tumoural genomic profiles to conventional clinico-biological factors to predict progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was prospectively investigated in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) treated in the BFR14 study.
METHODS: Of the 434 included patients, mutational analysis was performed in 322 patients. Survival analysis was performed in patients with validated mutational status.
RESULTS: Mutational status was validated in 228 patients. We identified 196 patients with tumours harbouring 200 KIT alterations (exon 11: 173 patients, exon 9: 22 patients, exon 17: 3 patients, exon 13: 2 patients; 4 patients had double KIT mutations), 6 patients with PDGFRA mutations and 26 patients with wild-type (WT) GIST genotype. On a median follow-up of 73 months, median PFS/OS were 12.3/54.9 months for WT GIST, 12.6/55 months for KIT exon 9, and 39.4 months/not reached (69.1% at 5 years) for KIT exon 11. Tumour size, female gender, KIT exon 11 mutations and CD34 positivity were independent prognostic factors for a higher PFS. A higher OS was predicted by performance status (PS) <2, low neutrophil and normal lymphocyte counts, KIT exon 11 mutations, non-advanced tumour and female gender. KIT exon 11 mutations at codons 557-558 showed better tumour response (p=0.028) but shorter PFS (p=0.0176).
CONCLUSIONS: In GIST patients, presence of a KIT exon 11 mutation is an independent prognostic factor for PFS and OS, along with gender, PS, tumour size, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts. Subsets of exon 11 mutations are associated with significantly different response patterns and PFS.

Le Rhun E, Chamberlain MC, Zairi F, et al.
Patterns of response to crizotinib in recurrent glioblastoma according to ALK and MET molecular profile in two patients.
CNS Oncol. 2015; 4(6):381-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Two patients with an unmethylated MGMT promoter and IDH1 (R132H) wild-type recurrent glioblastoma were treated with crizotinib. Prolonged stabilization of the disease (17 months) was achieved in the first case. Interestingly, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression and c-MET protein overexpression was observed. Conversely, no response to crizotinib was obtained in the second case with MET protein overexpression and c-MET amplification but no ALK expression or ALK gene amplification. These case studies suggest that novel targeted ALK inhibitors may provide relevant clinical benefit in selected cases in which driver mutations are demonstrable.

Castellaro AM, Tonda A, Cejas HH, et al.
Oxalate induces breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:761 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still largely unknown but breast cancers presenting microcalcifications are more often associated with a poorer prognosis.
METHODS: We combined Capillary Electrochromatography, histology, and gene expression (qRT-PCR) to analyze patient-matched normal breast tissue vs. breast tumor. Potential carcinogenicity of oxalate was tested by its inoculation into mice. All data were subjected to statistical analysis.
RESULTS: To study the biological significance of oxalates within the breast tumor microenvironment, we measured oxalate concentration in both human breast tumor tissues and adjoining non-pathological breast tissues. We found that all tested breast tumor tissues contain a higher concentration of oxalates than their counterpart non-pathological breast tissue. Moreover, it was established that oxalate induces proliferation of breast cells and stimulates the expression of a pro-tumorigenic gene c-fos. Furthermore, oxalate generates highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors when it was injected into the mammary fatpad in female mice, but not when injected into their back, indicating that oxalate does not induce cancer formation in all types of tissues. Moreover, neither human kidney-epithelial cells nor mouse fibroblast cells proliferate when are treated with oxalate.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that the chronic exposure of breast epithelial cells to oxalate promotes the transformation of breast cells from normal to tumor cells, inducing the expression of a proto-oncogen as c-fos and proliferation in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, oxalate has a carcinogenic effect when injected into the mammary fatpad in mice, generating highly malignant and undifferentiated tumors with the characteristics of fibrosarcomas of the breast. As oxalates seem to promote these differences, it is expected that a significant reduction in the incidence of breast cancer tumors could be reached if it were possible to control oxalate production or its carcinogenic activity.

Blein S, Barjhoux L,
Targeted Sequencing of the Mitochondrial Genome of Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer without Detectable Mutations in BRCA1/2.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0136192 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast Cancer is a complex multifactorial disease for which high-penetrance mutations have been identified. Approaches used to date have identified genomic features explaining about 50% of breast cancer heritability. A number of low- to medium penetrance alleles (per-allele odds ratio < 1.5 and 4.0, respectively) have been identified, suggesting that the remaining heritability is likely to be explained by the cumulative effect of such alleles and/or by rare high-penetrance alleles. Relatively few studies have specifically explored the mitochondrial genome for variants potentially implicated in breast cancer risk. For these reasons, we propose an exploration of the variability of the mitochondrial genome in individuals diagnosed with breast cancer, having a positive breast cancer family history but testing negative for BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of 436 index breast cancer cases from the GENESIS study. As expected, no pathogenic genomic pattern common to the 436 women included in our study was observed. The mitochondrial genes MT-ATP6 and MT-CYB were observed to carry the highest number of variants in the study. The proteins encoded by these genes are involved in the structure of the mitochondrial respiration chain, and variants in these genes may impact reactive oxygen species production contributing to carcinogenesis. More functional and epidemiological studies are needed to further investigate to what extent variants identified may influence familial breast cancer risk.

Hochart A, Dieux A, Coucke P, et al.
Association between Kniest dysplasia and chondrosarcoma in a child.
Am J Med Genet A. 2015; 167A(12):3204-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Constitutive COL2A1 mutations are associated with a wide variety of clinical manifestations known as type II collagenopathies. Among them is Kniest dysplasia, which is phenotypically variable and includes both skeletal (short trunk and limbs, kyphoscoliosis, prominent joints, and osteoarthritis) and craniofacial characteristics. Kniest dysplasia mutations primarily arise in the triple-helicoidal region of the alpha 1 (II) chain in COL2A1 between exons 12 and 24. Somatic COL2A1 mutations have been identified in chondrosarcoma, a rare cartilage forming neoplasm, with a hypermutability of the gene reported in 37% of cases. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no reported increase in predisposition to chondrosarcoma in human collagenopathies, and no reported clinical association between these congenital diseases and cartilaginous tumors. In the case study presented here, we report the first description of an association between these two rare diseases involving COL2A1, in a child presenting with Kniest dysplasia and a grade I sphenoethmoidal chondrosarcoma. We also describe a new constitutive mutation in COL2A1.

Jiang X, Pissaloux D, De La Fouchardiere C, et al.
The sum of gains and losses of genes encoding the protein tyrosine kinase targets predicts response to multi-kinase inhibitor treatment: Characterization, validation, and prognostic value.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):26388-99 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Validated predictive biomarkers for multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (MTKI) efficacy are lacking. We hypothesized that interindividual response variability is partially dependent on somatic DNA copy number alterations (SCNAs), particularly those of genes encoding the protein tyrosines targeted by MTKI (called target genes). Genomic alterations were investigated in MTKI responsive and non responsive patients with different histological subtypes included in the ProfiLER protocol (NCT 01774409). From March 2013 to August 2014, 58 patients with advanced cancer treated with one of 7 MTKIs were included in the ProfiLER trial and split into one discovery cohort (n = 13), and 2 validation cohorts (n = 12 and 33). An analysis of the copy number alterations of kinase-coding genes for each of 7 MTKIs was conducted. A prediction algorithm (SUMSCAN) based on the presence of specific gene gains (Tumor Target Charge, TTC) and losses (Tumor Target Losses, TTL) was conceived and validated in 2 independent validation cohorts. MTKI sensitive tumors present a characteristic SCNA profile including a global gain profile, and specific gains for target genes while MTKI resistant tumors present the opposite. SUMSCAN favorable patients achieved longer progression-free and overall survival. This work shows that the copy number sum of kinase-coding genes enables the prediction of response of cancer patients to MTKI, opening a novel paradigm for the treatment selection of these patients.

Robert A, Leroy V, Riquet A, et al.
Renal involvement in tuberous sclerosis complex with emphasis on cystic lesions.
Radiol Med. 2016; 121(5):402-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) involves frequently the kidneys. Lesions encompass mainly angiomyolipoma and cysts. The disease can be associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease leading to the contiguous gene syndrome (CGS) The objectives of the present study were to review the US appearances of the renal involvement in children affected by classical TSC or by the CGS and to verify whether it is possible to differentiate between both entities. The evolution of the lesions through time was also studied.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 55 cases of patients <16 years with STB were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists. Clinical data reviewed included age at diagnosis, genetic assessment and complications; US data reviewed included renal size, type of lesions (angiomyolipoma-AML, or cysts), number and location as well as their evolution with time. Complications were also analyzed.
RESULTS: 30 patients (56 %) had at least one kidney lesion (27 classical TSC and 3 CGS). On the basis of the US findings, these patients were separated into four groups. Group 1 (9 patients) displayed microscopic (diffuse) AML; group 2 (3 patients) displayed macroscopic AML; group 3 (9 patients) displayed only renal cysts and group 4 (9 patients) displayed the association of AML and cysts. Increased renal size, the large number and size of cystic lesions were suggestive of the CGS. The isolated AML were suggestive of classical STB. The average growth of angiomyolipoma was low before age of 12 and exceeded 4 mm/year thereafter.
CONCLUSION: In children with TSC, renal involvement is common. Some US criteria can help to suggest the diagnosis of CGS. The growth of angiomyolipoma is slow before 12 years and accelerates thereafter. Complications are rare.

Tabernero J, Lenz HJ, Siena S, et al.
Analysis of circulating DNA and protein biomarkers to predict the clinical activity of regorafenib and assess prognosis in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective, exploratory analysis of the CORRECT trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2015; 16(8):937-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumour mutational status is an important determinant of the response of metastatic colorectal cancer to targeted treatments. However, the genotype of the tissue obtained at the time of diagnosis might not accurately represent tumour genotype after multiple lines of treatment. This retrospective exploratory analysis investigated the clinical activity of regorafenib in biomarker subgroups of the CORRECT study population defined by tumour mutational status or plasma protein levels.
METHODS: We used BEAMing technology to identify KRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF mutations in DNA obtained from the plasma of 503 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who enrolled in the CORRECT trial. We quantified total human genomic DNA isolated from plasma samples for 503 patients using a modified version of human long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) quantitive real-time PCR. We also measured the concentration of 15 proteins of interest-angiopoietin 2, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, placental growth factor, soluble TIE-1, soluble VEGFR1, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGF-A isoform 121, bone morphogenetic protein 7, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, stromal cell-derived factor-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2, and von Willebrand factor-in plasma samples from 611 patients. We did correlative analyses of overall survival and progression-free survival in patient subgroups based on mutational status, circulating DNA concentration, and protein concentrations. The CORRECT trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01103323.
FINDINGS: Tumour-associated mutations were readily detected with BEAMing of plasma DNA, with KRAS mutations identified in 349 (69%) of 503 patients, PIK3CA mutations in 84 (17%) of 503 patients, and BRAF mutations in 17 (3%) of 502 patients. We did not do correlative analysis based on BRAF genotype because of the low mutational frequency detected for this gene. Some of the most prevalent individual hot-spot mutations we identified included: KRAS (KRAS G12D, 116 [28%] of 413 mutations; G12V, 72 [17%]; and G13D, 67 [16%]) and PIK3CA (PIK3CA E542K, 27 [30%] of 89 mutations; E545K, 37 [42%]; and H1047R, 12 [14%]). 41 (48%) of 86 patients who had received anti-EGFR therapy and whose archival tumour tissue DNA was KRAS wild-type in BEAMing analysis were identified as having KRAS mutations in BEAMing analysis of fresh plasma DNA. Correlative analyses suggest a clinical benefit favouring regorafenib across patient subgroups defined by KRAS and PIK3CA mutational status (progression-free survival with regorafenib vs placebo: hazard ratio [HR] 0·52, 95% CI 0·35-0·76 for KRAS wild-type; HR 0·51, 95% CI 0·40-0·65 for KRAS mutant [KRAS wild type vs mutant, pinteraction=0·74]; HR 0·50, 95% CI 0·40-0·63 for PIK3CA wild-type; HR 0·54, 95% CI 0·32-0·89 for PIK3CA mutant [PIK3CA wild-type vs mutant, pinteraction=0·85]) or circulating DNA concentration (progression-free survival with regorafenib vs placebo: HR 0·53, 95% CI 0·40-0·71, for low circulating DNA concentrations; HR 0·52, 95% CI 0·40-0·70, for high circulating DNA concentrations; low vs high circulating DNA, pinteraction=0·601). With the exception of von Willebrand factor, assessed with the median cutoff method, plasma protein concentrations were also not associated with regorafenib activity in terms of progression-free survival. In univariable analyses, the only plasma protein that was associated with overall survival was TIE-1, high concentrations of which were associated with longer overall survival compared with low TIE-1 concentrations. This association was not significant in multivariable analyses.
INTERPRETATION: BEAMing of circulating DNA could be a viable approach for non-invasive analysis of tumour genotype in real time and for the identification of potentially clinically relevant mutations that are not detected in archival tissue. Additionally, the results show that regorafenib seems to be consistently associated with a clinical benefit in a range of patient subgroups based on mutational status and protein biomarker concentrations.
FUNDING: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals.

Bellini A, Bernard V, Leroy Q, et al.
Deep Sequencing Reveals Occurrence of Subclonal ALK Mutations in Neuroblastoma at Diagnosis.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(21):4913-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: In neuroblastoma, activating ALK receptor tyrosine kinase point mutations play a major role in oncogenesis. We explored the potential occurrence of ALK mutations at a subclonal level using targeted deep sequencing.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In a clinically representative series of 276 diagnostic neuroblastoma samples, exons 23 and 25 of the ALK gene, containing the F1174 and R1275 mutation hotspots, respectively, were resequenced with an extremely high depth of coverage.
RESULTS: At the F1174 hotspot (exon 23), mutations were observed in 15 of 277 samples (range of fraction of mutated allele per sample: 0.562%-40.409%). At the R1275 hotspot (exon 25), ALK mutations were detected in 12 of 276 samples (range of fraction of mutated allele: 0.811%-73.001%). Altogether, subclonal events with a mutated allele fraction below 20% were observed in 15/27 ALK-mutated samples. The presence of an ALK mutation was associated with poorer 5-year overall survival (OS: 75% vs. 57%, P = 0.0212 log-rank test), with a strong correlation between F1174 ALK mutations and MYCN amplification being observed.
CONCLUSIONS: In this series, deep sequencing allows the detection of F1174 and R1275 ALK mutational events at diagnosis in 10% of cases, with subclonal events in more than half of these, which would have gone undetected by Sanger sequencing. These findings are of clinical importance given the potential role of ALK mutations in clonal evolution and relapse. These findings also demonstrate the importance of deep sequencing techniques for the identification of patients especially when considering targeted therapy.

Ng CK, Martelotto LG, Gauthier A, et al.
Intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity and alternative driver genetic alterations in breast cancers with heterogeneous HER2 gene amplification.
Genome Biol. 2015; 16:107 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: HER2 is overexpressed and amplified in approximately 15% of invasive breast cancers, and is the molecular target and predictive marker of response to anti-HER2 agents. In a subset of these cases, heterogeneous distribution of HER2 gene amplification can be found, which creates clinically challenging scenarios. Currently, breast cancers with HER2 amplification/overexpression in just over 10% of cancer cells are considered HER2-positive for clinical purposes; however, it is unclear as to whether the HER2-negative components of such tumors would be driven by distinct genetic alterations. Here we sought to characterize the pathologic and genetic features of the HER2-positive and HER2-negative components of breast cancers with heterogeneous HER2 gene amplification and to define the repertoire of potential driver genetic alterations in the HER2-negative components of these cases.
RESULTS: We separately analyzed the HER2-negative and HER2-positive components of 12 HER2 heterogeneous breast cancers using gene copy number profiling and massively parallel sequencing, and identified potential driver genetic alterations restricted to the HER2-negative cells in each case. In vitro experiments provided functional evidence to suggest that BRF2 and DSN1 overexpression/amplification, and the HER2 I767M mutation may be alterations that compensate for the lack of HER2 amplification in the HER2-negative components of HER2 heterogeneous breast cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that even driver genetic alterations, such as HER2 gene amplification, can be heterogeneously distributed within a cancer, and that the HER2-negative components are likely driven by genetic alterations not present in the HER2-positive components, including BRF2 and DSN1 amplification and HER2 somatic mutations.

Rebbeck TR, Mitra N, Wan F, et al.
Association of type and location of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations with risk of breast and ovarian cancer.
JAMA. 2015; 313(13):1347-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
IMPORTANCE: Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists.
OBJECTIVE: To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Observational study of women who were ascertained between 1937 and 2011 (median, 1999) and found to carry disease-associated BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The international sample comprised 19,581 carriers of BRCA1 mutations and 11,900 carriers of BRCA2 mutations from 55 centers in 33 countries on 6 continents. We estimated hazard ratios for breast and ovarian cancer based on mutation type, function, and nucleotide position. We also estimated RHR, the ratio of breast vs ovarian cancer hazard ratios. A value of RHR greater than 1 indicated elevated breast cancer risk; a value of RHR less than 1 indicated elevated ovarian cancer risk.
EXPOSURES: Mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Breast and ovarian cancer risks.
RESULTS: Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, 9052 women (46%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 2317 (12%) with ovarian cancer, 1041 (5%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 7171 (37%) without cancer. Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, 6180 women (52%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 682 (6%) with ovarian cancer, 272 (2%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 4766 (40%) without cancer. In BRCA1, we identified 3 breast cancer cluster regions (BCCRs) located at c.179 to c.505 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22-1.74; P = 2 × 10(-6)), c.4328 to c.4945 (BCCR2; RHR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.78; P = .04), and c. 5261 to c.5563 (BCCR2', RHR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.22-1.55; P = 6 × 10(-9)). We also identified an ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) from c.1380 to c.4062 (approximately exon 11) with RHR = 0.62 (95% CI, 0.56-0.70; P = 9 × 10(-17)). In BRCA2, we observed multiple BCCRs spanning c.1 to c.596 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.78; P = .03), c.772 to c.1806 (BCCR1'; RHR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.10-2.40; P = .01), and c.7394 to c.8904 (BCCR2; RHR = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.69-3.16; P = .00002). We also identified 3 OCCRs: the first (OCCR1) spanned c.3249 to c.5681 that was adjacent to c.5946delT (6174delT; RHR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.44-0.60; P = 6 × 10(-17)). The second OCCR spanned c.6645 to c.7471 (OCCR2; RHR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.41-0.80; P = .001). Mutations conferring nonsense-mediated decay were associated with differential breast or ovarian cancer risks and an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Breast and ovarian cancer risks varied by type and location of BRCA1/2 mutations. With appropriate validation, these data may have implications for risk assessment and cancer prevention decision making for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.

Fourati A, Louchez MM, Fournier J, et al.
Screening for common mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes: interest in genetic testing of Tunisian families with breast and/or ovarian cancer.
Bull Cancer. 2014; 101(11):E36-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In the Tunisian population, as yet a limited number of BRCA1/2 germline mutations have been reported in hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer. These mutations are located in a few exons of BRCA1/2. The aim of the present study was to search for these mutations in 66 unrelated patients with hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer in order to assess the interest in such a targeted approach for genetic testing in Tunisia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood specimens from the 66 Tunisian patients, with family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, were collected at the Salah Azaiz Cancer Institute of Tunis. The exons 5, 20 and part of exon 11 of BRCA1 as well as part of exons 10 and 11 of BRCA2 were analyzed by Sanger sequencing.
RESULTS: 12 patients had deleterious mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes (18%), including a novel frame-shift mutation of BRCA1 (c.3751dup; 3780insT). Four distinct BRCA1 mutations were detected eight patients: c.5266dup (5382insC) and c.211dup (330insA) each in three patients, c.3751dup (3870insT) and c.4041_4042del (4160delAG) each in one patient. The four remaining cases all carried the same BRCA2 mutation, c.1310_1313del (1538delAAGA). Besides these deleterious mutations, eight polymorphisms and unclassified variants were detected, one of them being never reported (BRCA1c.3030T>G, p.Pro1010Pro).
CONCLUSION: In this study, we show that targeting relevant exons in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes allows detection of a substantial percentage of mutations in the Tunisian population. Therefore such an approach may be of interest in genetic testing of high-risk breast and ovarian cancer families in Tunisia.

Lange F, Franz B, Maletzki C, et al.
Biological and molecular effects of small molecule kinase inhibitors on low-passage human colorectal cancer cell lines.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:568693 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Low-passage cancer cell lines are versatile tools to study tumor cell biology. Here, we have employed four such cell lines, established from primary tumors of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, to evaluate effects of the small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMI) vemurafenib, trametinib, perifosine, and regorafenib in an in vitro setting. The mutant BRAF (V600E/V600K) inhibitor vemurafenib, but also the MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib efficiently inhibited DNA synthesis, signaling through ERK1/2 and expression of genes downstream of ERK1/2 in BRAF mutant cells only. In case of the AKT inhibitor perifosine, three cell lines showed a high or intermediate responsiveness to the drug while one cell line was resistant. The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib inhibited proliferation of all CRC lines with similar efficiency and independent of the presence or absence of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and TP53 mutations. Regorafenib action was associated with broad-range inhibitory effects at the level of gene expression but not with a general inhibition of AKT or MEK/ERK signaling. In vemurafenib-sensitive cells, the antiproliferative effect of vemurafenib was enhanced by the other SMI. Together, our results provide insights into the determinants of SMI efficiencies in CRC cells and encourage the further use of low-passage CRC cell lines as preclinical models.

Le Guellec S, Chibon F, Ouali M, et al.
Are peripheral purely undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas with MDM2 amplification dedifferentiated liposarcomas?
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(3):293-304 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) has been defined as a tumor composed of well-differentiated liposarcoma associated with a nonlipogenic undifferentiated sarcoma and is genetically characterized by a 12q13-15 amplicon with MDM2 amplification. Some peripheral (extremities, trunk wall, head/neck) undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPS) without areas of well-differentiated liposarcoma present an MDM2 amplification. We addressed whether they are true DDLPS or not. We compared the clinical data, histologic data, MDM2 status (immunohistochemistry [IHC], fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]), genomic profile (array comparative genomic hybridization), and follow-up of 19 patients with peripheral UPS with MDM2 amplification and 62 with peripheral conventional DDLPS retrieved from the French sarcoma network (RRePS) and the Conticabase (Connective Tissue Cancer Network database). For a control cohort, we described 153 patients from the Conticabase, with peripheral UPS without expression of MDM2 by IHC. By IHC, tumor cells were positive for MDM2 in 59 conventional DDLPS and in all UPS with MDM2 amplification. FISH analysis and/or quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed amplification of MDM2 in 54 conventional DDLPS and in all UPS with MDM2 amplification. The 2-year overall survival rates of UPS with MDM2 amplification, conventional DDLPS, and UPS without expression of MDM2 were 93.3%, 90.7%, and 73.9%, respectively. Such similarities in the clinical characteristics, morphology, genomic profile, and follow-up of peripheral UPS with MDM2 amplification and peripheral conventional DDLPS strongly suggest that peripheral UPS with MDM2 amplification are in fact DDLPS. Faced with histologic diagnosis of UPS, a systematic IHC evaluation of MDM2 allows a selection of cases for FISH analysis permitting the diagnosis of DDLPS.

André F, Bachelot T, Commo F, et al.
Comparative genomic hybridisation array and DNA sequencing to direct treatment of metastatic breast cancer: a multicentre, prospective trial (SAFIR01/UNICANCER).
Lancet Oncol. 2014; 15(3):267-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is characterised by genomic alterations. We did a multicentre molecular screening study to identify abnormalities in individual patients with the aim of providing targeted therapy matched to individuals' genomic alterations.
METHODS: From June 16, 2011, to July 30, 2012, we recruited patients who had breast cancer with a metastasis accessible for biopsy in 18 centres in France. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) array and Sanger sequencing on PIK3CA (exon 10 and 21) and AKT1 (exon 4) were used to assess metastatic biopsy samples in five centres. Therapeutic targets were decided on the basis of identified genomic alterations. The primary objective was to include 30% of patients in clinical trials testing a targeted therapy and, therefore, the primary outcome was the proportion of patients to whom a targeted therapy could be offered. For the primary endpoint, the analyses were done on the overall population registered for the trial. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01414933.
FINDINGS: 423 patients were included, and biopsy samples were obtained from 407 (metastatic breast cancer was not found in four). CGH array and Sanger sequencing were feasible in 283 (67%) and 297 (70%) patients, respectively. A targetable genomic alteration was identified in 195 (46%) patients, most frequently in PIK3CA (74 [25%] of 297 identified genomic alterations), CCND1 (53 [19%]), and FGFR1 (36 [13%]). 117 (39%) of 297 patients with genomic tests available presented with rare genomic alterations (defined as occurring in less than 5% of the general population), including AKT1 mutations, and EGFR, MDM2, FGFR2, AKT2, IGF1R, and MET high-level amplifications. Therapy could be personalised in 55 (13%) of 423 patients. Of the 43 patients who were assessable and received targeted therapy, four (9%) had an objective response, and nine others (21%) had stable disease for more than 16 weeks. Serious (grade 3 or higher) adverse events related to biopsy were reported in four (1%) of enrolled patients, including pneumothorax (grade 3, one patient), pain (grade 3, one patient), haematoma (grade 3, one patient), and haemorrhagic shock (grade 3, one patient).
INTERPRETATION: Personalisation of medicine for metastatic breast cancer is feasible, including for rare genomic alterations.
FUNDING: French National Cancer Institute, Breast Cancer Research Foundation, Odyssea, Operation Parrains Chercheurs.

Hes O, de Souza TG, Pivovarcikova K, et al.
Distinctive renal cell tumor simulating atrophic kidney with 2 types of microcalcifications. Report of 3 cases.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2014; 18(2):82-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report 3 cases of primary renal cell tumor simulating atrophic kidney with distinct gross, morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features. The tumors were retrieved out of more than 17 000 renal tumors from the Plzen Tumor Registry. Tissues for light microscopy had been fixed, embedded, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin using routine procedures. The tumors were further analyzed using immunohistochemistry, array comparative genomic hybridization, and human androgen receptor. Analyses of VHL gene and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) 3p were also performed. The patients were 2 women and 1 man, with ages ranging from 29 to 35 years (mean, 31.3 years). Grossly, the neoplasms were encapsulated and round with largest diameter of 3.5 cm (mean, 3.2 cm). Follow-up available for all patients ranged from 2 to 14 years (mean, 8 years). No aggressive behavior was noted. Histologically, akin to atrophic (postpyelonephritic) kidney parenchyma, the tumors were composed of follicles of varying sizes that were filled by eosinophilic secretion. Rare areas contained collapsed follicles. Each follicle was endowed with a small capillary. The stroma was loose, inconspicuous, and focally fibrotic. Two types of calcifications were noted: typical psammoma bodies and amorphous dark-blue stained calcified deposits. Immunohistochemically, tumors were strongly positive for cytokeratins (OSCAR), CD10, and vimentin, with weak immunopositivity for CAM5.2 and AE1-AE3. WT1 and cathepsin K were weakly to moderately focally to diffusely positive. Tumors were negative for cytokeratin 20, carbonic anhydrase IX, parvalbumin, HMB45, TTF1, TFE3, chromogranin A, thyroglobulin, PAX8, and ALK. Only 1 case was suitable for molecular genetic analyses. No mutations were found in the VHL gene; no methylation of VHL promoter was noted. No numerical aberrations were found by array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. LOH for chromosome 3p was not detected. Analysis of clonality (human androgen receptor) revealed the monoclonal nature of the tumor. We describe an unknown tumor of the kidney that (1) resembles renal atrophic kidney or nodular goiter of thyroidal gland; (2) contains a leiomyomatous capsule and 2 types of calcifications; (3) lacks mitoses, atypias, necroses, and hemorrhages and nearly lack Ki-67 positivity; and (4) so far showed benign biological behavior.

Gnemmi V, Bouillez A, Gaudelot K, et al.
MUC1 drives epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal carcinoma through Wnt/β-catenin pathway and interaction with SNAIL promoter.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 346(2):225-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
MUC1 is overexpressed in human carcinomas. The transcription factor SNAIL can activate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells. In this study, in renal carcinoma, we demonstrate that (i) MUC1 and SNAIL were overexpressed in human sarcomatoid carcinomas, (ii) SNAIL increased indirectly MUC1 expression, (iii) MUC1 overexpression induced EMT, (iv) MUC1 C-terminal domain (MUC1-C) and β-catenin increased SNAIL transcriptional activity by interaction with its promoter and (v) blocking MUC1-C nuclear localization decreased Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation and SNAIL expression. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that MUC1 is an actor in EMT and appears as a new therapeutic target.

Vergote IB, Jimeno A, Joly F, et al.
Randomized phase III study of erlotinib versus observation in patients with no evidence of disease progression after first-line platin-based chemotherapy for ovarian carcinoma: a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Gynaecological Cancer Group, and Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup study.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(4):320-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This trial evaluated the efficacy of maintenance erlotinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, after first-line chemotherapy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had high-risk International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I or stage II to IV epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer and were not selected for EGFR expression. All patients underwent first-line platinum-based chemotherapy (CT) and showed no signs of progression at the end of CT. Patients were randomly assigned to maintenance erlotinib 150 mg orally daily for 2 years or to observation. EGFR immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and mutation analyses were performed in 318 patients.
RESULTS: Between October 2005 and February 2008, 835 patients were randomly assigned (median follow-up, 51 months). Twenty-six percent of the patients stopped erlotinib as a result of adverse effects (of these, 67% were due to rash). For erlotinib and observation, respectively, the median progression-free survival was 12.7 and 12.4 months (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.23), and the median overall survival was 50.8 and 59.1 months (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.20 months), respectively. No subgroup could be identified with improved effect of erlotinib, based on IHC or FISH for EGFR, or mutations in genes related to the EGFR pathway, or on rash during erlotinib therapy. However, patients with a positive FISH EGFR score had a worse overall survival (46.1 months) than those with a negative score (67.0 months; HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.40; P = .044). Global health/quality-of-life scores showed a significant difference during the first year (P = .0102) in favor of the observation arm.
CONCLUSION: Maintenance erlotinib after first-line treatment in ovarian cancer did not improve progression-free or overall survival.

Kirschstein T
Synaptic plasticity and learning in animal models of tuberous sclerosis complex.
Neural Plast. 2012; 2012:279834 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is caused by a mutation of either the Tsc1 or Tsc2 gene. As these genes work in concert to negatively regulate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase which is involved in protein translation, mutations of these genes lead to a disinhibited mTOR activity. Both the clinical appearance of this condition including tumors, cognitive decline, and epileptic seizures and the molecular understanding of the mTOR signaling pathway, not only involved in cell growth, but also in neuronal functioning, have inspired numerous studies on learning behavior as well as on synaptic plasticity which is the key molecular mechanism of information storage in the brain. A couple of interesting animal models have been established, and the data obtained in these animals will be discussed. A special focus will be laid on differences among these models, which may be in part due to different background strains, but also may indicate pathophysiological variation in different mutations.

Gronnier C, Donatini G, Leteurtre E, et al.
Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: characteristic histologic feature of adenomatous polyposis. A case report.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2012; 73(3):213-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report the case of a 24-year-old woman with familial adenomatous polyposis and diagnosed with cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Neck ultrasound and computed tomography identified multiple nodules in the thyroid gland and neck lymph nodes. The cytological analysis was compatible with the diagnosis of papillary cancer of the thyroid. Total thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. The histological analysis established the diagnosis of cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Despite preoperative findings suggesting an aggressive form of thyroid cancer with lymph node involvement, the final diagnosis was a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma often associated with familial adenomatous polyposis and known to have a good prognosis.

Villaroel-Salinas J, Campos-Martinez J, Ortiz-Hidalgo C
Synovial sarcoma of the tongue confirmed by molecular detection of the SYT-SSX2 fusion gene transcript.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2012; 20(4):386-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Involvement of the tongue by a synovial sarcoma (SS) is an extremely rare event; there have only been 13 cases previously reported. The authors present herein a case of monophasic SS arising in the tongue in a 32-year-old woman. The neoplasm expressed cytokeratins AE1-3, OSCAR, and EMA as well as Bcl-2 and TLE1. Molecular analysis indicated that the patient tested positive for the SYT/SS2 fusion transcript.

Kosemehmetoglu K, Kaygusuz G, Bahrami A, et al.
Intra-articular epithelioid sarcoma showing mixed classic and proximal-type features: report of 2 cases, with immunohistochemical and molecular cytogenetic INI-1 study.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2011; 35(6):891-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelioid sarcoma, a rare sarcoma with epithelial differentiation, most often occurs in the distal extremities; however, it may occur in essentially any location. With the recent recognition that the loss of expression of the tumor-suppressor gene INI-1 may be associated with epithelioid sarcoma, it has become clear that epithelioid sarcoma may occur in previously unsuspected locations such as bone. Only 2 cases of intra-articular epithelioid sarcoma have been previously reported. We retrieved 2 intra-articular cases coded as epithelioid sarcoma from our archives. Both expressed cytokeratins (AE1/AE3 and OSCAR), CD34, vimentin, and epithelial membrane antigen, and showed complete loss of expression of INI-1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections by using a laboratory-developed dual-color probe containing INI1 (CTD-2511E13 and CTD-2034E7) (22q11.2) (OR) and PANX2 (RPCI3-402G11) (22q13.33) (GR) probes as control. Both cases occurred in a clearly intra-articular location in the knee. Case 1 was that of a 19-year-old man with a long-standing history of pain and limited joint function. This patient was disease free after amputation. Case 2 was that of a 60-year-old woman. Follow-up information available for this patient showed bilateral subpleural metastases. Morphologically, case 1 showed features of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma, whereas case 2 showed mixed features of classic and proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. Immunohistochemistry showed complete loss of INI-1 protein in both cases; fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses were negative for INI-1 gene deletion. Herein, we have reported 2 cases of intra-articular epithelioid sarcoma, showing morphologic and immunohistochemical features identical to those of epithelioid sarcoma in conventional locations, including loss of INI-1 expression. Intra-articular epithelioid sarcoma should be distinguished from malignant pigmented villonodular synovitis and from carcinoma metastatic to the synovium. Improved recognition of this rare clinical presentation should allow for better understanding of its unique features.

Leblanc E, Narducci F, Farre I, et al.
Radical fimbriectomy: a reasonable temporary risk-reducing surgery for selected women with a germ line mutation of BRCA 1 or 2 genes? Rationale and preliminary development.
Gynecol Oncol. 2011; 121(3):472-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is the gold standard prophylactic surgery for BRCA1 or 2 mutation carriers. However, due to the resulting early menopause and fertility desires, young women are reluctant to undergo this procedure. In view of the recent literature on ovarian carcinogenesis, we wish to report a novel conceptual surgical procedure we called "radical fimbriectomy." This procedure is aimed to protect this subset of high-risk women from high-grade serous pelvic carcinoma, while preserving their ovarian function.
METHODS: Women with BRCA mutation, who were scheduled for BSO, were informed of the procedure approved by our local review board. Radical fimbriectomy consists of removing all the tube and the fimbrio-ovarian junction, step immediately followed in this developmental phase by completion oophorectomy. Four methods of partial ovarian transsection were prospectively compared: sharp division, stapler, bipolar division and harmonic scalpel. Surgical safety and pathological alterations were assessed. All specimens underwent extensive pathological evaluation using both SEE-FIM protocol and serial sections.
RESULTS: Fourteen women were enrolled in the study. Sharp and EndoGIA® appeared to be the safest methods of ovarian resection providing the best specimen quality for pathological examination.
CONCLUSION: We believe this technique could be suggested to young mutation carriers reluctant to undergo BSO. This approach is preferable to no prophylactic surgery at all. However, until the safety and validity of this procedure is confirmed by a multi-institutional study, women who undergo radical fimbriectomy should continue to receive regular multimodal evaluation and be advised of the risks involved until they finally accept secondary castration.

Lefebvre JL, Ang KK,
Larynx preservation clinical trial design: key issues and recommendations-a consensus panel summary.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009; 73(5):1293-303 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To develop guidelines for the conduct of Phase III clinical trials of larynx preservation in patients with locally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: A multidisciplinary international consensus panel developed recommendations after reviewing results from completed Phase III randomized trials, meta-analyses, and published clinical reports with updates available through November, 2007. The guidelines were reviewed and approved by the panel.
RESULTS: According to the recommendations, the trial population should include patients with T2 or T3 laryngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma not considered for partial laryngectomy and exclude those with laryngeal dysfunction or age greater than 70 years. Functional assessments should include speech and swallowing. Voice should be routinely assessed with a simple, validated instrument. The primary endpoint should capture survival and function. The panel created a new endpoint: laryngo-esophageal dysfunction-free survival. Events are death, local relapse, total or partial laryngectomy, tracheotomy at 2 years or later, or feeding tube at 2 years or later. Recommended secondary endpoints are overall survival, progression-free survival, locoregional control, time to tracheotomy, time to laryngectomy, time to discontinuation of feeding tube, and quality of life/patient-reported outcomes. Correlative biomarker studies for near-term trials should include estimated glomerular filtration rate, excision repair cross-complementary-1 gene, E-cadherin and beta-catenin, epiregulin and amphiregulin, and TP53 mutation.
CONCLUSIONS: Revised trial designs in several key areas are needed to advance the study of larynx preservation. With consistent methodologies, clinical trials can more effectively evaluate and quantify the therapeutic benefit of novel treatment options for patients with locally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer.

Révillion F, Puech C, Rabenoelina F, et al.
Expression of the putative tumor suppressor gene PTPN13/PTPL1 is an independent prognostic marker for overall survival in breast cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2009; 124(3):638-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although it is well established that some protein tyrosine kinases have a prognostic value in breast cancer, the involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) is poorly substantiated for breast tumors. Three of these enzymes (PTP-gamma, LAR, and PTPL1) are already known to be regulated by estrogens or their antagonists in human breast cancer cells. We used a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method to test the expression levels of PTP-gamma, LAR and its neuronal isoform, and PTPL1 in a training set of RNA from 59 breast tumors. We sought correlations between levels of these molecular markers, current tumor markers, and survival. We then quantified the expression level of the selected phosphatase in 232 additional samples, resulting in a testing set of 291 breast tumor RNAs from patients with a median follow-up of 6.4 years. The Spearman nonparametric test revealed correlations between PTPL1 expression and differentiation markers. Cox univariate analysis of the overall survival studies demonstrated that PTPL1 is a prognostic factor [risk ratio (RR)=0.45], together with the progesterone receptor (PR) (RR=0.52) and node involvement (RR=1.58). In multivariate analyses, PTPL1 and PR retained their prognostic value (RRs of 0.48 and 0.55, respectively). This study demonstrates for the first time that PTPL1 expression level is an independent prognostic indicator of favorable outcome for patients with breast cancer. In conjunction with our mechanistic studies, this finding identifies PTPL1 as an important regulatory element of human breast tumor aggressiveness and sensitivity to treatments such as antiestrogens and antiaromatase.

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