Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (7)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: PINX1 (cancer-related)
Shen C, Chen F, Wang H, et al.The Pinx1 Gene Downregulates Telomerase and Inhibits Proliferation of CD133+ Cancer Stem Cells Isolated from a Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Line by Regulating Trfs and Mad1/C-Myc/p53 Pathways.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 49(1):282-294 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are important factors for the continuous growth, recurrence, and metastasis of malignant tumors. They are responsible for the ineffectiveness of traditional radiotherapy and chemotherapy toward malignant tumors. Currently, stem cells or side-population cells have been isolated from many cancer cell lines and malignant tumor tissues, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Exploring the biological characteristics of CSCs for CSC-targeted therapy has gained importance. CSCs possess higher telomerase activity; thus, the use of the gene encoding telomerase inhibitor PinX1 gene to target telomerase in CSCs and inhibit proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of CSCs has become an important means for the treatment of malignant tumors. PinX1 may regulate complex pathways, including TRF1, Mad1/c-Myc, and p53.
METHODS: In this study, nasopharyngeal CD133+ CSCs were sorted using CD133 immunomagnetic beads by flow cytometry The successful isolation of CD133+ CSCs was confirmed by examining their surface markers, namely CD44, NaNOG, and SOX2 as well as their ability to undergo in vivo tumorigenesis and in vitro sphere formation, proliferation, migration, and invasion. In addition, CD133+ CSCs were transfected with the constructed PinX1 overexpression plasmid or siRNA and the resulting effects on their proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were detected using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), transwell assay, and scratch test, respectively. Furthermore, their effects on mRNA and protein levels of TRF1, TRF2, Mad1, c-Myc, and p53 were examined using quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively.
RESULTS: The overexpression of PinX1 in CD133+ CSCs significantly decreased hTERT (P < 0.001), inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion, induced apoptosis, and significantly decreased c-Myc mRNA levels (P < 0.001), while it increased TRF1, Mad1, and p53 mRNA levels (all P < 0.001). On the other hand, PinX1 silencing in CD133+ CSCs significantly decreased TRF1, Mad1, and p53 mRNA levels (all P < 0.01), while it increased hTERT and c-Myc mRNA levels (all P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that PinX1 downregulates telomerase activity in CD133+ CSCs, inhibits its proliferation, migration, and invasion, and induces apoptosis possibly through TRF1, Mad1/c-Myc, and p53-mediated pathways.
Jiang T, Li H, Jiang R, et al.Pin2/TRF1‑binding protein X1 inhibits colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo via the nuclear factor‑κB signaling pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(3):1533-1544 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Pin2/TRF1‑binding protein X1 (PinX1) functioned as a potent inhibitor of telomerase, which was also widely considered to be a sufficient tumor suppressor. Previous studies have demonstrated that PinX1 expression was reduced in several types of cancer and was associated with poor overall survival. However, little is known regarding the role of PinX1 in colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study investigated PinX1 expression via immunostaining of CRC tissue microarrays consisting of tumor and adjacent non‑cancerous tissues (ANCT) from 568 patients. PinX1 expression was significantly lower in CRC tissues than in ANCT. Decreased PinX1 expression was revealed to be associated with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and advanced Tumor‑Node‑Metastasis stage, as well as a poorer overall and disease‑free survival. Furthermore, Cox regression analysis determined that a decreased PinX1 expression was an independent prognostic marker for patients with CRC. In an in vitro assay, PinX1 markedly restricted CRC cell migration and invasion. Additionally, the present study revealed that PinX1 could hinder the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) through nuclear factor (NF)‑κB‑dependent transcription to further suppress the migration and invasion ability of CRC cells through western blot analysis and a gelatin zymography assay. In vivo studies verified that PinX1 could suppress CRC metastasis, as well as the expression of MMP2 and NF‑κB p65. These results suggested that PinX1 can serve as an independent prognostic factor for patients with CRC and that it may function as a tumor metastasis suppressor in the progression of CRC though negatively regulating the NF‑κB/MMP2 signaling pathway.
Kumar R, Khan R, Gupta N, et al.Identifying the biomarker potential of telomerase activity and shelterin complex molecule, telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TERF2), in multiple myeloma.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2018; 59(7):1677-1689 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Telomere length (TL) is maintained by telomere capping protein complex called shelterin complex. We studied the possible involvement and biomarker potential of shelterin complex molecules in naive multiple myeloma (MM) patients and controls. TL, relative telomerase activity (RTA), real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed in bonemarrow sample of 70 study subjects (patients = 50; controls = 20). Significantly lowered mean TL, increased RTA and higher mRNA expression of shelterin molecules were observed in patients, while PIN2/TERF1 interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PINX1) showed lower mRNA expression. Significantly increased protein expression of telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TERF2), protection of telomeres 1, adrenocortical dysplasia homolog, Tankyrase 1 and telomere reverse transcriptase were observed in MM patients. Significant correlation was observed among genes and of genes with clinical parameters. In conclusion, our findings showed alteration of these molecules at mRNA and protein levels suggested their involvement in disease progression. Optimal sensitivity and specificity of TERF2 and RTA on receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and univariate analysis demonstrated their biomarkers potential in better prediction of disease course.
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is causally linked to the carcinogenesis and progression of most solid tumors. LPTS is a well-identified tumor suppressor by inhibiting telomerase activity and cancer cell growth. However, whether and how LPTS is regulated by inflammation signaling is still incompletely elucidated.
METHODS: Real-time PCR and western blotting were used to determine the expression of p65 and LPTS. Reporter gene assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation were performed to decipher the regulatory mechanism between p65 and LPTS. Cell counting kit-8 assays and xenograt models were used to detect p65-LPTS-regulated cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo, respectively.
RESULTS: Here we for the first time demonstrated that NF-κB could inhibit LPTS expression in the mRNA and protein levels in multiple cancer cells (e.g. cervical cancer and colon cancer cells). Mechanistically, NF-κB p65 could bind to two consensus response elements locating at -1143/-1136 and -888/-881 in the promoter region of human LPTS gene according to EMSA and ChIP assays. Mutation of those two binding sites rescued p65-suppressed LPTS promoter activity. Functionally, NF-κB regulated LPTS-dependent cell growth of cervical and colon cancers in vitro and in xenograft models. In translation studies, we verified that increased p65 expression was associated with decreased LPTS level in multiple solid cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, we revealed that NF-κB p65 potentiated tumor growth via suppressing a novel target LPTS. Modulation of NF-κB-LPTS axis represented a potential strategy for treatment of those inflammation-associated malignancies.
PinX1 has been identified as a suppressor of telomerase enzymatic activity. However, the tumour-suppressive roles of PinX1 in different types of human cancers are unclear. PinX1 expression status and its correlation with clinicopathological features in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been investigated. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the roles of PinX1 in NSCLC. PinX1 expression status was examined by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray from a total of 158 patients. Correlations among PinX1 expression, clinicopathological variables, and patient survival were analysed. Furthermore, we overexpressed PinX1 in NSCLC cells and tested telomerase activity using real-time quantitative telomeric repeat amplification protocol (qTRAP) assays. Proliferation and migration of NSCLC cells were examined using the MTS method, wound healing assays, and transwell assays, respectively. Our results showed that negative PinX1 expression was associated with a poor prognosis in NSCLC. Sex, smoking status, lymph gland status, subcarinal lymph node status, pathological stage, and PinX1 expression were related to survival. PinX1 was not an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC. PinX1 overexpression inhibited proliferation and migration in NSCLC cells by suppressing telomerase activity. Our findings suggested that PinX1 could be a potential tumour suppressor in NSCLC and that loss of PinX1 promoted NSCLC progression.
Human Pinx1 protein, associated with shelterin proteins, is widely revealed as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. Growing evidence has manifested the deregulation of PinX1 in distinct cancers. Nonetheless, the loss status of PinX1 and its diagnostic, prognostic and clinicopathological significance in Basal-like breast cancer are still unclear. In the present study, the PinX1 expression levels of breast cancer tissues were investigated by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting assays. Then immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to detect PinX1 expression on a tissue microarray. The optimal threshold for PinX1 positivity was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. To clarify the probable role of PinX1 in BLBC, the PinX1 knockout and stably over-expressed MDA-MB-231 cell lines were constructed by the CRISPR-Cas9 system and gene transfection. The association of PinX1 expression with cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells were observed by CCK-8 assay, wound healing assay, transwell assay, flow cytometric analysis and immunoblotting of the cleaved caspase-3 protein level. Our results showed that both PinX1 mRNA and protein expression were downregulated in breast cancer tissues (P<0.05). In IHC analysis, the optimal cut-off parameter for PinX1 positive expression was 62.5% (the AUC was 0.749, P<0.01). PinX1 positivity was 76.9% (10/14) in luminal subtypes, 50% (5/10) in Her2-enriched breast cancer and 27.3% (9/33) in basal-like subtypes. Besides, in 59 invasive ductal breast carcinomas, PinX1 expression was inversely related to histology grade (P<0.05) while it was positively associated with PR status (P<0.05) and ER status (P<0.05). These results indicated that low expression of PinX1 correlated with aggressive clinicopathological significance of breast cancer, especially in the basal-like subtype. Besides, we identified that overexpression of PinX1 inhibited the proliferation rates and migration ability and increased the apoptosis rates of BLBC. Our findings demonstrated that low expression of PinX1 was associated with malignant behaviors in basal-like subtype of breast cancer. PinX1 is likely a feasible biomarker and molecular target of BLBC.
BACKGROUND: The telomerase/telomere interacting protein PinX1 has been suggested as a tumor suppressor. However, the clinical and biological significance of PinX1 in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear.
METHODS: PinX1 gene/expression pattern and its association with NSCLC patient survival were analyzed in cBioportal Web resource and two cohorts of NSCLC samples. A series of in vivo and in vitro assays were performed to elucidate the function of PinX1 on NSCLC cells proliferation and underlying mechanisms.
RESULTS: More frequency of gene PinX1 homozygous deletion and heterozygote deficiency was first retrieved from cBioportal Web resource. Low expression of PinX1 correlated with smoking condition, histological type, T stage, N stage, M stage and TNM stage, and was an independent predictor for overall survival in a learning cohort (n = 93) and a validation cohort (n = 51) of NSCLC patients. Furthermore, knockdown of PinX1 dramatically accelerated NSCLC cell proliferation and G1/S transition, whereas ectopic overexpression of PinX1 substantially inhibited cell viability and cell cycle transition in vitro and in vivo. p15/cyclin D1 pathway and BMP5 might contribute to PinX1-associated cell proliferation and cell cycle transition.
CONCLUSION: The cost-effective expression of PinX1 could constitute a novel molecular predictor/marker for NSCLC management.
PIN2/TRF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PinX1) is a novel cloned gene located at human chromosome 8p23, playing a vital role in maintaining telomeres length and chromosome stability. It has been demonstrated to be involved in tumor genesis and progression in most malignancies. However, some researches showed opposing molecular status of PinX1 gene and its expression patterns in several other types of tumors. The pathogenic mechanism of PinX1 expression in human malignancy is not yet clear. Moreover, emerging evidence suggest that PinX1 (especially its TID domain) might be a potential new target cancer treatment. Therefore, PinX1 may be a new potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for human cancers, and may play different roles in different human cancers. The functions and the mechanisms of PinX1 in various human cancers remain unclear, suggesting the necessity of further extensive works of its role in tumor genesis and progression.
Sriprapun M, Chuaypen N, Khlaiphuengsin A, et al.Association of PINX1 but not TEP1 Polymorphisms with Progression to Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Thai Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(4):2019-25 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is major health problem with high mortality rates, especially in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Telomerase function is one of common mechanisms affecting genome stability and cancer development. Recent studies demonstrated that genetic polymorphisms of telomerase associated genes such as telomerase associated protein 1 (TEP1) rs1713449 and PIN2/TERF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PINX1) rs1469557 may be associated with risk of HCC and other cancers. In this study, 325 patients with HCC and 539 non-HCC groups [193 healthy controls, 80 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC) and 266 patients with HBV-related chronic hepatitis (CH)] were enrolled to explore genetic polymorphisms of both SNPs using the allelic discrimination method based on MGB probe TaqMan real time PCR. We demonstrated that all genotypes of both genes were in Hardy-Wienberg equilibrium (>0.05). Moreover, there was no significant association between rs1713449 genotypes and HCC risk, HCC progression and overall survival (>0.05). Interestingly, we observed positive association of rs1469557 with risk of HCC when compared with the LC group under dominant (CC versus CT+TT, OR=1.89, 95% CI= 1.06-3.40, P=0.031) and allelic (C versus T alleles, OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.04-2.94, P=0.033) models, respectively. Moreover, overall survival of HCC patients with CC genotype of rs1469557 was significantly higher than non-CC genotype (Log-rank P=0.015). These findings suggest that PINX1 rs1469557 but not TEP1 rs1469557 might play a role in HCC progression in Thai patients with LC and be used as the prognosis marker to predict overall survival in HCC patients.
REC8 meiotic recombination protein (REC8) was found to be preferentially methylated in gastric cancer (GC) using promoter methylation array. We aimed to elucidate the epigenetic alteration and biological function of REC8 in GC. REC8 was downregulated in 100% (3/3) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive and 80% (8/10) of EBV-negative GC cell lines by promoter methylation, but the expression could be restored through demethylation treatment. Protein expression of REC8 was significantly lower in human primary gastric tumors than in adjacent non-tumor tissues. A negative correlation between methylation and mRNA expression of REC8 was observed in 223 gastric samples of The Cancer Genome Atlas study (r=-0.7018, P<0.001). The methylation level (%) of the REC8 promoter was significantly higher in EBV-positive gastric tumors than in EBV-negative gastric tumors, as shown by bisulfite genomic sequencing (77.6 (69.3-80.5) vs 51.4 (39.5-62.3), median (interquartile range); P<0.001); methylation levels in both subtypes of tumors were significantly higher than in normal stomach tissues (14.8 (4.2-24.0)) (both P<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that REC8 methylation was an independent factor for poor survival in GC patients (hazard ratio=1.68, P<0.05). REC8 expression significantly suppressed cell viability, clonogenicity and cell cycle progression; it induced apoptosis and inhibited migration of AGS-EBV (EBV-positive) and BGC823 (EBV-negative) GC cells, and it suppressed tumorigenicity in nude mice. In contrast, knockdown of REC8 in gastric epithelial immortalized GES-1 cells significantly increased cell viability, clonogenicity and migration ability. The tumor-suppressive effect of REC8 is mediated at least in part by the downregulation of genes involved in cell growth (G6PD, SLC2A1, NOL3, MCM2, SNAI1 and SNAI2), and the upregulation of apoptosis/migration inhibitors (GADD45G and LDHA) and tumor suppressors (PinX1, IGFBP3 and ETS2). In conclusion, REC8 is a novel tumor suppressor that is commonly downregulated by promoter methylation in GC, especially in the EBV-associated subtype. Promoter methylation of REC8 is an independent risk factor for the shortened survival of GC patients.
Deng W, Jiao N, Li N, et al.Decreased expression of PinX1 protein predicts poor prognosis of colorectal cancer patients receiving 5-FU adjuvant chemotherapy.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2015; 73:1-5 [PubMed
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Previous studies suggest that Pin2/TRF1 interacting protein X1 (PinX1) is an intrinsic telomerase inhibitor and a putative tumor suppressor gene in human cancers. The aims of this study were to investigate PinX1 expression status in colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens and to clarify its clinical significance. A total of 83 CRC patients treated with radical resection and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) based adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PinX1 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein expression in paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Results showed that PinX1 expression was significantly reduced in tumor tissues as compared to normal tissues, the rate of PinX1 protein low/negative expression in CRC and normal tissues was 43.4% (36/83) and 9.6% (8/83), respectively (P<0.001), while hTERT protein expression was upregulated in CRC and negative correlated with PinX1 expression. Although no correlations with clinicopathological features, PinX1 downregulation was significantly associated with adverse 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Cox proportional hazards model further revealed that PinX1 expression was an independent factor in predicting OS and DFS for CRC patients, apart from lymph metastasis. In conclusion, PinX1 protein expression is decreased in CRC, which may be a new promising tumor marker for CRC prognosis and 5-FU chemosensitivity.
Noriega-Reyes MY, Rivas-Torres MA, Oñate-Ocaña LF, et al.Novel role for PINX1 as a coregulator of nuclear hormone receptors.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015; 414:9-18 [PubMed
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Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) has an established role in breast cancer biology. Transcriptional activation by ERα is a multistep process influenced by coactivator and corepressor proteins. This work shows that Pin2 interacting protein 1 (PINX1) interacts with the N-terminal domain of ERα and functions as a corepressor of ERα. Furthermore, it represses both AF-1 and AF-2 transcriptional activities. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays verified that the interaction between ERα and PINX1 occurs on E2 regulated promoters and enhanced expression of PINX1 deregulates the expression of a number of genes that have a role in cell growth and proliferation in breast cancer. PINX1 overexpression decreases estrogen mediated proliferation of breast cancer cell lines, while its depletion shows the opposite effect. Taken together, these data show a novel molecular mechanism for PINX1 as an attenuator of estrogen receptor activity in breast cancer cell lines, furthering its role as a tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer.
Li HL, Han L, Chen HR, et al.PinX1 serves as a potential prognostic indicator for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and inhibits its invasion and metastasis by suppressing MMP-2 via NF-κB-dependent transcription.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(25):21406-20 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PIN2/TRF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PinX1) is a novel cloned gene which has been identified as a major haploinsufficient tumor suppressor essential for maintaining telomerase activity, the length of telomerase and chromosome stability. This study explored the clinical significance and biological function of PinX1 in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The clinical relevance of PinX1 in ccRCC was evaluated using tissue microarray and immunohistochemical staining in two independent human ccRCC cohorts. Our data demonstrated that PinX1 expression was dramatically decreased in ccRCC tissues compared with normal renal tissues and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. Low PinX1 expression was significantly correlated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage in patients, as well as with worse overall and disease-specific survival. Cox regression analysis revealed that PinX1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for ccRCC patients. Moreover, PinX1 inhibited the migration and invasion of ccRCC by suppressing MMP-2 expression and activity via NF-κB-dependent transcription in vitro. In vivo studies confirmed that PinX1 negatively regulated ccRCC metastasis and the expression of MMP-2 and NF-κB-p65. These findings indicate that PinX1 suppresses ccRCC metastasis and may serve as a ccRCC candidate clinical prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target.
BACKGROUND: PinX1 (PIN2/TRF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor 1) was suggested to be correlated with tumor progression. This study was designed to evaluate the role of PinX1 in human breast cancer.
METHODS: To evaluate the function of PinX1 in breast cancer, we used a tissue microarray (TMA) of 405 human breast cancer patients and immunohistochemistry to analyze the correlation between PinX1 expression and clinicopathologic variables and patient survival. We also detected the abilities of cell migration and invasion in breast cancer by performing cell migration and invasion assay, gelatin zymography and western blot analysis. Lastly, we set up the nude mice model by Tail vein assay to exam the functional role of PinX1 in breast cancer metastasis.
RESULTS: We found that low PinX1 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002) and histology grade (P = 0.001) in patients, as well as with poorer overall and disease-specific survival (P = 0.010 and P = 0.003, respectively). Moreover, we identified that PinX1 inhibited the migration and invasion of breast cancer by suppressing MMP-9 expression and activity via NF-κB-dependent transcription in vitro. Finally, our mice model confirmed that PinX1 suppressed breast cancer metastasis in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that low PinX1 expression was an independent negative prognostic factor for breast cancer patients. These findings suggested that PinX1 might be function as a tumor metastasis suppressor in the development and progression of breast cancer by regulating the NF-κB/MMP-9 signaling pathway, and might be a prognostic marker as well as a therapeutic target for breast cancer.
Mei PJ, Chen YS, Du Y, et al.PinX1 inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion in glioma cells.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(3):73 [PubMed
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PinX1 induces apoptosis and suppresses cell proliferation in some cancer cells, and the expression of PinX1 is frequently decreased in some cancer and negatively associated with metastasis and prognosis. However, the precise roles of PinX1 in gliomas have not been studied. In this study, we found that PinX1 obviously reduced the gliomas cell proliferation through regulating the expressions of cell cycle-relative molecules to arrest cell at G1 phase and down-regulating the expression of component telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT in human), which is the hardcore of telomerase. Moreover, PinX1 could suppress the abilities of gliomas cell wound healing, migration and invasion via suppressing MMP-2 expression and increasing TIMP-2 expression. In conclusion, our results suggested that PinX1 may be a potential suppressive gene in the progression of gliomas.
Baichuan L, Cao S, Liu YLPTS: A Novel Tumor Suppressor Gene and a Promising Drug Target for Cancer Intervention.
Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2015; 10(2):170-5 [PubMed
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Liver-related putative tumor suppressor (lpts) is a liver-related tumor suppressor candidate gene initially isolated by positional candidate cloning method. Three translation products of lpts gene are found, that are LPTS-L, LPTS-S and LPTS-M respectively. The gene highly expresses in normal tissues but lowly in cancer tissues. The LPTS proteins can suppress the activity of telomerase and trigger apoptosis for tumor cells in vivo and in vitro, despite that the detailed anti-cancer mechanism remains undefined. This review successively describes the lpts genomic assembly, transcriptional regulation and structure-activity evaluation of different LPTS isoforms; then it represents the LPTS binding partners, for example Pin2/TRF1 and MCRS2, which play important roles in decreasing telomerase activity, which benefits to reveal the anticancer mechanism; subsequently, it surveys several patents of recombinant LPTS proteins such as TAT-LPTS-LC, PinX1/C-G4S-9R-G4S-mBAFF and PinX1/C-9R-mBAF that can inhibit the growth of tumor cells. Lpts gene is becoming a promising drug target for cancer intervention owing to its powerful inhibition efficacy on telomerase activity, and recombinant LPTS proteins claimed by a couple of patents seem to be potential anti-cancer agents.
Badrzadeh F, Akbarzadeh A, Zarghami N, et al.Comparison between effects of free curcumin and curcumin loaded NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles on telomerase and PinX1 gene expression in lung cancer cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(20):8931-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Herbal compounds such as curcumin which decrease telomerase and gene expression have been considered as beneficial tools for lung cancer treatment. In this article, we compared the effects of pure curcumin and curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles on telomerase and PinX1 gene expression in a lung cancer cell line.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A tetrazolium-based assay was used for determination of cytotoxic effects of curcumin on the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line and telomerase and pinX1 gene expression was measured with real-time PCR.
RESULTS: MTT assay showed that Curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA inhibited the growth of the Calu-6 lung cancer cell line in a time and dose-dependent manner. Our q-PCR results showed that the expression of telomerase gene was effectively reduced as the concentration of curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA increased while expression of the PinX1 gene became elevated.
CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that curcumin- loaded- NIPAAm-MAA exerted cytotoxic effects on the Calu-6 cell line through down-regulation of telomerase and stimulation of pinX1 gene expression. NIPPAm-MAA could be good carrier for such kinds of hydrophobic agent.
Shi R, Zhou JY, Zhou H, et al.The role of PinX1 in growth control of breast cancer cells and its potential molecular mechanism by mRNA and lncRNA expression profiles screening.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:978984 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As a major tumor suppressor gene, the role of PinX1 in breast cancer and its molecular mechanism remain unclear. In this study, overexpression of PinX1 was generated in 3 breast cancer cell lines, and knockdown of PinX1 was performed in a nontumorigenic breast cell line. The regulation of PinX1 on cell proliferation and cell cycle was observed. A microarray-based lncRNA and mRNA expression profile screening was also performed. We found a lower growth rate, G0/G1 phase arrest, and S phase inhibition in the PinX1 overexpressed breast cancer cells, while a higher growth rate, decreased G0/G1 phase, and increased S phase rate in the PinX1 knocked-down nontumorigenic breast cell. A total of 977 mRNAs and 631 lncRNAs were identified as differentially expressed transcripts between PinX1 overexpressed and control MCF-7 cells. Further analysis identified the involvement of these mRNAs in 52 cancer related pathways and various other biological processes. 11 enhancer-like lncRNAs and 25 lincRNAs with their adjacent mRNA pairs were identified as coregulated transcripts. Our results confirmed the role of PinX1 as a major tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer cell lines and provided information for further research on the molecular mechanisms of PinX1 in tumorigenesis.
Wu G, Liu D, Jiang K, et al.PinX1, a novel target gene of p53, is suppressed by HPV16 E6 in cervical cancer cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1839(2):88-96 [PubMed
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The aberrant activation of telomerase is critical for the initiation and development of human cervical cancer, which is dependent on the activation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Recently, Pin2/TRF1-interacting protein X1 (PinX1) has been identified as a suppressor of hTERT. It has been found that the telomerase is activated while the level of PinX1 is decreased in cervical cancer. However, the regulatory mechanism of PinX1 in cervical cancer cells remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that the level of PinX1 is regulated by p53, and p53 functions as a transcriptional factor to directly activate the expression of PinX1 in cervical cancer cells. Moreover, we found that HPV16 E6 suppresses the expression of PinX1 via inhibiting p53 transcriptional activity, resulting in the enhancement of telomerase activity. This study not only for the first time shows that PinX1 is a novel target gene of p53 but also suggests that suppression of p53/PinX1 pathway may be a novel mechanism by which HPV16 E6 enhances the telomerase activity in cervical cancer cells.
BACKGROUND: PIN2/TRF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor1 (PinX1) was recently suggested as a putative tumor suppressor in several types of human cancer, based on its binding to and inhibition of telomerase. Moreover, loss of PinX1 has been detected in many human malignancies. However, the possible involvement of PinX1 and its clinical/prognostic significance in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) are unclear.
METHODS: The PinX1 expression profile was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blotting, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in UCB tissues and adjacent normal urothelial bladder epithelial tissues. PinX1 was overexpressed and silenced in UCB cell lines to determine its role in tumorigenesis, development of UCB, and the possible mechanism.
RESULTS: PinX1 expression in UCB was significantly down-regulated at both mRNA and protein level as compared with that in normal urothelial bladder epithelial tissues. PinX1 levels were inversely correlated with tumor multiplicity, advanced N classification, high proliferation index (Ki-67), and poor survival (P < 0.05). Moreover, overexpression of PinX1 in UCB cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, whereas silencing PinX1 dramatically enhanced cell proliferation. Overexpression of PinX1 resulted in G1/S phase arrest and cell growth/proliferation inhibition, while silencing PinX1 led to acceleration of G1/S transition, and cell growth/proliferation promotion by inhibiting/enhancing telomerase activity and via the p16/cyclin D1 pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that down-regulation of PinX1 play an important role in the tumorigenesis and development of UCB and that the expression of PinX1 as detected by IHC is an independent molecular marker in patients with UCB.
BACKGROUND: Among the numerous genetic defects associated with hepatocarcinogenesis, telomere abnormalities appear to play a role both in tumor promotion and maintenance. Telomeres, the chromosome extremities, are protected by specific proteins, the shelterin complex and by additional factors. Besides telomerase dysregulation, expression changes of these telomere factors have been observed in cancers.
METHODS: Here, we tested the hypothesis that such dysregulation might occur in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with specific patterns depending on the cause of HCC. We compared telomere length, telomerase activity (TA), hTERT and telomere genes expression using PCR and Western-blot analyses between non-cirrhotic liver, peritumoral cirrhotic tissue (40 samples) and cancerous tissue (40 samples) derived from 40 patients with HBV-, HCV-, or alcohol-related HCC.
RESULTS: Alterations in TA, hTERT expression and telomere length between non-cirrhotic, cirrhotic, and tumor samples were not significantly influenced by the cause of HCC. In contrast, the expression pattern of hTR, shelterin, and non-shelterin telomere protective factors clearly distinguished the 3 causes of cirrhosis and HCC. For patients with HBV diseased liver, when compared with non-cirrhotic liver, the cirrhotic tissue underexpressed all shelterin and all but HMRE11A and RAD50 non-shelterin telomere factors. For HCV the expression level of POT1, RAP1, Ku80, and RAD50 was higher in cirrhotic than in non-cirrhotic liver samples without evidence for significant transcriptional change for the remaining genes. For alcohol-related liver diseases, the expression level of POT1, RAP1, TIN2, hMRE11A, hMRE11B, Ku70, Ku80, RAD50, TANK1, and PINX1 was higher in cirrhotic than in non-cirrhotic liver samples. For the 3 causes of HCC, there was no significant change in shelterin and non-shelterin gene expression between cirrhosis and HCC samples.
CONCLUSIONS: These results validate our hypotheses and demonstrate that cirrhosis and HCC add-up numerous telomere dysfunctions including numerous cause-specific changes that appear to occur early during the course of the disease.
Ghaffari SH, Momeny M, Bashash D, et al.Cytotoxic effect of arsenic trioxide on acute promyelocytic leukemia cells through suppression of NFkβ-dependent induction of hTERT due to down-regulation of Pin1 transcription.
Hematology. 2012; 17(4):198-206 [PubMed
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Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by specific t(15;17), distinct morphologic picture, and clinical coagulopathy that contributes to the morbidity and mortality of the disease. This study was purposed to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying telomerase-dependent arsenic trioxide (ATO)-induced cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects in NB4 cells. ATO exposure was associated with transcriptional repression of Pin1, survivin, c-Myc, hTERT, and PinX1 along with an expressive enhancement in p73 mRNA level. Moreover, ATO treatment suppressed cell growth, viability and metabolic activity, exerted apoptosis, hindered telomerase activity, shortened telomere length, and dampened NF-κB activation. On aggregate, these issues indicate that ATO might preempt cell growth and proliferation in NB4 cells through suppression of Pin1-mediated NF-κB-dependent stimulation of telomerase and survivin.
The impact of genetic variants in telomere pathway genes on telomere length and breast cancer survival remains unclear. We hypothesized that telomere length and genetic variants of telomere pathway genes are associated with survival among breast cancer patients. A population-based cohort study of 1,026 women diagnosed with a first primary breast cancer was conducted to examine telomere length and 52 genetic variants of 9 telomere pathway genes. Adjusted Cox regression analysis was employed to examine associations between telomere length, genetic variants and all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. Longer telomere length was significantly correlated with all-cause mortality in the subgroup with HER-2/neu negative tumors (HR=1.90, 95% CI: 1.12-3.22). Carrying the PINX1-33 (rs2277130) G-allele was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.06-1.98). Three SNPs (TERF2-03 rs35439397, TERT-14 rs2853677, and TERT-67 rs2853669) were significantly associated with reduced all-cause mortality. A similar reduced trend for breast cancer-specific mortality was observed for carrying the TERT-14 (rs2853677) T-allele (HR=0.57, 95% CI: 0.39-0.84), while carrying the POT1-18 (rs1034794) T-allele significantly increased breast cancer-specific mortality (HR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.00-2.19). However, none of the associations remained significant after correction for multiple tests. A significant dose-response effect was observed with increased number of unfavorable alleles/genotypes (PINX1-33 G-allele, POT1-18 T-allele, TERF2-03 GG, TERT-14 CC, and TERT-67 TT genotypes) and decreased survival. These data suggest that unfavorable genetic variants in telomere pathway genes may help to predict breast cancer survival.
Telomeres are critical in maintaining genomic stability. Genetic variants in telomere pathway genes may affect telomere and telomerase function, and subsequently cancer risk. We evaluated 126 SNPs from 10 genes related to telomere regulation in relation to bladder cancer risk. Five SNPs, 4 from TEP1 gene and 1 from PINX1 gene, were found to be highly significant (P<0.01). Out of these, the most significant association was found in rs2228041 of TEP1 (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.19-2.31) while rs1469557 of PINX1 had a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61-0.93). Haplotype analysis showed that a TEP1 haplotype consisting of the variant alleles of 7 SNPs exhibited a 2.28 fold increased risk (95% CI 1.13-4.60). We then performed cumulative analysis of multiple risk variants, as well as Classification and Regression Tree (CART) to look for gene-gene interactions. In cumulative effect analysis, the group with 4-5 risk variants had an OR of 2.57 (95% CI = 1.62-4.09) versus the reference group with 0 risk variants. The CART analysis categorized individuals into five subgroups with different bladder cancer risk profiles based on their distinct genotype background. To our knowledge, this is one of the largest, most comprehensive studies on bladder cancer risk concerning telomere-regulating pathway gene SNPs and our results support that genetic variations of telomere maintenance modulate bladder cancer risk individually and jointly.
BACKGROUND: Human interacting protein X1 (PinX1) has been identified as a critical telomerase inhibitor and proposed to be a putative tumor suppressor gene. Loss of PinX1 has been found in a large variety of malignancies, however, its function in inhibiting telomerase activity of tumor cells is not well documented. Here we show that PinX1 is essential for down-regulation telomerase activity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
METHODS: Expression vectors of human PinX1 (pEGFP-C3-PinX1) and its small interfering RNA (PinX1-FAM-siRNA) were constructed and transfected into NPC. Their effects on mRNA of telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT), telomerase activity, cell proliferation, cell migration, wound healing, cell cycles and apoptosis were examined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, stretch PCR, MTT assay, Transwell, scratch assay and flow cytometry, respectively.
RESULTS: Transfection of pEGFP-C3-PinX1 and PinX1-FAM-siRNA increased and reduced PinX1 mRNA by 1.6-fold and 70%, respectively. Over-expression of PinX1 decreased hTERT mRNA by 21%, reduced telomerase activity, inhibited cell growth, migration and wound healing ability, arrested cells in G0/G1 phase, and increased apoptotic index. In contrast, down-regulation of PinX1 did not alter the above characteristics.
CONCLUSIONS: PinX1 may play important roles in NPC proliferation, migration and apoptosis and has application potential in tumor-targeted gene therapy.
Human chromosome 8p23 is a region that has the most frequent heterozygosity in common human adult epithelial malignancies, but its major tumor suppressor gene(s) remain to be identified. Telomerase is activated in most human cancers and is critical for cancer cell growth. However, little is known about the significance of telomerase activation in chromosome instability and cancer initiation. The gene encoding the potent and highly conserved endogenous telomerase inhibitor PinX1 is located at human chromosome 8p23. However, the role of PinX1 in telomerase regulation and cancer development is not clear. Recent works from our group indicate that PinX1 is critical for maintaining telomere length at the optimal length. Furthermore, PinX1 is reduced in a large subset of human breast cancer tissues and cells. Significantly, PinX1 inhibition activates telomerase, and elongates telomeres, eventually leading to chromosome instability, all of which are abrogated by telomerase knockdown or knockout. Moreover, PinX1 allele loss causes majority of mice to develop a variety of epithelial cancers, which display chromosome instability and recapitulate to 8p23 allele loss in humans. These results indicate that PinX1 is a sought-after major tumor suppressor at human chromosome 8p23 that is essential for regulating telomerase activity and maintaining chromosome stability. These results suggest that inhibition of telomerase using PinX1 especially its telomerase inhibitory fragment or other methods might be used to treat cancers that have telomerase activation.
Wan SM, Tie J, Zhang YF, et al.Silencing of the hPOT1 gene by RNA inference promotes apoptosis and inhibits proliferation and aggressive phenotype of gastric cancer cells, likely through up-regulating PinX1 expression.
J Clin Pathol. 2011; 64(12):1051-7 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The human protection of telomeres 1 (hPOT1) protein, a single-strand telomeric DNA binding protein, plays an important role in telomere protection and telomere length regulation. However, its effect on invasion of gastric cancer remains unclear.
AIMS: To explore the role of hPOT1 in the proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells.
METHODS: The gastric expression of hPOT1 was examined in normal gastric mucosa (n=25), intestinal metaplasia (n=20), gastric dysplasia (n=20) and gastric cancer (n=150) by immunohistochemistry. The mean optical density (MOD) of the immunostaining was determined by semi-quantitative image analysis. The role of hPOT1 in the cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of gastric cancer 7901 cells was determined by means of the RNA interference (RNAi) of hPOT1 mRNA. The effects of hPOT1 RNAi on the expression of hPinX1 and hTERT were detected with western blotting.
RESULTS: The hPOT1 MOD was progressively increased from the normal mucosa to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer. An increased hPOT1 expression significantly correlated with tumour serosal invasion, node metastasis and advanced stage. Transfection of hPOT1 siRNA into SGC-7901 cells led to a decrease in cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion, and also an increase of apoptosis. An up-regulation of hPinX1 and down-regulation of hTERT were found in gastric cancer cells with hPOT1 siRNA.
CONCLUSIONS: Increased hPOT1 expression is associated with an advanced tumour stage. hPOT1 RNAi inhibits proliferation and invasion, and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. The effects of hPOT1 RNAi seem to be functionally linked to up-regulation of PinX1 and down-regulation of hTERT.
Wang HB, Wang WQ, Wang XW, et al.PinX1 gene transfection enhances the sensitivity of gastric carcinoma cell line to 5-fluorouracil.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2011 Mar-Apr; 58(106):682-6 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND/AIMS: Since telomeres and telomerase play crucial roles in maintaining cell immortalization and cancer progression, they may be targets for anticancer treatment. PinX1 is a potent telomerase inhibitor, and a putative tumor suppressor. The use of PinX1 to treat cancers has not been reported yet.
METHODOLOGY: In order to use PinX1 in gene therapy for gastric carcinoma, we transfected PinX1 gene into the gastric carcinoma line MKN28 using the eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-EGFP. PinX1-expressing, drug-resistant clones were screened with G418 and used in the study.
RESULTS: MKN28 cells transfected with PinX1 gene grew more slowly than the cells not transfected or transfected with void vectors (p<0.05). The IC50 value decreased markedly in cells transfected with PinX1 gene. PinX1 gene transfection enhanced the sensitivity of MKN28 cells to 5-fluorouracil (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: PinX1 may be used in gene therapy for gastric carcinoma.
Telomerase is activated in most human cancers and is critical for cancer cell growth. However, little is known about the significance of telomerase activation in chromosome instability and cancer initiation. The gene encoding the potent endogenous telomerase inhibitor PinX1 (PIN2/TRF1-interacting, telomerase inhibitor 1) is located at human chromosome 8p23, a region frequently exhibiting heterozygosity in many common human cancers, but the function or functions of PinX1 in development and tumorigenesis are unknown. Here we have shown that PinX1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor essential for chromosome stability in mice. We found that PinX1 expression was reduced in most human breast cancer tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, PinX1 heterozygosity and PinX1 knockdown in mouse embryonic fibroblasts activated telomerase and led to concomitant telomerase-dependent chromosomal instability. Moreover, while PinX1-null mice were embryonic lethal, most PinX1+/- mice spontaneously developed malignant tumors with evidence of chromosome instability. Notably, most PinX1 mutant tumors were carcinomas and shared tissues of origin with human cancer types linked to 8p23. PinX1 knockout also shifted the tumor spectrum of p53 mutant mice from lymphoma toward epithelial carcinomas. Thus, PinX1 is a major haploinsufficient tumor suppressor essential for maintaining telomerase activity and chromosome stability. These findings uncover what we believe to be a novel role for PinX1 and telomerase in chromosome instability and cancer initiation and suggest that telomerase inhibition may be potentially used to treat cancers that overexpress telomerase.