Gene Summary

Gene:SERPINB2; serpin family B member 2
Aliases: PAI, PAI2, PAI-2, PLANH2, HsT1201
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:plasminogen activator inhibitor 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (11)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Phytogenic Anticancer Agents
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Pilot Projects
  • Up-Regulation
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
  • Bone Cancer
  • Transfection
  • TWIST1
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Young Adult
  • 3 alpha-beta, 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
  • Rats, Nude
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Phytotherapy
  • Genotype
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Bone and Bones
  • Cell Movement
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Apoptosis
  • Survival Rate
  • Prostate Cancer
  • NIH 3T3 Cells
  • Breast Cancer
  • Chromosome 18
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Cytokines
  • Melanoma, Experimental
  • Phosphorylation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • MicroRNAs
  • Lung Cancer
  • Endocytosis
  • Serpins
  • Down-Regulation
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SERPINB2 (cancer-related)

Yu H, Xiang P, Pan Q, et al.
Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme E2T is an Independent Prognostic Factor and Promotes Gastric Cancer Progression.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):11723-11732 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2T (UBE2T) is a member of the E2 family that mediates the ubiquitin-proteasome system and regulates gene expression. It is a major oncogene in several cancers such as lung cancer and breast cancer, while the potential functions of UBE2T in gastric cancer (GC) remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the roles of UBE2T in GC progression and its potential to act as a prognostic marker of GC. Our data demonstrated that UBE2T was significantly upregulated in gastric cancer tissues, and the high expression of UBE2T was significantly correlated with poor differentiation, high T classification, and poor prognosis. In vitro experiments indicated that UBE2T promoted cell proliferation and inhibited cell cycle arrest. In addition, we observed that UBE2T modulated cell mobility by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Collectively, these findings suggest that UBE2T plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer and could act as a potential independent prognostic factor for cancer therapy.

Shivakumar BM, Chakrabarty S, Rotti H, et al.
Comparative analysis of copy number variations in ulcerative colitis associated and sporadic colorectal neoplasia.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:271 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The incidence of and mortality from colorectal cancers (CRC) can be reduced by early detection. Currently there is a lack of established markers to detect early neoplastic changes. We aimed to identify the copy number variations (CNVs) and the associated genes which could be potential markers for the detection of neoplasia in both ulcerative colitis-associated neoplasia (UC-CRN) and sporadic colorectal neoplasia (S-CRN).
METHODS: We employed array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) to identify CNVs in tissue samples of UC nonprogressor, progressor and sporadic CRC. Select genes within these CNV regions as a panel of markers were validated using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) method along with the microsatellite instability (MSI) in an independent cohort of samples. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis was also performed.
RESULTS: Integrated analysis showed 10 overlapping CNV regions between UC-Progressor and S-CRN, with the 8q and 12p regions showing greater overlap. The qRT-PCR based panel of MYC, MYCN, CCND1, CCND2, EGFR and FNDC3A was successful in detecting neoplasia with an overall accuracy of 54% in S-CRN compared to that of 29% in UC neoplastic samples. IHC study showed that p53 and CCND1 were significantly overexpressed with an increasing frequency from pre-neoplastic to neoplastic stages. EGFR and AMACR were expressed only in the neoplastic conditions.
CONCLUSION: CNVs that are common and unique to both UC-associated and sporadic colorectal neoplasm could be the key players driving carcinogenesis. Comparative analysis of CNVs provides testable driver aberrations but needs further evaluation in larger cohorts of samples. These markers may help in developing more effective neoplasia-detection strategies during screening and surveillance programs.

Yumul R, Richter M, Lu ZZ, et al.
Epithelial Junction Opener Improves Oncolytic Adenovirus Therapy in Mouse Tumor Models.
Hum Gene Ther. 2016; 27(4):325-37 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
A central resistance mechanism in solid tumors is the maintenance of epithelial junctions between malignant cells that prevent drug penetration into the tumor. Human adenoviruses (Ads) have evolved mechanisms to breach epithelial barriers. For example, during Ad serotype 3 (Ad3) infection of epithelial tumor cells, massive amounts of subviral penton-dodecahedral particles (PtDd) are produced and released from infected cells to trigger the transient opening of epithelial junctions, thus facilitating lateral virus spread. We show here that an Ad3 mutant that is disabled for PtDd production is significantly less effective in killing of epithelial human xenograft tumors than the wild-type Ad3 virus. Intratumoral spread and therapeutic effect of the Ad3 mutant was enhanced by co-administration of a small recombinant protein (JO; produced in Escherichia coli) that incorporated the minimal junction opening domains of PtDd. We then demonstrated that co-administration of JO with replication-competent Ads that do not produce PtDd (Ad5, Ad35) resulted in greater attenuation of tumor growth than virus injection alone. Furthermore, we genetically modified a conditionally replicating Ad5-based oncolytic Ad (Ad5Δ24) to express a secreted form of JO upon replication in tumor cells. The JO-expressing virus had a significantly greater antitumor effect than the unmodified AdΔ24 version. Our findings indicate that epithelial junctions limit the efficacy of oncolytic Ads and that this problem can be address by co-injection or expression of JO. JO has also the potential for improving cancer therapy with other types of oncolytic viruses.

Nwani NG, Deguiz ML, Jimenez B, et al.
Melanoma Cells Block PEDF Production in Fibroblasts to Induce the Tumor-Promoting Phenotype of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(8):2265-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
Loss of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, SERPINF1) in cancer cells is associated with poor prognosis and metastasis, but the contribution of stromal PEDF to cancer evolution is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of fibroblast-derived PEDF in melanoma progression. We demonstrate that normal dermal fibroblasts expressing high PEDF levels attenuated melanoma growth and angiogenesis in vivo, whereas PEDF-depleted fibroblasts exerted tumor-promoting effects. Accordingly, mice with global PEDF knockout were more susceptible to melanoma metastasis. We also demonstrate that normal fibroblasts in close contact with PEDF-null melanoma cells lost PEDF expression and tumor-suppressive properties. Further mechanistic investigations underlying the crosstalk between tumor and stromal cells revealed that melanoma cells produced PDGF-BB and TGFβ, which blocked PEDF production in fibroblasts. Notably, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) isolated from patient-derived tumors expressed markedly low levels of PEDF. Treatment of patient CAF and TGFβ-treated normal fibroblasts with exogenous PEDF decreased the expression of CAF markers and restored PEDF expression. Finally, expression profiling of PEDF-depleted fibroblasts revealed induction of IL8, SERPINB2, hyaluronan synthase-2, and other genes associated with tumor promotion and metastasis. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PEDF maintains tumor-suppressive functions in fibroblasts to prevent CAF conversion and illustrate the mechanisms by which melanoma cells silence stromal PEDF to promote malignancy. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2265-76. ©2016 AACR.

Yun HS, Baek JH, Yim JH, et al.
Radiotherapy diagnostic biomarkers in radioresistant human H460 lung cancer stem-like cells.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2016; 17(2):208-18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
Tumor cell radioresistance is a major contributor to radiotherapy failure, highlighting the importance of identifying predictive biomarkers for radioresistance. In this work, we established a radioresistant H460 (RR-H460) cell line from parental radiosensitive H460 lung cancer cells by exposure to fractionated radiation. The radiation-resistant, anti-apoptotic phenotype of RR-H460 cell lines was confirmed by their enhanced clonogenic survival and increased expression of the radioresistance genes Hsp90 and Her-3. RR-H460 cells displayed characteristics of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), including induction of the surface marker CD44 and stem cell markers Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2. RR-H460 cells also exhibited sphere formation and malignant behavior, further supporting a CSC phenotype. Using proteomic analyses, we identified 8 proteins that were up-regulated in RR-H460 CSC lines and therefore potentially involved in radioresistance and CSC-related biological processes. Notably, 4 of these-PAI-2, NOMO2, KLC4, and PLOD3-have not been previously linked to radioresistance. Depletion of these individual genes sensitized RR-H460 cells to radiotoxicity and additively enhancing radiation-induced apoptosis. Our findings suggest the possibility of integrating molecular targeted therapy with radiotherapy as a strategy for resolving the radioresistance of lung tumors.

Hirahata M, Osaki M, Kanda Y, et al.
PAI-1, a target gene of miR-143, regulates invasion and metastasis by upregulating MMP-13 expression of human osteosarcoma.
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(5):892-902 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
Despite recent improvements in the therapy for osteosarcoma, 30-40% of osteosarcoma patients die of this disease, mainly due to its lung metastasis. We have previously reported that intravenous injection of miR-143 significantly suppresses lung metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells (143B) in a mouse model. In this study, we examined the biological role and mechanism of miR-143 in the metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells. We identified plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as a direct target gene of miR-143. To determine the role of PAI-1 in human osteosarcoma cells, siRNA was transfected into 143B cells for knockdown of PAI-1 expression. An in vitro study showed that downregulation of PAI-1 suppressed cell invasion activity, but not proliferation. Moreover, injection of PAI-1 siRNA into a primary lesion in the osteosarcoma mouse model inhibited lung metastasis compared to control siRNA-injected mice, without influencing the proliferative activity of the tumor cells. Subsequent examination using 143B cells revealed that knockdown of PAI-1 expression resulted in downregulation of the expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), which is also a target gene of miR-143 and a proteolytic enzyme that regulates tumor-induced osteolysis. Immunohistochemical analysis using clinical samples showed that higher miR-143 expressing cases showed poor expression of PAI-1 in the primary tumor cells. All such cases belonged to the lung metastasis-negative group. Moreover, the frequency of lung metastasis-positive cases was significantly higher in PAI-1 and MMP-13 double-positive cases than in PAI-1 or MMP-13 single-positive or double-negative cases (P < 0.05). These results indicated that PAI-1, a target gene of miR-143, regulates invasion and lung metastasis via enhancement of MMP-13 expression and secretion in human osteosarcoma cells, suggesting that these molecules could be potential therapeutic target genes for preventing lung metastasis in osteosarcoma patients.

Liao TT, Hsu WH, Ho CH, et al.
let-7 Modulates Chromatin Configuration and Target Gene Repression through Regulation of the ARID3B Complex.
Cell Rep. 2016; 14(3):520-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Let-7 is crucial for both stem cell differentiation and tumor suppression. Here, we demonstrate a chromatin-dependent mechanism of let-7 in regulating target gene expression in cancer cells. Let-7 directly represses the expression of AT-rich interacting domain 3B (ARID3B), ARID3A, and importin-9. In the absence of let-7, importin-9 facilitates the nuclear import of ARID3A, which then forms a complex with ARID3B. The nuclear ARID3B complex recruits histone demethylase 4C to reduce histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation and promotes the transcription of stemness factors. Functionally, expression of ARID3B is critical for the tumor initiation in let-7-depleted cancer cells. An inverse association between let-7 and ARID3A/ARID3B and prognostic significance is demonstrated in head and neck cancer patients. These results highlight a chromatin-dependent mechanism where let-7 regulates cancer stemness through ARID3B.

Marmary Y, Adar R, Gaska S, et al.
Radiation-Induced Loss of Salivary Gland Function Is Driven by Cellular Senescence and Prevented by IL6 Modulation.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(5):1170-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Head and neck cancer patients treated by radiation commonly suffer from a devastating side effect known as dry-mouth syndrome, which results from the irreversible loss of salivary gland function via mechanisms that are not completely understood. In this study, we used a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary hypofunction to investigate the outcomes of DNA damage in the head and neck region. We demonstrate that the loss of salivary function was closely accompanied by cellular senescence, as evidenced by a persistent DNA damage response (γH2AX and 53BP1) and the expression of senescence-associated markers (SA-βgal, p19ARF, and DcR2) and secretory phenotype (SASP) factors (PAI-1 and IL6). Notably, profound apoptosis or necrosis was not observed in irradiated regions. Signs of cellular senescence were also apparent in irradiated salivary glands surgically resected from human patients who underwent radiotherapy. Importantly, using IL6 knockout mice, we found that sustained expression of IL6 in the salivary gland long after initiation of radiation-induced DNA damage was required for both senescence and hypofunction. Additionally, we demonstrate that IL6 pretreatment prevented both senescence and salivary gland hypofunction via a mechanism involving enhanced DNA damage repair. Collectively, these results indicate that cellular senescence is a fundamental mechanism driving radiation-induced damage in the salivary gland and suggest that IL6 pretreatment may represent a promising therapeutic strategy to preserve salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

Deepak V, Ramachandran S, Balahmar RM, et al.
In vitro evaluation of anticancer properties of exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus acidophilus in colon cancer cell lines.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2016; 52(2):163-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present work aims at studying the effect of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Lactobacillus acidophilus on the colon cancer cell lines in vitro. Initial analysis showed that EPS has antioxidative properties. EPS was also found to induce cytotoxicity in two colon cancer cell lines, viz. HCT15 and CaCo2 under normoxia and hypoxia. The membrane integrity was also found to be affected in EPS-treated cells. Once the toxic concentration was determined (5 mg/ml), the effect of EPS on the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of various genes was studied by quantitative real-time (RT)-PCR under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The results suggest that EPS downregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and upregulated the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3), hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1). An increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was also observed. These results show that EPS may inhibit the expressions of genes involved in tumor angiogenesis and survival. Increase in the expression of HO-1 also shows that EPS have antioxidative properties.

Pfister SX, Markkanen E, Jiang Y, et al.
Inhibiting WEE1 Selectively Kills Histone H3K36me3-Deficient Cancers by dNTP Starvation.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 28(5):557-68 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
Histone H3K36 trimethylation (H3K36me3) is frequently lost in multiple cancer types, identifying it as an important therapeutic target. Here we identify a synthetic lethal interaction in which H3K36me3-deficient cancers are acutely sensitive to WEE1 inhibition. We show that RRM2, a ribonucleotide reductase subunit, is the target of this synthetic lethal interaction. RRM2 is regulated by two pathways here: first, H3K36me3 facilitates RRM2 expression through transcription initiation factor recruitment; second, WEE1 inhibition degrades RRM2 through untimely CDK activation. Therefore, WEE1 inhibition in H3K36me3-deficient cells results in RRM2 reduction, critical dNTP depletion, S-phase arrest, and apoptosis. Accordingly, this synthetic lethality is suppressed by increasing RRM2 expression or inhibiting RRM2 degradation. Finally, we demonstrate that WEE1 inhibitor AZD1775 regresses H3K36me3-deficient tumor xenografts.

Yang YL, Yen CT, Pai CH, et al.
A Double Negative Loop Comprising ETV6/RUNX1 and MIR181A1 Contributes to Differentiation Block in t(12;21)-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0142863 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with t(12;21), which results in expression of the ETV6/RUNX1 fusion gene, is the most common chromosomal lesion in precursor-B (pre-B) ALL. We identified 17 microRNAs that were downregulated in ETV6/RUNX1+ compared with ETV6/RUNX1- clinical samples. Among these microRNAs, miR-181a-1 was the most significantly reduced (by ~75%; P < 0.001). Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrated that ETV6/RUNX1 directly binds the regulatory region of MIR181A1, and knockdown of ETV6/RUNX1 increased miR-181a-1 level. We further showed that miR-181a (functional counterpart of miR-181a-1) could target ETV6/RUNX1 and cause a reduction in the level of the oncoprotein ETV6/RUNX1, cell growth arrest, an increase in apoptosis, and induction of cell differentiation in ETV6/RUNX1+ cell line. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-181a also resulted in decreased CD10 hyperexpression in ETV6/RUNX1+ primary patient samples. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MIR181A1 and ETV6/RUNX1 regulate each other, and we propose that a double negative loop involving MIR181A1 and ETV6/RUNX1 may contribute to ETV6/RUNX1-driven arrest of differentiation in pre-B ALL.

de Smith AJ, Walsh KM, Hansen HM, et al.
Somatic Mutation Allelic Ratio Test Using ddPCR (SMART-ddPCR): An Accurate Method for Assessment of Preferential Allelic Imbalance in Tumor DNA.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0143343 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
The extent to which heritable genetic variants can affect tumor development has yet to be fully elucidated. Tumor selection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) risk alleles, a phenomenon called preferential allelic imbalance (PAI), has been demonstrated in some cancer types. We developed a novel application of digital PCR termed Somatic Mutation Allelic Ratio Test using Droplet Digital PCR (SMART-ddPCR) for accurate assessment of tumor PAI, and have applied this method to test the hypothesis that heritable SNPs associated with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may demonstrate tumor PAI. These SNPs are located at CDKN2A (rs3731217) and IKZF1 (rs4132601), genes frequently lost in ALL, and at CEBPE (rs2239633), ARID5B (rs7089424), PIP4K2A (rs10764338), and GATA3 (rs3824662), genes located on chromosomes gained in high-hyperdiploid ALL. We established thresholds of AI using constitutional DNA from SNP heterozygotes, and subsequently measured allelic copy number in tumor DNA from 19-142 heterozygote samples per SNP locus. We did not find significant tumor PAI at these loci, though CDKN2A and IKZF1 SNPs showed a trend towards preferential selection of the risk allele (p = 0.17 and p = 0.23, respectively). Using a genomic copy number control ddPCR assay, we investigated somatic copy number alterations (SCNA) underlying AI at CDKN2A and IKZF1, revealing a complex range of alterations including homozygous and hemizygous deletions and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, with varying degrees of clonality. Copy number estimates from ddPCR showed high agreement with those from multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays. We demonstrate that SMART-ddPCR is a highly accurate method for investigation of tumor PAI and for assessment of the somatic alterations underlying AI. Furthermore, analysis of publicly available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas identified 16 recurrent SCNA loci that contain heritable cancer risk SNPs associated with a matching tumor type, and which represent candidate PAI regions warranting further investigation.

Sethi B, Pai T, Allam A, Epari S
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with sarcomatous morphology and distant metastases: An unusual histomorphology and behavior.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2015 Oct-Dec; 58(4):509-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), an intermediate-grade neoplasm of myofibroblastic/fibroblastic differentiation, occurs commonly in children and young adults. It is characterized by anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement and overexpression of ALK-protein. However, aggressive behavior is more commonly associated with ALK-negativity rather than ALK-positivity. Pulmonary involvement is most common visceral location and carries minimal potential for distant metastasis. We present a case of 49-year-old female with pulmonary IMT of spindle cell sarcomatous histomorphology. Frequent mitoses and necrosis with characteristic cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for ALK-1 protein and ALK-gene rearrangement on fluorescence in-situ hybridization were noted. This case is unusual for occurrence in higher age-group of fifth decade, sarcomatous histomorphology at presentation (rather than transformation) and metastases to distant sites despite ALK-protein overexpression and gene rearrangement.

Pai P, Rachagani S, Lakshmanan I, et al.
The canonical Wnt pathway regulates the metastasis-promoting mucin MUC4 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Mol Oncol. 2016; 10(2):224-39 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
Aberrant Wnt signaling frequently occurs in pancreatic cancer (PC) and contributes to disease progression/metastases. Likewise, the transmembrane-mucin MUC4 is expressed de novo in early pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs) and incrementally increases with PC progression, contributing to metastasis. To determine the mechanism of MUC4 upregulation in PC, we examined factors deregulated in early PC progression, such as Wnt/β-catenin signaling. MUC4 promoter analysis revealed the presence of three putative TCF/LEF-binding sites, leading us to hypothesize that MUC4 can be regulated by β-catenin. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of rapid autopsy PC tissues showed a correlation between MUC4 and cytosolic/nuclear β-catenin expression. Knock down (KD) of β-catenin in CD18/HPAF and T3M4 cell lines resulted in decreased MUC4 transcript and protein. Three MUC4 promoter luciferase constructs, p3778, p3000, and p2700, were generated. The construct p3778, encompassing the entire MUC4 promoter, elicited increased luciferase activity in the presence of stabilized β-catenin. Mutation of the TCF/LEF site closest to the transcription start site (i.e., -2629/-2612) and furthest from the start site (i.e., -3425/-3408) reduced MUC4 promoter luciferase activity. Transfection with dominant negative TCF4 decreased MUC4 transcript and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed enrichment of β-catenin on -2629/-2612 and -3425/-3408 of the MUC4 promoter in CD18/HPAF. Functionally, CD18/HPAF and T3M4 β-catenin KD cells showed decreased migration and decreased Vimentin, N-cadherin, and pERK1/2 expression. Tumorigenicity studies in athymic nude mice showed CD18/HPAF β-catenin KD cells significantly reduced primary tumor sizes and metastases compared to scrambled control cells. We show for the first time that β-catenin directly governs MUC4 in PC.

Rachagani S, Macha MA, Menning MS, et al.
Changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression during pancreatic cancer development and progression in a genetically engineered KrasG12D;Pdx1-Cre mouse (KC) model.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(37):40295-309 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
Differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been demonstrated in various cancers, including pancreatic cancer (PC). Due to the lack of tissue samples from early-stages of PC, the stage-specific alteration of miRNAs during PC initiation and progression is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile and their processing machinery during PC progression using the KrasG12D;Pdx1-Cre (KC) mouse model. At 25 weeks, the miRNA microarray analysis revealed significant downregulation of miR-150, miR-494, miR-138, miR-148a, miR-216a, and miR-217 and upregulation of miR-146b, miR-205, miR-31, miR-192, and miR-21 in KC mice compared to controls. Further, expression of miRNA biosynthetic machinery including Dicer, Exportin-5, TRKRA, and TARBP2 were downregulated, while DGCR8 and Ago2 were upregulated in KC mice. In addition, from 10 to 50 weeks of age, stage-specific expression profiling of miRNA in KC mice revealed downregulation of miR-216, miR-217, miR-100, miR-345, miR-141, miR-483-3p, miR-26b, miR-150, miR-195, Let-7b and Let-96 and upregulation of miR-21, miR-205, miR-146b, miR-34c, miR-1273, miR-223 and miR-195 compared to control mice. Interestingly, the differential expression of miRNA in mice also corroborated with the miRNA expression in human PC cell lines and tissue samples; ectopic expression of Let-7b in CD18/HPAF and Capan1 cells resulted in the downregulation of KRAS and MSST1 expression. Overall, the present study aids an understanding of miRNA expression patterns during PC pathogenesis and helps to facilitate the identification of promising and novel early diagnostic/prognostic markers and therapeutic targets.

Raei N, Latifi-Navid S, Zahri S
Helicobacter pylori cag Pathogenicity Island cagL and orf17 Genotypes Predict Risk of Peptic Ulcerations but not Gastric Cancer in Iran.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(15):6645-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is the third most common cancer regarding mortality in the world. The cag pathogenicity island (PAI) of Helicobacter pylori which contains genes associated with a more aggressive phenotype may involve in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disease. We here aimed to examine the associations of cagH, cagL, orf17, and cagG genotypes of H. pylori cag PAI with severe gastrointestinal disease.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 242 H. pylori strains were genotyped. Histopathological examination and classification of subjects were performed.
RESULTS: The frequencies of the cagH, cagL, cagG, and orf17 genotypes were 40/54 (74.1%), 53/54 (98.1%), 38/54 (70.4%), and 43/54 (79.6%), respectively, in patients with peptidic ulceration (PU),while in the control group, the frequencies were 87/147 (59.6%) for cagH, 121/146 (82.9%) for cagL, 109/146 (74.7%) for cagG, and 89/146 (61.0%) for orf17. The results of simple logistic regression analysis showed that the cagL and orf17 genotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk of PU not GC; the ORs (95% CI) were 10.950 (1.446-82.935), and 2.504 (1.193-5.253), respectively. No significant association was found between the cagH and cagG genotypes and the risk of both the PU and the GC in Iran (P>0.05). Finally, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the cagL genotype was independently and significantly associated with the age- and sex-adjusted risk for PU; the OR (95% CI) was 9.557 (1.219-17.185).
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the orf17 and especially cagL genotypes of H. pylori cag PAI could be factors for risk prediction of PU, but not GC in Iran.

Pooyan H, Ahmad E, Azadeh R
4G/5G and A-844G Polymorphisms of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Associated with Glioblastoma in Iran--a Case-Control Study.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(15):6327-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive and malignant brain tumor. Risk factors are largely unknown however, although several biomarkers have been identified which may support development, angiogenesis and invasion of tumor cells. One of these biomarkers is PAI-1. 4G/5G and A-844G are two common polymorphisms in the gene promotor of PAI 1 that may be related to high transcription and expression of this gene. Studies have shown that the prevalence of the 4G and 844G allele is significantly higher in patients with some cancers and genetic disorders.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We here assessed the association of 4G/5G and A-844G polymorphisms with glioblastoma cancer risk in Iranians in a case-control study. All 71 patients with clinically confirmed and 140 volunteers with no history and symptoms of glioblastoma as control group were screened for 4G/5G and A-844G polymorphisms of PAI-1, using ARMS-PCR. Genotype and allele frequencies of case and control groups were analyzed using the DeFinetti program.
RESULTS: Our results showed significant associations between 4G/5G (p=0.01824) and A-844G (p=0.02012) polymorphisms of the PAI-1 gene with glioblastoma cancer risk in our Iranian population.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study supporting an association of the PAI-1 4G/5G (p=0.01824) and A-844G (p=0.02012) polymorphisms with increasing glioblastoma cancer risk in Iranian patients.

Duffy MJ, Walsh S, McDermott EW, Crown J
Biomarkers in Breast Cancer: Where Are We and Where Are We Going?
Adv Clin Chem. 2015; 71:1-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Biomarkers play an important role in the detection and management of patients with breast cancer. Thus, BRCA1/2 mutation testing is used for risk assessment in families with a high prevalence of breast and ovarian cancer. Following a diagnosis of breast cancer, measurement of multi-analyte profiles such as uPA/PAI-1 or Oncotype DX may be used for determining prognosis and identifying lymph node-negative patients who may be spared from having to receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Other -gene tests such as the PAM50 ROR, Breast Cancer Index, and EndoPredict have been reported to predict the development of late recurrences and thus may be of value in selecting patients for extended hormone therapy. Mandatory assays include estrogen receptors for identification of endocrine-sensitive cancers and HER2 in selecting patients for treatment with anti-HER2 therapy (e.g., trastuzumab, lapatinib, pertuzumab, and ado-trastuzumab emtansine). Finally, serum biomarkers such as CA 15-3 or CEA may be used in monitoring therapy in patients with advanced disease receiving systemic therapy. Promising new biomarkers undergoing evaluation include circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor-derived DNA.

Liu C, Guo H, Cheng X, et al.
Exposure to airborne PM2.5 suppresses microRNA expression and deregulates target oncogenes that cause neoplastic transformation in NIH3T3 cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(30):29428-39 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
Long-term exposure to airborne PM2.5 is associated with increased lung cancer risk but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We characterized global microRNA and mRNA expression in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to PM2.5 organic extract and integrally analyzed microRNA-mRNA interactions. Foci formation and xenograft tumorigenesis in mice with NIH3T3 cells expressing genes targeted by microRNAs were performed to explore the oncogenic potential of these genes. We also detected plasma levels of candidate microRNAs in subjects exposed to different levels of air PM2.5 and examined the aberrant expression of genes targeted by these microRNAs in human lung cancer. Under our experimental conditions, treatment of cells with PM2.5 extract resulted in downregulation of 138 microRNAs and aberrant expression of 13 mRNAs (11 upregulation and 2 downregulation). In silico and biochemical analyses suggested SLC30A1, SERPINB2 and AKR1C1, among the upregulated genes, as target for miR-182 and miR-185, respectively. Ectopic expression of each of these genes significantly enhanced foci formation in NIH3T3 cells. Following subcutaneous injection of these cells into nude mice, fibrosarcoma were formed from SLC30A1- or SERPINB2-expressing cells. Reduced plasma levels of miR-182 were detected in subjects exposed to high level of PM2.5 than in those exposed to low level of PM2.5 (P = 0.043). Similar results were seen for miR-185 although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.328). Increased expressions of SLC30A1, SERPINB2 and AKR1C1 were detected in human lung cancer. These results suggest that modulation of miR-182 and miR-185 and their target genes may contribute to lung carcinogenesis attributable to PM2.5 exposure.

Mas-Moya J, Dudley B, Brand RE, et al.
Clinicopathological comparison of colorectal and endometrial carcinomas in patients with Lynch-like syndrome versus patients with Lynch syndrome.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(11):1616-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Screening for DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in colorectal and endometrial carcinomas identifies patients at risk for Lynch syndrome. Some patients with MMR-deficient tumors have no evidence of a germline mutation and have been described as having Lynch-like syndrome. We compared the clinicopathological features of colorectal and endometrial carcinomas in patients with Lynch-like syndrome and Lynch syndrome. Universal screening identified 356 (10.6%) of 3352 patients with colorectal carcinoma and 72 (33%) of 215 patients with endometrial carcinoma with deficient DNA MMR. Sixty-six patients underwent germline mutation analysis with 45 patients (68%) having evidence of a germline MMR gene mutation confirming Lynch syndrome and 21 patients (32%) having Lynch-like syndrome with no evidence of a germline mutation. Most patients with Lynch-like syndrome had carcinoma involving the right colon compared to patients with Lynch syndrome (93% versus 45%; P < .002). All patients with colorectal carcinomas demonstrating isolated loss of MSH6 expression had Lynch syndrome confirmed by germline mutation analysis. Synchronous or metachronous Lynch syndrome-associated carcinoma was more frequently identified in patients with Lynch syndrome compared to Lynch-like syndrome (38% versus 7%; P = .04). There were no significant differences in clinicopathological variables between patients with Lynch-like syndrome and Lynch syndrome with endometrial carcinoma. In summary, 32% of patients with MMR deficiency concerning Lynch syndrome will have Lynch-like syndrome. Our results demonstrate that patients with Lynch-like syndrome are more likely to have right-sided colorectal carcinoma, less likely to have synchronous or metachronous Lynch syndrome-associated carcinoma, and less likely to demonstrate isolated loss of MSH6 expression within their tumor.

Chen H, Peng H, Liu W, et al.
Silencing of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 suppresses colorectal cancer progression and liver metastasis.
Surgery. 2015; 158(6):1704-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is reported to be expressed in many cancer cell types and regarded as one of the most informative biochemical markers for poor prognosis. However, no previous study has evaluated whether PAI-1 could serve as a target in antitumor and antimetastasis therapies of colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: The plasma level of PAI-1 in CRC patients was detected and its correlation with the clinicopathologic features was evaluated. PAI-1 protein expression was assessed by Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry. The biologic consequences of PAI-1 silencing in colon cancer cell lines and CRC bearing nude mice were also investigated.
RESULTS: Plasma PAI-1 level was higher in CRC patients with liver metastasis and correlated with liver metastasis, tumor size, differentiation, serosa infiltration, Duke's stage, and lymphatic metastasis. PAI-1 protein expression in the CRC tissue of patients with liver metastasis was significantly greater than that in those without liver metastasis. In addition, the abilities of proliferation, invasion, and migration of CRC cells transfected with lentivirus expressing PAI-1 small interfering RNA were reduced significantly. Nude mice inoculated with PAI-1 knockdown cells also had fewer metastatic nodules in the liver and smaller tumor volumes.
CONCLUSION: Plasma PAI-1 level was increased in CRC patients with liver metastasis, and PAI-1 silencing may significantly compromise the malignant behaviors of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings may provide evidence for PAI-1 targeted therapy of CRC.

Hsu T, Phung A, Choe K, et al.
Role for a Zinc Finger Protein (Zfp111) in Transformation of 208F Rat Fibroblasts by Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Envelope Protein.
J Virol. 2015; 89(20):10453-66 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The native envelope gene (env) of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) also acts as an oncogene. To investigate the mechanism of transformation, we performed yeast 2-hybrid screening for cellular proteins that interact with Env. Among several candidates, we identified mouse or rat zinc finger protein 111 (zfp111). The interaction between Env and Zfp111 was confirmed through in vivo coimmunoprecipitation assays. Knockdown of endogenous Zfp111 caused a decrease in cell transformation by JSRV Env, while overexpression of Zfp111 increased overall Env transformation, supporting a role for Zfp111 in Env transformation. Knockdown of Zfp111 had no effect on the growth rate of parental rat 208F cells, while it decreased the proliferation rate of JSRV-transformed 208F cells, suggesting that JSRV-transformed cells became dependent on Zfp111. In addition, Zfp111 preferentially bound to a higher-mobility form of JSRV Env that has not been described previously. The higher-mobility form of Env (P70(env)) was found exclusively in the nuclear fraction, and size of its polypeptide backbone was the same as that of the cytoplasmic Env polyprotein (Pr80(env)). The differences in glycosylation between the two versions of Env were characterized. These results identify a novel cellular protein, Zfp111, that binds to the JSRV Env protein, and this binding plays a role in Env transformation. These results indicate that JSRV transformation also involves proteins and interactions in the nucleus.
IMPORTANCE: The envelope protein (Env) of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is an oncogene, but its mechanism of cell transformation is still unclear. Here we identified seven candidate cellular proteins that can interact with JSRV Env by yeast two-hybrid screening. This study focused on one of the seven candidates, zinc finger protein 111 (Zfp111). Zfp111 was shown to interact with JSRV Env in cells and to be involved in JSRV transformation. Moreover, coexpression of JSRV Env and Zfp111 led to the identification of a novel nuclear form of the JSRV Env protein that binds Zfp111. Nuclear Env was found to differ by glycosylation from the cytoplasmic Env precursor to the virion envelope proteins. These results suggest that JSRV Env transformation may involve nuclear events such as an alteration in transcription mediated by Env-Zfp111 interactions.

Chen N, Ren M, Li R, et al.
Bevacizumab promotes venous thromboembolism through the induction of PAI-1 in a mouse xenograft model of human lung carcinoma.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:140 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: An increased incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment in cancer. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effect of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against VEGF-A, on VTE in a murine xenograft A549 cell tumor model.
METHODS: Inferior vena cava stenosis model and FeCl3-induced saphenous vein thrombosis model were performed in a mouse xenograft models of human lung adenocarcinoma.
RESULTS: We found that treatment with bevacizumab significantly increased the thrombotic response to inferior vena cava obstruction and femoral vein injury. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) expression in tumors, plasma, and thrombi was significantly increased by bevacizumab. However, bevacizumab did not enhance VTE in PAI-1-deficient mice, suggesting that PAI-1 is a major mediator of bevacizumab's prothrombotic effect. VEGF inhibited expression of PAI-1 by A549 cells, and this effect was neutralized by bevacizumab, suggesting that bevacizumab increases PAI-1 expression in vivo by blocking the inhibitory effect of VEGF on PAI-1 expression by tumor cells. Pharmacological inhibition of PAI-1 with PAI-039 blocked bevacizumab-induced venous thrombosis.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, these findings indicate that PAI-1 plays a role in VTE associated with antiangiogenic therapy and the inhibition of PAI-1 shows efficacy as a therapeutic strategy for the prevention of bevacizumab-associated VTE.

Fu X, Chin RM, Vergnes L, et al.
2-Hydroxyglutarate Inhibits ATP Synthase and mTOR Signaling.
Cell Metab. 2015; 22(3):508-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
We discovered recently that the central metabolite α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) extends the lifespan of C. elegans through inhibition of ATP synthase and TOR signaling. Here we find, unexpectedly, that (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate ((R)-2HG), an oncometabolite that interferes with various α-KG-mediated processes, similarly extends worm lifespan. (R)-2HG accumulates in human cancers carrying neomorphic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes. We show that, like α-KG, both (R)-2HG and (S)-2HG bind and inhibit ATP synthase and inhibit mTOR signaling. These effects are mirrored in IDH1 mutant cells, suggesting a growth-suppressive function of (R)-2HG. Consistently, inhibition of ATP synthase by 2-HG or α-KG in glioblastoma cells is sufficient for growth arrest and tumor cell killing under conditions of glucose limitation, e.g., when ketone bodies (instead of glucose) are supplied for energy. These findings inform therapeutic strategies and open avenues for investigating the roles of 2-HG and metabolites in biology and disease.

Çelik H, Sajwan KP, Selvanathan SP, et al.
Ezrin Binds to DEAD-Box RNA Helicase DDX3 and Regulates Its Function and Protein Level.
Mol Cell Biol. 2015; 35(18):3145-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
Ezrin is a key regulator of cancer metastasis that links the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton and regulates cell morphology and motility. We discovered a small-molecule inhibitor, NSC305787, that directly binds to ezrin and inhibits its function. In this study, we used a nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS-MS)-based proteomic approach to identify ezrin-interacting proteins that are competed away by NSC305787. A large number of the proteins that interact with ezrin were implicated in protein translation and stress granule dynamics. We validated direct interaction between ezrin and the RNA helicase DDX3, and NSC305787 blocked this interaction. Downregulation or long-term pharmacological inhibition of ezrin led to reduced DDX3 protein levels without changes in DDX3 mRNA. Ectopic overexpression of ezrin in low-ezrin-expressing osteosarcoma cells caused a notable increase in DDX3 protein levels. Ezrin inhibited the RNA helicase activity of DDX3 but increased its ATPase activity. Our data suggest that ezrin controls the translation of mRNAs preferentially with a structured 5' untranslated region, at least in part, by sustaining the protein level of DDX3 and/or regulating its function. Therefore, our findings suggest a novel function for ezrin in regulation of gene translation that is distinct from its canonical role as a cytoskeletal scaffold at the cell membrane.

Hedbrant A, Wijkander J, Seidal T, et al.
Macrophages of M1 phenotype have properties that influence lung cancer cell progression.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(11):8715-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Stromal macrophages of different phenotypes can contribute to the expression of proteins that affects metastasis such as urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), its receptor uPAR, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), but knowledge of how essential their contribution is in comparison to the cancer cells in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is lacking. The expression of uPA, uPAR, and PAI-1 and of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were studied in human macrophages of M1 and M2 phenotype and compared to a lung SCC (NCI-H520) and a SCLC (NCI-H69) cell line. Effects of treatment with conditioned media (CM) from M1 and M2 macrophages on the expression of these genes in H520 and H69 cells as well as effects on the cell growth were investigated. In addition, data on the stromal macrophages immunoreactivity of uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in a few SCC and SCLC biopsies was included. uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were confirmed in stromal cells including macrophages in the SCC and SCLC biopsies. In vitro, both macrophage phenotypes expressed considerably higher mRNA levels of uPA, uPAR, PAI-1, and MMP-9 compared to the cancer cell lines, and regarding uPAR, the highest level was found in the M1 macrophage phenotype. Furthermore, M1 CM treatment not only induced an upregulation of PAI-1 in both H520 and H69 cells but also inhibited cell growth in both cell lines, giving M1 macrophages both tumor-promoting and tumor-killing potential.

Wyganowska-Świątkowska M, Jankun J
Plasminogen activation system in oral cancer: Relevance in prognosis and therapy (Review).
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(1):16-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Research on carcinogenesis and progress in cancer treatment have reduced mortality of cancer patients. Mortality rates decreased by 1.5% per year from 2001 through 2010 for most types of cancer in men and women. However, oral cancer is still a significant global health problem since incidence and mortality rates are increasing. Oral cavity cancer is ranked the 8th in men and the 14th in women based on data collected between 2006 and 2010 by the National Institute of Health. Furthermore, an increasing incidence of head and neck neoplasms, particularly the tongue cancer among young adults has been reported recently. It is most likely due to increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or the early start of tobacco and alcohol consumption. Treatment of oral cancer patients is mainly surgical and often leads to esthetic and functional deformities, with severe impact on the quality of life. Thus, novel form of treatments and selection of patients with high and low risk of mortality is of high priority for clinical studies. The expression of proteolytic enzymes in tumor and stromal tissues has been shown to have prognostic significance in many human cancers and inhibiting proteolysis can reduce tumor growth in many in vivo and in vitro models. Plasmin, with its activators and inhibitors are of great importance in many human malignances and collectively are called plasminogen activation system (PAS). In this comprehensive review we examine expression, possible prognostic markers and importance for therapy of the PAS members in oral cancer. Literature review suggests that overexpression of urokinase and its receptor are markers of poor outcome, thus, their inhibition can be explored in oral cancer therapy. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) is complex and depends on its concentration. Overexpression of PAI-1 favors angiogenesis, metastasis and poor prognosis, although when applied in very high concentrations it inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth, the phenomenon is described as the PAI-1 paradox.

Buta M, Džodić R, Đurišić I, et al.
Potential clinical relevance of uPA and PAI-1 levels in node-negative, postmenopausal breast cancer patients bearing histological grade II tumors with ER/PR expression, during an early follow-up.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(10):8193-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
We evaluated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) prognostic value in postmenopausal, node-negative breast cancer patients bearing tumors with estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) expression, treated with locoregional therapy alone, within an early follow-up. We focused our analysis on tumors of histological grade II in order to improve its prognostic value and, consequently, to improve a decision-making process. The cytosol extracts of 73 tumor samples were used for assessing several biomarkers. ER and PR levels were measured by classical biochemical method. Cathepsin D was assayed by a radiometric immunoassay while both uPA and PAI-1 level determinations were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. HER-2 gene amplification was determined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in primary tumor tissue. Patients bearing tumors smaller than or equal to 2 cm (pT1) or those with low PAI-1 levels (PAI-1 < 6.35 pg/mg) showed favorable outcome compared to patients bearing tumors greater than 2 cm (pT2,3) or those with high PAI-1 levels, respectively. Analyses of 4 phenotypes, defined by tumor size and PAI-1 status, revealed that patients bearing either pT1 tumors, irrespective of PAI-1 levels, or pT2,3 tumors with low PAI-1 levels, had similar disease-free interval probabilities and showed favorable outcome compared to those bearing pT2,3 tumors with high PAI-1 levels. Our findings suggest that tumor size and PAI-1, used in combination as phenotypes are not only prognostic but might also be predictive in node-negative, postmenopausal breast cancer patients bearing histological grade II tumors with ER/PR expression, during an early follow-up period.

Subbiah V, Berry J, Roxas M, et al.
Systemic and CNS activity of the RET inhibitor vandetanib combined with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in KIF5B-RET re-arranged non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastases.
Lung Cancer. 2015; 89(1):76-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
In-frame fusion KIF5B (the-kinesin-family-5B-gene)-RET transcripts have been characterized in 1-2% of non-small cell lung cancers and are known oncogenic drivers. The RET tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vandetanib, suppresses fusion-induced, anchorage-independent growth activity. In vitro studies have shown that vandetanib is a high-affinity substrate of breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) but is not transported by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), limiting its blood-brain barrier penetration. A co-administration strategy to enhance the brain accumulation of vandetanib by modulating P-gp/Abcb1- and Bcrp1/Abcg2-mediated efflux with mTOR inhibitors, specifically everolimus, was shown to increase the blood-brain barrier penetration. We report the first bench-to-bedside evidence that RET inhibitor combined with an mTOR inhibitor is active against brain-metastatic RET-rearranged lung cancer and the first evidence of blood-brain barrier penetration. A 74-year-old female with progressive adenocarcinoma of the lung (wild-type EGFR and no ALK rearrangement) presented for therapy options. A deletion of 5'RET was revealed by FISH assay, indicating RET-gene rearrangement. Because of progressive disease in the brain, she was enrolled in a clinical trial with vandetanib and everolimus (NCT01582191). Comprehensive genomic profiling revealed fusion of KIF5B (the-kinesin-family-5B-gene) and RET, in addition to AKT2 gene amplification. After two cycles of therapy a repeat MRI brain showed a decrease in the intracranial disease burden and PET/CT showed systemic response as well. Interestingly, AKT2 amplification seen is a critical component of the PI3K/mTOR pathway, alterations of which has been associated with both de novo and acquired resistance to targeted therapy. The addition of everolimus may have both overcome the AKT2 amplification to produce a response in addition to its direct effects on the RET gene. Our case report forms the first evidence of blood-brain barrier penetration by vandetanib in combination with everolimus. Further research is required in this setting.

Seagle BL, Yang CP, Eng KH, et al.
TP53 hot spot mutations in ovarian cancer: selective resistance to microtubule stabilizers in vitro and differential survival outcomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 138(1):159-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To test if TP53 hot spot mutations (HSMs) confer differential chemotherapy resistance or survival outcomes, the effects of microtubule stabilizers on human ovarian carcinoma cells (OCCs) expressing TP53 HSMs were studied in vitro. Survival outcomes of patients with high grade serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma (HGS EOC) expressing matched HSMs were compared using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data.
METHODS: Growth inhibition of OCCs transfected with a HSM (m175, m248 or m273) was measured during treatment with paclitaxel, epothilone B (epoB), or ixabepilone. Effects of epoB on p53 expression, phosphorylation, and acetylation, as well as p53-regulated expression of p21 and mdm2 proteins, were determined by Western blot analysis. Expression of p53 target genes P21, GADD45, BAX, PIDD, NF-kB2, PAI-1, and MDR1 was measured by RT-PCR. identified patients with codon R175, R248 or R273 HSMs from TCGA data. Survival outcomes were characterized.
RESULTS: p53-m248 confers chemoresistance and is not acetylated during epoB treatment. m273 demonstrated high MDR1 expression and resistance to paclitaxel. P21, GADD45 and PAI-1 expression were down-regulated in mutant OCCs. Optimally cytoreduced patients with codon R273 (n=17), R248 (n=13), R175 (n=7) HSMs, or any other TP53 mutation demonstrated median 14.9, 17.6, 17.8 and 16.9months (p=0.806) progression free survival and 84.1, 33.6, 62.1 and 44.5months (p=0.040) overall survival, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Human OCCs harboring different TP53 HSMs were selectively resistant to microtubule stabilizers. Patients with different HSMs had significantly different overall survival. Both in vitro data and clinical experience support further studying the outcomes of particular TP53 HSMs.

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