Gene Summary

Gene:SLC9A1; solute carrier family 9 member A1
Aliases: APNH, NHE1, LIKNS, NHE-1, PPP1R143
Summary:This gene encodes a Na+/H+ antiporter that is a member of the solute carrier family 9. The encoded protein is a plasma membrane transporter that is expressed in the kidney and intestine. This protein plays a central role in regulating pH homeostasis, cell migration and cell volume. This protein may also be involved in tumor growth. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:sodium/hydrogen exchanger 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SLC9A1 (cancer-related)

Chen Q, Liu Y, Zhu XL, et al.
Increased NHE1 expression is targeted by specific inhibitor cariporide to sensitize resistant breast cancer cells to doxorubicin in vitro and in vivo.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):211 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
METHODS: The NHE1 expression levels were first evaluated using the online database Oncomine and were determined by RT-PCR and western blot in vitro and in vivo. Cell proliferation was assessed In vitro through a CCK-8 assay, and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. An in vivo analysis was performed in BALB/c nude mice, which were intraperitoneally injected with MCF-7/ADR cells.
RESULTS: NHE1 levels were significantly higher in breast cancer tissue than adjacent tissue, as well as in resistant cancer cells compared to sensitive cells. Cariporide induced the apoptosis of MCF-7/ADR cells and was associated with the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Moreover, cariporide decreased MDR1 expression and activated cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9, promoting caspase-independent apoptosis in vitro. In vivo, cariporide significantly improved doxorubicin sensitivity in a xenograft model, enhancing tumor growth attenuation and diminishing tumor volume.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that cariporide significantly facilitates the sensitivity of breast cancer to doxorubicin both in vitro and in vivo. This finding suggests that NHE1 may be a novel adjuvant therapeutic candidate for the treatment of resistant breast cancer.

Luo AJ, Tan J, He LY, et al.
Suppression of Tescalcin inhibits growth and metastasis in renal cell carcinoma via downregulating NHE1 and NF-kB signaling.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2019; 107:110-117 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common form of kidney cancer. Recent studies reported that Tescalcin was overexpressed in various tumor types. However, the status of Tescalcin protein expression in RCC and its biological function is uncertain. This study was designed to investigate the expression of Tescalcin in human RCC and its biological function.
METHODS: shRNA transfection was performed to abrogates the expression of Tescalcin. Quantitative real time PCR and western blotting assays were used to determine mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. The cell viability was analyzed by MTT and colony formation. Cell flow cytometry was used to assess pHi value and cell apoptosis. Cell invasive and migratory ability was measured with modified Boyden chamber assay. Xenograft model was setup to evaluate tumor growth.
RESULTS: Tescalcin was overexpressed in RCC tissues compared with matched normal tissues. It was also overexpressed in RCC cell lines relative that of normal cells. Suppression Tescalcin with specific shRNA resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of RCC cells. Additionally, silencing of Tescalcin also caused the inhibition of the tumor growth in nude mice. Mechanistic study showed that Tescalcin regulated cell proliferation, migration and invasion via NHE1/pHi axis as well as AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that atopic expression of Tescalcin facilitates the survival, migration and invasion of RCC cells via NHE1/pHi axis as well as AKT/ NF-κB signaling pathway, providing new perspectives for the future study of Tescalcin as a therapeutic target for RCC.

Li X, Tsauo J, Geng C, et al.
Ginsenoside Rg3 Decreases NHE1 Expression via Inhibiting EGF-EGFR-ERK1/2-HIF-1
Am J Chin Med. 2018; 46(8):1915-1931 [PubMed] Related Publications

Guan X, Luo L, Begum G, et al.
Elevated Na/H exchanger 1 (SLC9A1) emerges as a marker for tumorigenesis and prognosis in gliomas.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):255 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sodium/hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1), encoded by the SLC9A1 gene (SoLute Carrier family 9A1) in humans, is the main H
METHODS: The Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) dataset containing transcriptome sequencing data of 325 glioma samples and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) with 698 glioma mRNAseq data were analyzed in this study. Mouse SB28 and GL26 intracranial syngeneic glioma models in C57BL/6 J mice were established to investigate NHE1 expression and impact of NHE1 protein inhibition with its inhibitor HOE642 on tumorigenesis and anti-PD1 therapy. Tumor angiogenesis, immunogenicity, and progression were assessed by immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometric profiling.
RESULTS: Analysis of SLC9A1 mRNA expression in two data sets, CGGA and TCGA, reveals significantly higher SLC9A1 mRNA levels in higher grade gliomas. The SLC9A1 mRNA expression was especially enriched in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1/2 wild-type glioblastoma (GBM) and in mesenchymal glioma subtypes. Worsened survival probabilities were correlated with the elevated SLC9A1 mRNA levels in gliomas. The underlying mechanisms include promoting angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Increased SLC9A1 mRNA expression was also associated with tumor-associated macrophage accumulation. NHE1 inhibitor HOE642 reduced glioma volume, invasion, and prolonged overall survival in mouse glioma models. Blockade of NHE1 protein also stimulated immunogenic tumor microenvironment via activating CD8 T-cell accumulation, increasing expression of interferon-gamma (Ifng), and sensitized animals to anti-PD-1 therapy.
CONCLUSION: Our findings strongly suggest that NHE1 protein emerges as a marker for tumorigenesis and prognosis in glioma. Blocking NHE1 protein is a novel strategy for adjuvant anti-cancer therapies.

Greco MR, Bon E, Rubino R, et al.
Phosphorylation of NHERF1 S279 and S301 differentially regulates breast cancer cell phenotype and metastatic organotropism.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2019; 1865(1):26-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastatic cancer cells are highly plastic for the expression of different tumor phenotype hallmarks and organotropism. This plasticity is highly regulated but the dynamics of the signaling processes orchestrating the shift from one cell phenotype and metastatic organ pattern to another are still largely unknown. The scaffolding protein NHERF1 has been shown to regulate the expression of different neoplastic phenotypes through its PDZ domains, which forms the mechanistic basis for metastatic organotropism. This reprogramming activity was postulated to be dependent on its differential phosphorylation patterns. Here, we show that NHERF1 phosphorylation on S279/S301 dictates several tumor phenotypes such as in vivo invasion, NHE1-mediated matrix digestion, growth and vasculogenic mimicry. Remarkably, injecting mice with cells having differential NHERF1 expression and phosphorylation drove a shift from the predominantly lung colonization (WT NHERF1) to predominately bone colonization (double S279A/S301A mutant), indicating that NHERF1 phosphorylation also acts as a signaling switch in metastatic organotropism.

Shorthouse D, Riedel A, Kerr E, et al.
Exploring the role of stromal osmoregulation in cancer and disease using executable modelling.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3011 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osmotic regulation is a vital homoeostatic process in all cells and tissues. Cells initially respond to osmotic stresses by activating transmembrane transport proteins to move osmotically active ions. Disruption of ion and water transport is frequently observed in cellular transformations such as cancer. We report that genes involved in membrane transport are significantly deregulated in many cancers, and that their expression can distinguish cancer cells from normal cells with a high degree of accuracy. We present an executable model of osmotic regulation and membrane transport in mammalian cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for phenotype change in varied disease states, and accurately predicting behaviour from single cell expression data. We also predict key proteins involved in cellular transformation, SLC4A3 (AE3), and SLC9A1 (NHE1). Furthermore, we predict and verify a synergistic drug combination in vitro, of sodium and chloride channel inhibitors, which target the osmoregulatory network to reduce cancer-associated phenotypes in fibroblasts.

Lee SP, Chao SC, Huang SF, et al.
Expressional and Functional Characterization of Intracellular pH Regulators and Effects of Ethanol in Human Oral Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 47(5):2056-2068 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To functionally characterize intracellular pH (pHi) regulating mechanisms, such as Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE) and Na+-HCO3- co-transporter (NBC), and further examine effects of ethanol on the pHi regulating mechanism in human oral epidermoid carcinoma (OEC-M1) cells.
METHODS: OEC-M1 cells were a gift from Tri-Service General Hospital. Changes of pHi were detected by microspectrofluroimetry with a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, BCECF. Isoforms of transporters were examined by Western blot technique.
RESULTS: i) the steady-state pHi value shifted from alkaline (7.35∼7.49) to acidic (7.0∼7.03) following acid/base impacts; ii) in HEPES-buffer system, pHi recovery following induced-acidification was totally blocked by either removing [Na]o+ or adding HOE 694 (a NHE1 specific inhibitor), which demonstrates existence of NHE1; iii) in HCO3-/CO2-buffer system, the pHi recovery following induced-acidification was entirely blocked by either removing [Na]o+ or adding HOE 694 plus DIDS (a NBC specific inhibitor), which suggests existence of Na+- and HCO3-dependent acid-extruder, i.e. NBC; iv) the isoforms of the two acid extruders were NHE1, NBCn1, NBCe1 and NDCBE; v) ethanol (10-1000 mM) showed a biphasic and concentration-dependent effect on resting pHi (i.e. increase then decrease) by changing the activity of NHE1 and NBC accordingly; vi) treatment with ethanol for 24 hr ( 300 mM) significantly inhibited the expression of NHE1, NBCn1 and NDCBE, while up-regulated NBCe1.
CONCLUSIONS: Ethanol affects pHi in a concentration-dependent manner by changing function and expression of NHE1 and NBC isoforms in OEC-M1 cells.

Zhao X, Xie T, Dai T, et al.
CHP2 Promotes Cell Proliferation in Breast Cancer via Suppression of FOXO3a.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(10):1512-1522 [PubMed] Related Publications
Calcineurin B homologous protein isoform 2 (CHP2), an essential cofactor for Na

Pedersen AK, Mendes Lopes de Melo J, Mørup N, et al.
Tumor microenvironment conditions alter Akt and Na
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):542 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chronic angiogenesis is a hallmark of most tumors and takes place in a hostile tumor microenvironment (TME) characterized by hypoxia, low nutrient and glucose levels, elevated lactate and low pH. Despite this, most studies addressing angiogenic signaling use hypoxia as a proxy for tumor conditions. Here, we compared the effects of hypoxia and TME conditions on regulation of the Na
METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and Ea.hy926 endothelial cells were exposed to simulated TME (1% hypoxia, low serum, glucose, pH, high lactate) or 1% hypoxia for 24 or 48 h, with or without NHE1 inhibition or siRNA-mediated knockdown. mRNA and protein levels of NHE1, Akt1-3, and downstream effectors were assessed by qPCR and Western blotting, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release by ELISA, and motility by scratch assay.
RESULTS: Within 24 h, HIF-1α level and VEGF mRNA level were increased robustly by TME and modestly by hypoxia alone. The NHE1 mRNA level was decreased by both hypoxia and TME, and NHE1 protein was reduced by TME in Ea.hy926 cells. Akt1-3 mRNA was detected in HUVEC and Ea.hy926 cells, Akt1 most abundantly. Akt1 protein expression was reduced by TME yet unaffected by hypoxia, while Akt phosphorylation was increased by TME. The Akt loss was partly reversed by MCF-7 human breast cancer cell conditioned medium, suggesting that in vivo, the cancer cell secretome may compensate for adverse effects of TME on endothelial cells. TME, yet not hypoxia, reduced p70S6 kinase activity and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and increased eIF2α phosphorylation, consistent with inhibition of protein translation. Finally, TME reduced Retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and induced poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage consistent with inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. NHE1 knockdown, mimicking the effect of TME on NHE1 expression, reduced Ea.hy926 migration. TME effects on HIF-1α, VEGF, Akt, translation, proliferation or apoptosis markers were unaffected by NHE1 knockdown/inhibition.
CONCLUSIONS: NHE1 and Akt are downregulated by TME conditions, more potently than by hypoxia alone. This inhibits endothelial cell migration and growth in a manner likely modulated by the cancer cell secretome.

Chen L, Cong D, Li Y, et al.
Combination of sonodynamic with temozolomide inhibits C6 glioma migration and promotes mitochondrial pathway apoptosis via suppressing NHE-1 expression.
Ultrason Sonochem. 2017; 39:654-661 [PubMed] Related Publications
Temozolomide (TMZ) was used for clinical postoperative or non-surgical chemotherapy patients. However, its effect remains unsatisfactory and gradually discovered that the presence of chemoresistance. To explore more effective therapy using TMZ, we investigate the effects of combination of application of TMZ together with Sonodynamic therapy (SDT), which is based on the ultrasonic activation of a sonosensitizer, with low toxicity, noninvasive, deeper penetrability and a promising approach for treating malignant glioma by inducing apoptosis on glioma cells in vitro. Sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1), which enable glioblastoma cells to escape TMZ-mediated toxicity via increased H

Meehan J, Ward C, Turnbull A, et al.
Inhibition of pH regulation as a therapeutic strategy in hypoxic human breast cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(26):42857-42875 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypoxic cancer cells exhibit resistance to many therapies. This study compared the therapeutic effect of targeting the pH regulatory proteins (CAIX, NHE1 and V-ATPase) that permit cancer cells to adapt to hypoxic conditions, using both 2D and 3D culture models. Drugs targeting CAIX, NHE1 and V-ATPase exhibited anti-proliferative effects in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HBL-100 breast cancer cell lines in 2D. Protein and gene expression analysis in 2D showed that CAIX was the most hypoxia-inducible protein of the 3 targets. However, the expression of CAIX differed between the 3 cell lines. This difference in CAIX expression in hypoxia was consistent with a varying activity of FIH-1 between the cell lines. 3D expression analysis demonstrated that both CAIX and NHE1 were up-regulated in the hypoxic areas of multicellular tumor spheroids. However, the induction of CAIX expression in hypoxia was again cell line dependent. 3D invasion assays conducted with spheroids showed that CAIX inhibition significantly reduced the invasion of cells. Finally, the capability of both NHE1 and CAIX inhibitors to combine effectively with irradiation was exhibited in clonogenic assays. Proteomic-mass-spectrometric analysis indicated that CAIX inhibition might be combining with irradiation through stimulating apoptotic cell death. Of the three proteins, CAIX represents the target with the most promise for the treatment of breast cancer.

Xie R, Wang H, Jin H, et al.
NHE1 is upregulated in gastric cancer and regulates gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(3):1451-1460 [PubMed] Related Publications
Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) is known to play a key role in regulating intracellular pH and osmotic homeostasis and is involved in the development and progression of several types of cancer. However, the function and specific mechanism of NHE1 in gastric cancer (GC) are not clearly understood. In the present study, we report that NHE1 is overexpressed in tissues and cell lines from GC patients, and knockdown or inhibition of NHE1 suppressed GC cell proliferation via regulation of G1/S and G2/M cell cycle phase transitions, concomitant with a marked decrease in positive cell cycle regulators, including cyclin D1 and cyclin B1. Likewise, NHE1 was required for GC cell migration and invasion through the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) proteins, and NHE1 inhibition resulted in an acidic intracellular environment, providing possible mechanisms underlying NHE1-mediated GC progression both in vitro and in vivo. These data highlight the important role of NHE1 in GC progression and suggest that NHE1 may be a useful target for GC therapy.

Parks SK, Cormerais Y, Durivault J, Pouyssegur J
Genetic disruption of the pHi-regulating proteins Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (SLC9A1) and carbonic anhydrase 9 severely reduces growth of colon cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(6):10225-10237 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypoxia and extracellular acidosis are pathophysiological hallmarks of aggressive solid tumors. Regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) is essential for the maintenance of tumor cell metabolism and proliferation in this microenvironment and key proteins involved in pHi regulation are of interest for therapeutic development. Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) is one of the most robustly regulated proteins by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and contributes to pHi regulation. Here, we have investigated for the first time, the role of CA9 via complete genomic knockout (ko) and compared its impact on tumor cell physiology with the essential pHi regulator Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1). Initially, we established NHE1-ko LS174 cells with inducible CA9 knockdown. While increased sensitivity to acidosis for cell survival in 2-dimensions was not observed, clonogenic proliferation and 3-dimensional spheroid growth in particular were greatly reduced. To avoid potential confounding variables with use of tetracycline-inducible CA9 knockdown, we established CA9-ko and NHE1/CA9-dko cells. NHE1-ko abolished recovery from NH4Cl pre-pulse cellular acid loading while both NHE1 and CA9 knockout reduced resting pHi. NHE1-ko significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation both in normoxia and hypoxia while CA9-ko dramatically reduced growth in hypoxic conditions. Tumor xenografts revealed substantial reductions in tumor growth for both NHE1-ko and CA9-ko. A notable induction of CA12 occurred in NHE1/CA9-dko tumors indicating a potential means to compensate for loss of pH regulating proteins to maintain growth. Overall, these genomic knockout results strengthen the pursuit of targeting tumor cell pH regulation as an effective anti-cancer strategy.

Ariyoshi Y, Shiozaki A, Ichikawa D, et al.
Na+/H+ exchanger 1 has tumor suppressive activity and prognostic value in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(2):2209-2223 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) is a plasma membrane transporter that controls intracellular pH and regulates apoptosis and invasion in various cancer cells. However, the function of NHE1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells and the relationship between the expression of NHE1 and prognosis of ESCC remain unclear. We found that the knockdown of NHE1 in ESCC cells inhibited apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and showed increases in Snail, β-catenin, and activation of PI3K-AKT signaling, which was consistent with the results obtained from microarrays. Microarrays results suggested that the knockdown of NHE1 suppressed Notch signaling pathway. An immunohistochemical investigation of 61 primary ESCC samples revealed that NHE1 was expressed at higher levels in well-differentiated tumors. The 5-year survival rate was poorer in the NHE1 low group (57.0%) than in the NHE1 high group (82.8%). Multivariate analyses revealed that the weak expression of NHE1 was associated with shorter postoperative survival (hazard ratio 3.570, 95% CI 1.291-11.484, p = 0.0135).We herein demonstrated that the suppression of NHE1 in ESCC may enhance malignant potential by mediating PI3K-AKT signaling and EMT via Notch signaling, and may be related to a poor prognosis in patients with ESCC.

Amith SR, Vincent KM, Wilkinson JM, et al.
Defining the Na
Cell Signal. 2017; 29:69-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mounting evidence supports a major role for the Na

Xia J, Huang N, Huang H, et al.
Voltage-gated sodium channel Nav 1.7 promotes gastric cancer progression through MACC1-mediated upregulation of NHE1.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 139(11):2553-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), which are aberrantly expressed in several human cancers, affect cancer cell behavior; however, their role in gastric cancer (GC) and the link between these channels and tumorigenic signaling remain unclear. The aims of this study were to determine the clinicopathological significance and role of the VGSC Nav 1.7 in GC progression and to investigate the associated mechanisms. Here, we report that the SCN9A gene encoding Nav 1.7 was the most abundantly expressed VGSC subtype in GC tissue samples and two GC cell lines (BGC-823 and MKN-28 cells). SCN9A expression levels were also frequently found to be elevated in GC samples compared to nonmalignant tissues by real-time PCR. In the 319 GC specimens evaluated by immunohistochemistry, Nav 1.7 expression was correlated with prognosis, and transporter Na(+) /H(+) exchanger-1 (NHE1) and oncoprotein metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) expression. Nav 1.7 suppression resulted in reduced voltage-gated sodium currents, decreased NHE1 expression, increased extracellular pH and decreased intracellular pH, and ultimately, reduced invasion and proliferation rates of GC cells and growth of GC xenografts in nude mice. Nav 1.7 inhibition led to reduced MACC1 expression, while MACC1 inhibition resulted in reduced NHE1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, the suppression of Nav 1.7 decreased NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation via p38 activation, thus reducing MACC1 expression. Downregulation of MACC1 decreased c-Jun phosphorylation and subsequently reduced NHE1 expression, whereas the addition of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a c-Met physiological ligand, reversed the effect. These results indicate that Nav 1.7 promotes GC progression through MACC1-mediated upregulation of NHE1. Therefore, Nav 1.7 is a potential prognostic marker and/or therapeutic target for GC.

Amith SR, Wilkinson JM, Fliegel L
KR-33028, a potent inhibitor of the Na
Biochem Pharmacol. 2016; 118:31-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hyper-activation of the Na

Dykes SS, Gao C, Songock WK, et al.
Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox-1 (Zeb1) drives anterograde lysosome trafficking and tumor cell invasion via upregulation of Na+/H+ Exchanger-1 (NHE1).
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(2):722-734 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor cell invasion through the extracellular matrix is facilitated by the secretion of lysosome-associated proteases. As a common mechanism for secretion, lysosomes must first traffic to the cell periphery (anterograde trafficking), consistent with invasive cells often containing lysosomes closer to the plasma membrane compared to non-invasive cells. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a transcriptionally driven program that promotes an invasive phenotype, and Zeb1 is one transcription factor that activates the mesenchymal gene expression program. The role of lysosome trafficking in EMT-driven invasion has not been previously investigated. We found that cells with increased levels of Zeb1 displayed lysosomes located closer to the cell periphery and demonstrated increased protease secretion and invasion in 3-dimensional (3D) cultures compared to their epithelial counterparts. Additionally, preventing anterograde lysosome trafficking via pharmacological inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) or shRNA depletion of ADP-ribosylation like protein 8b (Arl8b) reversed the invasive phenotype of mesenchymal cells, thus supporting a role for lysosome positioning in EMT-mediated tumor cell invasion. Immunoblot revealed that expression of Na+/H+ exchanger 1 correlated with Zeb1 expression. Furthermore, we found that the transcription factor Zeb1 binds to the Na+/H+ exchanger 1 promoter, suggesting that Zeb1 directly controls Na+/H+ transcription. Collectively, these results provide insight into a novel mechanism regulating Na+/H+ exchanger 1 expression and support a role for anterograde lysosome trafficking in Zeb1-driven cancer progression. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Andersen AP, Flinck M, Oernbo EK, et al.
Roles of acid-extruding ion transporters in regulation of breast cancer cell growth in a 3-dimensional microenvironment.
Mol Cancer. 2016; 15(1):45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The 3-dimensional (3D) microenvironment of breast carcinomas is characterized by profoundly altered pH homeostasis, reflecting increased metabolic acid production and a confined extracellular space characterized by poor diffusion, yet the relative contributions of specific pH-regulatory transporters to 3D growth are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to determine how 3D spheroid growth of breast cancer cells impacts the expression and spatial organization of major acid extruding proteins, and how these proteins in turn are required for spheroid growth.
METHODS: MCF-7 (Luminal-A) and MDA-MB-231 (Triple-negative) human breast cancer cells were grown as ~700-950 μm diameter spheroids, which were subjected to Western blotting for relevant transporters (2- and 3D growth), quantitative immunohistochemical analysis, and spheroid growth assays. Individual transporter contributions were assessed (i) pharmacologically, (ii) by stable shRNA- and transient siRNA-mediated knockdown, and (iii) by CRISPR/Cas9 knockout.
RESULTS: In MCF-7 spheroids, expression of the lactate-H(+) cotransporter MCT1 (SLC16A1) increased from the spheroid periphery to its core, the Na(+),HCO3 (-) cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) was most highly expressed at the periphery, and the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 (SLC9A1) and MCT4 (SLC16A3) were evenly distributed. A similar pattern was seen in MDA-MB-231 spheroids, except that these cells do not express MCT1. The relative total expression of NBCn1 and NHE1 was decreased in 3D compared to 2D, while that of MCT1 and MCT4 was unaltered. Inhibition of MCT1 (AR-C155858) attenuated MCF-7 spheroid growth and this was exacerbated by addition of S0859, an inhibitor of Na(+),HCO3 (-) cotransporters and MCTs. The pharmacological data was recapitulated by stable knockdown of MCT1 or NBCn1, whereas knockdown of MCT4 had no effect. CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of NHE1, but neither partial NHE1 knockdown nor the NHE1 inhibitor cariporide, inhibited MCF-7 spheroid growth. In contrast, growth of MDA-MB-231 spheroids was inhibited by stable or transient NHE1 knockdown and by NHE1 knockout, but not by knockdown of NBCn1 or MCT4.
CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates the distinct expression and localization patterns of four major acid-extruding transporters in 3D spheroids of human breast cancer cells and reveals that 3D growth is dependent on these transporters in a cell type-dependent manner, with potentially important implications for breast cancer therapy.

Xu J, Ji B, Wen G, et al.
Na+/H+ exchanger 1, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 and calmodulin complex regulates interleukin 6-mediated cellular behavior of human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis. 2016; 37(3):290-300 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a key cytokine involved in the development and progression of inflammation-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanisms of IL6 action on HCC remain largely unknown. Proton and Ca(2+) are two intracellular messenger ions, which are believed to play a central role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. In this study, we found that IL6 stimulation markedly increased intracellualr pH recovery rates of human HCC cells, Huh7 and HepG2, after NH4Cl acidification, and the NH4Cl acidification induced transient intracellular Ca(2+) increases in the HCC cells. The inhibition of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1), Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) and calmodulin (CaM) inhibited the IL6 stimulation-induced intracellular pH recovery increases and NH4Cl acidification-induced intracellular Ca(2+) increases. IL6 stimulation also induced the structural interaction of NHE1, NCX1 and CaM proteins. The protein expression levels of NHE1, NCX1 and CaM in native human HCC tissues were markedly higher than those in normal liver tissues. IL6 upregulated the expressions of NHE1, NCX1 and CaM in Huh7 and HepG2 cells. NHE1, NCX1 and CaM mediated the promotion of IL6 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of Huh7 and HepG2 cells and the growth of HCC in nude mice. In conclusion, IL6 activates the functional activity of NHE1 and induces the functional and structural interaction of NHE1, NCX1 and CaM. The interaction of NHE1, NCX1 and CaM mediates the effects of IL6 on human HCC.

Mihaila RG
A minireview on NHE1 inhibitors. A rediscovered hope in oncohematology.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2015; 159(4):519-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-1 (NHE-1) is involved in pH regulation and is up-regulated in different malignancies. Activation of NHE-1 is one way for allowing cells to avoid intracellular acidification and protect them against apoptosis. Inhibitors of NHE-1 are able to decrease intracellular pH and induce apoptosis. Some statins can also act by partial inhibition of NHE-1. This review presents progress in understanding the mechanisms of action of these inhibitors, connections with certain genetic mutations and acquired treatment resistance, as well as new patents on them.
METHODS: A MEDLINE search for original and review articles using key terms, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, leukemia, cariporide, and amiloride. Recent patents with NHE-1 inhibitors published by United States Patent and Trademark Office are also presented.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Sorafenib is used for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia patients carrying internal tandem duplication of fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3-ITD) mutation. 5-(N, N-hexamethylene)-amiloride can increase the suppression of FLT3 signaling by sorafenib. NHE-1 inhibitors are able to increase the sensitivity of chronic myeloid leukemia cells to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including through the inhibition of P-glycoprotein. NHE-1 inhibitors are promising adjuvant drugs for overcoming acquired resistance to treatment in various malignant hemopathies.

Rigiracciolo DC, Scarpelli A, Lappano R, et al.
GPER is involved in the stimulatory effects of aldosterone in breast cancer cells and breast tumor-derived endothelial cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(1):94-111 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aldosterone induces relevant effects binding to the mineralcorticoid receptor (MR), which acts as a ligand-gated transcription factor. Alternate mechanisms can mediate the action of aldosterone such as the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), MAPK/ERK, transcription factors and ion channels. The G-protein estrogen receptor (GPER) has been involved in the stimulatory effects of estrogenic signalling in breast cancer. GPER has been also shown to contribute to certain responses to aldosterone, however the role played by GPER and the molecular mechanisms implicated remain to be fully understood. Here, we evaluated the involvement of GPER in the stimulatory action exerted by aldosterone in breast cancer cells and breast tumor derived endothelial cells (B-TEC). Competition assays, gene expression and silencing studies, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence experiments, cell proliferation and migration were performed in order to provide novel insights into the role of GPER in the aldosterone-activated signalling. Our results demonstrate that aldosterone triggers the EGFR/ERK transduction pathway in a MR- and GPER-dependent manner. Aldosterone does not bind to GPER, it however induces the direct interaction between MR and GPER as well as between GPER and EGFR. Next, we ascertain that the up-regulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger-1 (NHE-1) induced by aldosterone involves MR and GPER. Biologically, both MR and GPER contribute to the proliferation and migration of breast and endothelial cancer cells mediated by NHE-1 upon aldosterone exposure. Our data further extend the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms through which GPER may contribute to the stimulatory action elicited by aldosterone in breast cancer.

Zhang S, Liu F, Mao X, et al.
Elevation of miR-27b by HPV16 E7 inhibits PPARγ expression and promotes proliferation and invasion in cervical carcinoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(5):1759-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be involved in multiple biological pathways that can influence tumor progression and metastasis. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPVs) is aetiologically correlated to cervical cancer. Recently, miRNAs were reported to be regulated by virus and play pivotal roles in HPV-related tumor progression. However, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study, we report that HPV16 E7 upregulated miR-27b to promote proliferation and invasion in cervical cancer. The results showed that PPARγ, as a target of miR-27b, played a significant role in suppressing cervical cancer progression by downregulating the sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1). It was also shown that the inhibition of miR-27b diminished the ability of HPV16 E7 to suppress PPARγ or activate NHE1 expression. In addition, we observed high expression of miR-27b and NHE1, but low expression of PPARγ in HPV16-positive cervical cancer tissues. In summary, the present study revealed that miR-27b is upregulated by HPV16 E7 to inhibit PPARγ expression and promotes proliferation and invasion in cervical carcinoma cells.

Ahn JS, Li J, Chen E, et al.
JAK2V617F mediates resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis by modulating FOXO3A localization and Bcl-xL deamidation.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(17):2235-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
The JAK2V617F mutation is found in most patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). This gain-of-function mutation dysregulates cytokine signaling and is associated with increased accumulation of DNA damage, a process likely to drive disease evolution. JAK2V617F inhibits NHE-1 upregulation in response to DNA damage and consequently represses Bcl-xL deamidation and apoptosis, thus giving rise to inappropriate cell survival. However, the mechanism whereby NHE-1 expression is inhibited by JAK2V617F is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells expressing JAK2V617F compromises the NHE-1/Bcl-xL deamidation pathway by repressing NHE-1 upregulation in response to DNA damage. In JAK2V617F-positive cells, increased ROS levels results from aberrant PI3K signaling, which decreases nuclear localization of FOXO3A and decreases catalase expression. Furthermore, when compared with autologous control erythroblasts, clonally derived JAK2V617F-positive erythroblasts from MPN patients displayed increased ROS levels and reduced nuclear FOXO3A. However, in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), FOXO3A is largely localized within the nuclei despite the presence of JAK2V617F mutation, suggesting that JAK2-FOXO signaling has a different effect on progenitors compared with stem cells. Inactivation of FOXO proteins and elevation of intracellular ROS are characteristics common to many cancers, and hence these findings are likely to be of relevance beyond the MPN field.

Davis PJ, Incerpi S, Lin HY, et al.
Thyroid hormone and P-glycoprotein in tumor cells.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:168427 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
P-glycoprotein (P-gp; multidrug resistance pump 1, MDR1; ABCB1) is a plasma membrane efflux pump that when activated in cancer cells exports chemotherapeutic agents. Transcription of the P-gp gene (MDR1) and activity of the P-gp protein are known to be affected by thyroid hormone. A cell surface receptor for thyroid hormone on integrin αvβ3 also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of L-thyroxine (T4) that blocks nongenomic actions of T4 and of 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) at αvβ3. Covalently bound to a nanoparticle, tetrac as nanotetrac acts at the integrin to increase intracellular residence time of chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin and etoposide that are substrates of P-gp. This action chemosensitizes cancer cells. In this review, we examine possible molecular mechanisms for the inhibitory effect of nanotetrac on P-gp activity. Mechanisms for consideration include cancer cell acidification via action of tetrac/nanotetrac on the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE1) and hormone analogue effects on calmodulin-dependent processes and on interactions of P-gp with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and osteopontin (OPN), apparently via αvβ3. Intracellular acidification and decreased H(+) efflux induced by tetrac/nanotetrac via NHE1 is the most attractive explanation for the actions on P-gp and consequent increase in cancer cell retention of chemotherapeutic agent-ligands of MDR1 protein.

Ma D, Fang Q, Wang P, et al.
Induction of heme oxygenase-1 by Na+-H+ exchanger 1 protein plays a crucial role in imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(20):12558-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Resistance toward imatinib (IM) and other BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors remains troublesome in the treatment of advanced stage chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The aim of this study was to estimate the reversal effects of down-regulation of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) on the chemoresistance of BCR-ABL-positive leukemia patients' cells and cell lines. After treatment with the specific NHE1 inhibitor cariporide to decrease intracellular pH (pHi), the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels of the K562R cell line and cells from IM-insensitive CML patients decreased. HO-1, as a Bcr/Abl-dependent survival molecule in CML cells, is important for the resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with newly diagnosed CML or IM-resistant CML. Silencing PKC-β and Nrf-2 or treatment with inhibitors of p38 pathways obviously blocked NHE1-induced HO-1 expression. Furthermore, treatment with HO-1 or p38 inhibitor plus IM increased the apoptosis of the K562R cell line and IM-insensitive CML patients' cells. Inhibiting HO-1 enhanced the activation of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Hence, the results support the anti-apoptotic role of HO-1 induced by NHE1 in the K562R cell line and IM-insensitive CML patients and provide a mechanism by which inducing HO-1 expression via the PKC-β/p38-MAPK pathway may promote tumor resistance to oxidative stress.

Cardone RA, Greco MR, Zeeberg K, et al.
A novel NHE1-centered signaling cassette drives epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent pancreatic tumor metastasis and is a target for combination therapy.
Neoplasia. 2015; 17(2):155-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers principally because of early invasion and metastasis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is essential for PDAC development even in the presence of Kras, but its inhibition with erlotinib gives only a modest clinical response, making the discovery of novel EGFR targets of critical interest. Here, we revealed by mining a human pancreatic gene expression database that the metastasis promoter Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE1) associates with the EGFR in PDAC. In human PDAC cell lines, we confirmed that NHE1 drives both basal and EGF-stimulated three-dimensional growth and early invasion via invadopodial extracellular matrix digestion. EGF promoted the complexing of EGFR with NHE1 via the scaffolding protein Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1, engaging EGFR in a negative transregulatory loop that controls the extent and duration of EGFR oncogenic signaling and stimulates NHE1. The specificity of NHE1 for growth or invasion depends on the segregation of the transient EGFR/Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1/NHE1 signaling complex into dimeric subcomplexes in different lipid raftlike membrane domains. This signaling complex was also found in tumors developed in orthotopic mice. Importantly, the specific NHE1 inhibitor cariporide reduced both three-dimensional growth and invasion independently of PDAC subtype and synergistically sensitized these behaviors to low doses of erlotinib.

Wang J, Xu H, Wang Q, et al.
CIAPIN1 targets Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger 1 to mediate MDA-MB-231 cells' metastasis through regulation of MMPs via ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
Exp Cell Res. 2015; 333(1):60-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytokine-induced antiapoptotic inhibitor 1 (CIAPIN1) was recently identified as an essential downstream effector of the Ras signaling pathway and has been confirmed to be closely associated with various malignant tumors. However, its potential role in regulating breast cancer metastasis remains unclear. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a broad family of zinc-biding endopeptidases that participate in the extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation that accompanies cancer cell invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. In this study, we found up-regulation of CIAPIN1 by lentiviral expression vector inhibited the migration, invasion and MMPs expression of MDA-MB-231 cells. Further, CIAPIN1 over-expression decreased NHE1 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1) expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Importantly, treating CIAPIN1 over-expressed MDA-MB-231 cells with the NHE1 specific inhibitor, Cariporide, further inhibited the metastatic capacity, MMPs expression and phosphorylated ERK1/2. Treatment with the MEK1 specific inhibitor, PD98059, induced nearly the same suppression of CIAPIN1 over-expression-dependent migration, invasion and MMPs expression as was observed with Cariporide. Further, Cariporide and PD98059 synergistically suppressed migration, invasion and MMPs expression of CIAPIN1 over-expressed MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, our results revealed the mechanism by which CIAPIN1 targeted NHE1 to mediate migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells through regulation of MMPs via ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

Amith SR, Wilkinson JM, Baksh S, Fliegel L
The Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE1) as a novel co-adjuvant target in paclitaxel therapy of triple-negative breast cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(2):1262-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulation of Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger isoform one (NHE1) activity is a hallmark of cells undergoing tumorigenesis and metastasis, the leading cause of patient mortality. The acidic tumor microenvironment is thought to facilitate the development of resistance to chemotherapy drugs and to promote extracellular matrix remodeling leading to metastasis. Here, we investigated NHE1 as a co-adjuvant target in paclitaxel chemotherapy of metastatic breast cancer. We generated a stable NHE1-knockout of the highly invasive, triple-negative, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The NHE1-knockout cells proliferated comparably to parental cells, but had markedly lower rates of migration and invasion in vitro. In vivo xenograft tumor growth in athymic nude mice was also dramatically decreased compared to parental MDA-MB-231 cells. Loss of NHE1 expression also increased the susceptibility of knockout cells to paclitaxel-mediated cell death. NHE1 inhibition, in combination with paclitaxel, resulted in a dramatic decrease in viability, and migratory and invasive potential of triple-negative breast cancer cells, but not in hormone receptor-positive, luminal MCF7 cells. Our data suggest that NHE1 is critical in triple-negative breast cancer metastasis, and its chemical inhibition boosts the efficacy of paclitaxel in vitro, highlighting NHE1 as a novel, potential co-adjuvant target in breast cancer chemotherapy.

Frontzek F, Nitzlaff S, Horstmann M, et al.
Functional interdependence of NHE1 and merlin in human melanoma cells.
Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 92(6):530-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Upregulation of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) has been correlated with tumor malignancy. In contrast, moesin-radixin-ezrin-like protein (merlin) is a tumor suppressor that protects from cancerogenesis. Merlin is highly related to the members of the ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) protein family that are directly attached to and functionally linked with NHE1. In addition, merlin inhibits the MAPK cascade and the Rho-GTPases known to activate NHE1 activity. The present study investigates whether NHE1 expression and activity affect merlin or, conversely, whether merlin has an impact on NHE1 in human melanoma (MV3) cells. Indeed, features of merlin-deficient MV3 cells point to a functional link: merlin-deficient cells showed a decreased NHE1 expression and, paradoxically, an increase in NHE1 activity as measured upon cytosolic acidification (NH4Cl prepulse method). Loss of merlin also led to an elevated cell motility that could be further increased by NHE1 overexpression, whereas NHE1 overexpression alone had no effect on migration. In contrast, neither NHE1 expression nor its activity had an impact on merlin expression. These results suggest a novel tumor suppressor function of merlin in melanoma cells: the inhibition of the proto-oncogenic NHE1 activity, possibly including its downstream signaling pathways.

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