Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: SMYD3 (cancer-related)
ABSRACT: BACKGROUND: Tumor metastasis is the major reason for poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after hepatic resection. SMYD3 has been demonstrated to promote liver tumor metastasis in mice. However, the detailed molecular mechanism is still largely unknown.
METHODS: The effect of SMYD3 on invasiveness and metastasis of HCC was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, migration assay, invasion assay, wound healing assay and in vivo lung metastasis assay. Mass spectrometry analysis was conducted using proteins pulled down by H3K4me3 antibody in SMYD3-overexpressing cells. Luciferase reporter, chromatin immunoprecipitation, Electrophoretic mobility shift assay were used to measure the regulation of SLUG transcription by SMYD3-ANKHD1. In addition, the role of SMYD3-ANKHD1 in determining clinical outcomes for HCC patients was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 243 HCC tissues.
RESULTS: SMYD3 was an independent prognostic factor of HCC and promoted migration and invasion of human HCC cells. ANKHD1 was identified by mass spectrometry as a co-regulator with SMYD3. ANKHD1 interacted with H3K4me3 when cells were overexpressing SMYD3. The pro-migratory and pro-invasive effects of SMYD3 were attenuated when ANKHD1 was knocked down by siRNA. Furthermore, we found that SMYD3 bound and activated the SLUG gene promoter in a manner associated with elevating H3K4me3, H3K9Ac and H3K14Ac. Knockdown of ANKHD1 could attenuate the SMYD3-dependent activation of Slug expression. We further detected the expression of SMYD3 and ANKHD1 in 243 HCC patients and found that patients with positive coexpression of SMYD3 and ANKHD1 (SMYD3
CONCLUSION: Our findings provide a novel molecular mechanism for the SMYD3-regulated HCC migration and metastasis, and indicates that SMYD3-ANKHD1 may be a potential target for treating HCC.
SMYD3 is a methylase previously linked to cancer cell invasion and migration. Here we show that SMYD3 favors TGFβ-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in mammary epithelial cells, promoting mesenchymal and EMT transcription factors expression. SMYD3 directly interacts with SMAD3 but it is unnecessary for SMAD2/3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Conversely, SMYD3 is indispensable for SMAD3 direct association to EMT genes regulatory regions. Accordingly, SMYD3 knockdown or its pharmacological blockade with the BCI121 inhibitor dramatically reduce TGFβ-induced SMAD3 association to the chromatin. Remarkably, BCI121 treatment attenuates mesenchymal genes transcription in the mesenchymal-like MDA-MB-231 cell line and reduces their invasive ability in vivo, in a zebrafish xenograft model. In addition, clinical datasets analysis revealed that higher SMYD3 levels are linked to a less favorable prognosis in claudin-low breast cancers and to a reduced metastasis free survival in breast cancer patients. Overall, our data point at SMYD3 as a pivotal SMAD3 cofactor that promotes TGFβ-dependent mesenchymal gene expression and cell migration in breast cancer, and support SMYD3 as a promising pharmacological target for anti-cancer therapy.
Li B, Pan R, Zhou C, et al.SMYD3 promoter hypomethylation is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer.
Future Oncol. 2018; 14(18):1825-1834 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIM: SMYD3 encodes histone lysine methyltransferase. The goal of our study was to investigate the association between SMYD3 methylation and colorectal cancer (CRC).
MATERIALS & METHODS: SMYD3 methylation was measured by quantitative methylation-specific PCR method in 117 pairs of CRC tumor and para-tumor tissues.
RESULTS: Significantly lower SMYD3 methylation was observed in CRC tumor tissues than para-tumor tissues (p = 0.002). Further subgroup analysis by clinical features showed that significantly lower SMYD3 methylation were only observed in the CRC patients with tumors of moderately and well differentiation, positive lymph node metastasis, and stage III + IV.
CONCLUSION: Our work reported for the first time that SMYD3 promoter hypomethylation was associated with CRC.
Wang T, Wu H, Liu S, et al.SMYD3 controls a Wnt-responsive epigenetic switch for ASCL2 activation and cancer stem cell maintenance.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 430:11-24 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Tumor growth is fueled by subset of cells with stem cell properties (Cancer stem cells, CSCs). While persistent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling confers CSC properties, it remains unclear how epigenetic modifications regulate Wnt target genes to dictate their self-renewal. Here, we report a novel Wnt-responsive epigenetic switch for CSC maintenance through activating the stem cell transcription factor ASCL2 in gastric carcinoma (GC). We characterize ASCL2-expressing (ASCL2
Li RD, Tang YH, Wang HL, et al.The SMYD3 VNTR 3/3 polymorphism confers an increased risk and poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese population.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(5):625-630 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal human malignancies in China, and the genetic link of hepatocarcinogenesis remains to be defined. Thus, we explored the role of SET and myeloid translocation protein 8, Nervy, and DEAF1 (MYND) domain containing protein 3 (SMYD3) gene polymorphism on risk and prognosis of HCC.
METHODS: A total of 236 patients with HCC who received treatment in Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University for the first time and 230 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. After DNA extraction for all the subjects, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify and sequence variable numbers of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci of SMYD3 gene. SMYD3 gene was genotyped and its frequency distribution was calculated. Age, education level, income, smoking and drinking history, HCC family history, tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging, maximum tumor diameter, lymph node metastasis (LNM) etc. were investigated. Correlation of SMYD3 gene polymorphism and other risk factors with the occurrence and prognosis of HCC was analyzed.
RESULTS: The family history of HCC, drinking history, cirrhosis, and HBV or/and HCV infection, SMYD3 VNTR 3/3 were more frequently observed in subjects with HCC. Patients with SMYD3 VNTR 3/3 genotype, drinking-history, family history of HCC, cirrhosis and hepatitis B virus (HBV), TNM staging, maximum tumor diameter, LNM were more vulnerable to HCC. Besides, patients with SMYD3 VNTR 3/3 genotype had lower 2- and 3-year survival rate. The COX regression analysis revealed that drinking history, family history of HCC, SMYD3 VNTR 3/3 genotype, TNM staging, and LNM were all related to the prognosis of HCC.
CONCLUSION: This study indicates that drinking history, family history of HCC and SMYD3 VNTR 3/3, TNM staging, maximum tumor diameter, LNM might be risk factors for HCC, and SMYD3 VNTR 3/3 might contribute to a lower 2- and 3-year survival rate of patients with HCC.
EZR, a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family, is involved in multiple aspects of cell migration and cancer. SMYD3, a histone H3-lysine 4 (H3-K4)-specific methyltransferase, regulates EZR gene transcription, but the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic regulation remain ill-defined. Here, we show that antisense lncRNA EZR-AS1 was positively correlated with EZR expression in both human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and cell lines. Both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that EZR-AS1 promoted cell migration through up-regulation of EZR expression. Mechanistically, antisense lncRNA EZR-AS1 formed a complex with RNA polymerase II to activate the transcription of EZR. Moreover, EZR-AS1 could recruit SMYD3 to a binding site, present in a GC-rich region downstream of the EZR promoter, causing the binding of SMYD3 and local enrichment of H3K4me3. Finally, the interaction of EZR-AS1 with SMYD3 further enhanced EZR transcription and expression. Our findings suggest that antisense lncRNA EZR-AS1, as a member of an RNA polymerase complex and through enhanced SMYD3-dependent H3K4 methylation, plays an important role in enhancing transcription of the EZR gene to promote the mobility and invasiveness of human cancer cells.
Fei X, Ma Y, Liu X, Meng ZOverexpression of SMYD3 Is Predictive of Unfavorable Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Tohoku J Exp Med. 2017; 243(3):219-226 [PubMed
] Related Publications
SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) is a kind of histone lysine methyltransferase, responsible for transcriptional activation as a member of an RNA polymerase complex. The ectopic expression of SMYD3 is proved to promote the progress of many kinds of cancers. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), SMYD3 was demonstrated to promote the proliferation and metastasis of HCC cell lines, but the clinical significance of SMYD3 has not been elucidated. In the present study, we detected the expression of SMYD3 in 100 HCC tissues with immunohistochemistry and divided these tissue specimens into high-expression group and low-expression group according to the immunohistochemical score of SMYD3. Importantly, the intensity of SMYD3 immunoreactivity was significantly stronger in HCC tissues than that in adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, high expression levels of SMYD3 were significantly associated with larger tumor size (P = 0.043), suggesting that SMYD3 could promote the proliferation of HCC. Moreover, patients with positive hepatitis B virus infection had higher expression levels of SMYD3 (P = 0.013). With univariate and multivariate analysis, we explored the prognostic significance of SMYD3 in HCC. As a result, high expression levels of SMYD3 were significantly correlated to the poorer clinical outcome of HCC patients (P = 0.009) and were identified as an independent risk factor of HCC for predicting the unfavorable prognosis. In conclusion, overexpression of SMYD3 is an independent prognostic risk of unfavorable prognosis of HCC. We propose that the anti-SMYD3 therapy may be a potential approach to treat HCC.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (
HER2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase, which is amplified and overexpressed in a subset of human cancers including breast and gastric cancers, and is indicated in its involvement in progression of cancer. Although its specific ligand(s) has not been detected, HER2 homodimerization, which is critical for its activation, is considered to be dependent on its expression levels. Here, we demonstrate a significant role of HER2 methylation by protein lysine methyltransferase SMYD3 in HER2 homodimerization. We found that SMYD3 trimethylates HER2 protein at lysine 175. HER2 homodimerization was enhanced in the presence of SMYD3, and substitution of lysine 175 of HER2 with alanine (HER2-K175A) reduced the formation of HER2 homodimers. Furthermore, HER2-K175A revealed lower level of autophosphorylation than wild-type HER2. We also identified that knockdown of SMYD3 attenuated this autophosphorylation in breast cancer cells. Our results imply that SMYD3-mediated methylation of HER2 at Lysine 175 may regulate the formation of HER2 homodimer and subsequent autophosphorylation and suggest that the SMYD3-mediated methylation pathway seems to be a good target for development of novel anti-cancer therapy.
Molecular mechanisms by which long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) molecules may influence cancerous condition are poorly understood. The aberrant expression of
BACKGROUND We investigated the relationship of the polymorphisms of SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) with risk and prognosis of ovarian cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification method was applied to detect the polymorphisms of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the SMYD3 gene promoter region for 156 patients with ovarian cancer (case group) and 174 healthy people (control group). Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were applied to detect SMYD3 mRNA and protein expressions. RESULTS The frequencies of VNTR genotype 3/3 and allele genotype 3 in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while the frequency of genotype 2/2 in the control group was significantly higher than that in case group (all P<0.05). The proportion of poorly differentiated patients carrying VNTR genotype 3/3 was significantly higher than the proportion of poorly differentiated patients carrying VNTR genotype 2/2+2/3, while the proportion of patients carrying genotype 3/3 with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III-IV disease was significantly higher than the proportion of patients carrying genotype 2/2 +2/3 with FIGO stage III-IV disease (all P<0.05). SMYD3 mRNA and protein expressions were higher in the patients carrying genotype 3/3 than they were in the patients with the 2/2+2/3 genotype (all P<0.05). The 5-year survival rate for patients carrying VNTR genotype 3/3 was significantly lower than that of patients carrying genotype 2/2+2/3, and Cox regression analysis showed that VNTR genotype 3/3 was an independent risk factor for ovarian cancer prognosis (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS VNTR genotype 3/3 of the SMYD3 gene was associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. The polymorphism of VNTR genotype could be recognized as an indicator for the poor prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer.
Rajajeyabalachandran G, Kumar S, Murugesan T, et al.Therapeutical potential of deregulated lysine methyltransferase SMYD3 as a safe target for novel anticancer agents.
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2017; 21(2):145-157 [PubMed
] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: SET and MYND domain containing-3 (SMYD3) is a member of the lysine methyltransferase family of proteins, and plays an important role in the methylation of various histone and non-histone targets. Proper functioning of SMYD3 is very important for the target molecules to determine their different roles in chromatin remodeling, signal transduction and cell cycle control. Due to the abnormal expression of SMYD3 in tumors, it is projected as a prognostic marker in various solid cancers. Areas covered: Here we elaborate on the general information, structure and the pathological role of SMYD3 protein. We summarize the role of SMYD3-mediated protein interactions in oncology pathways, mutational effects and regulation of SMYD3 in specific types of cancer. The efficacy and mechanisms of action of currently available SMYD3 small molecule inhibitors are also addressed. Expert opinion: The findings analyzed herein demonstrate that aberrant levels of SMYD3 protein exert tumorigenic effects by altering the epigenetic regulation of target genes. The partial involvement of SMYD3 in some distinct pathways provides a vital opportunity in targeting cancer effectively with fewer side effects. Further, identification and co-targeting of synergistic oncogenic pathways is suggested, which could provide much more beneficial effects for the treatment of solid cancers.
AKT1 is a cytosolic serine/threonine kinase that is overexpressed in various types of cancer and has a central role in human tumorigenesis. Although it is known that AKT1 is post-translationally modified in various ways including phosphorylation and ubiquitination, methylation has not been reported so far. Here we demonstrate that the protein lysine methyltrasnferase SMYD3 methylates lysine 14 in the PH domain of AKT1 both in vitro and in vivo. Lysine 14-substituted AKT1 shows significantly lower levels of phosphorylation at threonine 308 than wild-type AKT1, and knockdown of SMYD3 as well as treatment with a SMYD3 inhibitor significantly attenuates this phosphorylation in cancer cells. Furthermore, substitution of lysine 14 diminishes the plasma membrane accumulation of AKT1, and cancer cells overexpressing lysine 14-substiuted AKT1 shows lower growth rate than those overexpressing wild-type AKT1. These results imply that SMYD3-mediated methylation of AKT1 at lysine 14 is essential for AKT1 activation and that SMYD3-mediated AKT1 methylation appears to be a good target for development of anti-cancer therapy.
Yamaoka T, Ohmori T, Ohba M, et al.Acquired Resistance Mechanisms to Combination Met-TKI/EGFR-TKI Exposure in Met-Amplified EGFR-TKI-Resistant Lung Adenocarcinoma Harboring an Activating EGFR Mutation.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(12):3040-3054 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Met-amplified EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring an activating EGFR mutation is responsive to concurrent EGFR-TKI and Met-TKI treatment in a preclinical model. Here, we determined that Met-amplified gefitinib-resistant cells acquire dual resistance to inhibition of EGFR and Met tyrosine kinase activities. PC-9 lung adenocarcinoma cells harboring 15-bp deletions (Del E746_A750) in EGFR exon 19 were treated with increasing concentrations of the Met-TKI PHA665752 and 1 μmol/L gefitinib for 1 year; three resistant clones were established via Met amplification. The three dual-resistance cell lines (PC-9DR2, PC-9DR4, and PC-9DR6, designated as DR2, DR4, and DR6, respectively) exhibited different mechanisms for evading both EGFR and Met inhibition. None of the clones harbored a secondary mutation of EGFR T790M or a Met mutation. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/IGF1 receptor activation in DR2 and DR4 cells acted as a bypass signaling pathway. Met expression was attenuated to a greater extent in DR2 than in PC-9 cells, but was maintained in DR4 cells by overexpression of IGF-binding protein 3. In DR6 cells, Met was further amplified by association with HSP90, which protected Met from degradation and induced SET and MYND domain-containing 3 (SMYD3)-mediated Met transcription. This is the first report describing the acquisition of dual resistance mechanisms in NSCLC harboring an activating EGFR mutation to Met-TKI and EGFR-TKI following previous EGFR-TKI treatment. These results might inform the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for NSCLC treatment. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 3040-54. ©2016 AACR.
Giakountis A, Moulos P, Sarris ME, et al.Smyd3-associated regulatory pathways in cancer.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2017; 42:70-80 [PubMed
] Related Publications
SMYD3 is a member of the SET and MYND-domain family of methyl-transferases, the increased expression of which correlates with poor prognosis in various types of cancer. In liver and colon tumors, SMYD3 is localized in the nucleus, where it interacts with RNA Pol II and H3K4me3 and functions as a selective transcriptional amplifier of oncogenes and genes that control cell proliferation and metastatic spread. Smyd3 expression has a high discriminative power for the characterization of liver tumors and positively correlates with poor prognosis. In lung and pancreatic cancer, SMYD3 acts in the cytoplasm, potentiating oncogenic Ras/ERK signaling through the methylation of the MAP3K2 kinase and the subsequent release from its inhibitor. A clinico-pathological analysis of lung cancer patients uncovers prognostic significance of SMYD3 only for first progression survival. However, stratification of patients according to their smoking history significantly expands the prognostic value of SMYD3 to overall survival and other features, suggesting that smoking-related effects saturate the clinical analysis and mask the function of SMYD3 as an oncogenic potentiator.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Until now the specific role of histone methyltransferases (HMTs) deregulated expression/activity in PCa is poorly understood. Herein we aimed to uncover the potential oncogenic role of PRMT6 in prostate carcinogenesis. PRMT6 overexpression was confirmed in PCa, at transcript and protein level. Stable PRMT6 knockdown in PC-3 cells attenuated malignant phenotype, increasing apoptosis and decreasing cell viability, migration and invasion. PRMT6 silencing was associated with decreased H3R2me2a levels and increased MLL and SMYD3 expression. PRMT6 silencing increased p21, p27 and CD44 and decreased MMP-9 expression and was associated with PI3K/AKT/mTOR downregulation and increased AR signaling pathway. In Sh-PRMT6 cells, AR restored expression might re-sensitized cells to androgen deprivation therapy, impacting in clinical management of castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). PRMT6 plays an oncogenic role in PCa and predicts for more clinically aggressive disease, constituting a potential target for patients with CRPC.
Elsemman IE, Mardinoglu A, Shoaie S, et al.Systems biology analysis of hepatitis C virus infection reveals the role of copy number increases in regions of chromosome 1q in hepatocellular carcinoma metabolism.
Mol Biosyst. 2016; 12(5):1496-506 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide healthcare problem; however, traditional treatment methods have failed to cure all patients, and HCV has developed resistance to new drugs. Systems biology-based analyses could play an important role in the holistic analysis of the impact of HCV on hepatocellular metabolism. Here, we integrated HCV assembly reactions with a genome-scale hepatocyte metabolic model to identify metabolic targets for HCV assembly and metabolic alterations that occur between different HCV progression states (cirrhosis, dysplastic nodule, and early and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)) and healthy liver tissue. We found that diacylglycerolipids were essential for HCV assembly. In addition, the metabolism of keratan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate was significantly changed in the cirrhosis stage, whereas the metabolism of acyl-carnitine was significantly changed in the dysplastic nodule and early HCC stages. Our results explained the role of the upregulated expression of BCAT1, PLOD3 and six other methyltransferase genes involved in carnitine biosynthesis and S-adenosylmethionine metabolism in the early and advanced HCC stages. Moreover, GNPAT and BCAP31 expression was upregulated in the early and advanced HCC stages and could lead to increased acyl-CoA consumption. By integrating our results with copy number variation analyses, we observed that GNPAT, PPOX and five of the methyltransferase genes (ASH1L, METTL13, SMYD2, TARBP1 and SMYD3), which are all located on chromosome 1q, had increased copy numbers in the cancer samples relative to the normal samples. Finally, we confirmed our predictions with the results of metabolomics studies and proposed that inhibiting the identified targets has the potential to provide an effective treatment strategy for HCV-associated liver disorders.
Zhu Y, Zhu MX, Zhang XD, et al.SMYD3 stimulates EZR and LOXL2 transcription to enhance proliferation, migration, and invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Hum Pathol. 2016; 52:153-63 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, are involved in the regulation of cancer initiation and progression. SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3), a methyltransferase, plays an important role in transcriptional regulation during human cancer progression. However, SMYD3 expression and its function in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain unknown. In this study, SMYD3 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in a tumor tissue microarray from 131 cases of ESCC patients. Statistical analysis showed that overall survival of patients with high SMYD3 expressing in primary tumors was significantly lower than that of patients with low SMYD3-expressing tumors (P = .008, log-rank test). Increased expression of SMYD3 was found to be associated with lymph node metastasis in ESCC (P = .036) and was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (P = .025). RNAi-mediated knockdown of SMYD3 suppressed ESCC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and inhibited local tumor invasion in vivo. SMYD3 regulated transcription of EZR and LOXL2 by directly binding to the sequences of the promoter regions of these target genes, as demonstrated by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Immunohistochemical staining of ESCC tissues also confirmed that protein levels of EZR and LOXL2 positively correlated with SMYD3 expression, and the Spearman correlation coefficients (rs) were 0.78 (n = 81; P < .01) and 0.637 (n = 103; P < .01), respectively. These results indicate that SMYD3 enhances tumorigenicity in ESCC through enhancing transcription of genes involved in proliferation, migration, and invasion.
Calderwood SK, Neckers LHsp90 in Cancer: Transcriptional Roles in the Nucleus.
Adv Cancer Res. 2016; 129:89-106 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Hsp90 plays a key role in fostering metabolic pathways essential in tumorigenesis through its functions as a molecular chaperone. Multiple oncogenic factors in the membrane and cytoplasm are thus protected from degradation and destruction. Here, we have considered Hsp90's role in transcription in the nucleus. Hsp90 functions both in regulating the activity of sequence-specific transcription factors such as nuclear receptors and HSF1, as well as impacting more globally acting factors that act on chromatin and RNA polymerase II. Hsp90 influences transcription by modulating histone modification mediated by its clients SMYD3 and trithorax/MLL, as well as by regulating the processivity of RNA polymerase II through negative elongation factor. It is not currently clear how the transcriptional role of Hsp90 may be influenced by the cancer milieu although recently discovered posttranslational modification of the chaperone may be involved. Dysregulation of Hsp90 may thus influence malignant processes both by modulating the function of specific transcription factors and effects on more globally acting general components of the transcriptional machinery.
Vartholomaiou E, Echeverría PC, Picard DUnusual Suspects in the Twilight Zone Between the Hsp90 Interactome and Carcinogenesis.
Adv Cancer Res. 2016; 129:1-30 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The molecular chaperone Hsp90 has attracted a lot of interest in cancer research ever since cancer cells were found to be more sensitive to Hsp90 inhibition than normal cells. Why that is has remained a matter of debate and is still unclear. In addition to increased Hsp90 dependence for some mutant cancer proteins and modifications of the Hsp90 machinery itself, a number of other characteristics of cancer cells probably contribute to this phenomenon; these include aneuploidy and overall increased numbers and levels of defective and mutant proteins, which all contribute to perturbed proteostasis. Work over the last two decades has demonstrated that many cancer-related proteins are Hsp90 clients, and yet only few of them have been extensively investigated, selected either on the basis of their obvious function as cancer drivers or because they proved to be convenient biomarkers for monitoring the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors. The purpose of our review is to go beyond these "usual suspects." We established a workflow to select poorly studied proteins that are related to cancer processes and qualify as Hsp90 clients. By discussing and taking a fresh look at these "unusual suspects," we hope to stimulate others to revisit them as novel therapeutic targets or diagnostic markers.
Oliveira-Santos W, Rabello DA, Lucena-Araujo AR, et al.Residual expression of SMYD2 and SMYD3 is associated with the acquisition of complex karyotype in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9473-81 [PubMed
] Related Publications
SET and MYND domain containing 2 (SMYD2) and the SET and MYND domain containing 3 (SMYD3) are the most studied and well-characterized members of SMYD family. It has been demonstrated that their altered expression is associated with the progression of several solid tumors. Nevertheless, whether these methyltransferases exert any impact in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains unknown. Here, we investigated the gene expression profile of SMYD2 and SMYD3 in 59 samples of CLL and 10 normal B cells. The obtained results were associated with white blood cells (WBC) and platelet counts, ZAP-70 protein expression, and cytogenetic analysis. We found that SMYD2 and SMYD3 are overexpressed in CLL patients and, interestingly, patients with residual expression of both genes presented a high WBC count and complex karyotype. Furthermore, a strong correlation between SMYD2 and SMYD3 gene expression was unveiled. Our data demonstrate the association of a residual expression of SMYD2 and SMYD3 with CLL progression indicators and suggests both genes are regulated by a common transcriptional control in this type of cancer. These results may provide the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies to prevent CLL progression.
The presence of Src in the nuclear compartment has been previously reported, although its significance has remained largely unknown. We sought to delineate the functions of the nuclear pool of Src within the context of malignant progression. Active Src is localized within the nuclei of human pancreatic cancer cells and mouse fibroblasts over-expressing c-Src where it is associated with p300. Nuclear Src additionally promotes the tyrosine phosphorylation of p300 in pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells. Src, together with p300, is associated with the high-mobility group AT-hook (HMGA)2 and SET and MYND domain-containing protein (SMYD)3 gene promoters and regulates their expression in a Src-dependent manner. These nuclear Src-dependent events correlate with anchorage-independent soft-agar growth and the migratory properties in both pancreatic Panc-1 cells and mouse fibroblasts over-expressing Src. Moreover, analyses of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tumor tissues detected the association of nuclear Src with the HMGA2 and SMYD3 gene promoters. Our findings for the first time show the critical importance of nuclear Src and p300 function in the migratory properties of pancreatic cancer cells. Further, data together identify a previously unknown role of nuclear Src in the regulation of gene expression in association with p300 within the context of cells harboring activated or over-expressing Src. This novel mechanism of nuclear Src-p300 axis in PDAC invasiveness and metastasis may provide an opportunity for developing more effective early clinical interventions for this lethal disease.Active Src is complexed with and phosphorylates p300 in the nucleus, and the complex is bound to HMGA2 and SMYD3 genes, thereby regulating their expression to promote pancreatic tumor cell migration and invasiveness.
Shen B, Tan M, Mu X, et al.Upregulated SMYD3 promotes bladder cancer progression by targeting BCLAF1 and activating autophagy.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):7371-81 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The recent discovery of a large number of histone methyltransferases reveals important roles of these enzymes in regulating tumor development and progression. SMYD3, a histone methyltransferase, is associated with poor prognosis of patients with prostate and gastric cancer. In the study, we attempted to investigate its putative oncogenic role on bladder cancer. Here, we report that SMYD3 frequently amplified in bladder cancer is correlated with bladder cancer progression and poor prognosis. Overexpression of SMYD3 promotes bladder cancer cell proliferation and invasion, whereas SMYD3 knockdown inhibits cancer cell growth and invasion. Mechanically, SMYD3 positively regulates the expression of BCL2-associated transcription factor 1 (BCLAF1). SMYD3 physically interacts with the promoter of BCLAF1 and upregulates its expression by accumulating di- and trimethylation of H3K4 at the BCLAF1 locus. We further show that SMYD3 overexpression in bladder cancer cells promotes autophagy activation, whereas BCLAF1 depletion inhibits SMYD3-induced autophagy. Finally, we demonstrate that SMYD3 promotes bladder cancer progression, at least in part by increasing BCLAF1 expression and activating autophagy. Our results establish a function for SMYD3 in autophagy activation and bladder cancer progression and suggest its candidacy as a new prognostic biomarker and target for clinical management of bladder cancer.
SET and MYND domain containing protein 3 (SMYD3) is a histone methyltransferase, which has been implicated in cell growth and cancer pathogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that SMYD3 can influence distinct oncogenic processes by acting as a gene-specific transcriptional regulator. However, the mechanistic aspects of SMYD3 transactivation and whether SMYD3 acts in concert with other transcription modulators remain unclear. Here, we show that SMYD3 interacts with the human positive coactivator 4 (PC4) and that such interaction potentiates a group of genes whose expression is linked to cell proliferation and invasion. SMYD3 cooperates functionally with PC4, because PC4 depletion results in the loss of SMYD3-mediated H3K4me3 and target gene expression. Individual depletion of SMYD3 and PC4 diminishes the recruitment of both SMYD3 and PC4, indicating that SMYD3 and PC4 localize at target genes in a mutually dependent manner. Artificial tethering of a SMYD3 mutant incapable of binding to its cognate elements and interacting with PC4 to target genes is sufficient for achieving an active transcriptional state in SMYD3-deficient cells. These observations suggest that PC4 contributes to SMYD3-mediated transactivation primarily by stabilizing SMYD3 occupancy at target genes. Together, these studies define expanded roles for SMYD3 and PC4 in gene regulation and provide an unprecedented documentation of their cooperative functions in stimulating oncogenic transcription.
Dai B, Wan W, Zhang P, et al.SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 is overexpressed in human glioma and contributes to tumorigenicity.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(5):2722-30 [PubMed
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SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) is a histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) di- and tri-methyltransferase that forms a transcriptional complex with RNA polymerase II and plays an important role in early embryonic lineage commitment through the activation of lineage-specific genes. SMYD3 activates the transcription of oncogenes and cell cycle genes in gastric and breast cancer cells. However, the contribution of SMYD3 in glioma tumorigenesis remains unknown. Here, we determined the expression of SMYD3 and assessed its clinical significance in human glioma. We found that SMYD3 was overexpressed in human glioma but not in normal brain tissue. The level of SMYD3 protein expression in human glioma tissues was directly correlated with the glioma grade. The level of SMYD3 protein expression in human glioma tissues was inversely correlated with patient survival. Enforced SMYD3 expression promoted glioma LN-18 cell proliferation. Inhibition of SMYD3 expression in glioma T98G cells suppressed their anchorage‑independent growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Furthermore, we found that SMYD3 regulated the expression of p53 protein, which is essential in SMYD3‑induced cell growth in glioma cells. These results showed that SMYD3 is overexpressed in human glioma and contributes to glioma tumorigenicity through p53. Therefore, SMYD3 may be a new potential therapeutic target for human malignant glioma.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most incident cancers worldwide but clinical and pathological parameters have limited ability to discriminate between clinically significant and indolent PCa. Altered expression of histone methyltransferases and histone methylation patterns are involved in prostate carcinogenesis. SMYD3 transcript levels have prognostic value and discriminate among PCa with different clinical aggressiveness, so we decided to investigate its putative oncogenic role on PCa.We silenced SMYD3 and assess its impact through in vitro (cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, invasion assays) and in vivo (tumor formation, angiogenesis). We evaluated SET domain's impact in PCa cells' phenotype. Histone marks deposition on SMYD3 putative target genes was assessed by ChIP analysis.Knockdown of SMYD3 attenuated malignant phenotype of LNCaP and PC3 cell lines. Deletions affecting the SET domain showed phenotypic impact similar to SMYD3 silencing, suggesting that tumorigenic effect is mediated through its histone methyltransferase activity. Moreover, CCND2 was identified as a putative target gene for SMYD3 transcriptional regulation, through trimethylation of H4K20.Our results support a proto-oncogenic role for SMYD3 in prostate carcinogenesis, mainly due to its methyltransferase enzymatic activity. Thus, SMYD3 overexpression is a potential biomarker for clinically aggressive disease and an attractive therapeutic target in PCa.
SMYD3 is a histone lysine methyltransferase that plays an important role in transcriptional activation as a member of an RNA polymerase complex, and its oncogenic role has been described in different cancer types. We studied the expression and activity of SMYD3 in a preclinical model of colorectal cancer (CRC) and found that it is strongly upregulated throughout tumorigenesis both at the mRNA and protein level. Our results also showed that RNAi-mediated SMYD3 ablation impairs CRC cell proliferation indicating that SMYD3 is required for proper cancer cell growth. These data, together with the importance of lysine methyltransferases as a target for drug discovery, prompted us to carry out a virtual screening to identify new SMYD3 inhibitors by testing several candidate small molecules. Here we report that one of these compounds (BCI-121) induces a significant reduction in SMYD3 activity both in vitro and in CRC cells, as suggested by the analysis of global H3K4me2/3 and H4K5me levels. Of note, the extent of cell growth inhibition by BCI-121 was similar to that observed upon SMYD3 genetic ablation. Most of the results described above were obtained in CRC; however, when we extended our observations to tumor cell lines of different origin, we found that SMYD3 inhibitors are also effective in other cancer types, such as lung, pancreatic, prostate, and ovarian. These results represent the proof of principle that SMYD3 is a druggable target and suggest that new compounds capable of inhibiting its activity may prove useful as novel therapeutic agents in cancer treatment.
Liu Y, Liu H, Luo X, et al.Overexpression of SMYD3 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 are associated with poor prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(6):4377-86 [PubMed
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SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) plays a key role in the progression of human cancer. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is being related to tumor progression. It has been reported that SMYD3 and MMP-9 are overexpressed in human cancers. However, the exact roles of SMYD3 and MMP-9 in the metastasis and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) remain unclear. The expressions of SMYD3 and MMP-9 were detected by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in gastric cancer and adjacent nontumor tissues. In addition, SMYD3 and MMP-9 expressions were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed samples from 186 gastric cancer patients. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of SMYD3 and MMP-9 in gastric cancer tissues were both significantly higher than those in adjacent nontumor tissues. In addition, the expression of SMYD3 was correlated with size of primary tumor and lymph node metastasis, while size of primary tumor and serosal invasion were identified as the independently relative factors of MMP-9 expression in GC tissues. SMYD3 expression and MMP-9 expression in GC tissues were significantly and positively correlated. Multivariate analysis results demonstrated that degree of differentiation, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, SMYD3 expression, and MMP-9 expression were the independent prognostic indicators of gastric cancer. SMYD3 and MMP-9 may play important roles in tumor invasion, metastasis, and prognosis and could work as promising targets for prognostic prediction in gastric cancer.
Histone lysine methyltransferases (HMTs), a large class of enzymes that catalyze site-specific methylation of lysine residues on histones and other proteins, play critical roles in controlling transcription, chromatin architecture, and cellular differentiation. However, the genomic landscape and clinical significance of HMTs in breast cancer remain poorly characterized. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of approximately 50 HMTs in breast cancer and identified associations among recurrent copy number alterations, mutations, gene expression, and clinical outcome. We identified 12 HMTs with the highest frequency of genetic alterations, including 8 with high-level amplification, 2 with putative homozygous deletion, and 2 with somatic mutation. Different subtypes of breast cancer have different patterns of copy number and expression for each HMT gene. In addition, chromosome 1q contains four HMTs that are concurrently or independently amplified or overexpressed in breast cancer. Copy number or mRNA expression of several HMTs was significantly associated with basal-like breast cancer and shorter patient survival. Integrative analysis identified 8 HMTs (SETDB1, SMYD3, ASH1L, SMYD2, WHSC1L1, SUV420H1, SETDB2, and KMT2C) that are dysregulated by genetic alterations, classifying them as candidate therapeutic targets. Together, our findings provide a strong foundation for further mechanistic research and therapeutic options using HMTs to treat breast cancer.
Liu Y, Luo X, Deng J, et al.SMYD3 overexpression was a risk factor in the biological behavior and prognosis of gastric carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2685-94 [PubMed
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SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3), a histone methyltransferase, plays a key function in the progression of human cancer. However, the role of SMYD3 in gastric carcinoma carcinogenesis has yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to determine the relationships of SMYD3 expression with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in gastric carcinoma. The expression of SMYD3 was detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR and Western blot in gastric carcinoma (GC) cell lines, normal gastric mucosa cell line, GC tissues, and adjacent non-tumor tissues. SMYD3 expression in tissue sections of 180 gastric carcinoma samples were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The staining results were compared with clinicopathological characteristics and to the outcome of patients. The expression levels of SMYD3 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in GC tissues were both higher than those in adjacent non-tumor tissues (p < 0.05). SMYD3 mRNA and protein expression levels were higher in GC cell lines MKN28, SGC7901, and MGC803 than normal gastric mucosa cell line GES-1. SMYD3 expression in gastric carcinoma was significantly correlated with primary tumor size (p < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001), and TNM stage (p = 0.011). Degree of differentiation [hazard ratio (HR) = 5.113; p = 0.006], serosal invasion (HR = 2.074; p = 0.024), lymph node metastasis (HR = 1.354; p < 0.001), and SMYD3 expression (HR = 0.564; p = 0.004) were identified as the independent factors of the overall survival (OS) in all enrolled GC patients. For patients with positive lymph node metastasis, degree of differentiation (HR = 5.974; p = 0.015), lymph node metastasis (HR = 1.257; p < 0.001), and SMYD3 expression (HR = 0.529; p = 0.004) were the independent prognostic factors of the OS. SMYD3 performed an important function in the aggressiveness of gastric carcinoma and may act as a promising target for prognostic prediction.