Research IndicatorsGraph generated 26 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (3)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: SMYD3 (cancer-related)
Sponziello M, Durante C, Boichard A, et al.Epigenetic-related gene expression profile in medullary thyroid cancer revealed the overexpression of the histone methyltransferases EZH2 and SMYD3 in aggressive tumours.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014; 392(1-2):8-13 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epigenetic control of gene expression plays a major influence in the development and progression of many cancer types. Aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of epigenetic regulators in a large cohort of medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC), correlating the data with the clinical outcome and mutational status of the patients. Taqman Low Density Arrays (TLDAs) were used to analyze expression levels of several genes involved in the epigenetic control of transcription in a series of 54 MTCs. The patients cohort included 13 familial MTCs and 41 sporadic forms; 33 hosted a RET mutation and 13 a RAS somatic mutation. The expression profiling revealed in the more aggressive diseases (i.e. occurrence of metastases; persistent disease; disease-related death) a significant increase of EZH2 and SMYD3 gene expression. The increased levels of EZH2 and SMYD3 did not correlate significantly with mutational status of RET or RAS genes. Thus, the histone methyltransferases EZH2 and SMYD3 mRNA expression may represent useful prognostic biomarkers tailoring the most appropriate follow-up and timing of therapeutic approaches.
Vieira FQ, Costa-Pinheiro P, Ramalho-Carvalho J, et al.Deregulated expression of selected histone methylases and demethylases in prostate carcinoma.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014; 21(1):51-61 [PubMed
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Prostate cancer (PCa), a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality, arises through the acquisition of genetic and epigenetic alterations. Deregulation of histone methyltransferases (HMTs) or demethylases (HDMs) has been associated with PCa development and progression. However, the precise influence of altered HMTs or HDMs expression and respective histone marks in PCa onset and progression remains largely unknown. To clarify the role of HMTs and HDMs in prostate carcinogenesis, expression levels of 37 HMTs and 20 HDMs were assessed in normal prostate and PCa tissue samples by RT-qPCR. SMYD3, SUV39H2, PRMT6, KDM5A, and KDM6A were upregulated, whereas KMT2A-E (MLL1-5) and KDM4B were downregulated in PCa, compared with normal prostate tissues. Remarkably, PRMT6 was the histone modifier that best discriminated normal from tumorous tissue samples. Interestingly, EZH2 and SMYD3 expression levels significantly correlated with less differentiated and more aggressive tumors. Remarkably, SMYD3 expression levels were of independent prognostic value for the prediction of disease-specific survival of PCa patients with clinically localized disease submitted to radical prostatectomy. We concluded that expression profiling of HMTs and HDMs, especially SMYD3, might be of clinical usefulness for the assessment of PCa patients and assist in pre-therapeutic decision-making.
Liu C, Wang C, Wang K, et al.SMYD3 as an oncogenic driver in prostate cancer by stimulation of androgen receptor transcription.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013; 105(22):1719-28 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Androgen receptor (AR) is critical for prostate tumorigenesis and is frequently overexpressed during prostate cancer (PC) progression. However, few studies have addressed the epigenetic regulation of AR expression.
METHODS: We analyzed SMYD3 expression in human PC with Western blot and immunohistochemistry. SMYD3 expression was knocked down using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA). Cell proliferation, colony formation, and apoptosis analyses and xenograft transplantation were performed to evaluate the impact of SMYD3 depletion on PC cells. AR expression and promoter activity were determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and luciferase reporter assay. AR promoter association with Sp1, SMYD3, and histone modifications was assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Differences in AR mRNA abundance and promoter activity were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, SMYD3 expression was analyzed using with Mann-Whitney U tests for unpaired samples, and tumor weight was analyzed with Student t test. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: The upregulation of SMYD3 protein expression was observed in seven of eight prostate tumor specimens, compared with matched normal tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a strong SMYD3 staining in the nuclei of PC tissues in eight of 25 (32%) cases and in the cytoplasm in 23 out of 25 (92%) cases, whereas benign prostate tissue exhibited weak immunostaining. Depletion of SMYD3 by siRNA or shRNA inhibited PC cell proliferation (72 hours relative to 24 hours: control shRNA vs SMYD3 shRNA 1: mean fold change = 2.76 vs 1.68; difference = 1.08; 95% confidence interval = 0.78 to 1.38, P < .001), colony formation, cell migration, invasion, and xenograft tumor formation. Two functional SMYD3-binding motifs were identified in the AR promoter region.
CONCLUSIONS: SMYD3 promotes prostate tumorigenesis and mediates epigenetic upregulation of AR expression.
Zeng B, Li Z, Chen R, et al.Epigenetic regulation of miR-124 by hepatitis C virus core protein promotes migration and invasion of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells by targeting SMYD3.
FEBS Lett. 2012; 586(19):3271-8 [PubMed
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Hepatitis C Virus core protein (HCVc) plays important roles in the development of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to tumor progression by interacting with downstream target genes. However, the regulation and role of miRNAs in HCV-related intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (HCV-ICC) is poorly understood. In this study, we found that miR-124 was down-regulated in HCV-ICC and the induction of DNMT1 by HCVc mediated the suppression of miR-124. Over-expression of miR-124 suppressed cell migration and invasion in vitro, and reduced the protein levels of SMYD3 and downstream target genes (c-Myc and MMP9). Knockdown of SMYD3 inhibited cell migration and invasion resembling that of miR-124 over-expression. In conclusion, our studies indicate that low miR-124 levels mediated by HCVc via DNMT1 promote ICC cell migration and invasion by targeting SMYD3.
He C, Xu J, Zhang J, et al.High expression of trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 is associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hum Pathol. 2012; 43(9):1425-35 [PubMed
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Tumor-associated epigenetic alterations including DNA methylation and histone modifications are important determinants in the initiation and progression of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) and represent promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Locus-specific trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me) is a well-known modification linked to the enhanced transcriptional expression of many genes activated in HCC. Our aim was to assess the cellular expression pattern of H3K4me3 in HCC and its association with clinicopathologic variables and outcome. Expression of H3K4me3 and the histone methyltransferase (HMT) SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) was studied by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in cell lines and tumor tissue microarray from a well-characterized series of HCC patients (n = 168). The optimal cut-point of H3K4me3 expression for prognosis was determined by the X-tile program. The prognostic significance was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank tests. Tumor tissue microarray from another independent HCC patients cohort (n = 147) was used for validation studies. Expression of H3K4me3 and SMYD3 were enhanced in HCC cell lines. In tumor specimens, enhanced expression of H3K4me3 was correlated with reduced overall survival (P < .0001), especially in early-stage HCC patients (TNM I/II). Furthermore, both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that H3K4me3 level was a significant and independent predictor of poor survival (hazard ratio, 3.592; 95% confidence interval, 2.302-5.605). In addition, H3K4m3 expression was positively correlated with SMYD3 expression in both testing and validation cohorts (P < .0001). In conclusion, H3K4me3 level defines unrecognized subsets of HCC patients with distinct epigenetic phenotype and clinical outcome and can thus be a novel predictor for poor prognosis of HCC patients, especially at TNM I/II stage.
Patani N, Jiang WG, Newbold RF, Mokbel KHistone-modifier gene expression profiles are associated with pathological and clinical outcomes in human breast cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2011; 31(12):4115-25 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is under normal circumstances tightly controlled by the specific methylation of cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotides and coordinated by adjustments in the histone-dependent configuration of chromatin. Following our original report, providing the first description of potential tumor suppressor function associated with the histone methyltransferase SET domain containing 2 (SETD2) in breast cancer, the objective of this study was to determine the expression profiles of 16 further histone-modifier genes in a well annotated cohort of patients with primary operable breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Breast cancer tissues (n=127) and normal tissues (n=33) underwent RNA extraction and reverse transcription, and histone-modifier gene transcript levels were determined using real-time quantitative PCR. The histone-modifier genes included: histone acetyltransferases (cAMP response element-binding protein-binding protein (CREBBP)); class I (histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2)), II (histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5)) and III (sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)) histone deacetylases; and histone methyltransferases (SET domain containing suppressor of variegation 3-9 homolog 1 (SUV39H1) and suppressor of variegation 3-9 homolog 2 (SUV39H2)) amongst others. Expression levels were analysed against tumor size, grade, nodal involvement, histological subtype, receptor status, TNM stage, Nottingham Prognostic Index, and disease-free and overall survival over a 10-year follow-up period.
RESULTS: Expression of histone-modifier genes in breast cancer differed significantly from those in normal tissue (HDAC5, HDAC1, lysine (K)-specific demethylase 4A (KDM4A) and lysine (K)-specific demethylase 6A (KDM6A)). Differences in expression profiles were also found to exist between individual breast tumors and, in some cases, were significantly associated with conventional pathological parameters and prognostic indices: tumor grade (K (lysine) acetyltransferase 5 (KAT5), HDAC1, KDM4A, SUV39H1 and KDM6A)); TNM stage (SUV39H1, K (lysine) acetyltransferase 2B (KAT2B), lysine (K)-specific demethylase 1A (KDM1A), KDM4A, lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5C (KDM5C), K (lysine) acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8), HDAC5 and KAT5)); Nottingham Prognostic Index (KDM5C, myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), KAT8 and SET and MYND domain containing 3 (SMYD3)); receptor status (KAT5, SMYD3 and KDM1A); histological type (KAT5, KDM5C, KAT8, KDM4A and MLL); disease-free survival (SUV39H1, SMYD3, HDAC5, KDM6A, HDAC1, KDM1A, KDM4A, KAT8, KDM5C, KAT5 and MLL) and overall survival (KAT8). Significant correlations were identified between the differential expression profiles of particular histone-modifying genes.
CONCLUSION: Expression levels of histone-modifier genes in breast cancer differ significantly from normal tissue. Differences in expression profiles exist between breast tumors and are significantly associated with conventional pathological parameters and clinical outcomes. Further study is warranted to determine the consequences of altered expression for each specific histone-modifier gene and the biological and clinical implications of combinatorial variations in expression profiles. Histone-modifier enzymes offer utility as biomarkers and potential for targeted therapeutic strategies.
Upregulation of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 plays a central role in tumor progression and metastasis by stimulating cell migration, tumor invasion, and angiogenesis. To gain insights into MMP-9 expression, we investigated its epigenetic control in a reversible model of cancer that is initiated by infection with intracellular Theileria parasites. Gene induction by parasite infection was associated with trimethylation of histone H3K4 (H3K4me3) at the MMP-9 promoter. Notably, we found that the H3K4 methyltransferase SMYD3 was the only histone methyltransferase upregulated upon infection. SMYD3 is overexpressed in many types of cancer cells, but its contributions to malignant pathophysiology are unclear. We found that overexpression of SMYD3 was sufficient to induce MMP-9 expression in transformed leukocytes and fibrosarcoma cells and that proinflammatory phorbol esters further enhanced this effect. Furthermore, SMYD3 was sufficient to increase cell migration associated with MMP-9 expression. In contrast, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of SMYD3 decreased H3K4me3 modification of the MMP-9 promoter, reduced MMP-9 expression, and reduced tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, SMYD3 knockdown also reduced cellular invasion in a zebrafish xenograft model of cancer. Together, our results define SMYD3 as an important new regulator of MMP-9 transcription, and they provide a molecular link between SMYD3 overexpression and metastatic cancer progression.
Watanabe T, Kobunai T, Yamamoto Y, et al.Differential gene expression signatures between colorectal cancers with and without KRAS mutations: crosstalk between the KRAS pathway and other signalling pathways.
Eur J Cancer. 2011; 47(13):1946-54 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: KRAS mutation is an important predictive marker in determining resistance to anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) antibody therapies. In order to clarify whether not only KRAS related signalling pathways but also other signalling pathways are altered in patients with colorectal cancers (CRCs) with KRAS mutations, we examined the differences in the gene expression signatures between CRCs with and without KRAS mutation.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: One-hundred and thirteen patients who underwent a surgical resection of a primary CRC were examined. KRAS mutational status was determined using the Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA)-clamp real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) TaqMan assay. Gene expression profiles were compared between CRCs with and without KRAS mutation using the Human Genome GeneChip array U133.
RESULTS: Among 113 CRCs, KRAS mutations were present in 35 tumours (31%). We identified 30 genes (probes) that were differentially expressed between CRCs with and without KRAS mutation (False Discovery Rate (FDR), p<0.01), by which we were able to predict the KRAS status with an accuracy of 90.3%. Thirty discriminating genes included TC21, paired-like homeodomain 1 (PITX1), Sprouty-2, dickkopf homologue 4 (DKK-4), SET and MYND domain containing 3 (SMYD3), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14 (MAP3K14) and c-mer Proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase (MerTK). These genes were related to not only KRAS related signalling pathway but also to other signalling pathways, such as the Wnt-signalling pathway, the NF-kappa B activation pathway and the TGF-beta signalling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: KRAS mutant CRCs exhibited a distinct gene expression signature different from wild-type KRAS CRCs. Using human CRC samples, we were able to show that there is crosstalk between the KRAS-mediated pathway and other signalling pathways. These results are necessary to be taken into account in establishing chemotherapeutic strategies for patients with anti-EGFR-refractory KRAS mutant CRCs.
Guo N, Chen R, Li Z, et al.Hepatitis C virus core upregulates the methylation status of the RASSF1A promoter through regulation of SMYD3 in hilar cholangiocarcinoma cells.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2011; 43(5):354-61 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Increasing evidence has been accumulated indicating the important role of epigenetic regulation in tumor genesis. Previously, we observed that the transfection of hepatitis C virus core (HCVc) protein led to malignant transformation in normal biliary cells, and that tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A was downregulated in many hilar cholangiocarcinoma patients by hypermethylation in the promoter region. In the present study, we found SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3), a novel histone methyltransferase, was overexpressed in cholangiocarcinoma patients especially in those with HCV infection. Transfection of HCVc into hilar cholangiocarcinoma cell lines QBC939 and FRH0201 could upregulate the expression of SMYD3 and promote cell growth, which was consistent with the results of our clinical research. This phenomenon indicated that SMYD3 was related to the epigenetic regulation of cholangiocarcinoma genesis with HCV infection. Overexpression of SMYD3 could inhibit RASSF1A expression, whereas inhibition of SMYD3 by siRNA improved its expression. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) results showed the methylation status of RASSF1A promoter was regulated by SMYD3. In conclusion, HCVc could upregulate the methylation status of the RASSF1A promoter through regulation of SMYD3, and histone methylation may affect the DNA methylation of downstream gene by an unknown mechanism.
Ren TN, Wang JS, He YM, et al.Effects of SMYD3 over-expression on cell cycle acceleration and cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.
Med Oncol. 2011; 28 Suppl 1:S91-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) is a histone methyltransferase that plays an important role in transcriptional regulation in human carcinogenesis. It can specifically methylate histone H3 at lysine 4 and activate the transcription of a set of downstream genes, including several oncogenes (e.g., N-myc, CrkL, Wnt10b, RIZ and hTERT) and genes involved in the control of cell cycle (e.g., CyclinG1 and CDK2) and signal transduction (e.g., STAT1, MAP3K11 and PIK3CB). To determine the effects of SMYD3 over-expression on cell proliferation, we transfected SMYD3 into MDA-MB-231 cells and found that these cells showed several transformed phenotypes as demonstrated by colony growth in soft agar. Besides, we show here that down-regulation of SMYD3 could induce G1-phase cell cycle arrest, indicating the potent induction of apoptosis by SMYD3 knockdown. These results suggest the regulatory mechanisms of SMYD3 on the acceleration of cell cycle and facilitate the development of strategies that may inhibit the progression of cell cycle in breast cancer cells.
Gaedcke J, Grade M, Jung K, et al.Mutated KRAS results in overexpression of DUSP4, a MAP-kinase phosphatase, and SMYD3, a histone methyltransferase, in rectal carcinomas.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2010; 49(11):1024-34 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations of the KRAS oncogene are predictive for resistance to treatment with antibodies against the epithelial growth factor receptor in patients with colorectal cancer. Overcoming this therapeutic dilemma could potentially be achieved by the introduction of drugs that inhibit signaling pathways that are activated by KRAS mutations. To identify comprehensively such signaling pathways, we profiled pretreatment biopsies and normal mucosa from 65 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer-30 of which carried mutated KRAS-using global gene expression microarrays. By comparing all tumor tissues exclusively to matched normal mucosa, we could improve assay sensitivity, and identified a total of 22,297 features that were differentially expressed (adjusted P-value <0.05) between normal mucosa and cancer, including several novel potential rectal cancer genes. We then used this comprehensive description of the rectal cancer transcriptome as the baseline for identifying KRAS-dependent alterations. The presence of activating KRAS mutations is significantly correlated to an upregulation of 13 genes (adjusted P-value <0.05), among them DUSP4, a MAP-kinase phosphatase, and SMYD3, a histone methyltransferase. Inhibition of the expression of both genes has previously been shown using the MEK1-inhibitor PD98059 and the antibacterial compound Novobiocin, respectively. These findings suggest a potential approach to overcome resistance to treatment with antibodies against the epithelial growth factor receptor in patients with KRAS-mutant rectal carcinomas.
Zhao F, Chen Y, Zeng L, et al.Role of triptolide in cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and histone methylation in multiple myeloma U266 cells.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2010; 646(1-3):1-11 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma is an incurable hematological malignancy. Different studies demonstrated the occurrence of genetic and epigenetic alterations in multiple myeloma. Histone lysine methylation has emerged as a central epigenetic change in the organization of eukaryotic chromatin with far-reaching implications for the regulation of cell proliferation, cell-type differentiation, gene expression, genome stability, overall development, and genesis of cancer. Triptolide is the principal active ingredient in extracts from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.F (TwHF), and numerous studies have elucidated its antitumor property. Our experiments discovered that triptolide inhibited the proliferation of multiple myeloma cell line U266 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Triptolide could decrease the expression of histone H3K4, H3K27 and H3K36 trimethylation in parallel with histone methyltransferases SMYD3, EZH2 and NSD1 respectively, which possibly was the anti-myeloma mechanism of triptolide.
BACKGROUND: The human genome displays extensive copy-number variation (CNV). Recent discoveries have shown that large segments of DNA, ranging in size from hundreds to thousands of nucleotides, are either deleted or duplicated. This CNV may encompass genes, leading to a change in phenotype, including drug response phenotypes. Gemcitabine and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (AraC) are cytidine analogues used to treat a variety of cancers. Previous studies have shown that genetic variation may influence response to these drugs. In the present study, we set out to test the hypothesis that variation in copy number might contribute to variation in cytidine analogue response phenotypes.
RESULTS: We used a cell-based model system consisting of 197 ethnically-defined lymphoblastoid cell lines for which genome-wide SNP data were obtained using Illumina 550 and 650 K SNP arrays to study cytidine analogue cytotoxicity. 775 CNVs with allele frequencies > 1% were identified in 102 regions across the genome. 87/102 of these loci overlapped with previously identified regions of CNV. Association of CNVs with gemcitabine and AraC IC50 values identified 11 regions with permutation p-values < 0.05. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assays were performed to verify the 11 CNV regions that were associated with this phenotype; with false positive and false negative rates for the in-silico findings of 1.3% and 0.04%, respectively. We also had basal mRNA expression array data for these same 197 cell lines, which allowed us to quantify mRNA expression for 41 probesets in or near the CNV regions identified. We found that 7 of those 41 genes were highly expressed in our lymphoblastoid cell lines, and one of the seven genes (SMYD3) that was significant in the CNV association study was selected for further functional experiments. Those studies showed that knockdown of SMYD3, in pancreatic cancer cell lines increased gemcitabine and AraC resistance during cytotoxicity assay, consistent with the results of the association analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that CNVs may play a role in variation in cytidine analogue effect. Therefore, association studies of CNVs with drug response phenotypes in cell-based model systems, when paired with functional characterization, might help to identify CNV that contributes to variation in drug response.
Luo XG, Zou JN, Wang SZ, et al.Novobiocin decreases SMYD3 expression and inhibits the migration of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.
IUBMB Life. 2010; 62(3):194-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) is a histone methyltransferase that plays an important role in transcriptional regulation in human carcinogenesis, and heat-shock protein HSP90A has been shown to increase the activity of SMYD3. We previously reported that overexpression of SMYD3 stimulated the migration of cells. In this study, we further found that novobiocin, a HSP90 inhibitor, could decrease the expression of SMYD3 and dose dependently inhibit the proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. As a control, the short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting SMYD3 gene also showed similar effects with novobicin. This study is the first to show that novobiocin can inhibit the migration of breast cancer cells and such event may involve the downregulation of SMYD3. These findings might throw light on the development of novel therapeutic approaches to human cancers, and lend further understanding to the potential role of SMYD3 in human carcinogenesis.
Furuta M, Kozaki KI, Tanaka S, et al.miR-124 and miR-203 are epigenetically silenced tumor-suppressive microRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis. 2010; 31(5):766-76 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that, in general, negatively regulate gene expression. They have been identified in various tumor types, showing that different sets of miRNAs are usually deregulated in different cancers. Some miRNA genes harboring CpG islands undergo methylation-mediated silencing, a characteristic of many tumor suppressor genes. To identify such miRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we first examined the methylation status of 43 loci containing CpG islands around 39 mature miRNA genes in a panel of HCC cell lines and non-cancerous liver tissues as controls. Among 11 miRNA genes frequently methylated in HCC cell lines but not in non-cancerous liver tissues, three miRNA genes, i.e. miR-124, miR-203 and miR-375, were selected as silenced miRNAs through CpG-island methylation by comparing methylation and expression status and evaluating restored expression after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. In primary tumors of HCC with paired non-tumorous liver tissues, only miR-124 and miR-203 showed frequent tumor-specific methylation, and their expression status was inversely correlated with methylation status. Ectopic expression of miR-124 or miR-203 in HCC cells lacking their expression inhibited cell growth, with direct downregulation of possible targets, cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), vimentin (VIM), SET and MYND domain containing 3 (SMYD3) and IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) or ATP-binding cassette, subfamily E, member 1 (ABCE1), respectively. Our results suggest that miR-124 and miR-203 are novel tumor-suppressive miRNAs for HCC epigenetically silenced and activating multiple targets during hepatocarcinogenesis.
SMYD3 is a SET domain-containing protein with histone methyltransferase activity on histone H3-K4. Recent studies showed that SMYD3 is frequently overexpressed in different types of cancer cells, but how SMYD3 regulates the development and progression of these malignancies remains unknown. Here, we report the previously unrecognized role of SMYD3 in estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated transcription via its histone methyltransferase activity. We demonstrate that SMYD3 functions as a coactivator of ERalpha and potentiates ERalpha activity in response to ligand. SMYD3 directly interacts with the ligand binding domain of ER and is recruited to the proximal promoter regions of ER target genes upon gene induction. Importantly, our chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses provide compelling evidence that SMYD3 is responsible for the accumulation of di- and trimethylation of H3-K4 at the induced ER target genes. Furthermore, RNA interference-directed down-regulation of SMYD3 reveals that SMYD3 is required for ER-regulated gene transcription in estrogen signaling pathway. Thus, our results identify SMYD3 as a new coactivator for ER-mediated transcription, providing a possible link between SMYD3 overexpression and breast cancer.
Luo XG, Xi T, Guo S, et al.Effects of SMYD3 overexpression on transformation, serum dependence, and apoptosis sensitivity in NIH3T3 cells.
IUBMB Life. 2009; 61(6):679-84 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) gene was found to encode a novel histone methyltransferase involved in human cancer cells. It could specifically methylate histone H3 at lysine 4 and activate the transcription of a set of downstream genes, including of several oncogenes (e.g., N-Myc, CrkL, Wnt10b, RIZ, and hTERT) and genes involved in the control of cell cycle (e.g., Cyclin G1 and CDK2) and signal transduction (e.g., STAT1, MAP3K11, and PIK3CB). To determine the effects of SMYD3 overexpression on cell transformation, serum dependence and apoptosis sensitivity, we expressed SMYD3 in NIH3T3 cells, and these cells showed several transformed phenotypes as demonstrated by foci formation and colony growth in soft agar. Besides, these transfectants also showed increased serum dependence and depression of sensitivity to apoptosis induced by dexamethasone. These findings lend further understanding to the role of SMYD3 in the genesis of human cancers and might throw light on the development of novel therapeutic approaches to human cancers.
Zou JN, Wang SZ, Yang JS, et al.Knockdown of SMYD3 by RNA interference down-regulates c-Met expression and inhibits cells migration and invasion induced by HGF.
Cancer Lett. 2009; 280(1):78-85 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We previously reported that over-expression of SMYD3, a histone H3-K4 specific di- and tri-methyltransferase, plays a key role in cell viability, adhesion, migration and invasion. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying these phenomena and found that knocking down SMYD3 expression in tumor cells significantly reduced the biological function of HGF and inhibited carcinoma cells migration and invasion. Due to the fact that the proto-oncogene c-Met encodes the high-affinity receptor for HGF, and the HGF-c-Met signaling plays a critical role in the tumor genesis, we further identified the partial correlation between SMYD3 and c-Met. The results showed that high expression of c-Met accompanied with over-expression of SMYD3. Silencing SMYD3 expression in tumor cells by specific shRNAs down-regulated c-Met gene transcription, while over-expressing SMYD3 induced c-Met transcription. Moreover, we demonstrated here that two SMYD3 binding sites within the c-Met core promoter region were significant in the transactivation of c-Met. The present findings provide significant insights into the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms of oncogene c-Met expression, and develop the strategies that may inhibit the progression of cancer migration and invasion.
Overexpression of JAB1 is observed in a variety of human cancers, but how JAB1 is involved in tumor development remained to be investigated. Here we analyzed mice with modified Jab1 expression. Mice ectopically expressing a more stable form of JAB1 protein under the control of a constitutive promoter were rescued from the embryonic lethality caused by the Jab1(-/-) allele and developed a myeloproliferative disorder in a gene dosage-dependent manner. Hematopoietic cells from the bone marrow of Jab1 transgenic mice had a significantly larger stem cell population and exhibited higher and transplantable proliferative potential. In contrast, Jab1(+/-) mice, which express approximately 70% as much JAB1 protein as their wild-type littermates, showed inefficient hematopoiesis. Expression of the tumor suppressor p16(INK4a) was inversely correlated with that of JAB1, and the oncoprotein SMYD3, a newly identified JAB1 interactor, suppressed transcription of p16 in cooperation with JAB1. Thus, the expression and function of JAB1 are critical for the proliferation and maintenance of hematopoietic progenitors.
Wang SZ, Luo XG, Shen J, et al.Knockdown of SMYD3 by RNA interference inhibits cervical carcinoma cell growth and invasion in vitro.
BMB Rep. 2008; 41(4):294-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Elevated expression of SMYD3 is a frequent genetic abnormality in several malignancies. Few studies knocking down SMYD3 expression in cervical carcinoma cells have been performed to date. In this paper, we established an inducible short hairpin RNA expression system to examine its role in maintaining the malignant phenotype of HeLa cells. After being induced by doxycycline, SMYD3 mRNA and protein expression were both reduced, and significant reductions in cell proliferation, colony formation and migration/invasion activity were observed in the SMYD3-silenced HeLa cells. The percentage of cells in sub-G1 was elevated and DNA ladder formation could be detected, indicating potent induction of apoptosis by SMYD3 knockdown. These findings imply that SMYD3 plays crucial roles in HeLa cell proliferation and migration/invasion, and that it may be a useful therapeutic target in human cervical carcinomas.
Wang H, Liu Y, Tan W, et al.Association of the variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in the promoter region of the SMYD3 gene with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in relation to tobacco smoking.
Cancer Sci. 2008; 99(4):787-91 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The etiology of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has been shown to be multifactorial, including genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors, such as tobacco smoking. A variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in the promoter region of SMYD3, a recently characterized histone lysine methyltransferase gene that is implicated in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis, has been shown to be functional, but its association with cancer risk has not been well established because of apparently discrepant results in different populations. In this case-control study, we genotyped 567 patients with newly diagnosed ESCC and 567 healthy controls and found an increased ESCC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.91) associated with the common SMYD3 VNTR genotype. Stratification analysis revealed that the increased risk was limited to smokers (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.27-3.12). Furthermore, compared with the reference group of non-smokers carrying the homozygous or heterozygous genotype, ORs (95% CI) of the wild genotype for non-smokers, smokers who smoked <25, and >or=25 pack-years were 1.03 (0.70-1.53), 2.80 (1.66-4.70), and 4.76 (2.67-8.46), respectively (P < 0.001 for trend test), suggesting an interaction between this genetic polymorphism and smoking status. These findings provide additional evidence that the common VNTR polymorphism in the promoter region of SMYD3 gene may be a susceptibility factor for human cancers such as ESCC by interacting with tobacco carcinogens.
Xi Y, Formentini A, Nakajima G, et al.Validation of biomarkers associated with 5-fluorouracil and thymidylate synthase in colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2008; 19(1):257-62 [PubMed
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Previous studies from our laboratory have identified a number of genes associated with chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using an in vitro colon cancer cell line model. In this study, the in vivo significance of several marker genes in terms of prognostic potential was evaluated using colorectal cancer patient samples. Eight marker genes were selected based on their functional roles and significant fold changes in expression. They are SERTA domain containing 1 (SEI1), ribonucleotide reductase M2 polypeptide (RRM2), origin recognition complex, subunit 6 homolog-like (ORC6L), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (EIF4E), thymidylate synthase (TS), SET and MYND domain containing 3 (SMYD3), Dickkopf homolog 4, and methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4 (MBD4). Forty-eight snap frozen clinical colorectal samples (24 normal and 24 paired colorectal cancer patient samples) were selected with detailed clinical follow-up information. cDNAs were synthesized and the expression levels of marker genes were quantified via qRT-PCR analysis. The statistical significance of these markers for disease prognosis was evaluated using the two-tailed paired Wilcoxon test. Survival curves were plotted according to the method of Kaplan-Meier and compared using the log-rank test. Based on the quantitative expression analysis, RRM2 (p=0.0001; 95% CI, 2.0-4.5), ORC6L (p=0.0001; 95% CI, 1.8-4.6), EIF4E (p=0.0002; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9), TS (p=0.0005; 95% CI, 0.7-2.2) and SMYD3 (p=0.0001; 95% CI, 0.8-1.5) were overexpressed in tumor tissues. However, the expression of SEI1 was decreased in tumors (p=0.02; 95% CI, 0.1-1.3), consistent with the function of SEI1 as a potential tumor suppressor. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that MBD4 is a significant prognostic factor for patient survival (p=0.03). MBD4 was a key protein involved in DNA methylation. The expression of TS was associated with tumor stage as it had a significantly higher expression level in UICC stage I and II compared to stage IV patients (p=0.03). MBD4 may be a potential novel prognostic marker for predicting patient survival for colorectal cancer.
AIM: To investigate the role of SMYD3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression and to verify whether its regulation activity was through RIZ1 inactivation.
METHODS: Expression of SMYD3 in HCC cell lines and tissues were measured; silencing of SMYD3 by RNA interference (RNAi) was effectuated, hepatoma cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis were tested, with RIZ1 CpG promoter methylation, and corresponding mRNA expression were investigated.
RESULTS: SMYD3 over-expression in HCC was associated with RIZ1 hypermethylation and mRNA down-expression. Suppression of SMYD3 expression de-methylated RIZ1 CpG promoter (P < 0.01) and increased RIZ1 mRNA expression (P < 0.01). Consequently, SMYD3 down-expression with RIZ1 de-methylation strongly inhibited hepatoma cell growth (MTT inhibitory rates: Pgenesil-1-s1 60.95% +/- 7.97%, Pgenesil-1-s2 72.14% +/- 9.68% vs Pgenesil-1-hk 6.89% +/- 4.12%, P < 0.01) and migration (Pgenesil-1-s1 4.24% +/- 1.58%, Pgenesil-1-s1 4.87% +/- 0.73% vs Pgenesil-1 19.03% +/- 4.63%, Pgenesil-1-hk 19.95% +/- 5.21%, P < 0.01) and induced apoptosis (FCM subG1 phase Pgenesil-1-s1 19.07% +/- 1.78%, Pgenesil-1-s2 17.68% +/- 2.36% vs Pgenesil-1 0.47% +/- 0.12%, Pgenesil-1-hk 1.46% +/- 0.28%, P < 0.01. TUNEL-positive cells: Pgenesil-1-s1 40.24% +/- 5.18%, Pgenesil-1-s2 38.48% +/- 4.65% vs Pgenesil-1 2.18% +/- 1.34%, Pgenesil-1-hk 2.84% +/- 1.22%, P < 0.01) in HepG2 cells.
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that SMYD3 plays a critical role in the carcinogenesis and progression of HCC. The proliferation, migration induction and apoptosis inhibition activities of SMYD3 may be mediated through RIZ1 CpG promoter hypermethylation.
Wang XQ, Miao X, Cai Q, et al.SMYD3 tandem repeats polymorphism is not associated with the occurrence and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese population.
Exp Oncol. 2007; 29(1):71-3 [PubMed
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UNLABELLED: A variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in regulatory region of SMYD3 coding for histone methyltransferase has been shown to be associated with colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and breast cancer in Japanese population. Aim of the study is to investigate the potential association between the functional SMYD3 tandem repeats polymorphism and HCC in Chinese population.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The case-control study included 200 HCC patients and 261 healthy controls. The VNTR polymorphism in the promoter of SMDY3 was genotyped by PCR and direct-sequencing analysis. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were used to estimate the association between the polymorphisms and risk of HCC.
RESULTS: The allele frequencies for SMYD3 2 and 3 repeats were 15.71% and 84.29% among controls; and 12.75%, and 87.25% among cases (P = 0.22). The odds ratio for 3/3 versus 2/2 and 2/3 genotypes was 1.30 (P = 0.18). The frequencies of 3 alleles were not increased with HCC stage increased (trend test, P = 0.45).
CONCLUSION: SMYD3 polymorphism is not associated with the occurrence and metastasis of HCC in Chinese population.
Liu C, Fang X, Ge Z, et al.The telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene is a direct target of the histone methyltransferase SMYD3.
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(6):2626-31 [PubMed
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Recent evidence has accumulated that the dynamic histone methylation mediated by histone methyltransferases and demethylases plays key roles in regulation of chromatin structure and transcription. In the present study, we show that SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3), a histone methyltransferase implicated in oncogenesis, directly trans-activates the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene that is essential for cellular immortalization and transformation. SMYD3 occupies its binding motifs on the hTERT promoter and is required for maintenance of histone H3-K4 trimethylation, thereby contributing to inducible and constitutive hTERT expression in normal and malignant human cells. Knocking down SMYD3 in tumor cells abolished trimethylation of H3-K4, attenuated the occupancy by the trans-activators c-MYC and Sp1, and led to diminished histone H3 acetylation in the hTERT promoter region, which was coupled with down-regulation of hTERT mRNA and telomerase activity. These results suggest that SMYD3-mediated trimethylation of H3-K4 functions as a licensing element for subsequent transcription factor binding to the hTERT promoter. The present findings provide significant insights into regulatory mechanisms of hTERT/telomerase expression; moreover, identification of the hTERT gene as a direct target of SMYD3 contributes to a better understanding of SMYD3-mediated cellular transformation.
Hamamoto R, Silva FP, Tsuge M, et al.Enhanced SMYD3 expression is essential for the growth of breast cancer cells.
Cancer Sci. 2006; 97(2):113-8 [PubMed
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We previously reported that upregulation of SMYD3, a histone H3 lysine-4-specific methyltransferase, plays a key role in the proliferation of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we reveal that SMYD3 expression is also elevated in the great majority of breast cancer tissues. Similarly to CRC and HCC, silencing of SMYD3 by small interfering RNA to this gene resulted in the inhibited growth of breast cancer cells, suggesting that increased SMYD3 expression is also essential for the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Moreover, we show here that SMYD3 could promote breast carcinogenesis by directly regulating expression of the proto-oncogene WNT10B. These data imply that augmented SMYD3 expression plays a crucial role in breast carcinogenesis, and that inhibition of SMYD3 should be a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of breast cancer.
Tsuge M, Hamamoto R, Silva FP, et al.A variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in an E2F-1 binding element in the 5' flanking region of SMYD3 is a risk factor for human cancers.
Nat Genet. 2005; 37(10):1104-7 [PubMed
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Histone modification is a crucial step in transcriptional regulation, and deregulation of the modification process is important in human carcinogenesis. We previously reported that upregulation of SMYD3, a histone methyltransferase, promoted cell growth in human colorectal and hepatocellular carcinomas. Here we report significant associations between homozygosity with respect to an allele with three tandem repeats of a CCGCC unit in the regulatory region of SMYD3 and increased risk of colorectal cancer (P = 9.1 x 10(-6), odds ratio = 2.58), hepatocellular carcinoma (P = 2.3 x 10(-8), odds ratio = 3.50) and breast cancer (P = 7.0 x 10(-10), odds ratio = 4.48). This tandem-repeat sequence is a binding site for the transcriptional factor E2F-1. In a reporter assay, plasmids containing three repeats of the binding motif (corresponding to the high-risk allele) had higher activity than plasmids containing two repeats (the low-risk allele). These data suggest that the common variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in SMYD3 is a susceptibility factor for some types of human cancer.
Ruden DM, Xiao L, Garfinkel MD, Lu XHsp90 and environmental impacts on epigenetic states: a model for the trans-generational effects of diethylstibesterol on uterine development and cancer.
Hum Mol Genet. 2005; 14 Spec No 1:R149-55 [PubMed
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Hsp90 is a chaperone for over 100 'client proteins' in the cell, most of which are involved in signaling pathways. For example, Hsp90 maintains several nuclear hormone receptors, such as the estrogen receptor (ER), as agonist-receptive monomers in the cytoplasm. In the presence of agonist, Hsp90 dissociates and the receptors dimerize, enter the nucleus and ultimately activate transcription of the target genes. Increasing evidence suggests that Hsp90 also has a role in modifying the chromatin conformation of many genes. For example, Hsp90 has recently been shown to increase the activity of the histone H3 lysine-4 methyltransferase SMYD3, which activates the chromatin of target genes. Further evidence for chromatin-remodeling functions is that Hsp90 acts as a capacitor for morphological evolution by masking epigenetic variation. Release of the capacitor function of Hsp90, such as by environmental stress or by drugs that inhibit the ATP-binding activity of Hsp90, exposes previously hidden morphological phenotypes in the next generation and for several generations thereafter. The chromatin-modifying phenotypes of Hsp90 have striking similarities to the trans-generational effects of the ER agonist diethylstilbesterol (DES). Prenatal and perinatal exposure to DES increases the predisposition to uterine developmental abnormalities and cancer in the daughters and granddaughters of exposed pregnant mice. In this review, we propose that trans-generational epigenetic phenomena involving Hsp90 and DES are related and that chromatin-mediated WNT signaling modifications are required. This model suggests that inhibitors of Hsp90, WNT signaling and chromatin-remodeling enzymes might function as anticancer agents by interfering with epigenetic reprogramming and canalization in cancer stem cells.
Hamamoto R, Furukawa Y, Morita M, et al.SMYD3 encodes a histone methyltransferase involved in the proliferation of cancer cells.
Nat Cell Biol. 2004; 6(8):731-40 [PubMed
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Colorectal and hepatocellular carcinomas are some of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide, but the mechanisms that underly these malignancies are not fully understood. Here we report the identification of SMYD3, a gene that is over-expressed in the majority of colorectal carcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas. Introduction of SMYD3 into NIH3T3 cells enhanced cell growth, whereas genetic knockdown with small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in cancer cells resulted in significant growth suppression. SMYD3 formed a complex with RNA polymerase II through an interaction with the RNA helicase HELZ and transactivated a set of genes that included oncogenes, homeobox genes and genes associated with cell-cycle regulation. SMYD3 bound to a motif, 5'-CCCTCC-3', present in the promoter region of downstream genes such as Nkx2.8. The SET domain of SMYD3 showed histone H3-lysine 4 (H3-K4)-specific methyltransferase activity, which was enhanced in the presence of the heat-shock protein HSP90A. Our findings suggest that SMYD3 has histone methyltransferase activity and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation as a member of an RNA polymerase complex. Furthermore, activation of SMYD3 may be a key factor in human carcinogenesis.