Gene Summary

Gene:SOX5; SRY-box transcription factor 5
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of the cell fate. The encoded protein may act as a transcriptional regulator after forming a protein complex with other proteins. The encoded protein may play a role in chondrogenesis. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 8. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor SOX-5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (18)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Promoter Regions
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Transcription
  • Apoptosis
  • Xenograft Models
  • MicroRNAs
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Western Blotting
  • Chromosome 12
  • Cell Movement
  • Brain Tumours
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Brain Stem Glioma, Childhood
  • Zonula Occludens-1 Protein
  • SOX5
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • SOXD Transcription Factors
  • Sex-Determining Region Y Protein
  • Messenger RNA
  • Adolescents
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Transcription Factors
  • SOXB1 Transcription Factors
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Tongue Neoplasms
  • Vimentin
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Base Sequence
  • Brain Tumours
  • Breast Cancer
  • Transfection
  • FISH
  • Disease Progression
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Long Noncoding RNA
  • Up-Regulation
  • Translocation
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SOX5 (cancer-related)

Liu P, Li X, Guo X, et al.
Circular RNA DOCK1 promotes bladder carcinoma progression via modulating circDOCK1/hsa-miR-132-3p/Sox5 signalling pathway.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(4):e12614 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To reveal the role of circular RNA (circRNA) DOCK1 (circDOCK1) as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target and its competing endogenous RNA mechanism in bladder carcinoma (BC).
METHODS: The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology was introduced to screen the circRNA expression profiles of BC using microarray. qPCR and Western blots assay were employed to measure the gene expression in different groups. Cell counting kit-8, EdU and transwell assays were applied to detect the cell viability, proliferation and migration potential, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was used to test the binds between hsa-miR-132-3p/Sox5. Xenografted tumour growth of nude mice was performed to test the role of circDOCK1 in vivo.
RESULTS: CircDOCK1 was upregulated in BC tissues and cell lines. Repression of circDOCK1 reduced cell viability, inhibited cell proliferation and curbed the cell migration potential of BC cell. CircDOCK1 played its role via regulation of circDOCK1/hsa-miR-132-3p/Sox5 pathway in BC cells. Suppression circDOCK1 inhibited the tumour growth in vivo.
CONCLUSION: In this study, we revealed that circDOCK1 affected the progression of BC via modulation of circDOCK1/hsa-miR-132-3p/Sox5 pathway both in vitro and in vivo and providing a potential biomarker and therapeutic targets for BC.

Le PN, Keysar SB, Miller B, et al.
Wnt signaling dynamics in head and neck squamous cell cancer tumor-stroma interactions.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(3):398-410 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Wnt pathway activation maintains the cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype and promotes tumor progression, making it an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy. Wnt signaling at the tumor and tumor microenvironment (TME) front have not been investigated in depth in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In a cohort of 48 HNSCCs, increased Wnt signaling, including Wnt genes (AXIN2, LGR6, WISP1) and stem cell factors (RET, SOX5, KIT), were associated with a more advanced clinical stage. Key Wnt pathway proteins were most abundant at the cancer epithelial-stromal boundary. To investigate these observations, we generated three pairs of cancer-cancer associated fibroblast (CAF) cell lines derived from the same HNSCC patients. 3D co-culture of cancer spheres and CAFs mimicked these in vivo interactions, and using these we observed increased expression of Wnt genes (eg, WNT3A, WNT7A, WNT16) in both compartments. Of these Wnt ligands, we found Wnt3a, and less consistently Wnt16, activated Wnt signaling in both cancer cells and CAFs. Wnt activation increased CSC characteristics like sphere formation and invasiveness, which was further regulated by the presence of CAFs. Time lapse microscopy also revealed preferential Wnt activation of cancer cells. Wnt inhibitors, OMP-18R5 and OMP-54F28, significantly reduced growth of HNSCC patient-derived xenografts and suppressed Wnt activation at the tumor epithelial-stromal boundary. Taken together, our findings suggest that Wnt signaling is initiated in cancer cells which then activate CAFs, and in turn perpetuate a paracrine signaling loop. This suggests that targeting Wnt signaling in the TME is essential.

Hu J, Tian J, Zhu S, et al.
Sox5 contributes to prostate cancer metastasis and is a master regulator of TGF-β-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition through controlling Twist1 expression.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 118(1):88-97 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is one of the main contributors to the death of prostate cancer patients. To date, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying mCRPC are unclear. Given the crucial role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer metastasis, we aimed to analyse the expression and function of Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signal-associated protein named Sox5 in mCRPC.
METHODS: The protein expression levels were analysed by western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation were employed to validate the target of Sox5. The effect of Smad3/Sox5/Twist1 on PCa progression was investigated in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: Here, we found that TGF-β-induced EMT was accompanied by increased Sox5 expression. Interestingly, knockdown of Sox5 expression attenuated EMT induced by TGF-β signalling. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Smad3 could bind to the promoter of Sox5 and regulate its expression. Mechanistically, Sox5 could bind to Twist1 promoter and active Twist1, which initiated EMT. Importantly, knockdown of Sox5 in prostate cancer cells resulted in less of the mesenchymal phenotype and cell migration ability. Furthermore, targeting Sox5 could inhibit prostate cancer progression in a xenograft mouse model. In clinic, patients with high Sox5 expression were more likely to suffer from metastases, and high Sox5 expression also has a lower progression-free survival and cancer specific-survival in clinic database.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, we propose a new mechanism in which Smad3/Sox5/Twist1 promotes EMT and contributes to PCa progression.

Kurtsdotter I, Topcic D, Karlén A, et al.
SOX5/6/21 Prevent Oncogene-Driven Transformation of Brain Stem Cells.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(18):4985-4997 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular mechanisms preventing self-renewing brain stem cells from oncogenic transformation are poorly defined. We show that the expression levels of SOX5, SOX6, and SOX21 (SOX5/6/21) transcription factors increase in stem cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ) upon oncogenic stress, whereas their expression in human glioma decreases during malignant progression. Elevated levels of SOX5/6/21 promoted SVZ cells to exit the cell cycle, whereas genetic ablation of SOX5/6/21 dramatically increased the capacity of these cells to form glioma-like tumors in an oncogene-driven mouse brain tumor model. Loss-of-function experiments revealed that SOX5/6/21 prevent detrimental hyperproliferation of oncogene expressing SVZ cells by facilitating an antiproliferative expression profile. Consistently, restoring high levels of SOX5/6/21 in human primary glioblastoma cells enabled expression of CDK inhibitors and decreased p53 protein turnover, which blocked their tumorigenic capacity through cellular senescence and apoptosis. Altogether, these results provide evidence that SOX5/6/21 play a central role in driving a tumor suppressor response in brain stem cells upon oncogenic insult.

Tian R, Wang J, Yan H, et al.
Differential expression of miR16 in glioblastoma and glioblastoma stem cells: their correlation with proliferation, differentiation, metastasis and prognosis.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(42):5861-5873 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
The function of miR16 in multiforme glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and its stem cells (GSCs) remains elusive. To this end, we investigated the patterns of miR16 expression in these cells and their correlation with malignant behaviors and clinical outcomes. The levels of miR16 and its targeted genes in tumor tissue of GBM and GBM SGH44, U87, U251 cells as well as their stem cell counterparts were measured by qRT-PCR or western blot or immunohistochemistry. Luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the binding of miR16 to 3'-UTR of its target genes. The effects of miR16 on malignant behaviors were investigated, including tumor cell viability, soft-agar colony formation, GSCs Matrigel colony forming and migration and invasion as well as nude mice xenograft model. Differentially expression patterns of miR16 in glioblastoma cells and GSCs cells were found in this study. Changes of miR16 targeted genes, Bcl2 (B cell lymphoma 2), CDK6 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 6), CCND1 (cyclin D1), CCNE1 (cyclin E1) and SOX5 were confirmed in glioblastoma cell lines and tissue specimens. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that tumor cell proliferation was inhibited by miR16 mimic, but enhanced by miR16 inhibitor. The expression level of miR16 positively correlates with GSCs differentiation, but negatively with the abilities of migration, motility, invasion and colony formation in glioblastoma cells. The inhibitory effects of miR16 on its target genes were also found in nude mice xenograft model. Our findings revealed that the miR16 functions as a tumor suppressor in GSCs and its association with prognosis in GBM.

Lee B, Sahoo A, Marchica J, et al.
The long noncoding RNA
Sci Adv. 2017; 3(5):e1602505 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Molecular mechanisms by which long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) molecules may influence cancerous condition are poorly understood. The aberrant expression of

Wang L, Ye S, Wang J, et al.
HuR Stabilizes lnc-Sox5 mRNA to Promote Tongue Carcinogenesis.
Biochemistry (Mosc). 2017; 82(4):438-445 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recently regarded as systemic regulators in multiple biological processes including tumorigenesis. In this study, we report an ultra-highly expressed lncRNA, lnc-Sox5, in tongue tumor tissues. The results imply that lnc-Sox5 may play vital role in tongue carcinoma progression. We observed that the growth of Tca8113 cells was suppressed by lnc-Sox5 downregulation. Additionally, lnc-Sox5 knockdown simultaneously increased Tca8113 cell apoptosis, but the cell cycle was arrested. RNA immunoprecipitation suggested that HuR directly bound to and stabilized lnc-Sox5 RNA. Consistently, HuR knockdown reduced the level of lnc-Sox5 in Tca8113 cells. However, overexpression of HuR induced more lnc-Sox5 in Tca8113 cells. Both lnc-Sox5 knockdown and HuR knockdown suppressed Tca8113 cell tumorigenesis in xenograft models. These results suggest that lnc-Sox5, which was stabilized by HuR, could regulate carcinogenesis of tongue cancer and may serve as a predicted target for tongue carcinoma therapies.

Guo J, Cai H, Zheng J, et al.
Long non-coding RNA NEAT1 regulates permeability of the blood-tumor barrier via miR-181d-5p-mediated expression changes in ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2017; 1863(9):2240-2254 [PubMed] Related Publications
The blood-tumor barrier (BTB) constitutes an efficient organization of tight junctions that limits the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to brain tumor tissues and impacts the treatment of glioma. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein coding RNAs regulating gene expression, some lncRNAs play a crucial role in BTB permeability. However, the function of lncRNAs in BTB permeability is still largely unclear. Here, we have identified lncRNA nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1), was remarkably up-regulated in glioma endothelial cells (GECs) obtained from an in vitro BTB model. Knockdown of NEAT1 impaired the integrity and increased the permeability of the BTB, accompanied by downregulation of expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 in GECs. Both bioinformatics data and results of luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that NEAT1 influenced BTB permeability by binding to miR-181d-5p. Knockdown of NEAT1 also down-regulated the expression of sex determining region Y-box protein 5 (SOX5), which was defined as a direct and functional downstream target of miR-181d-5p. SOX5 interacts with the promoter region of ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5 in GECs. In conclusion, knockdown of NEAT1 increased BTB permeability by binding to miR-181d-5p and then reducing tight junction protein expression by targeting SOX5. These results suggest an important role for NEAT1 in regulating BTB permeability and provide an additional strategy for treating glioma.

Fujita N, Suzuki S, Watanabe K, et al.
Chordoma-derived cell line U-CH1-N recapitulates the biological properties of notochordal nucleus pulposus cells.
J Orthop Res. 2016; 34(8):1341-50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Intervertebral disc degeneration proceeds with age and is one of the major causes of lumbar pain and degenerative lumbar spine diseases. However, studies in the field of intervertebral disc biology have been hampered by the lack of reliable cell lines that can be used for in vitro assays. In this study, we show that a chordoma-derived cell line U-CH1-N cells highly express the nucleus pulposus (NP) marker genes, including T (encodes T brachyury transcription factor), KRT19, and CD24. These observations were further confirmed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. Reporter analyses showed that transcriptional activity of T was enhanced in U-CH1-N cells. Chondrogenic capacity of U-CH1-N cells was verified by evaluating the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and Alcian blue staining. Of note, we found that proliferation and synthesis of chondrogenic ECM proteins were largely dependent on T in U-CH1-N cells. In accordance, knockdown of the T transcripts suppressed the expression of PCNA, a gene essential for DNA replication, and SOX5 and SOX6, the master regulators of chondrogenesis. On the other hand, the CD24-silenced cells showed no reduction in the mRNA expression level of the chondrogenic ECM genes. These results suggest that U-CH1-N shares important biological properties with notochordal NP cells and that T plays crucial roles in maintaining the notochordal NP cell-like phenotype in this cell line. Taken together, our data indicate that U-CH1-N may serve as a useful tool in studying the biology of intervertebral disc. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 34:1341-1350, 2016.

Kordaß T, Weber CE, Oswald M, et al.
SOX5 is involved in balanced MITF regulation in human melanoma cells.
BMC Med Genomics. 2016; 9:10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a cancer with rising incidence and new therapeutics are needed. For this, it is necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms of melanoma development and progression. Melanoma differs from other cancers by its ability to produce the pigment melanin via melanogenesis; this biosynthesis is essentially regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). MITF regulates various processes such as cell cycling and differentiation. MITF shows an ambivalent role, since high levels inhibit cell proliferation and low levels promote invasion. Hence, well-balanced MITF homeostasis is important for the progression and spread of melanoma. Therefore, it is difficult to use MITF itself for targeted therapy, but elucidating its complex regulation may lead to a promising melanoma-cell specific therapy.
METHOD: We systematically analyzed the regulation of MITF with a novel established transcription factor based gene regulatory network model. Starting from comparative transcriptomics analysis using data from cells originating from nine different tumors and a melanoma cell dataset, we predicted the transcriptional regulators of MITF employing ChIP binding information from a comprehensive set of databases. The most striking regulators were experimentally validated by functional assays and an MITF-promoter reporter assay. Finally, we analyzed the impact of the expression of the identified regulators on clinically relevant parameters of melanoma, i.e. the thickness of primary tumors and patient overall survival.
RESULTS: Our model predictions identified SOX10 and SOX5 as regulators of MITF. We experimentally confirmed the role of the already well-known regulator SOX10. Additionally, we found that SOX5 knockdown led to MITF up-regulation in melanoma cells, while double knockdown with SOX10 showed a rescue effect; both effects were validated by reporter assays. Regarding clinical samples, SOX5 expression was distinctively up-regulated in metastatic compared to primary melanoma. In contrast, survival analysis of melanoma patients with predominantly metastatic disease revealed that low SOX5 levels were associated with a poor prognosis.
CONCLUSION: MITF regulation by SOX5 has been shown only in murine cells, but not yet in human melanoma cells. SOX5 has a strong inhibitory effect on MITF expression and seems to have a decisive clinical impact on melanoma during tumor progression.

Matsumoto Y, Sato S, Maeda T, et al.
Transcription factors related to chondrogenesis in pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland: a mechanism of mesenchymal tissue formation.
Lab Invest. 2016; 96(1):16-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
In salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma, expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) substances indicates that tumor epithelial cells are becoming chondrogenic and will produce cartilage-like mesenchymal tissues. Sox9, the master transcription factor of chondrogenesis, is expressed in mouse salivary gland cells. To clarify the mechanism behind chondrogenesis in tumor epithelial cells, we examined the expression of transcription factors related to chondrogenesis in tumors and salivary glands. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and immunostaining were performed on pleomorphic adenoma tissues, salivary gland tissues, and human submandibular gland (HSG) cells. The mRNAs of essential transcription factors for chondrogenesis-Sox9, Sox6, and Sox5-were detected in both tumor and salivary gland tissues. The mRNAs of aggrecan and type II collagen-cartilage-specific ECM substances-were detected only in tumors. Sox9 and Sox6 proteins were colocalized in many epithelial cells in tumors and salivary glands. Tumor epithelial cells also possessed aggrecan protein and occasionally type II collagen protein. Moreover, mRNAs for transcription repressors of chondrogenesis δEF1 and AP-2α were detected in both tumors and salivary glands, whereas Twist1 mRNA was detected only in salivary glands and was at significantly low-to-undetectable levels in tumors. Twist1 protein was localized in the Sox9-expressing salivary gland cells. HSG cells expressed Sox9, Sox6, and Twist1, but not aggrecan or type II collagen, and thus were similar to salivary gland cells. Twist1 depletion by Twist1 siRNA led to the upregulation of aggrecan and type II collagen mRNA expression in HSG cells. In contrast, forced expression of Twist1, using Twist1 cDNA, resulted in the downregulation of both these genes. Taken together, these results indicate that salivary gland cells have a potential for chondrogenesis, and Twist1 depletion concomitant with neoplastic transformation, which would permit tumor epithelial cells to produce cartilage-like mesenchymal tissues in salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma.

Al-Obaide MA, Alobydi H, Abdelsalam AG, et al.
Multifaceted roles of 5'-regulatory region of the cancer associated gene B4GALT1 and its comparison with the gene family.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(4):1393-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
β1,4-Galactosylransferases are a family of enzymes encoded by seven B4GALT genes and are involved in the development of anticancer drug resistance and metastasis. Among these genes, the B4GALT1 shows significant variations in the transcript origination sites in different cell types/tissues and encodes an interesting dually partitioning β-1, 4-galactosyltransferase protein. We identified at 5'-end of B4GALT1 a 1.454 kb sequence forming a transcription regulatory region, referred to by us as the TR1-PE1, had all characteristics of a bidirectional promoter directing the transcription of B4GALT1 in a divergent manner along with its long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) antisense counterpart B4GALT1-AS1. The TR1-PE1 showed unique dinucleotide base-stacking energy values specific to transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), INR and BRE, and harbored CpG Island (CGI) that showed GC skew with potential for R-loop formation at the transcription starting sites (TSSs). The 5'-regulatory axis of B4GALT1 also included five more novel TFBSs for CTCF, GLI1, TCF7L2, GATA3 and SOX5, in addition to unique (TG)18 repeats in conjunction with 22 nucleotide TG-associated sequence (TGAS). The five lncRNA B4GALT1-AS1 transcripts showed significant complementarity with B4GALT1 mRNA. In contrast, the rest of B4GALT genes showed fewer lncRNAs, and all lacked the (TG)18 and TGAS. Our results are strongly supported by the FANTOM5 study which showed tissue-specific variations in transcript origination sites for this gene. We suggest that the unique expression patterns for the B4GALT1 in normal and malignant tissues are controlled by a differential usage of 5'-B4GALT1 regulatory units along with a post-transcriptional regulation by the antisense RNA, which in turn govern the cell-matrix interactions, neoplastic progression, anticancer drug sensitivity, and could be utilized in personalized therapy.

Shiseki M, Masuda A, Yoshinaga K, et al.
Identification of the SOX5 gene as a novel IGH-involved translocation partner in BCL2-negative follicular lymphoma with t(12;14)(p12.2;q32).
Int J Hematol. 2015; 102(5):633-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosome translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene locus at chromosome region 14q32 are often observed in B-cell lymphoid neoplasms. Of these, t(14;18)(q32;q21) results in juxtaposition of the IGH gene on chromosome 14 and the BCL2 gene on chromosome 18, leading to the overexpression of BCL2 anti-apoptotic protein, which plays a critical role in the development of follicular lymphoma (FL). However, BCL2 overexpression is not observed in approximately 10 % of FL, and the molecular pathogenesis of BCL2-negative FL has not been elucidated. Here, we identify the SRY-related high-morbidity-group (HMG) box 5 (SOX5) gene on chromosome 12p12 as a novel IGH-involved translocation partner in the case of BCL2-negative follicular lymphoma (FL) with a complex karyotype including t(12;14)(p12.2;q32) by long-distance inverse PCR. As a result of this translocation, the SOX5 gene is juxtaposed to the enhancer of the IGH gene; SOX5 overexpression in neoplastic cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The results of the present study suggest a role for SOX5 in the molecular pathogenesis of FL.

Ding Z, Yang HW, Xia TS, et al.
Integrative genomic analyses of the RNA-binding protein, RNPC1, and its potential role in cancer prediction.
Int J Mol Med. 2015; 36(2):473-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
The RNA binding motif protein 38 (RBM38, also known as RNPC1) plays a pivotal role in regulating a wide range of biological processes, from cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest to cell myogenic differentiation. It was originally recognized as an oncogene, and was frequently found to be amplified in prostate, ovarian and colorectal cancer, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, colon carcinoma, esophageal cancer, dog lymphomas and breast cancer. In the present study, the complete RNPC1 gene was identified in a number of vertebrate genomes, suggesting that RNPC1 exists in all types of vertebrates, including fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. In the different genomes, the gene had a similar 4 exon/3 intron organization, and all the genetic loci were syntenically conserved. The phylogenetic tree demonstrated that the RNPC1 gene from the mammalian, bird, reptile and teleost lineage formed a species-specific cluster. A total of 34 functionally relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including 14 SNPs causing missense mutations, 8 exonic splicing enhancer SNPs and 12 SNPs causing nonsense mutations, were identified in the human RNPC1 gene. RNPC1 was found to be expressed in bladder, blood, brain, breast, colorectal, eye, head and neck, lung, ovarian, skin and soft tissue cancer. In 14 of the 94 tests, an association between RNPC1 gene expression and cancer prognosis was observed. We found that the association between the expression of RNPC1 and prognosis varied in different types of cancer, and even in the same type of cancer from the different databases used. This suggests that the function of RNPC1 in these tumors may be multidimensional. The sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 5 (Sox5), runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), CCAAT displacement protein 1 (CUTL1), v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (Rel)A, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ isoform 2 (PPARγ2) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) regulatory transcription factor binding sites were identified in the upstream (promoter) region of the RNPC1 gene, and may thus be involved in the effects of RNPC1 in tumors.

Panagopoulos I, Bjerkehagen B, Gorunova L, et al.
Rearrangement of chromosome bands 12q14~15 causing HMGA2-SOX5 gene fusion and HMGA2 expression in extraskeletal osteochondroma.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(2):577-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
We describe two cases of extraskeletal osteochondroma in which chromosome bands 12q14~15 were visibly rearranged through a pericentric inv(12). Molecular analysis of the first tumor showed that both transcript 1 (NM_003483) and transcript 2 (NM_003484) of HMGA2 were expressed. In the second tumor, the inv(12) detected by karyotyping had resulted in an HMGA2-SOX5 fusion transcript in which exons 1-3 of HMGA2 were fused with a sequence from intron 1 of SOX5. The observed pattern is similar to rearrangements of HMGA2 found in several other benign mesenchymal tumors, i.e., disruption of the HMGA2 locus leaves intact exons 1-3 which encode the AT-hook domains and separates them from the 3'-terminal part of the gene. Our data therefore show that a subset of soft tissue osteochondromas shares pathogenetic involvement of HMGA2 with lipomas, leiomyomas and other benign connective tissue neoplasms.

Wang D, Han S, Wang X, et al.
SOX5 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell invasion via regulation of Twist1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(2):461 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcription factor sex determining region Y-box protein 5 (SOX5) plays important roles in various types of cancers. However, the expression and function of SOX5 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been elucidated. Here, we found that SOX5 is significantly up-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. Gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that SOX5 promoted HCC cell migration and invasion. In addition, we revealed that SOX5 is linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by regulation of Twist1. Our results indicate for the first time that SOX5 is a novel regulator of EMT in HCC and may be a potential therapeutic target for HCC metastasis.

Patel P, Brooks C, Seneviratne A, et al.
Investigating microenvironmental regulation of human chordoma cell behaviour.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):e115909 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
The tumour microenvironment is complex and composed of many different constituents, including matricellular proteins such as connective tissue growth factor (CCN2), and is characterized by gradients in oxygen levels. In various cancers, hypoxia and CCN2 promote stem and progenitor cell properties, and regulate the proliferation, migration and phenotype of cancer cells. Our study was aimed at investigating the effects of hypoxia and CCN2 on chordoma cells, using the human U-CH1 cell line. We demonstrate that under basal conditions, U-CH1 cells express multiple CCN family members including CCN1, CCN2, CCN3 and CCN5. Culture of U-CH1 cells in either hypoxia or in the presence of recombinant CCN2 peptide promoted progenitor cell-like characteristics specific to the notochordal tissue of origin. Specifically, hypoxia induced the most robust increase in progenitor-like characteristics in U-CH1 cells, including increased expression of the notochord-associated markers T, CD24, FOXA1, ACAN and CA12, increased cell growth and tumour-sphere formation, and a decrease in the percentage of vacuolated cells present in the heterogeneous population. Interestingly, the effects of recombinant CCN2 peptide on U-CH1 cells were more pronounced under normoxia than hypoxia, promoting increased expression of CCN1, CCN2, CCN3 and CCN5, the notochord-associated markers SOX5, SOX6, T, CD24, and FOXA1 as well as increased tumour-sphere formation. Overall, this study highlights the importance of multiple factors within the tumour microenvironment and how hypoxia and CCN2 may regulate human chordoma cell behaviour.

Renjie W, Haiqian L
MiR-132, miR-15a and miR-16 synergistically inhibit pituitary tumor cell proliferation, invasion and migration by targeting Sox5.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 356(2 Pt B):568-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
MiR-132, miR-15a and miR-16 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many types of cancer, including pituitary tumors. However, the molecular mechanism of these miRNAs in pituitary tumor growth and metastasis is still unclear. Here, we showed that miR-132 and miR-15a/16 were less expressed in pituitary tumor cell lines, as well as in invasive pituitary tumor tissues, compared to non-invasive tumor tissues. We described that overexpression of miR-132 and miR-15a/16 resulted in the suppression of pituitary tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion, respectively, and also inhibits the expression of proteins involved in Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Then, we show that these miRNAs synergistically target Sox5 in pituitary tumor. Moreover, we found that Sox5 overexpression partially rescued miR-132, miR-15a and miR-16-mediated inhibition of cell migration, invasion and cell growth. Finally, we confirmed that Sox5 was upregulated in invasive pituitary tumor tissues, compared to non-invasion tissues. In conclusion, our data indicate that miR-132 and miR-15a/16 act as tumor suppressor genes in pituitary tumor by directly targetting Sox5, and imply that these miRNAs have potential as therapeutic targets for invasive pituitary tumor.

Drayton RM, Peter S, Myers K, et al.
MicroRNA-99a and 100 mediated upregulation of FOXA1 in bladder cancer.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(15):6375-86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder (UCC) is a common disease often characterized by FGFR3 dysregulation. Whilst upregulation of this oncogene occurs most frequently in low-grade non-invasive tumors, recent data reveal increased FGFR3 expression characterizes a common sub-type of invasive UCC sharing molecular similarities with breast cancer. These similarities include upregulation of the FOXA1 transcription factor and reduced expression of microRNAs-99a/100. We have previously identified direct regulation of FGFR3 by these two microRNAs and now search for further targets. Using a microarray meta-database we find potential FOXA1 regulation by microRNAs-99a/100. We confirm direct targeting of the FOXA1 3'UTR by microRNAs-99a/100 and also potential indirect regulation through microRNA-485-5p/SOX5/JUN-D/FOXL1 and microRNA-486/FOXO1a. In 292 benign and malignant urothelial samples, we find an inverse correlation between the expression of FOXA1 and microRNAs-99a/100 (r=-0.33 to -0.43, p<0.05). As for FGFR3 in UCC, tumors with high FOXA1 expression have lower rates of progression than those with low expression (Log rank p=0.009). Using global gene expression and CpG methylation profiling we find genotypic consequences of FOXA1 upregulation in UCC. Genetic changes are associated with regional hypomethylation, occur near FOXA1 binding sites, and mirror gene expression changes previously reported in FGFR3 mutant-UCC. These include gene silencing through aberrant hypermethylation (e.g. IGFBP3) and affect genes characterizing breast cancer sub-types (e.g. ERBB2). In conclusion, we have identified microRNAs-99a/100 mediate a direct relationship between FGFR3 and FOXA1 and potentially facilitate cross talk between these pathways in UCC.

Pei XH, Lv XQ, Li HX
Sox5 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition by transactivation of Twist1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 446(1):322-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a highly conserved cellular program, plays an important role in normal embryogenesis and cancer metastasis. Twist1, a master regulator of embryonic morphogenesis, is overexpressed in breast cancer and contributes to metastasis by promoting EMT. In exploring the mechanism underlying the increased Twist1 in breast cancer cells, we found that the transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 5(Sox5) is up-regulation in breast cancer cells and depletion of Sox5 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, depletion of Sox5 in breast cancer cells caused a dramatic decrease in Twist1 and chromosome immunoprecipitation assay showed that Sox5 can bind directly to the Twist1 promoter, suggesting that Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression. We further demonstrated that knockdown of Sox5 up-regulated epithelial phenotype cell biomarker (E-cadherin) and down-regulated mesenchymal phenotype cell biomarkers (N-cadherin, Vimentin, and Fibronectin 1), resulting in suppression of EMT. Our study suggests that Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression and plays an important role in the regulation of breast cancer progression.

Moon JW, Lee SK, Lee JO, et al.
Identification of novel hypermethylated genes and demethylating effect of vincristine in colorectal cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:4 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) arises as a consequence of genetic events such as gene mutation and epigenetic alteration. The aim of this study was to identify new hypermethylated candidate genes and methylation-based therapeutic targets using vincristine in CRC.
METHODS: We analyzed the methylation status of 27,578 CpG sites spanning more than 14,000 genes in CRC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues and normal colon tissues using Illumina bead chip array. Twenty-one hypermethylated genes and 18 CpG island methylator phenotype markers were selected as candidate genes. The methylation status of 39 genes was validated by quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction in CRC tissues, adjacent normal tissues, normal colon cells, and three CRC cell lines. Of these, 29 hypermethylated candidate genes were investigated using the demethylating effects of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and vincristine in CRC cells.
RESULTS: Thirty-two out of 39 genes were hypermethylated in CRC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Vincristine induced demethylation of methylated genes in CRC cells to the same extent as 5-aza-dC. The mRNA expression of AKR1B1, CHST10, ELOVL4, FLI1, SOX5, STK33, and ZNF304 was restored by treatment with 5-aza-dC and vincristine.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that these novel hypermethylated genes AKR1B1, CHST10, ELOVL4, SOX5, STK33, and ZNF304 may be potential methylation biomarkers and therapeutic targets of vincristine in CRC.

Liu Y, Melin BS, Rajaraman P, et al.
Insight in glioma susceptibility through an analysis of 6p22.3, 12p13.33-12.1, 17q22-23.2 and 18q23 SNP genotypes in familial and non-familial glioma.
Hum Genet. 2012; 131(9):1507-17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
The risk of glioma has consistently been shown to be increased twofold in relatives of patients with primary brain tumors (PBT). A recent genome-wide linkage study of glioma families provided evidence for a disease locus on 17q12-21.32, with the possibility of four additional risk loci at 6p22.3, 12p13.33-12.1, 17q22-23.2, and 18q23. To identify the underlying genetic variants responsible for the linkage signals, we compared the genotype frequencies of 5,122 SNPs mapping to these five regions in 88 glioma cases with and 1,100 cases without a family history of PBT (discovery study). An additional series of 84 familial and 903 non-familial cases were used to replicate associations. In the discovery study, 12 SNPs showed significant associations with family history of PBT (P < 0.001). In the replication study, two of the 12 SNPs were confirmed: 12p13.33-12.1 PRMT8 rs17780102 (P = 0.031) and 17q12-21.32 SPOP rs650461 (P = 0.025). In the combined analysis of discovery and replication studies, the strongest associations were attained at four SNPs: 12p13.33-12.1 PRMT8 rs17780102 (P = 0.0001), SOX5 rs7305773 (P = 0.0001) and STKY1 rs2418087 (P = 0.0003), and 17q12-21.32 SPOP rs6504618 (P = 0.0006). Further, a significant gene-dosage effect was found for increased risk of family history of PBT with these four SNPs in the combined data set (P(trend) <1.0 × 10(-8)). The results support the linkage finding that some loci in the 12p13.33-12.1 and 17q12-q21.32 may contribute to gliomagenesis and suggest potential target genes underscoring linkage signals.

Yu J, Deshmukh H, Payton JE, et al.
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization identifies CDK4 and FOXM1 alterations as independent predictors of survival in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(7):1924-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are highly aggressive sarcomas with variable patient survival and few known prognostically relevant genomic biomarkers. To identify survival-associated genomic biomarkers, we performed high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on a large set of MPNSTs.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Candidate gene alterations identified by aCGH in 38 MPNSTs were validated at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels on these same tumors and an independent set of 87 MPNST specimens.
RESULTS: aCGH revealed highly complex copy number alterations, including both previously reported and completely novel loci. Four regions of copy number gain were associated with poor patient survival. Candidate genes in these regions include SOX5 (12p12.1), NOL1 and MLF2 (12p13.31), FOXM1 and FKBP1 (12p13.33), and CDK4 and TSPAN31 (12q14.1). Alterations of these candidate genes and several others of interest (ERBB2, MYC and TP53) were confirmed by at least 1 complementary methodology, including DNA and mRNA quantitative real-time PCR, mRNA expression profiling, and tissue microarray-based fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Multivariate analysis showed that CDK4 gain/amplification and increased FOXM1 protein expression were the most significant independent predictors for poor survival in MPNST patients (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new and independently confirmed candidate genes that could serve as genomic biomarkers for overall survival in MPNST patients.

Harris ML, Baxter LL, Loftus SK, Pavan WJ
Sox proteins in melanocyte development and melanoma.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2010; 23(4):496-513 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Over 10 years have passed since the first Sox gene was implicated in melanocyte development. Since then, we have discovered that SOX5, SOX9, SOX10 and SOX18 all participate as transcription factors that affect key melanocytic genes in both regulatory and modulatory fashions. Both SOX9 and SOX10 play major roles in the establishment and normal function of the melanocyte; SOX10 has been shown to heavily influence melanocyte development and SOX9 has been implicated in melanogenesis in the adult. Despite these advances, the precise cellular and molecular details of how these SOX proteins are regulated and interact during all stages of the melanocyte life cycle remain unknown. Improper regulation of SOX9 or SOX10 is also associated with cancerous transformation, and thus understanding the normal function of SOX proteins in the melanocyte will be key to revealing how these proteins contribute to melanoma.

Tchougounova E, Jiang Y, Bråsäter D, et al.
Sox5 can suppress platelet-derived growth factor B-induced glioma development in Ink4a-deficient mice through induction of acute cellular senescence.
Oncogene. 2009; 28(12):1537-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
SOX5 is a member of the high-mobility group superfamily of architectural non-histone proteins involved in gene regulation and maintenance of chromatin structure in a wide variety of developmental processes. Sox5 was identified as a brain tumor locus in a retroviral insertional mutagenesis screen of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB)-induced mouse gliomas. Here we have investigated the role of Sox5 in PDGFB-induced gliomagenesis in mice. We show that Sox5 can suppress PDGFB-induced glioma development predominantly upon Ink4a-loss. In human glioma cell lines and tissues, we found very low levels of SOX5 compared with normal brain. Overexpression of Sox5 in human glioma cells led to a reduction in clone formation and inhibition of proliferation. Combined expression of Sox5 and PDGFB in primary brain cell cultures caused decreased proliferation and an increased number of senescent cells in the Ink4a-/- cells only. Protein analyses showed a reduction in the amount and activation of Akt and increased levels of p27(Kip1) upon Sox5 expression that was dominant to PDGFB signaling and specific to Ink4a-/- cells. Upon inhibition of p27(Kip1), the effects of Sox5 on proliferation and senescence could be reversed. Our data suggest a novel pathway, where Sox5 may suppress the oncogenic effects of PDGFB signaling during glioma development by regulating p27(Kip1) in a p19(Arf)-dependent manner, leading to acute cellular senescence.

Ma S, Chan YP, Woolcock B, et al.
DNA fingerprinting tags novel altered chromosomal regions and identifies the involvement of SOX5 in the progression of prostate cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2009; 124(10):2323-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identification of genomic alterations associated with the progression of prostate cancer may facilitate the better understanding of the development of this highly variable disease. Matched normal, premalignant high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive prostate carcinoma cells were procured by laser capture microdissection (LCM) from human radical prostatectomy specimens. From these cells, comparative DNA fingerprints were generated by a modified PCR-based technique called scanning of microdissected archival lesion (SMAL)-PCR. Recurrent polymorphic fingerprint fragments were used in tagging altered chromosomal regions. Altered regions were found at cytobands 1p31.3, 1q44, 2p23.1, 3p26.3, 3q22.3, 4q22.3, 4q35.2, 5q23.2, 8q22.3, 8q24.13, 9q21.3, 9q22.32, 10q11.21, 11p13, 12p12.1, 13q12.1, 16q12.2 and 18q21.31. Candidate genes in the surrounding area that may possibly harbor mutations that change normal prostatic cells to progress into their tumor stages were proposed. Of these fragments, a 420 bp alteration, absent in all 26 normal samples screened, was observed in 2 tumors. This fragment was cloned, sequenced and localized to chromosome 12p12.1. Within this region, candidate gene sex determining region Y-box 5 (SOX5) was proposed. Further studies of SOX5 in cell lines, xenografts and human prostate specimens, at both the RNA and protein levels, found overexpression of the gene in tumors. This overexpression was then subsequently found by fluorescent in situ hybridization to be caused by amplification of the region. In conclusion, our results suggest LCM coupled with SMAL-PCR DNA fingerprinting is a useful method for the screening and identification of chromosomal regions and genes associated with cancer development. Further, overexpression of SOX5 is associated with prostate tumor progression and early development of distant metastasis.

Chen Y, Liu W, Chao T, et al.
MicroRNA-21 down-regulates the expression of tumor suppressor PDCD4 in human glioblastoma cell T98G.
Cancer Lett. 2008; 272(2):197-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs have been linked to different cancer-related processes. The microRNA miR-21 appears to function as an anti-apoptosis factor in glioblastomas. However, the functional target genes of miR-21 are largely unknown in glioblastomas. In this study, bioinformatics analysis was used to identify miR-21 target sites in various genes. Luciferase activity assay showed that a number of genes involved in apoptosis, PDCD4, MTAP, and SOX5, carry putative miR-21 binding sites. Expression of PDCD4 protein correlates inversely with expression of miR-21 in a number of human glioblastoma cell lines such as T98G, A172, U87, and U251. Inhibition of miR-21 increases endogenous levels of PDCD4 in cell line T98G and over-expression miR-21 inhibits PDCD4-dependent apoptosis. Together, these results indicate that miR-21 expression plays a key role in regulating cellular processes in glioblastomas and may serve as a target for effective therapies.

Fukui N, Ikeda Y, Ohnuki T, et al.
Regional differences in chondrocyte metabolism in osteoarthritis: a detailed analysis by laser capture microdissection.
Arthritis Rheum. 2008; 58(1):154-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine the change in metabolic activity of chondrocytes in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage, considering regional difference and degree of cartilage degeneration.
METHODS: OA cartilage was obtained from knee joints with end-stage OA, at both macroscopically intact areas and areas with various degrees of cartilage degeneration. Control cartilage was obtained from age-matched donors. Using laser capture microdissection, cartilage samples were separated into superficial, middle, and deep zones, and gene expression was compared quantitatively in the respective zones between OA and control cartilage.
RESULTS: In OA cartilage, gene expression changed markedly with the site. The expression of cartilage matrix genes was highly enhanced in macroscopically intact areas, but the enhancement was less obvious in the degenerated areas, especially in the upper regions. In contrast, in those regions, the expression of type III collagen and fibronectin was most enhanced, suggesting that chondrocytes underwent a phenotypic change there. Within OA cartilage, the expression of cartilage matrix genes was significantly correlated with SOX9 expression, but not with SOX5 or SOX6 expression. In OA cartilage, the strongest correlation was observed between the expression of type III collagen and fibronectin, suggesting the presence of a certain link(s) between their expression.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study revealed a comprehensive view of the metabolic change of the chondrocytes in OA cartilage. The change of gene expression profile was most obvious in the upper region of the degenerated cartilage. The altered gene expression at that region may be responsible for the loss of cartilage matrix associated with OA.

Huang DY, Lin YT, Jan PS, et al.
Transcription factor SOX-5 enhances nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression by down-regulating SPARC gene expression.
J Pathol. 2008; 214(4):445-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is prevalent in south-eastern Asia, and its tumourigenesis is rather complex. The purpose of this research was to identify the pivotal genes that may be altered during the early stage of NPC progression. Eleven genes were selected by comparative microarray analysis of NPC versus normal nasomucosal cells. The expression of SPARC (secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich) was statistically significantly down-regulated in NPC cells. In exploring the mechanism underlying the decreased transcription of SPARC in NPC cells, we found that the transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 5 (SOX-5) is up-regulated in NPC cells. RNA interference of SOX-5 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in NPC cells caused a dramatic increase in SPARC and chromosome immunoprecipitation assay showed that SOX-5 can bind directly to the SPARC promoter, suggesting that SOX-5 acts as a key transcriptional repressor of SPARC. We further demonstrated that shRNA knockdown of SOX-5 suppressed the proliferation of NPC cells, as well as their migratory ability, which was also observed when SPARC was over-expressed in NPC cells. Alternatively, blocking SPARC with an antagonistic antibody reversed the effects of SOX-5 knockdown. In 66 NPC patients, over-expression of SOX-5 in tumour cells correlated clinically with poor survival. Our study suggests that SOX-5 transcriptionally down-regulates SPARC expression and plays an important role in the regulation of NPC progression. SOX-5 is a potential tumour marker for poor NPC prognosis.

Schlierf B, Friedrich RP, Roerig P, et al.
Expression of SoxE and SoxD genes in human gliomas.
Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2007; 33(6):621-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Members of group E and group D of the Sox gene family function as important transcriptional regulators of glial development in the central nervous system. Here, we have examined Sox gene expression in 60 human primary gliomas. Transcripts from each of the six group E and group D genes were expressed in gliomas of various types and malignancy grades, but with significant differences. SOX5, SOX9 and SOX10 were generally expressed at levels similar to or below those in adult brain tissue. In contrast, many oligodendrogliomas exhibited upregulation of SOX6, SOX8 and SOX13. Furthermore, loss of heterozygosity on chromosomal arms 1p and 19q was associated with significantly higher SOX8 mRNA levels. Low-grade astrocytomas, but not glioblastomas, also showed elevated SOX8 transcript levels. Taken together, the expression pattern of Sox genes in gliomas is heterogeneous and overall compatible with the less differentiated state of glioma cells as compared with their normal adult counterparts. Despite their restricted expression in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes during normal development, none of the Sox genes was selectively expressed in tumours of the oligodendroglial or astrocytic lineage. This is compatible with an origin of gliomas from neuroepithelial stem or precursor cells.

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