Gene Summary

Gene:TRPS1; transcriptional repressor GATA binding 1
Aliases: GC79, LGCR
Summary:This gene encodes a transcription factor that represses GATA-regulated genes and binds to a dynein light chain protein. Binding of the encoded protein to the dynein light chain protein affects binding to GATA consensus sequences and suppresses its transcriptional activity. Defects in this gene are a cause of tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) types I-III. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:zinc finger transcription factor Trps1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Cell Movement
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • MicroRNAs
  • RT-PCR
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Protein Binding
  • p53 Protein
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Disease Progression
  • Androgens
  • Messenger RNA
  • Transcription Factors
  • Base Sequence
  • siRNA
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Western Blotting
  • Cell Cycle
  • Binding Sites
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Up-Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cancer RNA
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Translocation
  • Receptors, Adiponectin
  • Bone Cancer
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • 3' Untranslated Regions
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Apoptosis
  • ras Proteins
  • Chromosome 8
  • Gene Expression
  • Breast Cancer
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Mutation
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TRPS1 (cancer-related)

Su W, Shi X, Lin M, et al.
Non-ossifying fibroma with a pathologic fracture in a 12-year-old girl with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome: a case report.
BMC Med Genet. 2018; 19(1):211 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by distinctive craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, while non-ossifying fibroma (NOF) is a common benign bone tumour in children and adolescents. To date, no case of TRPS coexisting with NOF has been reported. This report presents a 12-year-old girl who had the characteristic features of tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome and non-ossifying fibroma with a fibula fracture.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 12-year-old girl was admitted to the Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes for evaluation of brachydactyly and a right fibula fracture. Clinical examination revealed sparse scalp hair, a characteristic bulbous pear-shaped nose, and brachydactyly with significant shortening of the fourth metatarsal. Neither intellectual disability nor multiple exostoses were observed. Radiography of both hands showed brachydactyly and cone-shaped epiphyses of the middle phalanges of the digits of both hands with deviation of the phalangeal axis. Genetic analysis of TRPS1 identified a heterozygous germline sequence variant (p.Ala932Thr) in exon 6 in the girl and her father. Approximately 1 month before being admitted to our department, the girl experienced a minor fall and suffered a fracture of the proximal fibula in the right lower limb. The pathological cytological diagnosis of the osteolytic lesion was NOF. Ten months following the surgery, the lesion on the proximal fibula of the girl disappeared.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the present study is the first to report a rare case of NOF with a pathologic fracture in the fibula of a girl with TRPS. The identification of a missense mutation, (p.Ala932Thr), in exon 6 of TRPS1 in this kindred further suggested that the patient had type I TRPS and indicated that mutations in this exon may be correlated with more pronounced features of the syndrome. Radiological techniques and genetic analysis played key roles in the definitive diagnosis.

Gong X, Liu W, Wu L, et al.
Transcriptional repressor GATA binding 1-mediated repression of SRY-box 2 expression suppresses cancer stem cell functions and tumor initiation.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(48):18646-18654 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/11/2019 Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reported in a variety of cancers. SRY-box 2 (SOX2) is a member of the SOX family of transcription factors and has been shown to play a critical role in maintaining the functions of CSCs and promoting tumor initiation. However, the underlying mechanisms for the transcriptional regulation of the

Davaadelger B, Murphy AR, Clare SE, et al.
Mechanism of Telapristone Acetate (CDB4124) on Progesterone Receptor Action in Breast Cancer Cells.
Endocrinology. 2018; 159(10):3581-3595 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Progesterone is a steroid hormone that plays an important role in the breast. Progesterone exerts its action through binding to progesterone receptor (PR), a transcription factor. Deregulation of the progesterone signaling pathway is implicated in the formation, development, and progression of breast cancer. Next-generation selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) have potent antiprogestin activity and are selective for PR, reducing the off-target effects on other nuclear receptors. To date, there is limited information on how the newer generation of SPRMs, specifically telapristone acetate (TPA), affect PR function at the molecular level. In this study, T47D breast cancer cells were used to investigate the molecular mechanism by which TPA antagonizes PR action. Global profiling of the PR cistrome and interactome was done with chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and rapid immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry. Validation studies were done on key genes and interactions. Our results demonstrate that treatment with the progestin (R5020) alone resulted in robust PR recruitment to the chromatin, and addition of TPA reduced PR recruitment globally. TPA significantly changed coregulator recruitment to PR compared with R5020. Upon conservative analysis, three proteins (TRPS1, LASP1, and AP1G1) were identified in the R5020+TPA-treated group. Silencing TRPS1 with small interfering RNA increased PR occupancy to the known PR regulatory regions and attenuated the inhibition of gene expression after TPA treatment. TRPS1 silencing alleviated the inhibition of proliferation by TPA. In conclusion, TPA decreases PR occupancy on chromatin and recruits coregulators such as TRPS1 to the PR complex, thereby regulating PR target gene expression and associated cellular responses.

Elster D, Tollot M, Schlegelmilch K, et al.
TRPS1 shapes YAP/TEAD-dependent transcription in breast cancer cells.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3115 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Yes-associated protein (YAP), the downstream transducer of the Hippo pathway, is a key regulator of organ size, differentiation and tumorigenesis. To uncover Hippo-independent YAP regulators, we performed a genome-wide CRISPR screen that identifies the transcriptional repressor protein Trichorhinophalangeal Syndrome 1 (TRPS1) as a potent repressor of YAP-dependent transactivation. We show that TRPS1 globally regulates YAP-dependent transcription by binding to a large set of joint genomic sites, mainly enhancers. TRPS1 represses YAP-dependent function by recruiting a spectrum of corepressor complexes to joint sites. Loss of TRPS1 leads to activation of enhancers due to increased H3K27 acetylation and an altered promoter-enhancer interaction landscape. TRPS1 is commonly amplified in breast cancer, which suggests that restrained YAP activity favours tumour growth. High TRPS1 activity is associated with decreased YAP activity and leads to decreased frequency of tumour-infiltrating immune cells. Our study uncovers TRPS1 as an epigenetic regulator of YAP activity in breast cancer.

Wang Y, Zhang J, Wu L, et al.
Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome 1 protein functions as a scaffold required for ubiquitin-specific protease 4-directed histone deacetylase 2 de-ubiquitination and tumor growth.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have reported that tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type I (TRPS1) protein, the only reported atypical GATA transcription factor, is overexpressed in various carcinomas, the underlying mechanism(s) by which it contributes to cancer remain unknown.
METHODS: Both overexpression and knockdown of TRPS1 assays were performed to examine the effect of TRPS1 on histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) protein level and luminal breast cancer cell proliferation. Also, RT-qRCR, luciferase reporter assay and RNA-sequencing were used for transcription detection. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) using H4K16ac antibody in conjunction with qPCR was used for determining H4K16ac levels in targeted genes. Furthermore, in vitro cell proliferation assay and in vivo tumor xenografts were used to detect the effect of TRPS1 on tumor growth.
RESULTS: We found that TRPS1 scaffolding recruits and enhances interaction between USP4 and HDAC2 leading to HDAC2 de-ubiquitination and H4K16 deacetylation. We detected repression of a set of cellular growth-related genes by the TRPS1-USP4-HDAC2 axis indicating it is essential in tumor growth. In vitro and in vivo experiments confirmed that silencing TRPS1 reduced tumor growth, whereas overexpression of HDAC2 restored tumor growth.
CONCLUSION: Our study deciphered the TRPS1-USP4-HDAC2 axis as a novel mechanism that contributes to tumor growth. Significantly, our results revealed the scaffolding function of TPRS1 in USP4-directed HDAC2 de-ubiquitination and provided new mechanistic insights into the crosstalk between TRPS1, ubiquitin, and histone modification systems leading to tumor growth.

Tsukamoto S, Løvendorf MB, Park J, et al.
Inhibition of microRNA-138 enhances bone formation in multiple myeloma bone marrow niche.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(8):1739-1750 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myeloma bone disease is a devastating complication of multiple myeloma (MM) and is caused by dysregulation of bone remodeling processes in the bone marrow microenvironment. Previous studies showed that microRNA-138 (miR-138) is a negative regulator of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and that inhibiting its function enhances bone formation in vitro. In this study, we explored the role of miR-138 in myeloma bone disease and evaluated the potential of systemically delivered locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified anti-miR-138 oligonucleotides in suppressing myeloma bone disease. We showed that expression of miR-138 was significantly increased in MSCs from MM patients (MM-MSCs) and myeloma cells compared to those from healthy subjects. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-138 resulted in enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MM-MSCs in vitro and increased the number of endosteal osteoblastic lineage cells (OBCs) and bone formation rate in mouse models of myeloma bone disease. RNA sequencing of the OBCs identified TRPS1 and SULF2 as potential miR-138 targets that were de-repressed in anti-miR-138-treated mice. In summary, these data indicate that inhibition of miR-138 enhances bone formation in MM and that pharmacological inhibition of miR-138 could represent a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of myeloma bone disease.

Serandour AA, Mohammed H, Miremadi A, et al.
TRPS1 regulates oestrogen receptor binding and histone acetylation at enhancers.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(39):5281-5291 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The chromatin state is finely tuned to regulate function and specificity for transcription factors such as oestrogen receptor alpha (ER), which contributes to cell growth in breast cancer. ER transcriptional potential is mediated, in large part, by the specific associated proteins and co-factors that interact with it. Despite the identification and characterisation of several ER coregulators, a complete and systematic view of ER-regulating chromatin modifiers is lacking. By exploiting a focused siRNA screen that investigated the requirement for a library of 330 chromatin regulators in ER-mediated cell growth, we find that the NuRD and coREST histone deacetylation complexes are critical for breast cancer cell proliferation. Further, by proteomic and genomics approaches, we discover the transcription factor TRPS1 to be a key interactor of the NuRD and coREST complexes. Interestingly, TRPS1 gene amplification occurs in 28% of human breast tumours and is associated with poor prognosis. We propose that TRPS1 is required to repress spurious binding of ER, where it contributes to the removal of histone acetylation. Our data suggest that TRPS1 is an important ER-associated transcriptional repressor that regulates cell proliferation, chromatin acetylation and ER binding at the chromatin of cis-regulatory elements.

Wilke CM, Hess J, Klymenko SV, et al.
Expression of miRNA-26b-5p and its target TRPS1 is associated with radiation exposure in post-Chernobyl breast cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 142(3):573-583 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ionizing radiation is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of breast cancer. However, it is unknown whether radiation-specific molecular oncogenic mechanisms exist. We investigated post-Chernobyl breast cancers from radiation-exposed female clean-up workers and nonexposed controls for molecular changes. Radiation-associated alterations identified in the discovery cohort (n = 38) were subsequently validated in a second cohort (n = 39). Increased expression of hsa-miR-26b-5p was associated with radiation exposure in both of the cohorts. Moreover, downregulation of the TRPS1 protein, which is a transcriptional target of hsa-miR-26b-5p, was associated with radiation exposure. As TRPS1 overexpression is common in sporadic breast cancer, its observed downregulation in radiation-associated breast cancer warrants clarification of the specific functional role of TRPS1 in the radiation context. For this purpose, the impact of TRPS1 on the transcriptome was characterized in two radiation-transformed breast cell culture models after siRNA-knockdown. Deregulated genes upon TRPS1 knockdown were associated with DNA-repair, cell cycle, mitosis, cell migration, angiogenesis and EMT pathways. Furthermore, we identified the interaction partners of TRPS1 from the transcriptomic correlation networks derived from gene expression data on radiation-transformed breast cell culture models and sporadic breast cancer tissues provided by the TCGA database. The genes correlating with TRPS1 in the radiation-transformed breast cell lines were primarily linked to DNA damage response and chromosome segregation, while the transcriptional interaction partners in the sporadic breast cancers were mostly associated with apoptosis. Thus, upregulation of hsa-miR-26b-5p and downregulation of TRPS1 in radiation-associated breast cancer tissue samples suggests these molecules representing radiation markers in breast cancer.

Fischer SB, Attenhofer M, Gultekin SH, et al.
TRPS1 gene alterations in human subependymoma.
J Neurooncol. 2017; 134(1):133-138 [PubMed] Related Publications
Subependymoma is a rare primary brain tumor, constituting 0.07-0.51% of brain tumors. Genetic alterations in subependymoma are largely unknown, but familial occurrences have been reported. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1 (TRPS1) is a rare hereditary malformation complex caused by mutations in a gene identified in the year 2000 on 8q24.12. We report two patients with TRPS I and surgically treated subependymomas, one of whom has a first degree relative, now deceased, who was affected and also had a subependymoma. We therefore sought a role for the TRPS1 gene in the molecular oncogenesis of subependymoma. Formalin fixed tumor specimens and saliva samples were obtained from the two index patients as well as tumor samples from six sporadic subependymoma surgical specimens. A heterozygous TRPS1 germ line mutation predicted to cause a frame shift leading to a premature stop codon was found in the first index patient and also present in the associated tumor. No germline mutation was found in the second index patient, but his tumor displayed copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity in TRPS1. TRPS1 mutation analysis of the sporadic subependymomas revealed genetic, mostly loss of function alterations in one-third (two of six) of samples. Genetic alterations in TRPS1 likely play a role in at least a subgroup of subependymomas. Confirmation and further (epi)genetic investigations, ideally in newly acquired, fresh-frozen tumor samples, are warranted.

Lin HY, Zeng, Liang YK, et al.
GATA3 and TRPS1 are distinct biomarkers and prognostic factors in breast cancer: database mining for GATA family members in malignancies.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(21):34750-34761 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
GATA transcription factors are zinc finger DNA binding proteins that activate transcription during development and cell differentiation. To date, 7 members of GATA family have been reported. However, the expression patterns and the exact roles of distinct GATA family members contributing to tumorigenesis and progression of breast cancer (BC) remain to be elucidated. Here, we studied the expression of GATA transcripts in a variety of tumor types compared with the normal controls using the ONCOMINE and GOBO databases, along with their corresponding expression profiles in an array of cancer cell lines through CCLE analysis. Based on Kaplan-Meier plotter, we further investigated the prognostic values of GATA members specifically high expressed in BC patients. It was found that, when compared with normal tissues, GATA3 and TRPS1 were distinctly high expressed in BC patients among all GATA members. GATA3 expression was significantly associated with ESR1, while TRPS1 was correlated with ERBB2. In survival analysis, GATA3 and TRPS1 mRNA high expressions were correlated to better survival in BC patients, and TRPS1 high expression was significantly associated with longer RFS in patients who have received chemotherapy. These results suggest that GATA3 and TRPS1 are distinct biomarkers and essential prognostic factors for breast cancer.

Alonso S, Mayol X, Nonell L, et al.
Peripheral blood leucocytes show differential expression of tumour progression-related genes in colorectal cancer patients who have a postoperative intra-abdominal infection: a prospective matched cohort study.
Colorectal Dis. 2017; 19(5):O115-O125 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Anastomotic leak is associated with higher rates of recurrence after surgery for colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms responsible are unknown. We hypothesized that the infection-induced inflammatory response may induce overexpression of tumour progression-related genes in immune cells. The aim was to investigate the effect of postoperative intra-abdominal infection on the gene expression patterns of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) after surgery for colorectal cancer.
METHOD: Prospective matched cohort study. Patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer were included. Patients who had anastomotic leak or intra-abdominal abscess were included in the infection group (n = 23) and matched with patients without complications for the control group (n = 23). PBL were isolated from postoperative blood samples. Total RNA was extracted and hybridized to the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST microarray.
RESULTS: Patients in the infection group displayed 162 upregulated genes and 146 downregulated genes with respect to the control group. Upregulated genes included examples coding for secreted cytokines involved in tumour growth and invasion (S100P, HGF, MMP8, MMP9, PDGFC, IL1R2). Infection also upregulated some proangiogenic genes (CEP55, TRPS1) and downregulated some inhibitors of angiogenesis (MME, ALOX15, CXCL10). Finally, some inhibitors (HP, ORM1, OLFM4, IRAK3) and activators (GNLY, PRF1, FGFBP2) of antitumour immunity were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, suggesting that the inflammatory environment caused by a postoperative infection favours immune evasion mechanisms of the tumour.
CONCLUSION: Analysis of PBL shows differential expression of certain tumour progression-related genes in colorectal cancer patients who have a postoperative intra-abdominal infection, which in turn may promote the growth of residual cancer cells to become recurrent tumours.

Rangel R, Lee SC, Hon-Kim Ban K, et al.
Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes that cooperate with mutant Pten in breast cancer progression.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(48):E7749-E7758 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the worst prognosis of any breast cancer subtype. To better understand the genetic forces driving TNBC, we performed a transposon mutagenesis screen in a phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) mutant mice and identified 12 candidate trunk drivers and a much larger number of progression genes. Validation studies identified eight TNBC tumor suppressor genes, including the GATA-like transcriptional repressor TRPS1 Down-regulation of TRPS1 in TNBC cells promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by deregulating multiple EMT pathway genes, in addition to increasing the expression of SERPINE1 and SERPINB2 and the subsequent migration, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. Transposon mutagenesis has thus provided a better understanding of the genetic forces driving TNBC and discovered genes with potential clinical importance in TNBC.

Gulluoglu S, Tuysuz EC, Kuskucu A, et al.
The potential function of microRNA in chordomas.
Gene. 2016; 585(1):76-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Little is known about the molecular biology of chordomas, which are rare, chemoresistant tumors with no well-established treatment. miRNAs regulate gene networks and pathways. We aimed to evaluate the effects of dysregulated miRNA in chordomas would help reveal the underlying mechanisms of chordoma initiation and progression. In this study, miR-31, anti-miR-140-3p, anti-miR148a, and miR-222 were transiently transfected to chordoma cell lines and an MTS assay, apoptosis assay, and cell-cycle analysis were conducted to evaluate the effects. The mRNA level of predicted and confirmed targets of each miRNA, as well as the EMT and MET markers of U-CH1 and MUG-Chor1, were assessed with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Transient transfection of miRNA mimics was achieved, as each mimic increased or decreased the level of its corresponding miRNA. miR-31 decreased cell viability in MUG-Chor1 and U-CH2 after 72h, which is consistent with previous findings for U-CH1. Both miR-31 and anti-miR-148a induced apoptosis in all three cell lines. Although each miRNA had a similar pattern, miR-31 had the most effective S-phase arrest in all three cell lines. RDX, MET, DNMT1, DNMT3B, TRPS1, BIRC5, and KIT were found to be targeted by the selected miRNAs. The level of miR-222 in chordoma cell lines U-CH1 and MUG-Chor1 correlated positively with EMT markers and negatively with MET markers. This study uncovered the potential of miR-31, miR-140-3p, miR-148a, and miR-222-3p to be key molecules in the cell viability, cell cycle, and apoptosis in chordomas, as well as initiation, differentiation, and progression.

Huang JZ, Chen M, Zeng M, et al.
Down-regulation of TRPS1 stimulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis through repression of FOXA1.
J Pathol. 2016; 239(2):186-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome 1 gene (TRPS1), which was initially found to be associated with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome, is critical for the development and differentiation of bone, hair follicles and kidney. However, its role in cancer progression is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that down-regulation of TRPS1 correlated with distant metastasis, tumour recurrence and poor survival rate in cancer patients. TRPS1 was frequently down-regulated in high-metastatic cancer cell lines from the breast, colon and nasopharynx. Silencing of TRPS1 stimulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, while TRPS1 over-expression exhibited the opposite effects. Using quantitative proteomics, FOXA1, a negative regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was shown to be down-regulated by TRPS1 knockdown. Ectopic expression of FOXA1 blocked the enhancement of EMT, migration and invasion induced by TRPS1 silencing. Mechanistically, TRPS1, acting as a transcription activator, directly induced FOXA1 transcription by binding to the FOXA1 promoter. We further showed that down-regulation of TRPS1 was induced by miR-373 binding to the 3' UTR of TRPS1. Over-expression of TRPS1, but not TRPS1 3' UTR, blocked the enhancement of migration and invasion induced by miR-373. Taken together, we consider that down-regulation of TRPS1 by miR-373, acting as a transcriptional activator, promotes EMT and metastasis by repressing FOXA1 transcription, expanding upon its previously reported role as a transcription repressor. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Li Z, Jia M, Wu X, et al.
Overexpression of Trps1 contributes to tumor angiogenesis and poor prognosis of human osteosarcoma.
Diagn Pathol. 2015; 10:167 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome 1 (Trps1) gene is a member of GATA transcription factor family and has an important function in tumorigenesis and progression. However, there are rare studies on its roles in carcinogenesis and prognostic significance in human osteosarcoma.
METHODS: The expression of Trps1 was detected by immunohistochemistry, and MVD was evaluated to determine the amounts of microvessels by counting CD31-positive endothelial cells.
RESULTS: Of the 74 cases that underwent study, Trps1-positive cases were 24. And it was associated with MVD significantly (P = 0.008). The data also exhibited more cases of remote metastasis (P = 0.013) and higher Enneking stage (P = 0.017) in Trps1-positive group compared to Trps1-negative group. Univariate analysis revealed that distant metastasis, MVD and Trps1 expression were associated with a lower 3-year overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate (P = 0.003, and P = 0.012 respectively). Furthermore, Trps1 and distant metastasis retained their significant prognostic effects on patients survival rate by multivariate analysis (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Trps1 plays a crucial role in osteosarcoma angiogenesis, metastasis and clinical surgical stage. Trps1 can be a novel promising prognostic marker and therapeutic target, and antiangiogenic therapy which targets Trps1 molecule in patients with osteosarcoma may lead to improved prognosis and longer-term survival.

Bach AS, Derocq D, Laurent-Matha V, et al.
Nuclear cathepsin D enhances TRPS1 transcriptional repressor function to regulate cell cycle progression and transformation in human breast cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(29):28084-103 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The lysosomal protease cathepsin D (Cath-D) is overproduced in breast cancer cells (BCC) and supports tumor growth and metastasis formation. Here, we describe the mechanism whereby Cath-D is accumulated in the nucleus of ERα-positive (ER+) BCC. We identified TRPS1 (tricho-rhino-phalangeal-syndrome 1), a repressor of GATA-mediated transcription, and BAT3 (Scythe/BAG6), a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling chaperone protein, as new Cath-D-interacting nuclear proteins. Cath-D binds to BAT3 in ER+ BCC and they partially co-localize at the surface of lysosomes and in the nucleus. BAT3 silencing inhibits Cath-D accumulation in the nucleus, indicating that Cath-D nuclear targeting is controlled by BAT3. Fully mature Cath-D also binds to full-length TRPS1 and they co-localize in the nucleus of ER+ BCC where they are associated with chromatin. Using the LexA-VP16 fusion co-activator reporter assay, we then show that Cath-D acts as a transcriptional repressor, independently of its catalytic activity. Moreover, microarray analysis of BCC in which Cath-D and/or TRPS1 expression were silenced indicated that Cath-D enhances TRPS1-mediated repression of several TRPS1-regulated genes implicated in carcinogenesis, including PTHrP, a canonical TRPS1 gene target. In addition, co-silencing of TRPS1 and Cath-D in BCC affects the transcription of cell cycle, proliferation and transformation genes, and impairs cell cycle progression and soft agar colony formation. These findings indicate that Cath-D acts as a nuclear transcriptional cofactor of TRPS1 to regulate ER+ BCC proliferation and transformation in a non-proteolytic manner.

Amgalan B, Lee H
DEOD: uncovering dominant effects of cancer-driver genes based on a partial covariance selection method.
Bioinformatics. 2015; 31(15):2452-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
MOTIVATION: The generation of a large volume of cancer genomes has allowed us to identify disease-related alterations more accurately, which is expected to enhance our understanding regarding the mechanism of cancer development. With genomic alterations detected, one challenge is to pinpoint cancer-driver genes that cause functional abnormalities.
RESULTS: Here, we propose a method for uncovering the dominant effects of cancer-driver genes (DEOD) based on a partial covariance selection approach. Inspired by a convex optimization technique, it estimates the dominant effects of candidate cancer-driver genes on the expression level changes of their target genes. It constructs a gene network as a directed-weighted graph by integrating DNA copy numbers, single nucleotide mutations and gene expressions from matched tumor samples, and estimates partial covariances between driver genes and their target genes. Then, a scoring function to measure the cancer-driver score for each gene is applied. To test the performance of DEOD, a novel scheme is designed for simulating conditional multivariate normal variables (targets and free genes) given a group of variables (driver genes). When we applied the DEOD method to both the simulated data and breast cancer data, DEOD successfully uncovered driver variables in the simulation data, and identified well-known oncogenes in breast cancer. In addition, two highly ranked genes by DEOD were related to survival time. The copy number amplifications of MYC (8q24.21) and TRPS1 (8q23.3) were closely related to the survival time with P-values = 0.00246 and 0.00092, respectively. The results demonstrate that DEOD can efficiently uncover cancer-driver genes.

Wu L, Wang Y, Liu Y, et al.
A central role for TRPS1 in the control of cell cycle and cancer development.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(17):7677-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The eukaryotic cell cycle is controlled by a complex regulatory network, which is still poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that TRPS1, an atypical GATA factor, modulates cell proliferation and controls cell cycle progression. Silencing TRPS1 had a differential effect on the expression of nine key cell cycle-related genes. Eight of these genes are known to be involved in the regulation of the G2 phase and the G2/M transition of the cell cycle. Using cell synchronization studies, we confirmed that TRPS1 plays an important role in the control of cells in these phases of the cell cycle. We also show that silencing TRPS1 controls the expression of 53BP1, but not TP53. TRPS1 silencing also decreases the expression of two histone deacetylases, HDAC2 and HDAC4, as well as the overall HDAC activity in the cells, and leads to the subsequent increase in the acetylation of histone4 K16 but not of histone3 K9 or K18. Finally, we demonstrate that TRPS1 expression is elevated in luminal breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer tissues as compared with other breast cancer subtypes. Overall, our study proposes that TRPS1 acts as a central hub in the control of cell cycle and proliferation during cancer development.

Su P, Hu J, Zhang H, et al.
Association of TRPS1 gene with different EMT markers in ERα-positive and ERα-negative breast cancer.
Diagn Pathol. 2014; 9:119 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease consisting of different subtypes. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1 (TRPS1) gene, a GATA-type transcription factor, has been found to be highly expressed in breast cancer. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to play an important role in tumour invasion and metastasis. Our objective was to elucidate the different roles and clinical relevance of TRPS1 in different estrogen receptor (ER) expression subtypes of breast cancer.
METHODS: An immunohistochemical study was performed. The correlation between clinicopathological features and other biomarker profiles were analysed statistically.
RESULT: TRPS1 expression was correlated with the patients' age (P=0.017). It was positively related with ERα (P<0.001), progesterone receptor (PR) (P<0.001) and ERβ (P=0.001) status, but negatively associated with Ki67 (P=0.002) and HER2 (P=0.025) status. In ERα-positive breast cancer, TRPS1 expression was positively associated with the expression of E-cadherin (P<0.001), β-catenin(P=0.001), ERβ (P=0.03), and p53 (P=0.002) status, while in ERα-negative breast cancer, TRPS1 expression was correlated with slug (P=0.004), vimentin (P=0.003), smooth muscle actin (SMA) (P=0.031), and IMP3 (P=0.005) expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, we conclude that TRPS1 is positively associated with E-cadherin and β-catenin status in ERα-positive breast cancer cells, while it is also significantly associated with mesenchymal markers of EMT in ERα-negative breast cancer cells. TRPS1 can be a prognostic marker depending on the type of breast cancer.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:

Hu J, Su P, Jia M, et al.
TRPS1 expression promotes angiogenesis and affects VEGFA expression in breast cancer.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2014; 239(4):423-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiogenesis is a hallmark of the malignant process in breast cancer in which vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) plays an important role. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1 (TRPS1) is a GATA-type transcription factor and is involved in trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1. To investigate the role of TRPS1 in breast cancer angiogenesis, we analyzed the expression of TRPS1 and microvessel density (MVD) marker CD31 by immunohistochemistry in 117 paraffin-embedded breast tissues. TRPS1 expression was positively correlated with CD31. We further investigated whether TRPS1 induces human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and VEGFA expression of breast cancer cells. The over-expression of TRPS1 induced a significant increase in HUVEC migration accompanied by VEGFA up-regulation in transfected cells. In contrast, knockdown of TRPS1 decreased the induction of HUVEC migration and significantly down-regulated VEGFA expression. Furthermore, endogenous TRPS1 was present in the VEGFA promoter, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, this study showed that TRPS1 promotes angiogenesis and affects VEGFA expression in breast cancer.

Jia M, Hu J, Li W, et al.
Trps1 is associated with the multidrug resistance of osteosarcoma by regulating MDR1 gene expression.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(5):801-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a significant clinical problem in the chemotherapy of osteosarcoma and has been linked to the cellular expression of several multidrug-efflux transporters such as MDR1/P-gp. Our inhibition of the transcription factor Trps1 led to repression of MDR1/P-gp while its overexpression resulted in upregulation of MDR1/P-gp. Flow cytometric analysis suggested Trps1 increased the release of several anti-cancer drugs, thus decreasing their accumulation. Immunohistochemical analysis of clinical samples indicated that the expression of Trps1 directly correlated with MDR1/P-gp. Trps1 inhibited TGFbeta-1 and directly bound to the MDR1 promoter. Our data demonstrate a role for Trps1 in the regulation of MDR1 expression in osteosarcoma.

Bao Y, Ruan LJ, Mo JF
Low trichorhinophalangeal syndrome 1 gene transcript levels in basal-like breast cancer associate with mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition.
Chin Med Sci J. 2013; 28(3):129-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate trichorhinophalangeal syndrome 1 gene (TRPS-1) expression patterns in different subtypes of breast cancer and its correlations with other genes and survival using microarray data sets.
METHODS: The transcripts of TRPS-1 and its role in survival in breast cancer were analyzed using published microarray data sets#x02014;Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI) cohort and Wang cohort.
RESULTS: TRPS-1 expression was lower in basal-like breast cancer. The mRNA levels of TRPS-1 negatively correlated with Slug (Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.1366, P=0.0189 in NKI data set and Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.1571, P=0.0078 in Wang data set), FOXC1 (Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.1211, P=0.0376 in NKI data set and Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.1709, P=0.0037 in Wang data set), and CXCL1 (Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.1197, P=0.0399 in NKI data set and Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.3436, P<0.0001 in Wang data set), but positively correlated with BRCA1 (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.1728, P=0.0029 in NKI data set and Pearson correlation coefficient=0.1805, P=0.0022 in Wang data set). Low TRPS-1 expression associated with poor overall survival (hazard ratio 1.79, 95% CI of ratio 0.9894 to 3.238, P=0.054) and relapse-free survival (hazard ratio 1.913, 95% CI of ratio 1.159 to 3.156, P<0.05). The low TRPS-1 mRNA levels predicted poor outcome in breast cancer patients by the 70-gene signature.
CONCLUSION: The strong expression of TRPS-1 may serve as a good prognostic marker in breast cancer.

Brecqueville M, Rey J, Devillier R, et al.
Array comparative genomic hybridization and sequencing of 23 genes in 80 patients with myelofibrosis at chronic or acute phase.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(1):37-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative neoplasm that occurs de novo (primary myelofibrosis) or results from the progression of polycythemia vera or essential thrombocytemia (hereafter designated as secondary myelofibrosis or post-polycythemia vera/ essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis). To progress in the understanding of myelofibrosis and to find molecular prognostic markers we studied 104 samples of primary and secondary myelofibrosis at chronic (n=68) and acute phases (n=12) from 80 patients, by using array-comparative genomic hybridization and sequencing of 23 genes (ASXL1, BMI1, CBL, DNMT3A, EZH2, IDH1/2, JAK2, K/NRAS, LNK, MPL, NF1, PPP1R16B, PTPN11, RCOR1, SF3B1, SOCS2, SRSF2, SUZ12, TET2, TP53, TRPS1). We found copy number aberrations in 54% of samples, often involving genes with a known or potential role in leukemogenesis. We show that cases carrying a del(20q), del(17) or del(12p) evolve in acute myeloid leukemia (P=0.03). We found that 88% of the cases were mutated, mainly in signaling pathway (JAK2 69%, NF1 6%) and epigenetic genes (ASXL1 26%, TET2 14%, EZH2 8%). Overall survival was poor in patients with more than one mutation (P=0.001) and in patients with JAK2/ASXL1 mutations (P=0.02). Our study highlights the heterogeneity of myelofibrosis, and points to several interesting copy number aberrations and genes with diagnostic and prognostic impact.

Su A, He S, Tian B, et al.
MicroRNA-221 mediates the effects of PDGF-BB on migration, proliferation, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e71309 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling pathway has been found to play important roles in the development and progression of human cancers by regulating the processes of cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, metastasis, and the acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. Moreover, PDGF signaling has also been found to alter the expression profile of miRNAs, leading to the reversal of EMT phenotype. Although the role of miRNAs in cancer has been documented, there are very few studies documenting the cellular consequences of targeted re-expression of specific miRNAs. Therefore, we investigated whether the treatment of human pancreatic cancer cells with PDGF could alter the expression profile of miRNAs, and we also assessed the cellular consequences. Our study demonstrates that miR-221 is essential for the PDGF-mediated EMT phenotype, migration, and growth of pancreatic cancer cells. Down-regulation of TRPS1 by miR-221 is critical for PDGF-mediated acquisition of the EMT phenotype. Additionally, the PDGF-dependent increase in cell proliferation appears to be mediated by inhibition of a specific target of miR-221 and down-regulation of p27Kip1.

Hwang MS, Yu N, Stinson SY, et al.
miR-221/222 targets adiponectin receptor 1 to promote the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e66502 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved physiological program involved in development and tissue repair; however, its aberrant activation has been implicated in accelerating the progression of a variety of cancers. In breast cancer, the microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221/222) are differentially expressed in the clinically more aggressive basal-like subtype compared to luminal subtype of breast cancer and upregulation of miR-221/222 induces the EMT by targeting the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the GATA family transcriptional repressor TRPS1 (tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type 1). The complete mechanism through which miR-221/222 promotes the EMT, however, is not fully understood. We identified adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1), a receptor for the adipocytokine adiponectin, as a direct target of miR-221/222. ADIPOR1 is expressed at higher levels in the luminal compared to the basal-like subtype of breast cancer cell lines, which can be reduced by miR-221/222 targeting of its 3'UTR. In addition, miR-221/222 were negatively correlated with ADIPOR1 expression across breast cancer cell lines and tumors. ADIPOR1 depletion by siRNA in MCF10A cells induced the EMT and increased cell invasion. Depletion of ADIPOR1 by siRNA induced activation of the canonical nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and subsequent phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in an interleukin 6 (IL6)-dependent manner. Finally, overexpression of ADIPOR1 in the basal-like cell line, MDA-MB-231, attenuated cell invasion and promoted the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). We conclude that ADIPOR1 negatively regulates EMT in breast cancer and provides an additional node by which miR-221/222 induces the EMT. These results suggest that ADIPOR1 may play an important role in breast cancer progression and metastasis, and could potentially offer an alternative therapeutic strategy for basal-like breast cancer patients.

Hong J, Sun J, Huang T
Increased expression of TRPS1 affects tumor progression and correlates with patients' prognosis of colon cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:454085 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
AIM: To detect the expression pattern of tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome-1 (TRPS1) in human colon cancer and to analyze its correlation with prognosis of patients with this disease.
METHODS: The expressions of TRPS1 in human colon cancer and its corresponding noncancerous colon tissues were detected at both mRNA and protein levels.
RESULTS: The mRNA and protein expression levels of TRPS1 were both significantly higher in colon cancer than in corresponding noncancerous colon tissues (both P < 0.001). The protein level of TRPS1 in colon cancer tissues was significantly correlated with the mRNA level (r = 0.9, P < 0.001). Additionally, immunohistochemistry analysis also found increased TRPS1 expression in 63.0% (63/100) of colon cancer tissues. High TRPS1 expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node metastasis (P = 0.006) and higher pathological stage (P = 0.008) of patients with colon cancer. Multivariate Cox regression analysis further suggested that the increased expression of TRPS1 was an independent poor prognostic factor for this disease.
CONCLUSION: Our data offer the convincing evidence for the first time that the increased expression of TRPS1 may be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of colon cancer. TRPS1 might be a potential marker to predict the prognosis in colon cancer.

Chen JQ, Bao Y, Lee J, et al.
Prognostic value of the trichorhinophalangeal syndrome-1 (TRPS-1), a GATA family transcription factor, in early-stage breast cancer.
Ann Oncol. 2013; 24(10):2534-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: TRPS-1 is a new GATA transcription factor that is differentially expressed in breast cancer (BC) where it been found recently to regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a quantitative immunohistochemistry (qIHC) analysis of TRPS-1 expression in 341 primary-stage I-III BC samples in relation to patient clinical characteristics as well as its prognostic value, especially in an estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) subgroup.
RESULTS: Higher TRPS-1 expression was significantly associated with a number of clinical and pathological characteristics as well as with improved overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Among stage I/II ER+ BC patients who received endocrine therapy alone, those with high TRPS-1 expression had significantly longer OS and DFS. There was also a strong association between TRPS-1 levels and the EMT marker E-cadherin in the ER+ invasive ductal carcinoma cases. Analysis of gene expression data on a panel of BC lines found that TRPS-1 expression was low or absent in BC lines having enriched mesenchymal features.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated that TRPS-1 is an independent prognostic marker in early-stage BC and a new EMT marker that can distinguish patients with ER+ BC who will respond longer to adjuvant endocrine therapy.

Schulte I, Batty EM, Pole JC, et al.
Structural analysis of the genome of breast cancer cell line ZR-75-30 identifies twelve expressed fusion genes.
BMC Genomics. 2012; 13:719 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has recently emerged that common epithelial cancers such as breast cancers have fusion genes like those in leukaemias. In a representative breast cancer cell line, ZR-75-30, we searched for fusion genes, by analysing genome rearrangements.
RESULTS: We first analysed rearrangements of the ZR-75-30 genome, to around 10kb resolution, by molecular cytogenetic approaches, combining array painting and array CGH. We then compared this map with genomic junctions determined by paired-end sequencing. Most of the breakpoints found by array painting and array CGH were identified in the paired end sequencing-55% of the unamplified breakpoints and 97% of the amplified breakpoints (as these are represented by more sequence reads). From this analysis we identified 9 expressed fusion genes: APPBP2-PHF20L1, BCAS3-HOXB9, COL14A1-SKAP1, TAOK1-PCGF2, TIAM1-NRIP1, TIMM23-ARHGAP32, TRPS1-LASP1, USP32-CCDC49 and ZMYM4-OPRD1. We also determined the genomic junctions of a further three expressed fusion genes that had been described by others, BCAS3-ERBB2, DDX5-DEPDC6/DEPTOR and PLEC1-ENPP2. Of this total of 12 expressed fusion genes, 9 were in the coamplification. Due to the sensitivity of the technologies used, we estimate these 12 fusion genes to be around two-thirds of the true total. Many of the fusions seem likely to be driver mutations. For example, PHF20L1, BCAS3, TAOK1, PCGF2, and TRPS1 are fused in other breast cancers. HOXB9 and PHF20L1 are members of gene families that are fused in other neoplasms. Several of the other genes are relevant to cancer-in addition to ERBB2, SKAP1 is an adaptor for Src, DEPTOR regulates the mTOR pathway and NRIP1 is an estrogen-receptor coregulator.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first structural analysis of a breast cancer genome that combines classical molecular cytogenetic approaches with sequencing. Paired-end sequencing was able to detect almost all breakpoints, where there was adequate read depth. It supports the view that gene breakage and gene fusion are important classes of mutation in breast cancer, with a typical breast cancer expressing many fusion genes.

Lambertini E, Lolli A, Vezzali F, et al.
Correlation between Slug transcription factor and miR-221 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:445 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer and its metastatic progression is mainly directed by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a phenomenon supported by specific transcription factors and miRNAs.
METHODS: In order to investigate a possible correlation between Slug transcription factor and miR-221, we performed Slug gene silencing in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and evaluated the expression of genes involved in supporting the breast cancer phenotype, using qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and wound healing assays were employed to determine a functional link between these two molecules.
RESULTS: We showed that Slug silencing significantly decreased the level of miR-221 and vimentin, reactivated Estrogen Receptor α and increased E-cadherin and TRPS1 expression. We demonstrated that miR-221 is a Slug target gene, and identified a specific region of miR-221 promoter that is transcriptionally active and binds the transcription factor Slug "in vivo". In addition, we showed that in Slug-silenced cells, wich retained residual miR-221 (about 38%), cell migration was strongly inhibited. Cell migration was inhibited, but to a less degree, following complete knockdown of miR-221 expression by transfection with antagomiR-221.
CONCLUSIONS: We report for the first time evidence of a correlation between Slug transcription factor and miR-221 in breast cancer cells. These studies suggest that miR-221 expression is, in part, dependent on Slug in breast cancer cells, and that Slug plays a more important role than miR-221 in cell migration and invasion.

Liang H, Cheung LW, Li J, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing combined with functional genomics reveals novel candidate driver cancer genes in endometrial cancer.
Genome Res. 2012; 22(11):2120-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy, with more than 280,000 cases occurring annually worldwide. Although previous studies have identified important common somatic mutations in endometrial cancer, they have primarily focused on a small set of known cancer genes and have thus provided a limited view of the molecular basis underlying this disease. Here we have developed an integrated systems-biology approach to identifying novel cancer genes contributing to endometrial tumorigenesis. We first performed whole-exome sequencing on 13 endometrial cancers and matched normal samples, systematically identifying somatic alterations with high precision and sensitivity. We then combined bioinformatics prioritization with high-throughput screening (including both shRNA-mediated knockdown and expression of wild-type and mutant constructs) in a highly sensitive cell viability assay. Our results revealed 12 potential driver cancer genes including 10 tumor-suppressor candidates (ARID1A, INHBA, KMO, TTLL5, GRM8, IGFBP3, AKTIP, PHKA2, TRPS1, and WNT11) and two oncogene candidates (ERBB3 and RPS6KC1). The results in the "sensor" cell line were recapitulated by siRNA-mediated knockdown in endometrial cancer cell lines. Focusing on ARID1A, we integrated mutation profiles with functional proteomics in 222 endometrial cancer samples, demonstrating that ARID1A mutations frequently co-occur with mutations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and are associated with PI3K pathway activation. siRNA knockdown in endometrial cancer cell lines increased AKT phosphorylation supporting ARID1A as a novel regulator of PI3K pathway activity. Our study presents the first unbiased view of somatic coding mutations in endometrial cancer and provides functional evidence for diverse driver genes and mutations in this disease.

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