TRPS1

Gene Summary

Gene:TRPS1; transcriptional repressor GATA binding 1
Aliases: GC79, LGCR
Location:8q23.3
Summary:This gene encodes a transcription factor that represses GATA-regulated genes and binds to a dynein light chain protein. Binding of the encoded protein to the dynein light chain protein affects binding to GATA consensus sequences and suppresses its transcriptional activity. Defects in this gene are a cause of tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) types I-III. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:zinc finger transcription factor Trps1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Apoptosis
  • Messenger RNA
  • Bone Cancer
  • Cancer DNA
  • siRNA
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Breast Cancer
  • MicroRNAs
  • Cell Cycle
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Receptors, Adiponectin
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • p53 Protein
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Transcription Factors
  • Transfection
  • Western Blotting
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Disease Progression
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Mutation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Chromosome 8
  • RT-PCR
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Binding Sites
  • Cell Movement
  • Cancer RNA
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Translocation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Androgens
  • Base Sequence
  • ras Proteins
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TRPS1 (cancer-related)

Gulluoglu S, Tuysuz EC, Kuskucu A, et al.
The potential function of microRNA in chordomas.
Gene. 2016; 585(1):76-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Little is known about the molecular biology of chordomas, which are rare, chemoresistant tumors with no well-established treatment. miRNAs regulate gene networks and pathways. We aimed to evaluate the effects of dysregulated miRNA in chordomas would help reveal the underlying mechanisms of chordoma initiation and progression. In this study, miR-31, anti-miR-140-3p, anti-miR148a, and miR-222 were transiently transfected to chordoma cell lines and an MTS assay, apoptosis assay, and cell-cycle analysis were conducted to evaluate the effects. The mRNA level of predicted and confirmed targets of each miRNA, as well as the EMT and MET markers of U-CH1 and MUG-Chor1, were assessed with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Transient transfection of miRNA mimics was achieved, as each mimic increased or decreased the level of its corresponding miRNA. miR-31 decreased cell viability in MUG-Chor1 and U-CH2 after 72h, which is consistent with previous findings for U-CH1. Both miR-31 and anti-miR-148a induced apoptosis in all three cell lines. Although each miRNA had a similar pattern, miR-31 had the most effective S-phase arrest in all three cell lines. RDX, MET, DNMT1, DNMT3B, TRPS1, BIRC5, and KIT were found to be targeted by the selected miRNAs. The level of miR-222 in chordoma cell lines U-CH1 and MUG-Chor1 correlated positively with EMT markers and negatively with MET markers. This study uncovered the potential of miR-31, miR-140-3p, miR-148a, and miR-222-3p to be key molecules in the cell viability, cell cycle, and apoptosis in chordomas, as well as initiation, differentiation, and progression.

Li Z, Jia M, Wu X, et al.
Overexpression of Trps1 contributes to tumor angiogenesis and poor prognosis of human osteosarcoma.
Diagn Pathol. 2015; 10:167 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome 1 (Trps1) gene is a member of GATA transcription factor family and has an important function in tumorigenesis and progression. However, there are rare studies on its roles in carcinogenesis and prognostic significance in human osteosarcoma.
METHODS: The expression of Trps1 was detected by immunohistochemistry, and MVD was evaluated to determine the amounts of microvessels by counting CD31-positive endothelial cells.
RESULTS: Of the 74 cases that underwent study, Trps1-positive cases were 24. And it was associated with MVD significantly (P = 0.008). The data also exhibited more cases of remote metastasis (P = 0.013) and higher Enneking stage (P = 0.017) in Trps1-positive group compared to Trps1-negative group. Univariate analysis revealed that distant metastasis, MVD and Trps1 expression were associated with a lower 3-year overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate (P = 0.003, and P = 0.012 respectively). Furthermore, Trps1 and distant metastasis retained their significant prognostic effects on patients survival rate by multivariate analysis (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Trps1 plays a crucial role in osteosarcoma angiogenesis, metastasis and clinical surgical stage. Trps1 can be a novel promising prognostic marker and therapeutic target, and antiangiogenic therapy which targets Trps1 molecule in patients with osteosarcoma may lead to improved prognosis and longer-term survival.

Bach AS, Derocq D, Laurent-Matha V, et al.
Nuclear cathepsin D enhances TRPS1 transcriptional repressor function to regulate cell cycle progression and transformation in human breast cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(29):28084-103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The lysosomal protease cathepsin D (Cath-D) is overproduced in breast cancer cells (BCC) and supports tumor growth and metastasis formation. Here, we describe the mechanism whereby Cath-D is accumulated in the nucleus of ERα-positive (ER+) BCC. We identified TRPS1 (tricho-rhino-phalangeal-syndrome 1), a repressor of GATA-mediated transcription, and BAT3 (Scythe/BAG6), a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling chaperone protein, as new Cath-D-interacting nuclear proteins. Cath-D binds to BAT3 in ER+ BCC and they partially co-localize at the surface of lysosomes and in the nucleus. BAT3 silencing inhibits Cath-D accumulation in the nucleus, indicating that Cath-D nuclear targeting is controlled by BAT3. Fully mature Cath-D also binds to full-length TRPS1 and they co-localize in the nucleus of ER+ BCC where they are associated with chromatin. Using the LexA-VP16 fusion co-activator reporter assay, we then show that Cath-D acts as a transcriptional repressor, independently of its catalytic activity. Moreover, microarray analysis of BCC in which Cath-D and/or TRPS1 expression were silenced indicated that Cath-D enhances TRPS1-mediated repression of several TRPS1-regulated genes implicated in carcinogenesis, including PTHrP, a canonical TRPS1 gene target. In addition, co-silencing of TRPS1 and Cath-D in BCC affects the transcription of cell cycle, proliferation and transformation genes, and impairs cell cycle progression and soft agar colony formation. These findings indicate that Cath-D acts as a nuclear transcriptional cofactor of TRPS1 to regulate ER+ BCC proliferation and transformation in a non-proteolytic manner.

Amgalan B, Lee H
DEOD: uncovering dominant effects of cancer-driver genes based on a partial covariance selection method.
Bioinformatics. 2015; 31(15):2452-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
MOTIVATION: The generation of a large volume of cancer genomes has allowed us to identify disease-related alterations more accurately, which is expected to enhance our understanding regarding the mechanism of cancer development. With genomic alterations detected, one challenge is to pinpoint cancer-driver genes that cause functional abnormalities.
RESULTS: Here, we propose a method for uncovering the dominant effects of cancer-driver genes (DEOD) based on a partial covariance selection approach. Inspired by a convex optimization technique, it estimates the dominant effects of candidate cancer-driver genes on the expression level changes of their target genes. It constructs a gene network as a directed-weighted graph by integrating DNA copy numbers, single nucleotide mutations and gene expressions from matched tumor samples, and estimates partial covariances between driver genes and their target genes. Then, a scoring function to measure the cancer-driver score for each gene is applied. To test the performance of DEOD, a novel scheme is designed for simulating conditional multivariate normal variables (targets and free genes) given a group of variables (driver genes). When we applied the DEOD method to both the simulated data and breast cancer data, DEOD successfully uncovered driver variables in the simulation data, and identified well-known oncogenes in breast cancer. In addition, two highly ranked genes by DEOD were related to survival time. The copy number amplifications of MYC (8q24.21) and TRPS1 (8q23.3) were closely related to the survival time with P-values = 0.00246 and 0.00092, respectively. The results demonstrate that DEOD can efficiently uncover cancer-driver genes.

Wu L, Wang Y, Liu Y, et al.
A central role for TRPS1 in the control of cell cycle and cancer development.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(17):7677-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The eukaryotic cell cycle is controlled by a complex regulatory network, which is still poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that TRPS1, an atypical GATA factor, modulates cell proliferation and controls cell cycle progression. Silencing TRPS1 had a differential effect on the expression of nine key cell cycle-related genes. Eight of these genes are known to be involved in the regulation of the G2 phase and the G2/M transition of the cell cycle. Using cell synchronization studies, we confirmed that TRPS1 plays an important role in the control of cells in these phases of the cell cycle. We also show that silencing TRPS1 controls the expression of 53BP1, but not TP53. TRPS1 silencing also decreases the expression of two histone deacetylases, HDAC2 and HDAC4, as well as the overall HDAC activity in the cells, and leads to the subsequent increase in the acetylation of histone4 K16 but not of histone3 K9 or K18. Finally, we demonstrate that TRPS1 expression is elevated in luminal breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer tissues as compared with other breast cancer subtypes. Overall, our study proposes that TRPS1 acts as a central hub in the control of cell cycle and proliferation during cancer development.

Su P, Hu J, Zhang H, et al.
Association of TRPS1 gene with different EMT markers in ERα-positive and ERα-negative breast cancer.
Diagn Pathol. 2014; 9:119 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease consisting of different subtypes. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1 (TRPS1) gene, a GATA-type transcription factor, has been found to be highly expressed in breast cancer. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to play an important role in tumour invasion and metastasis. Our objective was to elucidate the different roles and clinical relevance of TRPS1 in different estrogen receptor (ER) expression subtypes of breast cancer.
METHODS: An immunohistochemical study was performed. The correlation between clinicopathological features and other biomarker profiles were analysed statistically.
RESULT: TRPS1 expression was correlated with the patients' age (P=0.017). It was positively related with ERα (P<0.001), progesterone receptor (PR) (P<0.001) and ERβ (P=0.001) status, but negatively associated with Ki67 (P=0.002) and HER2 (P=0.025) status. In ERα-positive breast cancer, TRPS1 expression was positively associated with the expression of E-cadherin (P<0.001), β-catenin(P=0.001), ERβ (P=0.03), and p53 (P=0.002) status, while in ERα-negative breast cancer, TRPS1 expression was correlated with slug (P=0.004), vimentin (P=0.003), smooth muscle actin (SMA) (P=0.031), and IMP3 (P=0.005) expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, we conclude that TRPS1 is positively associated with E-cadherin and β-catenin status in ERα-positive breast cancer cells, while it is also significantly associated with mesenchymal markers of EMT in ERα-negative breast cancer cells. TRPS1 can be a prognostic marker depending on the type of breast cancer.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8686515681264281.

Hu J, Su P, Jia M, et al.
TRPS1 expression promotes angiogenesis and affects VEGFA expression in breast cancer.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2014; 239(4):423-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiogenesis is a hallmark of the malignant process in breast cancer in which vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) plays an important role. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1 (TRPS1) is a GATA-type transcription factor and is involved in trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1. To investigate the role of TRPS1 in breast cancer angiogenesis, we analyzed the expression of TRPS1 and microvessel density (MVD) marker CD31 by immunohistochemistry in 117 paraffin-embedded breast tissues. TRPS1 expression was positively correlated with CD31. We further investigated whether TRPS1 induces human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and VEGFA expression of breast cancer cells. The over-expression of TRPS1 induced a significant increase in HUVEC migration accompanied by VEGFA up-regulation in transfected cells. In contrast, knockdown of TRPS1 decreased the induction of HUVEC migration and significantly down-regulated VEGFA expression. Furthermore, endogenous TRPS1 was present in the VEGFA promoter, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, this study showed that TRPS1 promotes angiogenesis and affects VEGFA expression in breast cancer.

Jia M, Hu J, Li W, et al.
Trps1 is associated with the multidrug resistance of osteosarcoma by regulating MDR1 gene expression.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(5):801-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a significant clinical problem in the chemotherapy of osteosarcoma and has been linked to the cellular expression of several multidrug-efflux transporters such as MDR1/P-gp. Our inhibition of the transcription factor Trps1 led to repression of MDR1/P-gp while its overexpression resulted in upregulation of MDR1/P-gp. Flow cytometric analysis suggested Trps1 increased the release of several anti-cancer drugs, thus decreasing their accumulation. Immunohistochemical analysis of clinical samples indicated that the expression of Trps1 directly correlated with MDR1/P-gp. Trps1 inhibited TGFbeta-1 and directly bound to the MDR1 promoter. Our data demonstrate a role for Trps1 in the regulation of MDR1 expression in osteosarcoma.

Bao Y, Ruan LJ, Mo JF
Low trichorhinophalangeal syndrome 1 gene transcript levels in basal-like breast cancer associate with mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition.
Chin Med Sci J. 2013; 28(3):129-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate trichorhinophalangeal syndrome 1 gene (TRPS-1) expression patterns in different subtypes of breast cancer and its correlations with other genes and survival using microarray data sets.
METHODS: The transcripts of TRPS-1 and its role in survival in breast cancer were analyzed using published microarray data sets#x02014;Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI) cohort and Wang cohort.
RESULTS: TRPS-1 expression was lower in basal-like breast cancer. The mRNA levels of TRPS-1 negatively correlated with Slug (Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.1366, P=0.0189 in NKI data set and Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.1571, P=0.0078 in Wang data set), FOXC1 (Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.1211, P=0.0376 in NKI data set and Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.1709, P=0.0037 in Wang data set), and CXCL1 (Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.1197, P=0.0399 in NKI data set and Pearson correlation coefficient=-0.3436, P<0.0001 in Wang data set), but positively correlated with BRCA1 (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.1728, P=0.0029 in NKI data set and Pearson correlation coefficient=0.1805, P=0.0022 in Wang data set). Low TRPS-1 expression associated with poor overall survival (hazard ratio 1.79, 95% CI of ratio 0.9894 to 3.238, P=0.054) and relapse-free survival (hazard ratio 1.913, 95% CI of ratio 1.159 to 3.156, P<0.05). The low TRPS-1 mRNA levels predicted poor outcome in breast cancer patients by the 70-gene signature.
CONCLUSION: The strong expression of TRPS-1 may serve as a good prognostic marker in breast cancer.

Brecqueville M, Rey J, Devillier R, et al.
Array comparative genomic hybridization and sequencing of 23 genes in 80 patients with myelofibrosis at chronic or acute phase.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(1):37-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative neoplasm that occurs de novo (primary myelofibrosis) or results from the progression of polycythemia vera or essential thrombocytemia (hereafter designated as secondary myelofibrosis or post-polycythemia vera/ essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis). To progress in the understanding of myelofibrosis and to find molecular prognostic markers we studied 104 samples of primary and secondary myelofibrosis at chronic (n=68) and acute phases (n=12) from 80 patients, by using array-comparative genomic hybridization and sequencing of 23 genes (ASXL1, BMI1, CBL, DNMT3A, EZH2, IDH1/2, JAK2, K/NRAS, LNK, MPL, NF1, PPP1R16B, PTPN11, RCOR1, SF3B1, SOCS2, SRSF2, SUZ12, TET2, TP53, TRPS1). We found copy number aberrations in 54% of samples, often involving genes with a known or potential role in leukemogenesis. We show that cases carrying a del(20q), del(17) or del(12p) evolve in acute myeloid leukemia (P=0.03). We found that 88% of the cases were mutated, mainly in signaling pathway (JAK2 69%, NF1 6%) and epigenetic genes (ASXL1 26%, TET2 14%, EZH2 8%). Overall survival was poor in patients with more than one mutation (P=0.001) and in patients with JAK2/ASXL1 mutations (P=0.02). Our study highlights the heterogeneity of myelofibrosis, and points to several interesting copy number aberrations and genes with diagnostic and prognostic impact.

Su A, He S, Tian B, et al.
MicroRNA-221 mediates the effects of PDGF-BB on migration, proliferation, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e71309 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling pathway has been found to play important roles in the development and progression of human cancers by regulating the processes of cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, metastasis, and the acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. Moreover, PDGF signaling has also been found to alter the expression profile of miRNAs, leading to the reversal of EMT phenotype. Although the role of miRNAs in cancer has been documented, there are very few studies documenting the cellular consequences of targeted re-expression of specific miRNAs. Therefore, we investigated whether the treatment of human pancreatic cancer cells with PDGF could alter the expression profile of miRNAs, and we also assessed the cellular consequences. Our study demonstrates that miR-221 is essential for the PDGF-mediated EMT phenotype, migration, and growth of pancreatic cancer cells. Down-regulation of TRPS1 by miR-221 is critical for PDGF-mediated acquisition of the EMT phenotype. Additionally, the PDGF-dependent increase in cell proliferation appears to be mediated by inhibition of a specific target of miR-221 and down-regulation of p27Kip1.

Hwang MS, Yu N, Stinson SY, et al.
miR-221/222 targets adiponectin receptor 1 to promote the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e66502 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved physiological program involved in development and tissue repair; however, its aberrant activation has been implicated in accelerating the progression of a variety of cancers. In breast cancer, the microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221/222) are differentially expressed in the clinically more aggressive basal-like subtype compared to luminal subtype of breast cancer and upregulation of miR-221/222 induces the EMT by targeting the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the GATA family transcriptional repressor TRPS1 (tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type 1). The complete mechanism through which miR-221/222 promotes the EMT, however, is not fully understood. We identified adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1), a receptor for the adipocytokine adiponectin, as a direct target of miR-221/222. ADIPOR1 is expressed at higher levels in the luminal compared to the basal-like subtype of breast cancer cell lines, which can be reduced by miR-221/222 targeting of its 3'UTR. In addition, miR-221/222 were negatively correlated with ADIPOR1 expression across breast cancer cell lines and tumors. ADIPOR1 depletion by siRNA in MCF10A cells induced the EMT and increased cell invasion. Depletion of ADIPOR1 by siRNA induced activation of the canonical nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and subsequent phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in an interleukin 6 (IL6)-dependent manner. Finally, overexpression of ADIPOR1 in the basal-like cell line, MDA-MB-231, attenuated cell invasion and promoted the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). We conclude that ADIPOR1 negatively regulates EMT in breast cancer and provides an additional node by which miR-221/222 induces the EMT. These results suggest that ADIPOR1 may play an important role in breast cancer progression and metastasis, and could potentially offer an alternative therapeutic strategy for basal-like breast cancer patients.

Hong J, Sun J, Huang T
Increased expression of TRPS1 affects tumor progression and correlates with patients' prognosis of colon cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:454085 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To detect the expression pattern of tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome-1 (TRPS1) in human colon cancer and to analyze its correlation with prognosis of patients with this disease.
METHODS: The expressions of TRPS1 in human colon cancer and its corresponding noncancerous colon tissues were detected at both mRNA and protein levels.
RESULTS: The mRNA and protein expression levels of TRPS1 were both significantly higher in colon cancer than in corresponding noncancerous colon tissues (both P < 0.001). The protein level of TRPS1 in colon cancer tissues was significantly correlated with the mRNA level (r = 0.9, P < 0.001). Additionally, immunohistochemistry analysis also found increased TRPS1 expression in 63.0% (63/100) of colon cancer tissues. High TRPS1 expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node metastasis (P = 0.006) and higher pathological stage (P = 0.008) of patients with colon cancer. Multivariate Cox regression analysis further suggested that the increased expression of TRPS1 was an independent poor prognostic factor for this disease.
CONCLUSION: Our data offer the convincing evidence for the first time that the increased expression of TRPS1 may be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of colon cancer. TRPS1 might be a potential marker to predict the prognosis in colon cancer.

Chen JQ, Bao Y, Lee J, et al.
Prognostic value of the trichorhinophalangeal syndrome-1 (TRPS-1), a GATA family transcription factor, in early-stage breast cancer.
Ann Oncol. 2013; 24(10):2534-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: TRPS-1 is a new GATA transcription factor that is differentially expressed in breast cancer (BC) where it been found recently to regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a quantitative immunohistochemistry (qIHC) analysis of TRPS-1 expression in 341 primary-stage I-III BC samples in relation to patient clinical characteristics as well as its prognostic value, especially in an estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) subgroup.
RESULTS: Higher TRPS-1 expression was significantly associated with a number of clinical and pathological characteristics as well as with improved overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Among stage I/II ER+ BC patients who received endocrine therapy alone, those with high TRPS-1 expression had significantly longer OS and DFS. There was also a strong association between TRPS-1 levels and the EMT marker E-cadherin in the ER+ invasive ductal carcinoma cases. Analysis of gene expression data on a panel of BC lines found that TRPS-1 expression was low or absent in BC lines having enriched mesenchymal features.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated that TRPS-1 is an independent prognostic marker in early-stage BC and a new EMT marker that can distinguish patients with ER+ BC who will respond longer to adjuvant endocrine therapy.

Schulte I, Batty EM, Pole JC, et al.
Structural analysis of the genome of breast cancer cell line ZR-75-30 identifies twelve expressed fusion genes.
BMC Genomics. 2012; 13:719 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has recently emerged that common epithelial cancers such as breast cancers have fusion genes like those in leukaemias. In a representative breast cancer cell line, ZR-75-30, we searched for fusion genes, by analysing genome rearrangements.
RESULTS: We first analysed rearrangements of the ZR-75-30 genome, to around 10kb resolution, by molecular cytogenetic approaches, combining array painting and array CGH. We then compared this map with genomic junctions determined by paired-end sequencing. Most of the breakpoints found by array painting and array CGH were identified in the paired end sequencing-55% of the unamplified breakpoints and 97% of the amplified breakpoints (as these are represented by more sequence reads). From this analysis we identified 9 expressed fusion genes: APPBP2-PHF20L1, BCAS3-HOXB9, COL14A1-SKAP1, TAOK1-PCGF2, TIAM1-NRIP1, TIMM23-ARHGAP32, TRPS1-LASP1, USP32-CCDC49 and ZMYM4-OPRD1. We also determined the genomic junctions of a further three expressed fusion genes that had been described by others, BCAS3-ERBB2, DDX5-DEPDC6/DEPTOR and PLEC1-ENPP2. Of this total of 12 expressed fusion genes, 9 were in the coamplification. Due to the sensitivity of the technologies used, we estimate these 12 fusion genes to be around two-thirds of the true total. Many of the fusions seem likely to be driver mutations. For example, PHF20L1, BCAS3, TAOK1, PCGF2, and TRPS1 are fused in other breast cancers. HOXB9 and PHF20L1 are members of gene families that are fused in other neoplasms. Several of the other genes are relevant to cancer-in addition to ERBB2, SKAP1 is an adaptor for Src, DEPTOR regulates the mTOR pathway and NRIP1 is an estrogen-receptor coregulator.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first structural analysis of a breast cancer genome that combines classical molecular cytogenetic approaches with sequencing. Paired-end sequencing was able to detect almost all breakpoints, where there was adequate read depth. It supports the view that gene breakage and gene fusion are important classes of mutation in breast cancer, with a typical breast cancer expressing many fusion genes.

Lambertini E, Lolli A, Vezzali F, et al.
Correlation between Slug transcription factor and miR-221 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:445 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer and its metastatic progression is mainly directed by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a phenomenon supported by specific transcription factors and miRNAs.
METHODS: In order to investigate a possible correlation between Slug transcription factor and miR-221, we performed Slug gene silencing in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and evaluated the expression of genes involved in supporting the breast cancer phenotype, using qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and wound healing assays were employed to determine a functional link between these two molecules.
RESULTS: We showed that Slug silencing significantly decreased the level of miR-221 and vimentin, reactivated Estrogen Receptor α and increased E-cadherin and TRPS1 expression. We demonstrated that miR-221 is a Slug target gene, and identified a specific region of miR-221 promoter that is transcriptionally active and binds the transcription factor Slug "in vivo". In addition, we showed that in Slug-silenced cells, wich retained residual miR-221 (about 38%), cell migration was strongly inhibited. Cell migration was inhibited, but to a less degree, following complete knockdown of miR-221 expression by transfection with antagomiR-221.
CONCLUSIONS: We report for the first time evidence of a correlation between Slug transcription factor and miR-221 in breast cancer cells. These studies suggest that miR-221 expression is, in part, dependent on Slug in breast cancer cells, and that Slug plays a more important role than miR-221 in cell migration and invasion.

Liang H, Cheung LW, Li J, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing combined with functional genomics reveals novel candidate driver cancer genes in endometrial cancer.
Genome Res. 2012; 22(11):2120-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy, with more than 280,000 cases occurring annually worldwide. Although previous studies have identified important common somatic mutations in endometrial cancer, they have primarily focused on a small set of known cancer genes and have thus provided a limited view of the molecular basis underlying this disease. Here we have developed an integrated systems-biology approach to identifying novel cancer genes contributing to endometrial tumorigenesis. We first performed whole-exome sequencing on 13 endometrial cancers and matched normal samples, systematically identifying somatic alterations with high precision and sensitivity. We then combined bioinformatics prioritization with high-throughput screening (including both shRNA-mediated knockdown and expression of wild-type and mutant constructs) in a highly sensitive cell viability assay. Our results revealed 12 potential driver cancer genes including 10 tumor-suppressor candidates (ARID1A, INHBA, KMO, TTLL5, GRM8, IGFBP3, AKTIP, PHKA2, TRPS1, and WNT11) and two oncogene candidates (ERBB3 and RPS6KC1). The results in the "sensor" cell line were recapitulated by siRNA-mediated knockdown in endometrial cancer cell lines. Focusing on ARID1A, we integrated mutation profiles with functional proteomics in 222 endometrial cancer samples, demonstrating that ARID1A mutations frequently co-occur with mutations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and are associated with PI3K pathway activation. siRNA knockdown in endometrial cancer cell lines increased AKT phosphorylation supporting ARID1A as a novel regulator of PI3K pathway activity. Our study presents the first unbiased view of somatic coding mutations in endometrial cancer and provides functional evidence for diverse driver genes and mutations in this disease.

Stinson S, Lackner MR, Adai AT, et al.
miR-221/222 targeting of trichorhinophalangeal 1 (TRPS1) promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer.
Sci Signal. 2011; 4(186):pt5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Compared with the luminal subtype, the basal-like subtype of breast cancer has an aggressive clinical behavior, but the reasons for this difference between the two subtypes are poorly understood. We identified microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221/222) as basal-like subtype-specific miRNAs that decrease expression of epithelial-specific genes and increase expression of mesenchymal-specific genes. In addition, expression of these miRNAs increased cell migration and invasion, which collectively are characteristics of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The basal-like transcription factor FOSL1 (also known as Fra-1) directly stimulated the transcription of miR-221/222, and the abundance of these miRNAs decreased with inhibition of MEK (mitogen-activated or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase), placing miR-221/222 downstream of the RAS pathway. The miR-221/222-mediated reduction in E-cadherin abundance depended on their targeting of the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of TRPS1 (trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1), which is a member of the GATA family of transcriptional repressors. TRPS1 inhibited EMT by directly repressing expression of ZEB2 (Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2). Therefore, miR-221/222 may contribute to the aggressive clinical behavior of basal-like breast cancers.

Chen JQ, Bao Y, Litton J, et al.
Expression and relevance of TRPS-1: a new GATA transcription factor in breast cancer.
Horm Cancer. 2011; 2(2):132-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
GATA transcription factor family members have been found to play a critical role in the differentiation of many tissue types. For example, GATA-3 has been found to be highly correlated with estrogen receptor α (ER) expression and is emerging as one of the "master regulators" in breast ductal epithelial cell differentiation. Recently, we discovered another GATA family member highly prevalent in breast cancer called the trichorhinophalangeal syndrome-1 gene (TRPS-1). Using a quantitative immunohistochemistry (qIHC) approach, we found that TRPS-1 was significantly correlated with ER, PR, GATA-3, as well as HER2 expression. However, TRPS-1 was also found to be expressed in a high proportion of ER(-) ductal epithelial breast cancers (BCs), indicating that it may act as a ductal epithelial cell-specific transcription factor regulating cell fate at some point in the epithelial cell differentiation pathway. In keeping with this hypothesis, we found that TRPS-1 protein expression in BC above a certain threshold using qIHC correlated with markedly improved overall survival. Cox proportional hazards analysis found that both TRPS-1 and ER expression above critical threshold equally predicted for improved survival. Thus, TRPS-1 may be a powerful new positive prognostic marker in BC, and further IHC studies, as well as examination of its molecular function in ductal epithelial cell differentiation in the breast, are warranted. In this regard, data on the role of TRPS-1 in the differentiation of cells from mesenchymal precursors in other tissues, such as kidney metanephric mesenchymal cells, columnar chondrocytes, and osteoblasts, in mouse models may be useful. Indeed, these studies have found that TRPS-1 is a critical regulator of mesenchymal-to-epithelial cell transition. In the mammary gland, the restricted expression of TRPS-1 in human, mouse, and rat ductal epithelial cells suggests that it may also play a similar role during ductal luminal progenitor/stem cell differentiation. We present a model of TRPS-1 action in which it may act upstream of GATA-3 and ER on an earlier ductal epithelial progenitor cell or mammary stem cell during mammary gland development and also helps prevent reversion of ER(+) BC cells back into mesenchymal-like cells. This model predicts that BCs with low or no TRPS-1 expression may inherently be much less differentiated and more aggressive tumors with less favorable prognosis.

Stinson S, Lackner MR, Adai AT, et al.
TRPS1 targeting by miR-221/222 promotes the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer.
Sci Signal. 2011; 4(177):ra41 [PubMed] Related Publications
The basal-like subtype of breast cancer has an aggressive clinical behavior compared to that of the luminal subtype. We identified the microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221/222) as basal-like subtype-specific miRNAs and showed that expression of miR-221/222 decreased expression of epithelial-specific genes and increased expression of mesenchymal-specific genes, and increased cell migration and invasion in a manner characteristic of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The transcription factor FOSL1 (also known as Fra-1), which is found in basal-like breast cancers but not in the luminal subtype, stimulated the transcription of miR-221/222, and the abundance of these miRNAs decreased with inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or MEK (mitogen-activated or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase), placing miR-221/222 downstream of the RAS pathway. Furthermore, miR-221/222-mediated reduction in E-cadherin abundance depended on their targeting the 3' untranslated region of the GATA family transcriptional repressor TRPS1 (tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type 1), which inhibited EMT by decreasing ZEB2 (zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox2) expression. We conclude that by promoting EMT, miR-221/222 may contribute to the more aggressive clinical behavior of basal-like breast cancers.

Yan GR, Xu SH, Tan ZL, et al.
Global identification of miR-373-regulated genes in breast cancer by quantitative proteomics.
Proteomics. 2011; 11(5):912-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play an important role in carcinogenesis, their molecular mechanism remains largely unknown because of our limited understanding of miRNA target genes. miR-373 was found to be capable of promoting breast cancer invasion and metastasis, but only a target gene was experimentally identified on the basis of mRNA expression analysis. In this study, we used SILAC-based quantitative proteomics to globally identify the genes regulated by miR-373. Totally, 3666 proteins were identified, and 335 proteins were found to be regulated by miR-373. Among the 192 proteins that were downregulated by miR-373, 27 (14.1%) were predicted to have at least one potential match site at their 3'-UTR for miR-373 seed sequence. However, miR-373 did not affect the mRNA level of the five selected candidate targets, TXNIP, TRPS1, RABEP1, GRHL2 and HIP1, suggesting that the protein expressions were regulated by miR-373 via translational inhibition instead of mRNA degradation. Luciferase and mutation assays validated that TXNIP and RABEP1 were the direct target genes of miR-373. More than 30 proteins reported to be involved in cancer invasion and metastasis were found to be regulated by miR-373 in breast cancer for the first time.

Sircoulomb F, Bekhouche I, Finetti P, et al.
Genome profiling of ERBB2-amplified breast cancers.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10:539 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Around 20% of breast cancers (BC) show ERBB2 gene amplification and overexpression of the ERBB2 tyrosine kinase receptor. They are associated with a poor prognosis but can benefit from targeted therapy. A better knowledge of these BCs, genomically and biologically heterogeneous, may help understand their behavior and design new therapeutic strategies.
METHODS: We defined the high resolution genome and gene expression profiles of 54 ERBB2-amplified BCs using 244K oligonucleotide array-comparative genomic hybridization and whole-genome DNA microarrays. Expression of ERBB2, phosphorylated ERBB2, EGFR, IGF1R and FOXA1 proteins was assessed by immunohistochemistry to evaluate the functional ERBB2 status and identify co-expressions.
RESULTS: First, we identified the ERBB2-C17orf37-GRB7 genomic segment as the minimal common 17q12-q21 amplicon, and CRKRS and IKZF3 as the most frequent centromeric and telomeric amplicon borders, respectively. Second, GISTIC analysis identified 17 other genome regions affected by copy number aberration (CNA) (amplifications, gains, losses). The expression of 37 genes of these regions was deregulated. Third, two types of heterogeneity were observed in ERBB2-amplified BCs. The genomic profiles of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and negative (ER-) ERBB2-amplified BCs were different. The WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway was involved in ER- ERBB2-amplified BCs, and PVT1 and TRPS1 were candidate oncogenes associated with ER+ ERBB2-amplified BCs. The size of the ERBB2 amplicon was different in inflammatory (IBC) and non-inflammatory BCs. ERBB2-amplified IBCs were characterized by the downregulated and upregulated mRNA expression of ten and two genes in proportion to CNA, respectively. IHC results showed (i) a linear relationship between ERBB2 gene amplification and its gene and protein expressions with a good correlation between ERBB2 expression and phosphorylation status; (ii) a potential signaling cross-talk between EGFR or IGF1R and ERBB2, which could influence response of ERBB2-positive BCs to inhibitors. FOXA1 was frequently coexpressed with ERBB2 but its expression did not impact on the outcome of patients with ERBB2-amplified tumors.
CONCLUSION: We have shown that ER+ and ER- ERBB2-amplified BCs are different, distinguished ERBB2 amplicons in IBC and non-IBC, and identified genomic features that may be useful in the design of alternative therapeutical strategies.

Chen JQ, Litton J, Xiao L, et al.
Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis and prognostic significance of TRPS-1, a new GATA transcription factor family member, in breast cancer.
Horm Cancer. 2010; 1(1):21-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
The trichorhinophalangeal syndrome 1 (TRPS-1) gene is a novel GATA transcription factor family member. Previously, using a gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry (IHC) screen, we identified TRPS-1 as a highly prevalent gene in breast cancer (BC), expressed in >90% of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)(+) and ERα(-) BC subtypes. TRPS-1 was also shown to be expressed in prostate cancer where it was shown to play a proapoptotic function during androgen withdrawal possibly through regulating antioxidant metabolism. The role of TRPS-1 and its prognostic significance in hormone-dependent and hormone-independent BC however is not known. In this study, we developed a new quantitative IHC (qIHC) method to further study TRPS-1 as a marker and possible prognostic indicator in BC. By using this method, a quantitative parameter for TRPS-1 expression called a quick score (QS) was derived from the measured labeling index and mean optical density after IHC and applied to a set of 152 stage II/III BC patients from 1993 to 2006 who did not receive preoperative chemotherapy. Associations between QS and tumor characteristics were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis test. A wide range of TRPS-1 QS was found among the sample set with higher TRPS-1 QS significantly associated with tumor ERα (p = 0.023 for QS and p = 0.028 for Allred score), progesterone receptor (p = 0.009), and GATA-3 (p < 0.0001). TRPS-1 QS was also positively associated with HER2 status (p = 0.026). Further analysis of different ductal structures in ten BC cases revealed that TRPS-1 expression was expressed at low levels in the remaining normal ducts and in areas of usual ductal hyperplasia but showed marked increase in expression in ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma lesions in the tissue. An analysis of TRPS-1 expression in association with overall survival in the 152 stage II/III sample set also revealed that TRPS-1 QS (≥4.0) was significantly associated with improved survival (p = 0.0165). Patients with TRPS-1 QS <4 had a hazard ratio of 2 (p = 0.019) after univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. In summary, this new qIHC approach was found to reveal critical differences in TRPS-1 expression in primary BC samples and found that it is a promising prognostic marker that should be further evaluated as a possible tumor suppressor gene facilitating improved survival in different subtypes of BC.

Piscopo DM, Johansen EB, Derynck R
Identification of the GATA factor TRPS1 as a repressor of the osteocalcin promoter.
J Biol Chem. 2009; 284(46):31690-703 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A proteomic analysis of proteins bound to the osteocalcin OSE2 sequence of the mouse osteocalcin promoter identified TRPS1 as a regulator of osteocalcin transcription. Mutations in the TRPS1 gene are responsible for human tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome, which is characterized by skeletal and craniofacial abnormalities. TRPS1 has been shown to bind regulatory promoter sequences containing GATA consensus binding sites and to repress transcription of genes involved in chondrocyte differentiation. Here we show that TRPS1 can directly bind the osteocalcin promoter in the presence or absence of Runx2. TRPS1 binds through a GATA binding sequence in the proximal promoter of the osteocalcin gene. The GATA binding site is conserved in mice, humans, and rats, although its location and orientation are not. Mutation of the mouse or human GATA binding sequence abrogates binding of TRPS1 to the osteocalcin promoter. We show that TRPS1 is expressed in osteosarcoma cells and upon induction of osteoblast differentiation in primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells and that TRPS1 regulates the expression of osteocalcin in both cell types. The expression of TRPS1 modulates mineralized bone matrix formation in differentiating osteoblast cells. These data suggest a role for TRPS1 in osteoblast differentiation, in addition to its previously described role in chondrogenesis.

Asou N, Yanagida M, Huang L, et al.
Concurrent transcriptional deregulation of AML1/RUNX1 and GATA factors by the AML1-TRPS1 chimeric gene in t(8;21)(q24;q22) acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood. 2007; 109(9):4023-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Runt domain transcription factor AML1/RUNX1 is essential for the generation of hematopoietic stem cells and is the most frequent target of chromosomal translocations associated with leukemia. Here, we present a new AML1 translocation found in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia M4 with t(8;21)(q24;q22) at the time of relapse. This translocation generated an in-frame chimeric gene consisting of the N-terminal portion of AML1, retaining the Runt domain, fused to the entire length of TRPS1 on the C-terminus. TRPS1 encodes a putative multitype zinc finger (ZF) protein containing 9 C2H2 type ZFs and 1 GATA type ZF. AML1-TRPS1 stimulated proliferation of hematopoietic colony-forming cells and repressed the transcriptional activity of AML1 and GATA-1 by 2 different mechanisms: competition at their cognate DNA-binding sites and physical sequestrations of AML1 and GATA-1, suggesting that simultaneous deregulation of AML1 and GATA factors constitutes a basis for leukemogenesis.

Radvanyi L, Singh-Sandhu D, Gallichan S, et al.
The gene associated with trichorhinophalangeal syndrome in humans is overexpressed in breast cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005; 102(31):11005-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A comprehensive differential gene expression screen on a panel of 54 breast tumors and >200 normal tissue samples using DNA microarrays revealed 15 genes specifically overexpressed in breast cancer. One of the most prevalent genes found was trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1 (TRPS-1), a gene previously shown to be associated with three rare autosomal dominant genetic disorders known as the trichorhinophalangeal syndromes. A number of corroborating methodologies, including in situ hybridization, e-Northern analysis using ORF EST (ORESTES) and Unigene EST abundance analysis, immunoblot and immunofluorescence analysis of breast tumor cell lines, and immunohistochemistry, confirmed the microarray findings. Immunohistochemistry analysis found TRPS-1 protein expressed in >90% of early- and late-stage breast cancer, including ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal, lobular, and papillary carcinomas. The TRPS-1 gene is also immunogenic with processed and presented peptides activating T cells found after vaccination of HLA-A2.1 transgenic mouse. Human T cell lines from HLA-A*0201+ female donors exhibiting TRPS-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity could also be generated.

Ellenrieder V, Schneiderhan W, Bachem M, Adler G
Fibrogenesis in the pancreas.
Rocz Akad Med Bialymst. 2004; 49:40-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recent years, numerous studies have provided novel insights into the pathomechanisms of pancreatic fibrogenesis. This includes in particular the identification and characterization of the pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and their role in the synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. It has become clear that pancreatic stellate cell activation is regulated by a complex network of growth factors and cytokines and results in increased expression and release of collagens I and II, fibronectin and other components of ECM. Among the cytokines involved in PSC activation and other fundamental mechanisms of pancreatic fibrosis, transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) is of particular relevance. TGFbeta stimulates PSC activation and induces transcription of ECM proteins mainly via activation of the Smad proteins which regulate gene expression through functional interaction with co-operating partner proteins such as the zinc finger transcription factor Sp1. Recent progress in understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of pancreatic fibrosis, is reviewed here.

Chang GT, Jhamai M, van Weerden WM, et al.
The TRPS1 transcription factor: androgenic regulation in prostate cancer and high expression in breast cancer.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2004; 11(4):815-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
TRPS1 mRNA is more highly expressed in androgen-dependent lymph node carcinoma of prostate-fast growing colony (LNCaP-FGC) compared with androgen-independent lymph node carcinoma of prostate-lymph node original (LNCaP-LNO) prostate cancer cell lines. Furthermore, TRPS1 mRNA expression is down-regulated by androgens in LNCaP-FGC cells, a process mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). Here, we present TRPS1 protein expression in human prostate cancer material derived from a panel of six androgen-dependent and eight androgen-independent human prostate cancer xenografts. TRPS1 protein is expressed in all androgen-dependent xenografts, which also express AR and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Androgen withdrawal by castration resulted in an increase in TRPS1 protein in two androgen-dependent xenografts, indicating relieved repression by action of AR. TRPS1 protein is expressed in four androgen-independent xenografts and is low or absent in the other four androgen-independent xenografts. Androgen withdrawal by castration demonstrates that TRPS1 protein levels remain the same in 1 androgen-independent xenograft, most likely due to the lack of AR expression. These data show that TRPS1 protein expression is regulated by androgens via the AR in human prostate cancer xenografts. Analysis of TRPS1 mRNA expression in normal and tumour tissue of the prostate and 18 other human tissues, showed that TRPS1 had the highest mRNA expression levels in normal and tumour tissues of breast. In addition, high TRPS1 mRNA and protein expression levels were observed in four out of five human breast cancer cell lines. In conclusion, TRPS1 protein expression is down-regulated by androgens in human prostate cancer, and analysis of TRPS1 mRNA expression levels in several human tissues showed that the highest levels were observed in normal and tumour breast tissue.

Savinainen KJ, Linja MJ, Saramäki OR, et al.
Expression and copy number analysis of TRPS1, EIF3S3 and MYC genes in breast and prostate cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2004; 90(5):1041-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The long arm of chromosome 8 is one of the most common regions of amplification in cancers of several organs, especially carcinomas of the breast and prostate. TRPS1, MYC and EIF3S3 genes are located in one of the minimal regions of amplification, 8q23-q24, and have been suggested to be the target genes of the amplification. Here, our goal was to study copy number and expression of the three genes in order to investigate the significance of the genes in breast and prostate cancer. By using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), we first found that TRPS1 and EIF3S3 were amplified together in about one-third of hormone-refractory prostate carcinomas. Next, we analysed the mRNA expression of the three genes by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and the gene copy number by FISH in six breast and five prostate cancer cell lines. Breast cancer cell line, SK-Br-3, which contained the highest copy number of all three genes, showed overexpression of only EIF3S3. Finally, the expression levels of TRPS1, EIF3S3 and MYC were measured in freshly frozen clinical samples of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), as well as untreated and hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma. The TRPS1 and MYC expression levels were similar in all prostate tumour groups, whereas EIF3S3 expression was higher (P=0.029) in prostate carcinomas compared to BPH. The data suggest that the expression of EIF3S3 is increased in prostate cancer, and that one of the mechanisms underlying the overexpression is the amplification of the gene.

van den Bemd GJ, Jhamai M, Brinkmann AO, Chang GT
The atypical GATA protein TRPS1 represses androgen-induced prostate-specific antigen expression in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003; 312(3):578-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is considered as an important marker for prostate cancer. Regulation of PSA gene expression is mediated by androgens bound to androgen receptors via androgen response elements (AREs) in its promoter and far upstream enhancer regions. In addition, GATA proteins contribute to PSA gene transcription by interacting with GATA motifs present in the PSA enhancer sequence. The TRPS1 gene contains a single GATA zinc finger domain and not only binds to forward consensus GATA motifs but also to an inverse GATA motif overlapping the ARE III in the far upstream enhancer of the PSA gene. Overexpression of TRPS1 in androgen-dependent human LNCaP prostate cancer cells inhibited the transcription of a transiently transfected PSA enhancer/promoter-driven luciferase reporter construct. Furthermore, overexpression of TRPS1 reduced the androgen-induced endogenous PSA levels secreted in culture medium of LNCaP cells. Our results suggest a role of TRPS1 in androgen regulation of PSA gene expression.

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