UCHL1

Gene Summary

Gene:UCHL1; ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1
Aliases: NDGOA, PARK5, PGP95, SPG79, PGP9.5, Uch-L1, HEL-117, PGP 9.5, HEL-S-53
Location:4p13
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the peptidase C12 family. This enzyme is a thiol protease that hydrolyzes a peptide bond at the C-terminal glycine of ubiquitin. This gene is specifically expressed in the neurons and in cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. Mutations in this gene may be associated with Parkinson disease.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: UCHL1 (cancer-related)

Kozlowska A, Kwiatkowski P, Oponowicz A, et al.
Myenteric plexuses atrophy in the vicinity of colorectal cancer tissue is not caused by apoptosis or necrosis.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2016; 54(2):99-107 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The previously performed studies showed that the presence of colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor is associated with the atrophy of myenteric plexuses in the vicinity of cancer invasion; however, the possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are not known. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the atrophic changes of the enteric nervous system (ENS) within an intestine wall of the CRC patients were caused by apoptosis or necrosis and whether they were associated with changes in the number of galanin-immunore-active (GAL-Ir) neurons.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples of the large intestine wall located close to the CRC invasion and control, distally-located part of the colon, were collected from 9 CRC patients. The size of ENS plexuses and the number of neurons were compared. Triple immunofluorescent staining was used to visualize the co-expression of caspase 3 (CASP3) or caspase 8 (CASP8) with GAL and protein gene-product 9.5 (PGP 9.5, panneuronal marker) in the submucosal and myenteric ENS plexuses. The cells expressing myeloperoxidase (MPO, marker of neutrophils) and CD68 (marker of macrophages) were detected by immunohistochemistry around/in myenteric plexuses (MPs) and in the muscularis externa of the colon wall in the vicinity of tumor invasion.
RESULTS: Myenteric plexuses in the vicinity of the CRC tissue were significantly smaller and had lower number of neurons per plexus than distantly located plexuses. The number of CASP8- and CASP3-Ir neurons in the ENS plexuses was similar in the colon wall both close to and distally from tumor invasion. The number of CASP8-Ir neurons within MPs located close to CRC invasion was higher than of CASP3-Ir neurons. The percentage of neurons co-expressing CASP8 and GAL in myenteric plexuses close and distantly from tumor was three-fold lower than of those co-expressing CASP3 and GAL. The mean number of neutrophils and macrophages inside and around myenteric plexuses located close to tumor invasion was higher or similar, respectively, as compared with adjacent muscularis externa.
CONCLUSIONS: The atrophy of myenteric plexuses in the vicinity of CRC invasion is not caused by apoptosis or necrosis. The differences in the proportions of neurons expressing galanin and the studied caspases suggest as yet unknown role of this neuropeptide in the mechanisms of neuron's atrophy in MPs located close to CRC tumor.

Pagano JS, Shackelford J
UCH-L1 in DLBCL: marker or target?
Blood. 2016; 127(12):1524-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this issue of Blood, Bedekovics et al have demonstrated that a multifunctional molecule of the ubiquitin system ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is induced in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), and that levels of this molecule are higher in germinal center (GC) B-cell DLBCL (GCB-DLBCL) compared with activated B-cell DLBCL (ABC-DLBCL) and predict poor outcomes.

Jin Y, Zhang W, Xu J, et al.
UCH-L1 involved in regulating the degradation of EGFR and promoting malignant properties in drug-resistant breast cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(10):12500-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCHL1) belongs to the UCH proteases family that deubiquitinates ubiquitin-protein conjugates in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Our previous research showed that UCH-L1 and EGFR could regulate the expression of P-gp, CD147 and MMPs in multi-drug resistance (MDR) breast cancer cells, respectively. But it is still unclear whether direct regulation exists between the UCH-L1 and EGFR in MDR breast cancer. In order to clarify this, MDR human breast carcinoma cell line MCF7/Adr, that expresses relatively high UCH-L1, and its parental cell line MCF7, that expresses relatively low UCH-L1, were chosen for this study. We added ubiquitin proteasome inhibitor MG-132 into the culture of MCF7/Adr cells and transfected pIRES2-UCH-L1-EGFP plasmid into MCF7 cells, respectively. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, we found accompanying over-expression of UCH-L1, EGFR was up-regulated in both MCF7/ADR and MCF7 cells. Preliminary results indicated the degradation of EGFR might be regulated by ubiquitin level. So we speculated that up-regulated UCH-L1 could promote expression level of EGFR, thereby enhance the invasion and metastasis abilities of tumor cells. Moreover, to further explore the role of UCH-L1 and EGFR, we investigated the expression of UCH-L1, EGFR and P-gp in 65 local advanced breast cancer cases by immunohistochemistry assay. The result showed that the patients not responding to chemotherapy had higher UCH-L1, EGFR and P-gp expression levels and more lymph nodes metastasis. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the patients with elevated UCH-L1 expression after chemotherapy presented shorter overall survival and disease free survival times than those with down-regulated or unchanged expression of UCH-L1. Our findings suggest that UCH-L1 may be an indicator of chemotherapy-response and poor-survival in breast cancer. UCH-L1 might be an appropriate target for improving chemo-resistant breast cancer therapy.

Bedekovics T, Hussain S, Feldman AL, Galardy PJ
UCH-L1 is induced in germinal center B cells and identifies patients with aggressive germinal center diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2016; 127(12):1564-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
Gene expression profiling has identified 2 major subclasses of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Cases resembling germinal center (GC) B cells (GCB-DLBCL) generally occur in younger patients, have a distinct molecular pathophysiology, and have improved outcomes compared with those similar to activated post-GC cells (activated B-cell DLBCL). We previously found that the ubiquitin hydrolase UCH-L1 is frequently overexpressed in mature B-cell malignancies and is a potent oncogene in mice. The cause for its overexpression in lymphoma, and whether it impacts the outcome of patients with DLBCL is unknown. Here, we show that UCH-L1 reflects GC lineage in lymphoma and is an oncogenic biomarker of aggressive GCB-DLBCL. We find that UCH-L1 is specifically induced in GC B cells in mice and humans, and that its expression correlates highly with the GCB subtype in DLBCL. We also find that UCH-L1 cooperates with BCL6 in a mouse model of GC B-cell lymphoma, but not with the development of multiple myeloma derived from post-GC cells. Despite the typically good outcomes of GCB-DLBCL, increased UCHL1 identifies a subgroup with early relapses independent of MYC expression, suggesting biological diversity in this subset of disease. Consistent with this, forced Uchl1 overexpression had a substantial impact on gene expression in GC B cells including pathways of cell cycle progression, cell death and proliferation, and DNA replication. These data demonstrate a novel role for UCH-L1 outside of the nervous system and suggest its potential use as a biomarker and therapeutic target in DLBCL.

Agarwal A, Pradhan R, Kumari N, et al.
Molecular Characteristics of Large Parathyroid Adenomas.
World J Surg. 2016; 40(3):607-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The clinical entity of large parathyroid adenomas (LPTAs) has not been well defined. It is speculated that LPTAs would have biochemical, histological, and molecular characteristics different from small adenomas. Our study aimed to find out occurrence of atypia and carcinomas in large parathyroid lesions and the presence of distinct molecular abnormalities in LPTAs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We divided the parathyroid lesions into large (>7 g, i.e., LPTAs) and small (<7 g) adenomas. We performed parafibromin, APC (adenomatous polyposis coli), galectin 3, and PGP9.5 (protein gene product 9.5) analysis by immunohistochemistry in adenomas without atypia, atypical adenomas, and carcinomas.
RESULTS: Mean serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and intact PTH were significantly higher in large parathyroid tumor group. The presence of both atypical adenoma and carcinoma was higher in large parathyroid tumor group. There was higher percentage of atypia in patients with LPTAs >10 g (33%), and 68% of tumors showed at least one marker suggestive of malignancy in this group. Detailed analysis of immunohistochemical features of LPTA >10 g revealed that six patients showed complete loss of parafibromin immunoreactivity (out of these four showed atypia), while seven showed partial loss. In histopathologically proven malignancy (n = 9), six patients showed complete loss of parafibromin staining, 5 (55%) APC negativity, and 45% showed both galectin 3 and PGP9.5 positivity. Three out of these showed all IHC markers s/o malignancy, and all of them had evidence of metastases or recurrence. 32% of atypical adenoma and 13% of atypical adenoma showed complete loss of parafibromin staining, however none developed metastases or recurrence in follow-up (median follow-up 40 months). Loss of parafibromin staining (complete or partial) was higher in LPTA group (56%) than that in small adenoma (39%); however, it was not statistically significant. APC, galectin 3, and PGP9.5 markers suggestive were higher in LPTA group but were not significant.
CONCLUSION: LPTAs may show some morphological and immunohistochemical features suggestive of malignancy and can be considered a separate entity. However, the immunohistochemical markers are unable to clearly segregate those LPTAs that may show premalignant potential. Further, we would like to recommend that LPTAs showing complete parafibromin loss together with atypia should be kept under close follow-up.

Friedrich RE, Behrendt CA, Glatzel M, Hagel C
Vascular Innervation in Benign Neurofibromas of Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(12):6509-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Neurofibroma constitutes a heterogeneous group of solid tumours occurring sporadically or in association with syndromes. The aspect of these peripheral nerve sheath tumours may vary considerably, with disseminated tumours covering various parts of the body or nodular/diffuse plexiform neurofibroma that can grow to an impressive size. Although neurofibromas have vascular density comparable to that of normal tissue, they have tendency to bleed upon surgery which is poorly understood. Herein we investigated whether this finding may result from alterations of peripheral vasculature innervation. Different types of neurofibroma and controls were evaluated with special reference to nerve fibre topography and vessel density.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-six formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples (63 neurofibromas and 13 skin biopsies) were retrieved from the archives of the Institute of Neuropathology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. Nerve fibres and blood vessels were differentiated immunohistochemically on 10-μm-thick tumour slices using antibodies against smooth muscle actin (arteries), protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) and neurofilament (nerve fibres). Skin samples served as controls. Nerve fibre and vessel densities were quantified morphometrically.
RESULTS: Nerve fibre density varied considerably. However, vascular innervation did not statistically significantly differ between the different tumour sub-groups and controls. Vessel density was not significantly increased in tumours compared to skin biopsies. Within the tumour sub-groups, diffuse plexiform neurofibroma presented a significantly higher vascular density than atypical neurofibroma (p=0.006).
CONCLUSION: Blood vessel density and vascular innervation in the whole cohort of neurofibromas did not significantly differ from that of controls. Thus, the source of prolonged and intense bleeding of neurofibroma during surgical procedures cannot be explained by increased vessel density or loss of innervation, but may be attributed to other factors such as alterations in the structure of the vascular wall.

Shang D, Han T, Xu X, Liu Y
Decitabine induces G2/M cell cycle arrest by suppressing p38/NF-κB signaling in human renal clear cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(9):11140-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The anti-neoplastic effects of decitabine, an inhibitor of DNA promoter methylation, are beneficial for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, the mechanism of action of decitabine is unclear. We analyzed gene expression profiling and identified specific pathways altered by decitabine in RCC cells.
METHODS: Four human RCC cell lines (ACHN, Caki-1, Caki-1, and A498) were used in this study; growth suppression of RCC cells by decitabine was analyzed using the WST-1 assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were examined using flow cytometric analysis. Gene expression of RCC cells induced by decitabine was evaluated with cDNA microarray, and potential biological pathways were selected using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The activity of the p38-NF-κB pathway regulated by decitabine was confirmed by Western blotting.
RESULTS: Decitabine suppresses the proliferation of RCC cells in vitro. Although decitabine did not significantly induce apoptosis, decitabine caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression regulated by decitabine in RCC cells was investigated using microarray analysis. Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1), interferon inducible protein 27 (IFI27), and cell division cycle-associated 2 (CDCA2) may be involved in growth suppression of RCC cells by decitabine. The phosphorylation of p38-NF-κB pathway was suppressed by decitabine in RCC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We investigated gene expression profiling and pathways modulated by decitabine in RCC cells. Decitabine was shown to suppress the growth of RCC cells via G2/M cell cycle arrest and the p38-NF-κB signaling pathway may play a role in the anti-neoplastic effect of decitabine in RCC cells.

Mu QJ, Li HL, Yao Y, et al.
Chromodomain Helicase/ATPase DNA-Binding Protein 1-Like Gene (CHD1L) Expression and Implications for Invasion and Metastasis of Breast Cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0143030 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chromodomain helicase/ATPase DNA-binding protein 1-like gene (CHD1L), also known as ALC1 (amplified in liver cancer 1 gene), is a new oncogene amplified in many solid tumors. Whether this gene plays a role in invasion and metastasis of breast cancer is unknown.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of CHD1L in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma and normal mammary glands. Chemotaxis, wound healing, and Transwell invasion assays were also performed to examine cell migration and invasion. Western blot analysis was conducted to detect the expression of CHD1L, MMP-2, MMP-9, pAkt/Akt, pARK5/ARK5, and pmTOR/mTOR. Moreover, ELISA was carried out to detect the expression levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Nude mice xenograft model was used to detect the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cell lines.
RESULTS: CHD1L overexpression was observed in 112 of 268 patients (41.8%). This overexpression was associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.008), tumor differentiation (P = 0.020), distant metastasis (P = 0.026), MMP-2 (P = 0.035), and MMP-9 expression (P = 0.022). In the cell experiment, reduction of CHD1L inhibited the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells by mediating MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. CHD1L knockdown via siRNA suppressed EGF-induced pAkt, pARK5, and pmTOR. This knockdown inhibited the metastasis of breast cancer cells into the lungs of SCID mice.
CONCLUSIONS: CHD1L promoted the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells via the PI3K/Akt/ARK5/mTOR/MMP signaling pathway. This study identified CHD1L as a potential anti-metastasis target for therapeutic intervention in breast cancer.

Wang G, Zhang W, Zhou B, et al.
The diagnosis value of promoter methylation of UCHL1 in the serum for progression of gastric cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:741030 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant promoter methylation has been considered as a potential molecular marker for gastric cancer (GC). However, the role of methylation of FLNC, THBS1, and UCHL1 in the development and progression of GC has not been explored.
METHODS: The promoter methylation status of UCHL1, FLNC, THBS1, and DLEC1 was assessed by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QMSP) in the serum of 82 GC patients, 46 chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) subjects, and 40 healthy controls.
RESULTS: All four genes had significantly higher methylation levels in GC patients than in CAG and control subjects. However, only UCHL1 methylation was significantly correlated with the tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. While THBS1 methylation was altered in an age-dependent manner, FLNC methylation was correlated with differentiation and Helicobacter pylori infection. DLEC1 methylation was only associated with tumor size. Moreover, methylated UCHL1 with or without THBS1 in the serum was found to be significantly associated with a poor prognosis.
CONCLUSION: The promoter methylation degree of FLNC, THBS1, UCHL1, and DLEC1 in serum could tell the existence of GC and only UCHL1 in the serum was also associated with poor prognosis of GC.

Waraya M, Yamashita K, Ema A, et al.
Exclusive Association of p53 Mutation with Super-High Methylation of Tumor Suppressor Genes in the p53 Pathway in a Unique Gastric Cancer Phenotype.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0139902 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive search for DNA methylated genes identified candidate tumor suppressor genes that have been proven to be involved in the apoptotic process of the p53 pathway. In this study, we investigated p53 mutation in relation to such epigenetic alteration in primary gastric cancer.
METHODS: The methylation profiles of the 3 genes: PGP9.5, NMDAR2B, and CCNA1, which are involved in the p53 tumor suppressor pathway in combination with p53 mutation were examined in 163 primary gastric cancers. The effect of epigenetic reversion in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs on apoptosis was also assessed according to the tumor p53 mutation status.
RESULTS: p53 gene mutations were found in 44 primary gastric tumors (27%), and super-high methylation of any of the 3 genes was only found in cases with wild type p53. Higher p53 pathway aberration was found in cases with male gender (p = 0.003), intestinal type (p = 0.005), and non-infiltrating type (p = 0.001). The p53 pathway aberration group exhibited less recurrence in lymph nodes, distant organs, and peritoneum than the p53 non-aberration group. In the NUGC4 gastric cancer cell line (p53 wild type), epigenetic treatment augmented apoptosis by chemotherapeutic drugs, partially through p53 transcription activity. On the other hand, in the KATO III cancer cell line (p53 mutant), epigenetic treatment alone induced robust apoptosis, with no trans-activation of p53.
CONCLUSION: In gastric cancer, p53 relevant and non-relevant pathways exist, and tumors with either pathway type exhibited unique clinical features. Epigenetic treatments can induce apoptosis partially through p53 activation, however their apoptotic effects may be explained largely by mechanism other than through p53 pathways.

Lee CH, Pan KL, Tang YC, et al.
LDOC1 silenced by cigarette exposure and involved in oral neoplastic transformation.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):25188-201 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
Previously, we identified global epigenetic aberrations in smoking-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We hypothesized that cigarette exposure triggers OSCC through alteration of the methylome of oral cells. Here we report that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) significantly changes the genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content and nuclear accumulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNMT3A in human untransformed oral cells. By using integrated analysis of cDNA and methylation arrays of the smoking-associated dysplastic oral cell line and OSCC tumors, respectively, we identified four epigenetic targets--UCHL1, GPX3, LXN, and LDOC1--which may be silenced by cigarette. Results of quantitative methylation-specific PCR showed that among these four genes, LDOC1 promoter was the most sensitive to CSC. LDOC1 promoter hypermethylation and gene silencing followed 3 weeks of CSC treatment. LDOC1 knockdown led to a proliferative response and acquired clonogenicity of untransformed oral cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that LDOC1 was downregulated in 53.3% (8/15) and 57.1% (20/35) of premalignant oral tissues and early stage OSCCs, respectively, whereas 76.5% (13/17) of normal oral tissues showed high LDOC1 expression. Furthermore, the microarray data showed that LDOC1 expression had decreased in the lung tissues of current smokers compared with that in those of never smokers and had significantly decreased in the lung tumors of smokers compared with that in normal lung tissues. Our data suggest that CSC-induced promoter methylation may contribute to LDOC1 downregulation, thereby conferring oncogenic features to oral cells. These findings also imply a tumor suppressor role of LDOC1 in smoking-related malignancies such as OSCC and lung cancer.

Abdelmaksoud-Dammak R, Saadallah-Kallel A, Miladi-Abdennadher I, et al.
CpG methylation of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1) and P53 mutation pattern in sporadic colorectal cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(2):1707-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an essential regulatory role in various cellular processes. Besides its involvement in normal cellular functions, the alteration of proteasomal activity contributes to the pathological states of several clinical disorders, including cancer. Aberrant methylation of the CpG islands has been reported as an alternative way to inactivate gene expression involved in the ubiquitination process and thus protein degradation in tumor tissues. In this study, we aimed to determine the CpG methylation pattern of the UCHL1 promoter, as well as the mutation spectrum and the expression pattern of P53 in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) from Tunisian patients. We found that UCHL1 was methylated in 68.57 % and correlated significantly with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.029) and transcriptional silencing in tumor tissues (P = 0.013). Mutation screening of exons 5-9 of P53 showed that 42.85 % of cases harbor somatic mutation and are positively correlated with the methylated pattern of UCHL1 (P = 0.001). Furthermore, cytoplasmic accumulation of P53 was strongly associated with the unmethylated UCHL1 profile (P = 0.006), supporting the relationship between these two proteins in CRC.

Liu QX, Zheng H, Deng XF, et al.
Status of the Parkinson's disease gene family expression in non-small-cell lung cancer.
World J Surg Oncol. 2015; 13:238 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to detect the Parkinson's disease gene family mRNA relative expression in the non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor tissue and analyze the association between tumor characteristics and the Parkinson's disease gene family.
METHODS: Tumor tissue and tumor-adjacent tissue of 114 NSCLC patients were collected and SYBR quantitative analysis was used to detect the relative expression level of nine Parkinson's disease gene mRNAs. Then, paired sample test, two-sided Student's t-test, or two-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to analyze the mRNA relative expression level of nine Parkinson's disease gene mRNAs in different gender, tumor histology, and tumor stage.
RESULTS: Overexpression in the tumors was detected in 46/114 (40.35%) PARK1/4, 74/114 (64.91%) PARK2, 104/114 (91.23%) PARK5, 95/114 (83.33%) PARK6, 80/114 (70.18%) PARK7, 55/114 (48.25%) PARK8, 100/114 (87.72%) PARK9, 55/114 (48.25%) PARK15, and 99/114 (86.84%) glucocerebrosidase (GBA). Five genes PARK5 (91.23%), PARK6 (83.33%), PARK7 (70.18%), PARK9 (87.72%), and GBA (86.84%) were supposed to be overexpressed in the lung tumor tissues compared with tumor-adjacent tissues. There was no significant difference in PARK1/4, PARK2, PARK5, PARK9, and GBA mRNA expression by different tumor stage, whereas, PARK6, PARK7, PARK8, and PARK15 mRNA expression were found to have significant difference in the comparison of different tumor stages. The expression of PARK6 (P=0.01, P=0.03) and PARK15 (P<0.001, P<0.001) were significantly higher in stages I and II when compared with stage III, respectively. NSCLC patients in stage I showed the higher expression PARK7 compared to the patients in stage II (P=0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: The high expression of PARK6, PARK7, and PARK15 might lead to the occurrence of a primary NSCLC tumor, and the tumor with a decreasing expression of these three genes tends to be stages II and III. The results of our study indicate that the Parkinson's disease gene family may be a potential marker for the prediction of NSCLC.

Zheng XK, Lu SH, Liu JF, Lai YR
Clinical and pathological features and treatment of AIDS-related cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in Chinese Han patients.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(2):6830-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
This retrospective study aimed to observe the clinicopathological features and immunological phenotypes, and explore effective treatment and prognosis for 12 Chinese Han patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. All 12 patients were human immunodeficiency virus-positive, and underwent the standard highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Skin lesions mainly presented as purple, or rufous papules, or plaques; skin biopsy showed diffuse or flaky infiltration of spindle cells, active proliferation of slit-like vasculature, erythrocyte exudation, hemosiderin deposition, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the expression of Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (+), and CD31 (+) in T-cells; factor VIII (+) and HHF-35 (+) in the proliferating vascular endothelial cells; vimentin (+) and S-100 protein (-) in the vessel wall; and CD34 (+++) in the spindle cells of 6 cases, with 1 case of negative CD34 expression. Four patients with confined lesions underwent surgery and microwave therapy, and received a favorable prognosis. Two patients with limited lesions underwent microwave therapy, and the lesions subsided. Of six patients with widely distributed sarcomas, five underwent microwave therapy and one received combined chemotherapy; five attained significant efficacy, and one died. There were no significant differences in the clinicopathological features and immunological phenotypes between the Chinese Han patients and those from other populations. Along with basal HAART, patients in early stages, with sarcomas <2 cm in diameter should undergo surgery and microwave therapy, while patients with sarcomas >2 cm in diameter should undergo chemotherapy and microwave therapy.

Gu YY, Yang M, Zhao M, et al.
The de-ubiquitinase UCHL1 promotes gastric cancer metastasis via the Akt and Erk1/2 pathways.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(11):8379-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCHL1) is a de-ubiquitinating enzyme, which enzymatic activity relies on the C90 site. The function of UCHL1 is controversial in different types of cancer, and its role in gastric cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, immunohistochemistry staining was applied to detect the expression of UCHL1 in primary gastric cancer and liver metastases from gastric cancer. MKN45 and BGC823 cell lines with stable expression of de-ubiquitinase active UCHL1 or inactive UCHL1-variant C90S were established by lentiviral infection. The effect of UCHL1 on cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT and colony formation assays. The abilities of cell migration and invasion were determined by transwell assay. Protein expression levels were determined by Western blot. The results indicated that UCHL1 had a significantly higher positive expression rate in liver metastases from gastric cancer compared with primary gastric cancer. Overexpression of UCHL1 in MKN45 and BGC823 cells promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion depending on its de-ubiquitinase activity. UCHL1 activated Akt and Erk1/2, which process also required enzymatic activity and was necessary for mediating cell migration and invasion. These findings demonstrated that UCHL1 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion depending on its de-ubiquitinase activity by activating Akt and Erk1/2, which may account for its higher positive expression rate in liver metastases from gastric cancer. UCHL1 could be a candidate biomarker and a therapeutic target for gastric cancer metastasis.

Chen Y, Cha Z, Fang W, et al.
The prognostic potential and oncogenic effects of PRR11 expression in hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(24):20419-33 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
PRR11 is a newly identified oncogene in lung cancer, yet its role in others tumors remains unclear. Gastrointestinal tissue microarrays were used to evaluate PRR11 expression and its association with clinical outcome was analyzed in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Overexpression of PRR11 was observed in esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colorectal, and hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Expression of PRR11 correlated with lymph node metastasis and CA199 level in two HC patient cohorts. After an R0 resection, a high level of PRR11 expression was found to be an independent indicator of recurrence (P = 0.001). In cell culture, PRR11 silencing resulted in decreased cellular proliferation, cell migration, tumor growth of QBC939 cells. Microarray analysis revealed that several genes involved in cell proliferation, cell adhesion, and cell migration were altered in PRR11-knockout cells, including: vimentin (VIM), Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1), early growth response protein (EGR1), and System A amino acid transporter1 (SNAT1). Silencing PRR11 inhibited the expression of UCHL1, EGR1, and SNAT1 proteins, with immunoassays revealing a significant correlation among the levels of these four proteins. These results indicate that PRR11 is an independent prognostic indicator for patients with HC.

Goto Y, Zeng L, Yeom CJ, et al.
UCHL1 provides diagnostic and antimetastatic strategies due to its deubiquitinating effect on HIF-1α.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:6153 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) plays a role in tumour metastases; however, the genes that activate HIF-1 and subsequently promote metastases have yet to be identified. Here we show that Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCHL1) abrogates the von Hippel-Lindau-mediated ubiquitination of HIF-1α, the regulatory subunit of HIF-1, and consequently promotes metastasis. The aberrant overexpression of UCHL1 facilitates distant tumour metastases in a HIF-1-dependent manner in murine models of pulmonary metastasis. Meanwhile, blockade of the UCHL1-HIF-1 axis suppresses the formation of metastatic tumours. The expression levels of UCHL1 correlate with those of HIF-1α and are strongly associated with the poor prognosis of breast and lung cancer patients. These results indicate that UCHL1 promotes metastases as a deubiquitinating enzyme for HIF-1α, which justifies exploiting it as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target of cancers.

El-Mallawany NK, Day N, Ayello J, et al.
Differential proteomic analysis of endemic and sporadic Epstein-Barr virus-positive and negative Burkitt lymphoma.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(1):92-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children worldwide and the most common paediatric malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa. The endemic (eBL) and sporadic (sBL) variants have distinct epidemiologic and virologic characteristics. Although gene expression studies have defined the transcriptional profiles of both, their proteomic signatures have not been studied.
METHODS: We compared the proteomic expression profiles using differential mass spectrometry-based isotope tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis of a cell line representing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ eBL, EBV+ and EBV- sBL, and EBV+/- normal B cells from healthy donors.
RESULTS: In total, there were 144 differentially expressed proteins with a statistically significant false discovery rate (FDR) of ⩽0.2. Results revealed over-expression of specific proteins with well-established links to lymphomagenesis such as TUBB2C (FDR 0.05), UCHL1 (FDR 0.05) and HSP90AB1 (FDR 0.1). Distinct characteristics based upon the epidemiologic and virologic subtypes of BL were also identified. In sBL, PCNA (FDR 0.05) and SLC3A2 (FDR 0.1) were significantly over-expressed. In eBL, C1QBP (FDR 0.1) and ENO1 (FDR 0.25) were significantly over-expressed. Comparison of EBV+ to EBV- BL cell lines and B cells revealed significant over-expression of DDX3X (FDR 0.1). Proteins were validated using Western blot analysis.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest unique signal transduction pathways associated with EBV infection and epidemiological subtype of BL that may contribute to lymphomagenesis. These proteomic findings provide potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic links to BL.

Kagohara LT, Schussel JL, Subbannayya T, et al.
Global and gene-specific DNA methylation pattern discriminates cholecystitis from gallbladder cancer patients in Chile.
Future Oncol. 2015; 11(2):233-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of global and gene-specific DNA methylation changes as potential biomarkers for gallbladder cancer (GBC) in a cohort from Chile.
MATERIAL & METHODS: DNA methylation was analyzed through an ELISA-based technique and quantitative methylation-specific PCR.
RESULTS: Global DNA Methylation Index (p = 0.02) and promoter methylation of SSBP2 (p = 0.01) and ESR1 (p = 0.05) were significantly different in GBC when compared with cholecystitis. Receiver curve operator analysis revealed promoter methylation of APC, CDKN2A, ESR1, PGP9.5 and SSBP2, together with the Global DNA Methylation Index, had 71% sensitivity, 95% specificity, a 0.97 area under the curve and a positive predictive value of 90%.
CONCLUSION: Global and gene-specific DNA methylation may be useful biomarkers for GBC clinical assessment.

Jankowski M, Kopinski P, Schwartz R, Czajkowski R
Merkel cell carcinoma: is this a true carcinoma?
Exp Dermatol. 2014; 23(11):792-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent years have brought an enhanced understanding of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) biology, especially with regard to the Merkel cell polyoma virus as a causative agent. Differences between Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive and Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative MCC in morphology; gene expression, miRNA profiles and prognosis have been reported. Origin of MCC is controversial. Presence of neurosecretory granules has suggested that these carcinomas originate from one of the neurocrest derivatives, most probably Merkel cells; the name Merkel cell carcinoma is now widely accepted. Expression of PGP 9.5, chromogranin A and several neuropeptides, initially regarded as specific markers for neural and neuroendocrine cells, has recently been shown in a subset of lymphomas. MCC commonly expresses terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and PAX5. Their co-expression under physiologic circumstances is restricted to pro/pre-B cells and pre-B cells. These findings lead to the hypothesis by zur Hausen et al. that MCC originates from early B cells. This review was intended to critically appraise zur Hausen's hypothesis and discuss the possibility that MCC is a heterogenous entity with distinct subtypes.

Sun Y, Zhu L, Huang X, et al.
Immunohistochemical localization of nerve fibers in the pseudocapsule of fibroids.
Eur J Histochem. 2014; 58(2):2249 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
The pseudocapsule surrounding fibroids consists of compressed myometrium containing nerves and blood vessels that continue into adjacent myometrium. Oxytocin (OXT) is thought to affect wound healing after myomectomy. We determined the presence of OXT and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) immunoreactive nerve fibers in pseudocapsule compared to adjacent myometrium. Samples (N=106) of pseudocapsule and adjacent myometrium were collected from 57 women with uterine fibroids undergoing myomectomy, and stained with anti-OXT and PGP 9.5 antibodies to demonstrate the presence of nerve fibers. Nerve fibers in the pseudocapsule stained positively with OXT (89/106, 84.0%) and PGP 9.5 (94/106, 88.7%). The densities of nerve fibers staining with PGP 9.5 and OXT in the pseudocapsule were highest in the isthmus (23.68±22.45/mm2 and 43.35±40.74/mm2, respectively). There were no significant differences in the density of nerve fibers, stained with either OXT or PGP 9.5, between the pseudocapsule, and adjacent normal myometrium regardless of the fibroid location in the uterus (P>0.05). These results suggest that the pseudocapsule should avoid to be damaged during the myomectomy procedure.

Zhao Q, Yang Y, Liang X, et al.
The clinicopathological significance of neurogenesis in breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:484 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent reports support a novel biological phenomenon about cancer related neurogenesis. However, little is known about the clinicopathological significance of neurogenesis in breast cancer.
METHODS: A total of 196 cases, including 20 of normal tissue, 14 of fibroadenoma, 18 of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 144 of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast were used. The tissue slides were immunostained for protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and S 100 to identify nerves. The correlation between the expression of PGP 9.5 and clinicopathological characteristics in IDC of the breast was assessed.
RESULTS: While the PGP 9.5 positive nerve fibers are identified in all cases of normal breast tissue controls and in the tumor stroma of 61% (89/144) cases of invasive ductal carcinomas, PGP 9.5 positive nerve fibers are not seen in the tumor stroma of cases of fibroadenoma and DCIS. The percentage of tumors that exhibited neurogenesis increased from tumor grade I to tumor grade II and III (29.4% vs 71.8%, p < 0.0001). In addition, patients with less than 3 years of disease-free survival tended to have a higher positive expression of PGP 9.5 compared to patients with an equal or more than 3 years of disease-free survival (64.8% vs 46.7%, p = 0.035). Furthermore, moderate/strong expression of PGP 9.5 was found to be significantly related to microvessel density (MVD, p = 0.014). Interestingly, PGP 9.5 expression was significantly associated with higher MVD in the ER-negative (p = 0.045) and node-negative (p = 0.039) subgroups of IDC of the breast.
CONCLUSIONS: This data indicates that neurogenesis is associated with some aggressive features of IDC including tumor grade and patient survival as well as angiogenesis, especially in ER-negative and node-negative subtypes of IDC of the breast. Thus, neurogenesis appears to be associated with breast cancer progression and may play a role in therapeutic guidance for patients with ER-negative and node-negative invasive breast cancer.

Kleiman DA, Beninato T, Sultan S, et al.
Silencing of UCHL1 by CpG promoter hyper-methylation is associated with metastatic gastroenteropancreatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2014; 21 Suppl 4:S672-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Well-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are rare tumors with varying metastatic potential. The underlying molecular basis for metastasis by GEP-NETs remains undefined.
METHODS: Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 (UCHL1) gene and protein expression was performed on a group of localized and metastatic well-differentiated GEP-NET samples acquired from a prospectively maintained tissue bank. The ability of extent of UCHL1 IHC staining to differentiate localized and metastatic tumors was compared with Ki-67 index.
RESULTS: Among 46 total samples, UCHL1 expression at both the gene and protein level was significantly greater among localized GEP-NETs compared with metastatic tumors and metastases (p < 0.001). Hypermethylation of the UCHL1 promoter was commonly observed among metastatic primary tumors and metastases (those with the lowest UCHL1 expression) but not among localized tumors (p < 0.001). Poor staining (<50 %) for UCHL1 was observed in 27 % of localized tumors compared with 87 % of metastatic tumors (p = 0.001). The presence of <50 % staining for UCHL1 was 88 % sensitive and 73 % specific for identifying metastatic disease. In contrast, there was no association between Ki-67 index and metastatic disease. In multivariable analysis, only UCHL1 staining <50 % [odds ratio (OR) 24.5, p = 0.035] and vascular invasion (OR 38.4, p = 0.03) were independent risk factors for metastatic disease at the time of initial surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: Loss of UCHL1 expression by CpG promoter hypermethylation is associated with metastatic GEP-NETs. Extent of UCHL1 staining should be explored as a potentially clinically useful adjunct to Ki-67 index in evaluating GEP-NETs for aggressive features.

Olar A, He D, Florentin D, et al.
Biologic correlates and significance of axonogenesis in prostate cancer.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(7):1358-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
Cancer-related axonogenesis and neurogenesis are recently described biologic phenomena. Our previously published data showed that nerve density and the number of neurons in the parasympathetic ganglia are increased in prostate cancer (PCa) and associated with aggressive disease. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 640 radical prostatectomy specimens with PCa. Anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) antibodies were used to identify and quantify nerve density. Protein expression was objectively analyzed using deconvolution imaging, image segmentation, and image analysis. Data were correlated with clinicopathological variables and tissue biomarkers available in our database. Nerve density, as measured by PGP 9.5 expression, had a weak but significant positive correlation with the lymph node status (ρ = 0.106; P = .0275). By Cox univariate analysis, PGP 9.5 was a predictor of time to biochemical recurrence, but not on multivariate analysis. Increased nerve density correlated with increased proliferation of PCa cells. It also correlated with expression of proteins involved in survival pathways (Phosphorylated alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase, NFκB, GSK-2, PIM-2, c-Myc, SKP-2, SRF, P27n, PTEN), with increased levels of hormonal regulation elements (androgen receptor, estrogen receptor α), and coregulators and repressors (SRC-1, SRC-2, AIB-1, DAX). Axonogenesis is a recently described phenomenon of paramount importance in the biology of PCa. Although the degree of axonogenesis is predictive of aggressive behavior in PCa, it does not add to the information present in current models on multivariate analysis. We present data that corroborate that axonogenesis is involved in biologic processes such as proliferation of PCa, through activation of survival pathways and interaction with hormonal regulation.

Heitzer E, Artl M, Filipits M, et al.
Differential survival trends of stage II colorectal cancer patients relate to promoter methylation status of PCDH10, SPARC, and UCHL1.
Mod Pathol. 2014; 27(6):906-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Surgical excision of colorectal cancer at early clinical stages is highly effective, but 20-30% of patients relapse. Therefore, it is of clinical relevance to identify patients at high risk for recurrence, who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to identify prognostic and/or predictive methylation markers in stage II colorectal cancer patients. Therefore, we selected six gene promoters (FZD9, PCDH10 (protocadherin 10), SFRP2, SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine), UCHL1 (ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 1), and WIF1) for methylation analysis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary tumor samples of colorectal cancer patients (n=143) who were enrolled in a prospective randomized phase III trial of the Austrian Breast and Colorectal cancer Study Group. Patients were randomized to adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin or surveillance only. Survival analyses revealed that combined evaluation of three promoters (PCDH10, SPARC, and UCHL1) showed differential effects with regard to disease-free survival and overall survival in the two treatment groups (significance level 0.007). In the chemotherapy arm, a statistically insignificant trend for patients without methylation toward longer survival was observed (P=0.069 for disease-free survival and P=0.139 for overall survival). Contrary, patients in the surveillance arm without methylation in their gene promoters had shorter disease-free survival and overall survival (P=0.031 for disease-free survival and P=0.003 for overall survival), indicating a prognostic effect of methylation in this group (test for interaction, P=0.006 for disease-free survival and P=0.018 for overall survival). These results indicate that promoter methylation status of PCDH10, SPARC, and UCHL1 may be used both as prognostic and predictive molecular marker for colorectal cancer patients and, therefore, may facilitate treatment decisions for stage II colorectal cancer.

Brait M, Maldonado L, Noordhuis MG, et al.
Association of promoter methylation of VGF and PGP9.5 with ovarian cancer progression.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e70878 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
PURPOSE: To elucidate the role of biological and clinical impact of aberrant promoter hypermethylation (PH) in ovarian cancer (OC).
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: PH of PGP9.5, HIC1, AIM1, APC, PAK3, MGMT, KIF1A, CCNA1, ESR1, SSBP2, GSTP1, FKBP4 and VGF were assessed by quantitative methylation specific PCR (QMSP) in a training set. We selected two genes (VGF and PGP9.5) for further QMSP analysis in a larger independent validation (IV) set with available clinical data. Biologic relevance of VGF gene was also evaluated.
RESULTS: PH frequency for PGP9.5 and VGF were 85% (316/372) and 43% (158/366) respectively in the IV set of samples while no PH was observed in controls. In 372 OC cases with available follow up, PGP9.5 and VGF PH were correlated with better patient survival [Hazard Ratios (HR) for overall survival (OS) were 0.59 (95% Confidence Intervals (CI)  = 0.42-0.84, p = 0.004), and 0.73 (95%CI = 0.55-0.97, p = 0.028) respectively, and for disease specific survival (DSS) were 0.57 (95%CI 0.39-0.82, p = 0.003) and 0.72 (95%CI 0.54-0.96, p = 0.027). In multivariate analysis, VGF PH remained an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR 0.61, 95%CI 0.43-0.86, p<0.005) and DSS (HR 0.58, 95%CI 0.41-0.83, p<0.003). Furthermore, PGP9.5 PH was significantly correlated with lower grade, early stage tumors, and with absence of residual disease. Forced expression of VGF in OC cell lines inhibited cell growth.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that VGF and PGP9.5 PH are potential biomarkers for ovarian carcinoma. Confirmatory cohorts with longitudinal follow-up are required in future studies to define the clinical impact of VGF and PGP9.5 PH before clinical application.

Kruijff S, Sidhu SB, Sywak MS, et al.
Negative parafibromin staining predicts malignant behavior in atypical parathyroid adenomas.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2014; 21(2):426-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The histopathological criteria for carcinoma proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) are imperfect predictors of the malignant potential of parathyroid tumors. Negative parafibromin (PF) and positive protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) staining are markers of CDC73 mutation and occur commonly in carcinoma but rarely in adenomas. We investigated whether PF and PGP9.5 staining could be used to predict the behavior of atypical parathyroid adenomas--tumors with atypical features that do not fulfill WHO criteria for malignancy.
METHODS: Long-term outcomes were compared across four groups: group A, WHO-positive criteria/PF-negative staining; group B, WHO(+)/PF(+), group C; WHO(-)/PF(-); and group D, WHO(-)/PF(+).
RESULTS: Eighty-one patients were included in the period 1999-2012: group A (n = 13), group B (n = 14), group C (n = 21), and group D (n = 33). Mortality and recurrence rates, respectively, for group A were 15 and 38%, for group B 7 and 36%, for group C 0 and 10%, and for group D 0 and 0%. The PGP9.5(+) ratios for groups A to D were 85, 78, 71, and 12%, further informing prognosis. Five-year disease-free survival for groups A to D were 55, 80, 78, and 100%, respectively. Tumor recurrence was significantly associated with PF (p = 0.048) and PGP9.5 (p = 0.003) staining.
CONCLUSIONS: Although WHO criteria are essential to differentiate parathyroid carcinoma from benign tumors, the presence of negative PF staining in an atypical adenoma predicts outcome better, whereas PF-positive atypical adenomas do not recur and can be considered benign. PF-negative atypical adenomas have a low but real recurrence risk and should be considered tumors of low malignant potential.

Schröder C, Milde-Langosch K, Gebauer F, et al.
Prognostic relevance of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) mRNA and protein expression in breast cancer patients.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013; 139(10):1745-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) belongs to the family of deubiquitinating enzymes. It is overexpressed in various tumour entities and associated with metastases formation in some solid tumours. However, only limited information about its role in breast cancer is available. The aim of this study was to examine the UCH-L1 expression in primary breast cancer and to determine its relevance as a potential prognostic marker.
METHODS: We investigated both UCH-L1 mRNA expression in microarray data from 182 primary mammary carcinomas and UCH-L1 protein expression using a tissue microarray containing samples from 1,622 breast cancer patients.
RESULTS: With both methods, high UCH-L1 expression correlated significantly with negative oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status and advanced tumour stage. Moreover by Kaplan-Meier analysis, high UCH-L1 mRNA and protein expression correlated with a significantly shorter overall survival.
CONCLUSION: The data of our study suggest that high levels of UCH-L1 expression indicate a more aggressive tumour behaviour and might represent a potential target in breast cancer treatment.

Tanaka T, Kuramitsu Y, Wang Y, et al.
Glyoxalase 1 as a candidate for indicating the metastatic potential of SN12C human renal cell carcinoma cell clones.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(5):2365-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Three clones with differential metastatic potential were established from the parental SN12C human renal cell carcinoma (HRCC). We previously reported that in the two high metastatic SN12C clones, two isoforms of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCH‑L1) showed decreased expression by using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2‑DE) covering a pH range (pH 3.0‑10.0) followed by liquid chromatography‑tandem mass spectrometry. However, in the case of the low metastatic clone, the spot volume for UCH‑L1 was almost the same as for the parental SN12C. In the present study, we found one protein spot which was correlated with the metastatic potential of SN12C clones by using 2‑DE over a narrow pH range (pH 4.0‑7.0). The protein glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) appeared to be directly proportional to the metastatic potential of the SN12C clones. GLO1 was the only protein which consistently varied according to the metastatic potentials of SN12C clones. GLO1 was increased in high metastatic cell lines by western blot analysis. These findings suggest that GLO1 is associated with the metastatic potential of SN12C HRCC clones. We expanded our experimental range to include clones of scirrhous gastric cancer cell lines (OCUM‑2M, OCUM‑2D and OCUM‑2MLN) and similar results were obtained, thereby further strengthening our original findings.

Tomita T
PGP 9.5 immunocytochemical staining for pancreatic endocrine tumors.
Islets. 2013 May-Jun; 5(3):122-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 24/03/2017 Related Publications
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) is a marker for neuroendocrine cells but has not been used for pancreatic islet cells and pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs). Antibodies for PGP 9.5 are now commercially available for immunocytochemical study, with which immunostaining may be able to differentiate between benign and malignant PETs.
RESULTS: All 4 kinds of normal islet cells were positively immunostained for PGP 9.5-moderately positive for β-cells and strongly positive for δ-cells, whereas ganglion cells were immunostained more strongly than islet cells. Nine of 12 insulinomas were moderately to strongly positive for PGP 9.5. Two glucagonomas, 3 of 6 pancreatic polypeptidomas (PPomas), 3 of 9 gastrinomas, and 2 of 4 non-functioning PETs were negative for PGP 9.5.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four PETs were immunocytochemically stained for PGP 9.5 using a rabbit polyclonal antibody together with immunostaining for 4 pancreatic hormones, chromogranin A (CgA), and gastrin. PETs consisted of 12 insulinomas, 2 glucagonomas, 1 somatostatinoma (SRIFoma), 6 PPomas, 9 gastrinomas, and 4 non-functioning PETs.
CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: PGP 9.5 immunostaining was universally positive for 4 kinds of islet cells and was moderately to strongly positive for 9 of 12 (75%) insulinomas. All 22 non-β-cell PETs were negative or weakly positive for PGP 9.5, and thus negative or weakly positive PGP 9.5 immunostaining may be used as a marker for potential malignancy and poor prognosis for non-β-cell PETs.

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