Gene Summary

Gene:NSD3; nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 3
Aliases: KMT3F, KMT3G, WHISTLE, WHSC1L1, pp14328
Summary:This gene is related to the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate-1 gene and encodes a protein with PWWP (proline-tryptophan-tryptophan-proline) domains. This protein methylates histone H3 at lysine residues 4 and 27, which represses gene transcription. Two alternatively spliced variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2015]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:histone-lysine N-methyltransferase NSD3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (10)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • FISH
  • Transcription Factors
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Lung Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • FGFR1
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Cell Survival
  • Gene Amplification
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Chromosome 8
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Epigenetics
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Mutation
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Breast Cancer
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs
  • Phosphatidate Phosphatase
  • Cell Cycle
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins
  • Histones
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • siRNA
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Amino Acid Sequence
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: WHSC1L1 (cancer-related)

Rooney C, Geh C, Williams V, et al.
Characterization of FGFR1 Locus in sqNSCLC Reveals a Broad and Heterogeneous Amplicon.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0149628 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
FGFR1 amplification occurs in ~20% of sqNSCLC and trials with FGFR inhibitors have selected FGFR1 amplified patients by FISH. Lung cancer cell lines were profiled for sensitivity to AZD4547, a potent, selective inhibitor of FGFRs 1-3. Sensitivity to FGFR inhibition was associated with but not wholly predicted by increased FGFR1 gene copy number. Additional biomarker assays evaluating expression of FGFRs and correlation between amplification and expression in clinical tissues are therefore warranted. We validated nanoString for mRNA expression analysis of 194 genes, including FGFRs, from clinical tumour tissue. In a panel of sqNSCLC tumours 14.4% (13/90) were FGFR1 amplified by FISH. Although mean FGFR1 expression was significantly higher in amplified samples, there was significant overlap in the range of expression levels between the amplified and non-amplified cohorts with several non-amplified samples expressing FGFR1 to levels equivalent to amplified samples. Statistical analysis revealed increased expression of FGFR1 neighboring genes on the 8p12 amplicon (BAG4, LSM1 and WHSC1L1) in FGFR1 amplified tumours, suggesting a broad rather than focal amplicon and raises the potential for codependencies. High resolution aCGH analysis of pre-clinical and clinical samples supported the presence of a broad and heterogeneous amplicon around the FGFR1 locus. In conclusion, the range of FGFR1 expression levels in both FGFR1 amplified and non-amplified NSCLC tissues, together with the breadth and intra-patient heterogeneity of the 8p amplicon highlights the need for gene expression analysis of clinical samples to inform the understanding of determinants of response to FGFR inhibitors. In this respect the nanoString platform provides an attractive option for RNA analysis of FFPE clinical samples.

Shen C, Ipsaro JJ, Shi J, et al.
NSD3-Short Is an Adaptor Protein that Couples BRD4 to the CHD8 Chromatin Remodeler.
Mol Cell. 2015; 60(6):847-59 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein BRD4 is a therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we demonstrate that the AML maintenance function of BRD4 requires its interaction with NSD3, which belongs to a subfamily of H3K36 methyltransferases. Unexpectedly, AML cells were found to only require a short isoform of NSD3 that lacks the methyltransferase domain. We show that NSD3-short is an adaptor protein that sustains leukemia by linking BRD4 to the CHD8 chromatin remodeler, by using a PWWP chromatin reader module, and by employing an acidic transactivation domain. Genetic targeting of NSD3 or CHD8 mimics the phenotypic and transcriptional effects of BRD4 inhibition. Furthermore, BRD4, NSD3, and CHD8 colocalize across the AML genome, and each is released from super-enhancer regions upon chemical inhibition of BET bromodomains. These findings suggest that BET inhibitors exert therapeutic effects in leukemia by evicting BRD4-NSD3-CHD8 complexes from chromatin to suppress transcription.

Katoh M
Mutation spectra of histone methyltransferases with canonical SET domains and EZH2-targeted therapy.
Epigenomics. 2016; 8(2):285-305 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germline mutations in canonical SET-methyltransferases have been identified in autism and intellectual disability syndromes and gain-of-function somatic alterations in EZH2, MLL3, NSD1, WHSC1 (NSD2) and WHSC1L1 (NSD3) in cancer. EZH2 interacts with AR, ERα, β-catenin, FOXP3, NF-κB, PRC2, REST and SNAI2, resulting in context-dependent transcriptional activation and repression. Pharmacological EZH2 inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of B-cell lymphomas and solid tumors. EZH2 inhibitors might also be applicable in the treatment of SWI/SNF-mutant cancers, reflecting the reciprocal expression of and functional overlap between EZH2 and SMARCA4. Because of the risks for autoimmune diseases, cognitive impairment, cardiomyopathy and myelodysplastic syndrome, EZH2 inhibitors should be utilized for cancer treatment in patients receiving long-term surveillance but not for cancer chemoprevention.

Liu L, Kimball S, Liu H, et al.
Genetic alterations of histone lysine methyltransferases and their significance in breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(4):2466-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone lysine methyltransferases (HMTs), a large class of enzymes that catalyze site-specific methylation of lysine residues on histones and other proteins, play critical roles in controlling transcription, chromatin architecture, and cellular differentiation. However, the genomic landscape and clinical significance of HMTs in breast cancer remain poorly characterized. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of approximately 50 HMTs in breast cancer and identified associations among recurrent copy number alterations, mutations, gene expression, and clinical outcome. We identified 12 HMTs with the highest frequency of genetic alterations, including 8 with high-level amplification, 2 with putative homozygous deletion, and 2 with somatic mutation. Different subtypes of breast cancer have different patterns of copy number and expression for each HMT gene. In addition, chromosome 1q contains four HMTs that are concurrently or independently amplified or overexpressed in breast cancer. Copy number or mRNA expression of several HMTs was significantly associated with basal-like breast cancer and shorter patient survival. Integrative analysis identified 8 HMTs (SETDB1, SMYD3, ASH1L, SMYD2, WHSC1L1, SUV420H1, SETDB2, and KMT2C) that are dysregulated by genetic alterations, classifying them as candidate therapeutic targets. Together, our findings provide a strong foundation for further mechanistic research and therapeutic options using HMTs to treat breast cancer.

Suzuki S, Kurabe N, Ohnishi I, et al.
NSD3-NUT-expressing midline carcinoma of the lung: first characterization of primary cancer tissue.
Pathol Res Pract. 2015; 211(5):404-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare, aggressive malignancy. Only two pediatric and three adult cases of pulmonary NMCs have been documented. In more than two-thirds of NMC cases, a gene fusion between NUT and BRD4 or BRD3 has been documented; other fusions are rare.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old woman was admitted because of a rapidly progressing tumor of the lung with metastases to the breast and bone. A biopsy from the lung tumor revealed an undifferentiated neoplasm exhibiting round to oval nuclei with vesicular chromatin, prominent nucleoli, and scant cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated focal EMA, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, cytokeratin CAM 5.2, p63, CD138, and vimentin positivity. Finally, the nuclear staining pattern for NUT confirmed a histopathological diagnosis of NMC. A 5'- rapid amplification of the cDNA end (RACE) procedure successfully identified the partner of the NUT translocation as NSD3, a recently discovered partner. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the NSD3-NUT gene rearrangement, whereas a BRD3/4-NUT fusion gene was not detected.
CONCLUSION: We herein describe the first case of an NSD3-NUT-expressing NMC of the lung. The further accumulation of variant NMCs should provide clues to the establishment of new individualized therapy for NMCs.

Severson PL, Vrba L, Stampfer MR, Futscher BW
Exome-wide mutation profile in benzo[a]pyrene-derived post-stasis and immortal human mammary epithelial cells.
Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2014; 775-776:48-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic mutations are known to drive cancer progression and certain tumors have mutation signatures that reflect exposures to environmental carcinogens. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) has a known mutation signature and has proven capable of inducing changes to DNA sequence that drives normal pre-stasis human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) past a first tumor suppressor barrier (stasis) and toward immortality. We analyzed normal, pre-stasis HMEC, three independent BaP-derived post-stasis HMEC strains (184Aa, 184Be, 184Ce) and two of their immortal derivatives(184A1 and 184BE1) by whole exome sequencing. The independent post-stasis strains exhibited between 93 and 233 BaP-induced mutations in exons. Seventy percent of the mutations were C:G>A:T transversions, consistent with the known mutation spectrum of BaP. Mutations predicted to impact protein function occurred in several known and putative cancer drivers including p16, PLCG1, MED12, TAF1 in 184Aa; PIK3CG, HSP90AB1, WHSC1L1, LCP1 in 184Be and FANCA, LPP in 184Ce. Biological processes that typically harbor cancer driver mutations such as cell cycle, regulation of cell death and proliferation, RNA processing, chromatin modification and DNA repair were found to have mutations predicted to impact function in each of the post-stasis strains. Spontaneously immortalized HMEC lines derived from two of the BaP-derived post-stasis strains shared greater than 95% of their BaP-induced mutations with their precursor cells. These immortal HMEC had 10 or fewer additional point mutations relative to their post-stasis precursors, but acquired chromosomal anomalies during immortalization that arose independent of BaP. The results of this study indicate that acute exposures of HMEC to high dose BaP recapitulate mutation patterns of human tumors and can induce mutations in a number of cancer driver genes.

French CA, Rahman S, Walsh EM, et al.
NSD3-NUT fusion oncoprotein in NUT midline carcinoma: implications for a novel oncogenic mechanism.
Cancer Discov. 2014; 4(8):928-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is an aggressive subtype of squamous cell carcinoma that typically harbors BRD4/3-NUT fusion oncoproteins that block differentiation and maintain tumor growth. In 20% of cases, NUT is fused to uncharacterized non-BRD gene(s). We established a new patient-derived NMC cell line (1221) and demonstrated that it harbors a novel NSD3-NUT fusion oncogene. We find that NSD3-NUT is both necessary and sufficient for the blockade of differentiation and maintenance of proliferation in NMC cells. NSD3-NUT binds to BRD4, and BRD bromodomain inhibitors induce differentiation and arrest proliferation of 1221 cells. We find further that NSD3 is required for the blockade of differentiation in BRD4-NUT-expressing NMCs. These findings identify NSD3 as a novel critical oncogenic component and potential therapeutic target in NMC.
SIGNIFICANCE: The existence of a family of fusion oncogenes in squamous cell carcinoma is unprecedented, and should lead to key insights into aberrant differentiation in NMC and possibly other squamous cell carcinomas. The involvement of the NSD3 methyltransferase as a component of the NUT fusion protein oncogenic complex identifies a new potential therapeutic target.

Mahmood SF, Gruel N, Nicolle R, et al.
PPAPDC1B and WHSC1L1 are common drivers of the 8p11-12 amplicon, not only in breast tumors but also in pancreatic adenocarcinomas and lung tumors.
Am J Pathol. 2013; 183(5):1634-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amplification of the 8p11-12 chromosomal region is a common genetic event in many epithelial cancers. In breast cancer, several genes within this region have been shown to display oncogenic activity. Among these genes, the enzyme-encoding genes, PPAPDC1B and WHSC1L1, have been identified as potential therapeutic targets. We investigated whether PPAPDC1B and WHSC1L1 acted as general driver genes, thereby serving as therapeutic targets in other tumors with 8p11-12 amplification. By using publicly available genomic data from a panel of 883 cell lines derived from different cancers, we identified the cell lines presenting amplification of both WHSC1L1 and PPAPDC1B. In particular, we focused on cell lines derived from lung cancer and pancreatic adenocarcinoma and found a correlation between the amplification of PPAPDC1B and WHSC1L1 with their overexpression. Loss-of-function studies based on the use of siRNA and shRNA demonstrated that PPAPDC1B and WHSC1L1 played a major role in regulating the survival of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and small-cell lung cancer-derived cell lines, both in anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent conditions, displaying amplification and overexpression of these genes. We also demonstrated that PPAPDC1B and WHSC1L1 regulated xenograft growth in these cell lines. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR experiments after PPAPDC1B and WHSC1L1 knockdown revealed exclusive PPAPDC1B and WHSC1L1 gene targets in small-cell lung cancer and pancreatic adenocarcinoma-derived cell lines compared with breast cancer.

Kang D, Cho HS, Toyokawa G, et al.
The histone methyltransferase Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1-like 1 (WHSC1L1) is involved in human carcinogenesis.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(2):126-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone lysine methylation plays a fundamental role in chromatin organization. Although a set of histone methyltransferases have been identified and biochemically characterized, the pathological roles of their dysfunction in human cancers are still not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate important roles of WHSC1L1 in human carcinogenesis. Expression levels of WHSC1L1 transcript were significantly elevated in various human cancers including bladder carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of bladder, lung, and liver cancers confirmed overexpression of WHSC1L1. WHSC1L1-specific small interfering RNAs significantly knocked down its expression and resulted in suppression of proliferation of bladder and lung cancer cell lines. WHSC1L1 knockdown induced cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase followed by multinucleation of cancer cells. Expression profile analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip(®) showed that WHSC1L1 affected the expression of a number of genes including CCNG1 and NEK7, which are known to play crucial roles in the cell cycle progression at mitosis. As WHSC1L1 expression is significantly low in various normal tissues including vital organs, WHSC1L1 could be a good candidate molecule for development of novel treatment for various types of cancer.

Dutt A, Ramos AH, Hammerman PS, et al.
Inhibitor-sensitive FGFR1 amplification in human non-small cell lung cancer.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(6):e20351 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell lung carcinomas account for approximately 25% of new lung carcinoma cases and 40,000 deaths per year in the United States. Although there are multiple genomically targeted therapies for lung adenocarcinoma, none has yet been reported in squamous cell lung carcinoma.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using SNP array analysis, we found that a region of chromosome segment 8p11-12 containing three genes-WHSC1L1, LETM2, and FGFR1-is amplified in 3% of lung adenocarcinomas and 21% of squamous cell lung carcinomas. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line harboring focal amplification of FGFR1 is dependent on FGFR1 activity for cell growth, as treatment of this cell line either with FGFR1-specific shRNAs or with FGFR small molecule enzymatic inhibitors leads to cell growth inhibition.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies show that FGFR1 amplification is common in squamous cell lung cancer, and that FGFR1 may represent a promising therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer.

Morishita M, di Luccio E
Cancers and the NSD family of histone lysine methyltransferases.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011; 1816(2):158-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both genetic and epigenetic alterations are responsible for the stepwise initiation and progression of cancers. Only epigenetic aberrations can be reversible, allowing the malignant cell population to revert to a more benign phenotype. The epigenetic therapy of cancers is emerging as an effective and valuable approach to both the chemotherapy and the chemoprevention of cancer. The utilization of epigenetic targets that include histone methyltransferase (HMTase), Histone deacetylatase, and DNA methyltransferase, are emerging as key therapeutic targets. The nuclear receptor binding SET domain (NSD) protein is a family of three HMTases, NSD1, NSD2/MMSET/WHSC1, and NSD3/WHSC1L1, and plays a critical part in chromatin integrity as evidenced by a growing number of conditions linked to the alterations and/or amplification of NSD1, NSD2, and/or NSD3. NSD1, NSD2 and NSD3 are associated with multiple cancers. The amplification of either NSD1 or NSD2 triggers the cellular transformation and thus is key in the early carcinogenesis events. In most cases, reducing the levels of NSD proteins would suppress cancer growth. NSD1 and NSD2 were isolated as genes linked to developmental diseases, such as Sotos syndrome and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, respectively, implying versatile aspects of the NSD proteins. The NSD pathways, however, are not well understood. It is noteworthy that the NSD family is phylogenetically distinct compared to other known lysine-HMTases, Here, we review the current knowledge on NSD1/NSD2/NSD3 in tumorigenesis and prospect their special value for developing novel anticancer drugs.

Yang ZQ, Liu G, Bollig-Fischer A, et al.
Transforming properties of 8p11-12 amplified genes in human breast cancer.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(21):8487-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Amplification of the 8p11-12 region has been found in about 15% of human breast cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. Earlier, we used genomic analysis of copy number and gene expression to perform a detailed analysis of the 8p11-12 amplicon to identify candidate oncogenes in breast cancer. We identified 21 candidate genes and provided evidence that three genes, namely, LSM-1, TC-1, and BAG4, have transforming properties when overexpressed. In the present study, we systematically investigated the transforming properties of 13 newly identified 8p11-12 candidate oncogenes in vitro. WHSC1L1, DDHD2, and ERLIN2 were most potently transforming oncogenes based on the number of altered phenotypes expressed by the cells. WHSC1L1 contains a PWWP-domain that is a methyl-lysine recognition motif involved in histone code modification and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Knockdown of WHSC1L1 in 8p11-12-amplified breast cancer cells resulted in profound loss of growth and survival of these cells. Further, we identified several WHSC1L1 target genes, one of which is iroquois homeobox 3 gene (IRX3), a member of the Iroquois homeobox transcription factor family.

Zhou Z, Thomsen R, Kahns S, Nielsen AL
The NSD3L histone methyltransferase regulates cell cycle and cell invasion in breast cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010; 398(3):565-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
NSD3/WHSC1L1 histone methyltransferase gene aberrations are observed in leukemia and in breast and lung carcinomas, suggesting that NSD3 is implicated in carcinogenesis. In this study we examined in human breast cancer cells the NSD3L isoform which contains the catalytic histone methyltransferase SET-domain. siRNA directed depletion of NSD3L followed by genome-wide microarray analysis identified NSD3L regulated genes which could be functionally linked to cellular signaling pathways such as cell growth, cell cycle, cell motility, transcription, and apoptosis. Notably up-regulated genes are the cell cycle regulators E2F2 and Arl2. In accordance with a function of NSD3L in cell cycle regulation NSD3L depletion resulted in an increase in the number of cells in the S and G2/M cell cycle phases. Moreover, NSD3L depletion increased the invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells indicating that NSD3L normally restrain cellular metastatic potential. Together the presented data indicates that NSD3L is a candidate tumor suppressor.

Taketani T, Taki T, Nakamura H, et al.
NUP98-NSD3 fusion gene in radiation-associated myelodysplastic syndrome with t(8;11)(p11;p15) and expression pattern of NSD family genes.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2009; 190(2):108-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal 11p15 abnormality of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS)-acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is rare. NUP98-NSD3 fusion transcripts have been detected previously in one patient with AML and one patient with t-MDS having t(8;11)(p11;p15). Here we present the case of a 60-year-old man with radiation-associated MDS (r-MDS) carrying chromosome abnormalities, including t(8;11)(p11;p15) and del(1)(p22p32). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that the NUP98 gene at 11p15 was split by the translocation. Southern blot analysis of bone marrow cells showed both rearrangements of NUP98 and NSD3 genes. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by sequence analysis revealed the presence of both NUP98-NSD3 and NSD3-NUP98 fusion transcripts. Expression analysis by RT-PCR showed that NSD3 as well as NSD1 and NSD2 was ubiquitously expressed in leukemic cell lines and Epstein-Barr virus transformed B lymphocyte cell lines derived from the normal adult lymphocytes examined. Two isoforms of NSD3, NSD3S and NSD3L (but not NSD3L2), were expressed in leukemic cell lines and were fused to NUP98 in our patient, suggesting that qualitative change of these two isoforms of NSD3 by fusion with NUP98 might be related to leukemogenesis, although the function of each isoform of the NSD3 gene remains unclear.

Guffanti A, Iacono M, Pelucchi P, et al.
A transcriptional sketch of a primary human breast cancer by 454 deep sequencing.
BMC Genomics. 2009; 10:163 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The cancer transcriptome is difficult to explore due to the heterogeneity of quantitative and qualitative changes in gene expression linked to the disease status. An increasing number of "unconventional" transcripts, such as novel isoforms, non-coding RNAs, somatic gene fusions and deletions have been associated with the tumoral state. Massively parallel sequencing techniques provide a framework for exploring the transcriptional complexity inherent to cancer with a limited laboratory and financial effort. We developed a deep sequencing and bioinformatics analysis protocol to investigate the molecular composition of a breast cancer poly(A)+ transcriptome. This method utilizes a cDNA library normalization step to diminish the representation of highly expressed transcripts and biology-oriented bioinformatic analyses to facilitate detection of rare and novel transcripts.
RESULTS: We analyzed over 132,000 Roche 454 high-confidence deep sequencing reads from a primary human lobular breast cancer tissue specimen, and detected a range of unusual transcriptional events that were subsequently validated by RT-PCR in additional eight primary human breast cancer samples. We identified and validated one deletion, two novel ncRNAs (one intergenic and one intragenic), ten previously unknown or rare transcript isoforms and a novel gene fusion specific to a single primary tissue sample. We also explored the non-protein-coding portion of the breast cancer transcriptome, identifying thousands of novel non-coding transcripts and more than three hundred reads corresponding to the non-coding RNA MALAT1, which is highly expressed in many human carcinomas.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that combining 454 deep sequencing with a normalization step and careful bioinformatic analysis facilitates the discovery and quantification of rare transcripts or ncRNAs, and can be used as a qualitative tool to characterize transcriptome complexity, revealing many hitherto unknown transcripts, splice isoforms, gene fusion events and ncRNAs, even at a relatively low sequence sampling.

Bernard-Pierrot I, Gruel N, Stransky N, et al.
Characterization of the recurrent 8p11-12 amplicon identifies PPAPDC1B, a phosphatase protein, as a new therapeutic target in breast cancer.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(17):7165-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
The 8p11-12 chromosome region is one of the regions most frequently amplified in breast carcinoma (10-15% of cases). Several genes within this region have been identified as candidate oncogenes, as they are both amplified and overexpressed. However, very few studies have explored the role of these genes in cell transformation, with the aim of identifying valuable therapeutic targets. An analysis of comparative genomic hybridization array and expression profiling data for a series of 152 ductal breast carcinomas and 21 cell lines identified five genes (LSM1, BAG4, DDHD2, PPAPDC1B, and WHSC1L1) within the amplified region as consistently overexpressed due to an increased gene copy number. The use of small interfering RNA to knock down the expression of each of these genes showed the major role played by two genes, PPAPDC1B and WHSC1L1, in regulating the survival and transformation of two different cell lines harboring the 8p amplicon. The role of these two genes in cell survival and cell transformation was also confirmed by long-term knockdown expression studies using short hairpin RNAs. The potential of PPAPDC1B, which encodes a transmembrane phosphatase, as a therapeutic target was further shown by the strong inhibition of growth of breast tumor xenografts displaying 8p11-12 amplification induced by the silencing of PPAPDC1B. The oncogenic properties of PPAPDC1B were further shown by its ability to transform NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, inducing their anchorage-independent growth. Finally, microarray experiments on PPAPDC1B knockdown indicated that this gene interfered with multiple cell signaling pathways, including the Janus-activated kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and protein kinase C pathways. PPAPDC1B may also potentiate the estrogen receptor pathway by down-regulating DUSP22.

Wang GG, Cai L, Pasillas MP, Kamps MP
NUP98-NSD1 links H3K36 methylation to Hox-A gene activation and leukaemogenesis.
Nat Cell Biol. 2007; 9(7):804-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear receptor-binding SET domain protein 1 (NSD1) prototype is a family of mammalian histone methyltransferases (NSD1, NSD2/MMSET/WHSC1, NSD3/WHSC1L1) that are essential in development and are mutated in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), overgrowth syndromes, multiple myeloma and lung cancers. In AML, the recurring t(5;11)(q35;p15.5) translocation fuses NSD1 to nucleoporin-98 (NUP98). Here, we present the first characterization of the transforming properties and molecular mechanisms of NUP98-NSD1. We demonstrate that NUP98-NSD1 induces AML in vivo, sustains self-renewal of myeloid stem cells in vitro, and enforces expression of the HoxA7, HoxA9, HoxA10 and Meis1 proto-oncogenes. Mechanistically, NUP98-NSD1 binds genomic elements adjacent to HoxA7 and HoxA9, maintains histone H3 Lys 36 (H3K36) methylation and histone acetylation, and prevents EZH2-mediated transcriptional repression of the Hox-A locus during differentiation. Deletion of the NUP98 FG-repeat domain, or mutations in NSD1 that inactivate the H3K36 methyltransferase activity or that prevent binding of NUP98-NSD1 to the Hox-A locus precluded both Hox-A gene activation and myeloid progenitor immortalization. We propose that NUP98-NSD1 prevents EZH2-mediated repression of Hox-A locus genes by colocalizing H3K36 methylation and histone acetylation at regulatory DNA elements. This report is the first to link deregulated H3K36 methylation to tumorigenesis and to link NSD1 to transcriptional regulation of the Hox-A locus.

Tonon G, Wong KK, Maulik G, et al.
High-resolution genomic profiles of human lung cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005; 102(27):9625-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, yet there exists a limited view of the genetic lesions driving this disease. In this study, an integrated high-resolution survey of regional amplifications and deletions, coupled with gene-expression profiling of non-small-cell lung cancer subtypes, adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), identified 93 focal copy-number alterations, of which 21 span <0.5 megabases and contain a median of five genes. Whereas all known lung cancer genes/loci are contained in the dataset, most of these recurrent copy-number alterations are previously uncharacterized and include high-amplitude amplifications and homozygous deletions. Notably, despite their distinct histopathological phenotypes, adenocarcinoma and SCC genomic profiles showed a nearly complete overlap, with only one clear SCC-specific amplicon. Among the few genes residing within this amplicon and showing consistent overexpression in SCC is p63, a known regulator of squamous-cell differentiation. Furthermore, intersection with the published pancreatic cancer comparative genomic hybridization dataset yielded, among others, two focal amplicons on 8p12 and 20q11 common to both cancer types. Integrated DNA-RNA analyses identified WHSC1L1 and TPX2 as two candidates likely targeted for amplification in both pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and non-small-cell lung cancer.

Rosati R, La Starza R, Veronese A, et al.
NUP98 is fused to the NSD3 gene in acute myeloid leukemia associated with t(8;11)(p11.2;p15).
Blood. 2002; 99(10):3857-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fusion between the NUP98 and NSD3 genes in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia associated with t(8;11)(p11.2;p15), is reported for the first time. The t(8;11)(p11.2;p15) was identified by classical cytogenetics. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed a split signal with a mix of BAC 118H17 and 290A12, indicating the translocation disrupted NUP98. FISH restriction at 8p11-12 showed a split of BAC 350N15. Molecular investigations into candidate genes in this BAC showed the NUP98 fusion partner at 8p11.2 was the NSD3 gene. To date the NSD3 gene has never been implicated in hematologic malignancies.

Angrand PO, Apiou F, Stewart AF, et al.
NSD3, a new SET domain-containing gene, maps to 8p12 and is amplified in human breast cancer cell lines.
Genomics. 2001; 74(1):79-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe the isolation and characterization of NSD3, the third member of a gene family including Nsd1 and NSD2. Murine Nsd1 was isolated in a search for proteins that interact with the ligand-binding domain of retinoic acid receptor alpha. NSD2 (also known as WHSC1 and MMSET) is located in the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) critical region on 4p16.3 and is involved in multiple myeloma with t(4;14) translocations. The proteins Nsd1, NSD2, and NSD3 are highly similar within a block of about 700 amino acids. This block contains several conserved domains, such as the SET domain and the PHD finger, present in proteins involved in development and/or chromatin reorganization. The NSD3 gene consists of an 8.5-kb transcript composed of 23 coding exons and spans >90 kb of genomic DNA. NSD3 maps to chromosome band 8p12 and is amplified in several tumor cell lines and primary breast carcinomas.

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