Gene Summary

Gene:XPC; xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group C
Aliases: XP3, RAD4, XPCC, p125
Summary:This gene encodes a component of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. There are multiple components involved in the NER pathway, including Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) A-G and V, Cockayne syndrome (CS) A and B, and trichothiodystrophy (TTD) group A, etc. This component, XPC, plays an important role in the early steps of global genome NER, especially in damage recognition, open complex formation, and repair protein complex formation. Mutations in this gene or some other NER components result in Xeroderma pigmentosum, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased sensitivity to sunlight with the development of carcinomas at an early age. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA repair protein complementing XP-C cells
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: XPC (cancer-related)

Hatano K, Kumar B, Zhang Y, et al.
A functional screen identifies miRNAs that inhibit DNA repair and sensitize prostate cancer cells to ionizing radiation.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015; 43(8):4075-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in DNA repair pathways through transcriptional responses to DNA damaging agents or through predicted miRNA regulation of DNA repair genes. We hypothesized that additional DNA damage regulating miRNAs could be identified by screening a library of 810 miRNA mimetics for the ability to alter cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR). A prostate cancer Metridia luciferase cell model was applied to examine the effects of individual miRNAs on IR sensitivity. A large percentage of miRNA mimetics were found to increase cellular sensitivity to IR, while a smaller percentage were protective. Two of the most potent IR sensitizing miRNAs, miR-890 and miR-744-3p, significantly delayed IR induced DNA damage repair. Both miRNAs inhibited the expression of multiple components of DNA damage response and DNA repair. miR-890 directly targeted MAD2L2, as well as WEE1 and XPC, where miR-744-3p directly targeted RAD23B. Knock-down of individual miR-890 targets by siRNA was not sufficient to ablate miR-890 radiosensitization, signifying that miR-890 functions by regulating multiple DNA repair genes. Intratumoral delivery of miR-890 mimetics prior to IR therapy significantly enhanced IR therapeutic efficacy. These results reveal novel miRNA regulation of DNA repair and identify miR-890 as a potent IR sensitizing agent.

Alekseev S, Coin F
Orchestral maneuvers at the damaged sites in nucleotide excision repair.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015; 72(11):2177-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
To safeguard the genome from the accumulation of deleterious effects arising from DNA lesions, cells developed several DNA repair mechanisms that remove specific types of damage from the genome. Among them, Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is unique in its ability to remove a very broad spectrum of lesions, the most important of which include UV-induced damage, bulky chemical adducts and some forms of oxidative damage. Two sub-pathways exist in NER; Transcription-Coupled Repair (TC-NER) removes lesion localized exclusively in transcribed genes while Global Genome Repair (GG-NER) removes lesions elsewhere. In TC- or GG-NER, more than 30 proteins detect, open, incise and resynthesize DNA. Intriguingly, half of them are involved in the detection of DNA damage, implying that this is a crucial repair step requiring a high level of regulation. We review here the complex damage recognition step of GG-NER with a focus on post-translational modifications that help the comings and goings of several protein complexes on the same short damaged DNA locus.

Chen DB, Yang HJ
Comparison of gene regulatory networks of benign and malignant breast cancer samples with normal samples.
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(4):9453-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to explain the pathogenesis and deterioration process of breast cancer. Breast cancer expression profile data GSE27567 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and breast cancer-related genes were extracted from databases, including Cancer-Resource and Online Mendelian Inheritance In Man (OMIM). Next, h17 transcription factor data were obtained from the University of California, Santa Cruz. Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID)-enrichment analysis was applied and gene-regulatory networks were constructed by double-two-way t-tests in 3 states, including normal, benign, and malignant. Furthermore, network topological properties were compared between 2 states, and breast cancer-related bub genes were ranked according to their different degrees between each of the two states. A total of 2380 breast cancer-related genes and 215 transcription factors were screened by exploring databases; the genes were mainly enriched in their functions, such as cell apoptosis and proliferation, and pathways, such as p53 signaling and apoptosis, which were related with carcinogenesis. In addition, gene-regulatory networks in the 3 conditions were constructed. By comparing their network topological properties, we found that there is a larger transition of differences between malignant and benign breast cancer. Moreover, 8 hub genes (YBX1, ZFP36, YY1, XRCC5, XRCC4, ZFHX3, ZMAT3, and XPC) were identified in the top 10 genes ranked by different degrees. Through comparative analysis of gene-regulation networks, we identified the link between related genes and the pathogenesis of breast cancer. However, further experiments are needed to confirm our results.

Zheng CL, Wang NJ, Chung J, et al.
Transcription restores DNA repair to heterochromatin, determining regional mutation rates in cancer genomes.
Cell Rep. 2014; 9(4):1228-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Somatic mutations in cancer are more frequent in heterochromatic and late-replicating regions of the genome. We report that regional disparities in mutation density are virtually abolished within transcriptionally silent genomic regions of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) arising in an XPC(-/-) background. XPC(-/-) cells lack global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER), thus establishing differential access of DNA repair machinery within chromatin-rich regions of the genome as the primary cause for the regional disparity. Strikingly, we find that increasing levels of transcription reduce mutation prevalence on both strands of gene bodies embedded within H3K9me3-dense regions, and only to those levels observed in H3K9me3-sparse regions, also in an XPC-dependent manner. Therefore, transcription appears to reduce mutation prevalence specifically by relieving the constraints imposed by chromatin structure on DNA repair. We model this relationship among transcription, chromatin state, and DNA repair, revealing a new, personalized determinant of cancer risk.

Bahceci A, Paydas S, Tanriverdi K, et al.
DNA repair gene polymorphisms in B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(3):2155-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by DNA injury, and genetic and environmental factors are important in the etiology of the cancers. It is well known that there are association variabilities in DNA repairment and sensitivity against the cancer. The aim of this study is to look for some important gene polymorphisms associated with DNA repair in cases with B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). Ninety-four cases with NHL and 96 healthy controls were included in this study. ERCC2 (Lys751Gln), XPC (Gln939Lys), ERCC5 (Asp1104His), and XRCC3 (Thr241Met) gene polymorphisms were studied by using Tm Shift Real-Time PCR Technology. ERCC5 Asp1104His polymorphism showed a protective effect against the B-NHL in individuals carrying this mutant allele (p = 0.009), and differences were more prominent in males (p = 0.001). When the patient and control groups were divided according to their smoking habit, the mutant allele of the XPC gene showed a protective effect in the nonsmoker group (p = 0.040). The mutant allele G of ERCC5 (CG) polymorphism was found to be protective against lymphoma (p = 0.010). There were no differences among cases with B-NHL and controls for ERCC2 codon 751, XPC codon 939, and XRCC3 codon 241 gene polymorphisms. DNA repair gene polymorphisms can affect the risk of lymphoma, and it will be useful to detect the DNA repair gene polymorphisms in cases with lymphoma in studies covering a higher number of cases.

Zhou Q, Zou BW, Xu Y, et al.
DNA repair gene polymorphisms and clinical outcome of patients with primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(3):1539-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes impact on the synthesis of DNA repair proteins that are crucial to the repair of DNA damages induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We retrospectively examined whether there was an association between the selected six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of five DNA repair genes (PARP1-Val762Ala, XRCC1-Arg194Trp, XRCC1-Arg399Gln, XPC-Lys939Gln, BRCA1-Lys1183Arg, and BRCA2-Asn372His) and the clinical outcome of patients with primary small cell carcinoma of esophagus (SCCE), and it showed that the median progression-free survival (PFS) and the overall survival (OS) were 11.8 versus 9.7 months (P = 0.041) and 17.4 versus 14.8 months (P = 0.032) for patients carrying the variant allele (T/C + C/C) and the wild-type allele (T/T) of PARP1-Val762Ala polymorphism, respectively. However, no statistical significance was observed in the other five polymorphic loci (P > 0.05). When these six SNPs were combined, however, patients with at least three variant genotypes had significantly longer PFS and OS compared with those carrying less than three variant genotypes (P = 0.009 and P = 0.007, respectively). The presence of at least three polymorphic variants in certain DNA repair genes may impact on patient survival and could be a potential genomic predictor of clinical response to DNA-damaging treatment in SCCE patients.

Sun K, Gong A, Liang P
Predictive impact of genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes on susceptibility and therapeutic outcomes to colorectal cancer patients.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(3):1549-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several hereditary syndromes characterized by defective DNA repair are associated with high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). To explore whether common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes affect risk and prognosis of CRC, we evaluated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in XPG, XPC, and WRN gene and susceptibility of CRC, and clinical outcomes in a population-based case-control study. A total of 890 CRC cases and 910 controls recruited into the study provided a biologic sample. Individuals with variant genotypes of XPC Ala499Val appeared to be associated with the increased risk of CRC. WRN Cys1367Arg variants carriers showed an increased susceptibility for CRC. More importantly, the risk of CRC increased further in a combined analysis of multiple polymorphisms. Furthermore, stratified analyses revealed that XPG Arg1104His polymorphism was associated with tumor differentiation of CRC patients (P = 0.043). Log-rank test and adjusted multivariate Cox regression analysis verified that XPG Arg1104His variants were associated with a longer disease-free survival (DFS) [CG genotype: adjusted HR (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 0.163 (0.107-0.248), P < 0.001; CC genotype: adjusted HR (95% CI) = 0.333 (0.235-0.470), P < 0.001; CG/CC genotype: adjusted HR (95% CI) = 0.333 (0.235-0.470)] in patients with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (N = 718). Moreover, XPC Ala499Val CT genotype showed a significant impact on DFS [CC genotype: adjusted HR (95% CI) = 0.691 (0.528-0.904), P = 0.007; CT/CC genotype: adjusted HR (95% CI) = 0.602 (0.389-0.934), P = 0.024]. However, no correlation was found between WRN Cys1367Arg polymorphism and prognosis in CRC patients. Our findings will add to the literature on the impact of genetic variation in DNA repair genes involved in susceptibility for CRC and therapeutic outcomes in response to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy.

Lamba JK, Fridley BL, Ghosh TM, et al.
Genetic variation in platinating agent and taxane pathway genes as predictors of outcome and toxicity in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
Pharmacogenomics. 2014; 15(12):1565-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: Lung carcinoma is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Although clinical factors including age, performance status and stage influence the likelihood of benefit from and tolerability of chemotherapy, the genetic profile of individual patients may be an independent predictor of response and toxicity. The present study aimed to identify pharmacogenetic markers associated with clinical response and toxicity in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated primarily with carboplatin and paclitaxel.
MATERIALS & METHODS: Genomic DNA samples from 90 adult male patients diagnosed with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC were genotyped for SNPs in candidate genes of relevance to platinating agents and paclitaxel and analyzed for association with survival and toxicities in univariate and multivariate models.
RESULTS: After adjusting for performance status and stage, SNPs in the drug transporters ABCB1 and ABCC1, as well as within NQO1 were associated with progression-free survival. With respect to hematological and nonhematological toxicities, SNPs in drug transporters (ABCB1 and ABCG2) were associated with thrombocytopenia, nausea and neutropenia, whereas SNPs in the DNA repair pathway genes ERCC4 and XPC were significantly associated with neutropenia and sensory neuropathy, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Our study evaluated and identified SNPs in key candidate genes in platinating agent and taxane pathways associated with outcome and toxicity in advanced NSCLC. If validated in large prospective studies, these findings might provide opportunities to personalize therapeutic strategies.

Yao JG, Huang XY, Long XD
Interaction of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and aflatoxin B1 in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(9):6231-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is an important environmental carcinogen and can induce DNA damage and involve in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The deficiency of DNA repair capacity related to the polymorphisms of DNA repair genes might play a central role in the process of HCC tumorigenesis. However, the interaction of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and AFB1 in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether six polymorphisms (including rs25487, rs861539, rs7003908, rs28383151, rs13181, and rs2228001) in DNA repair genes (XPC, XRCC4, XRCC1, XRCC4, XPD, XRCC7, and XRCC3) interacted with AFB1, and the gene-environmental interactive role in the risk of HCC using hospital-based case-control study (including 1486 HCC cases and 1996 controls). Genotypes of DNA repair genes were tested using TaqMan-PCR technique. Higher AFB1 exposure was observed among HCC patients versus the control group [odds ratio (OR) = 2.08 for medium AFB1 exposure level and OR = 6.52 for high AFB1 exposure level]. Increasing risk of HCC was also observed in these with the mutants of DNA repair genes (risk values were from 1.57 to 5.86). Furthermore, these risk roles would be more noticeable under the conditions of two variables, and positive interactive effects were proved in the followed multiplicative interaction analysis. These results suggested that DNA repair risk genotypes might interact with AFB1 in the risk of HCC.

Pesz KA, Bieniek A, Gil J, et al.
Polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes and basal cell carcinoma of the skin.
Int J Dermatol. 2014; 53(12):1474-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mutations in nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes are the cause of xeroderma pigmentosum, a genetic syndrome with proneness to basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may affect the effectiveness of DNA repair and hence influence individual susceptibility to a variety of neoplasms. The aim of this study was to find associations between SNPs in selected NER genes and sporadic BCC development.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 100 patients with histopathologically confirmed BCCs and the control group of 100 elderly individuals with no personal history of any cancer. DNA isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes was genotyped for seven SNPs in five different NER genes. Statistical analyses for associations were performed.
RESULTS: A weak association between XPD exon 6 silent C/A polymorphism and BCC development risk was found when comparing single polymorphisms between the two groups. When considering sex and SNPs, men with the A-allele in XPC intron 11 C/A have been found to have a decreased risk of BCC.
CONCLUSIONS: There is no consistency in association studies between SNPs and BCC susceptibility. SNPs in NER genes seem to have an insignificant influence on the risk of developing BCC of the skin.

Lee E, Levine EA, Franco VI, et al.
Combined genetic and nutritional risk models of triple negative breast cancer.
Nutr Cancer. 2014; 66(6):955-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) presents clinical challenges due to unknown etiology, lack of treatment targets, and poor prognosis. We examined combined genetic and nutritional risk models of TNBC in 354 breast cancer cases. We evaluated 18 DNA-repair nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) and dietary/nutritional intakes. Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines models were used to select nutrients of interest and define cut-off values for logistic regression models. Our results suggest that TNBC was associated with 6 DNA-repair nsSNPs, ERCC4 R415Q (rs1800067), MSH3 R940Q (rs184967), MSH6 G39E (rs1042821), POLD1 R119H (rs1726801), XRCC1 R194W (rs1799782), and XPC A499V (rs2228000) and/or deficiencies in 3 micronutrients (zinc, folate, and β-carotene). Combined analyses of these 6 nsSNPs and 3 micronutrients showed significant association with TNBC: odds ratios = 2.77 (95% confidence interval = 1.01-7.64) and 10.89 (95% confidence interval = 3.50-33.89) for 2 and at least 3 risk factors, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest that multiple genetic and nutritional factors are associated with TNBC, particularly in combination. Our findings, if validated in larger studies, will have important clinical implication that dietary modulations and/or micronutrient supplementations may prevent or reverse TNBC phenotype, so tumors can be treated with less toxic therapeutic strategies, particularly in genetically susceptible women.

Li Y, Liu Z, Liu H, et al.
Potentially functional variants in the core nucleotide excision repair genes predict survival in Japanese gastric cancer patients.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(9):2031-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Functional genetic variants of DNA repair genes may alter the host DNA repair capacity, and thus influence efficiency of therapies. We genotyped eight potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes (i.e. ERCC1, XPA, XPC, XPD and XPG) involved in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway in 496 Japanese gastric cancer patients, and assessed overall survival and recurrence-free survival. The combined effects of risk genotypes of these eight SNPs in Japanese patients were further replicated in 356 North-American gastric cancer patients. In Japanese patients, we found that the XPC rs2228000 TT genotype was associated with shorter overall survival [hazards ratio (HR) = 1.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.07-2.86] and recurrence-free survival (HR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.19-3.95), compared with CC/CT genotypes, and the XPG rs17655 CC genotype was associated with shorter overall survival (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.08-2.36), compared with GG/CG genotypes. The number of observed risk genotypes in the combined analysis was associated with shorter overall survival and recurrence-free survival in a dose-response manner (P(trend) = 0.006 and P(trend) < 0.000) in Japanese patients; specifically, compared with those with ≤1 risk genotypes, those with ≥2 risk genotypes showed markedly shorter overall survival (HR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.18-2.70) and recurrence-free survival (HR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.66-4.73). The association between ≥2 risk genotypes and shorter overall survival was not significant (HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.82-1.94) in North-American patients, but the trends were similar in these two groups of patients. These data show that functional SNPs in NER core genes may impact survival in Japanese gastric cancer patients.

Peng Q, Lao X, Tang W, et al.
XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism contributes to colorectal cancer susceptibility: evidence from a meta-analysis.
Diagn Pathol. 2014; 9:120 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Published studies investigating the association between XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk reported inconclusive results. We performed a meta-analysis to derive a precise estimation of the relationship.
METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was done in databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library up to December 2013. The association between XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism and CRC risk was assessed by odds ratios (ORs) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS: Eight studies with 3,301 cases and 4,177 controls were included in the meta-analysis. We observed that the XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism was correlated with an increased CRC risk when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (Gln/lys vs. Lys/Lys: OR = 1.293, 95% CI 1.169-1.430, P = 0.000; Gln/Gln + Gln/lys vs. Lys/Lys: OR = 1.260, 95% CI 1.145-1.388, P = 0.000). In stratified analyses by ethnicity, smoking, and study quality, significant increased CRC risk was found in Asians (Gln/lys vs. Lys/Lys: OR = 1.345, 95% CI 1.187-1.523, P = 0.000; Gln/Gln + Gln/lys vs. Lys/Lys: OR = 1.317, 95% CI 1.170-1.484, P = 0.000), nonsmokers (Gln/Gln + Gln/lys vs. Lys/Lys: OR = 1.286, 95% CI 1.020-1.622, P = 0.033), and high quality studies. In subgroup analysis by source of control, significant increased CRC risk was found in both hospital-based studies and population-based studies. However, in subgroup analysis according to cancer location, no any significant association was detected.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that the XPC is a candidate gene for CRC susceptibility. The XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism may play an important role in CRC development among Asians and nonsmokers. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this association.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1665902729125948.

Gil J, Gaj P, Misiak B, et al.
CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk in Polish patients.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(7):72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an epidemiological problem of a great importance in Poland; each year approximately 14,600 new cases of the disease are diagnosed. Mortality associated with CRC reaches approximately 10,400 cases per year (according to the National Cancer Registry). The 5-year survival rate is approximately 25 %, which is one of the lowest rates in Europe. The etiology of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is multifactorial and has been attributed to an interplay between both environmental and genetic risk factors. In addition, there is a general consensus that genetic factors may modulate the influence of environmental insults. Following these assumptions, we performed a study on widely described polymorphisms in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and DNA repair genes which may influence individual susceptibility to cancer. We selected five candidate polymorphisms in following genes: ERCC1 Asp118Asn (rs11615), XPC i11C/A (rs2279017), XRCC3 Met241Thr (rs861539) CYP1A1 Ile462Val (rs1048943) and NAT2 A803G (rs1208) and assessed the importance of chosen SNPs on groups consisting of 478 CRC patients and 404 controls. Only CYP1A1 Ile462Val was statistically significant in CRC patients over 50 years old: OR 2.05 (1.29-3.28); p = 1.25E-02 and this association was more pronounced in the female group of CRC patients after the age of 50: OR 2.72 (1.43-5.14); p = 1.14E-02.

Mirecka A, Paszkowska-Szczur K, Scott RJ, et al.
Common variants of xeroderma pigmentosum genes and prostate cancer risk.
Gene. 2014; 546(2):156-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
The genetic basis of prostate cancer (PC) is complex and appears to involve multiple susceptibility genes. A number of studies have evaluated a possible correlation between several NER gene polymorphisms and PC risk, but most of them evaluated only single SNPs among XP genes and the results remain inconsistent. Out of 94 SNPs located in seven XP genes (XPA-XPG) a total of 15 SNPs were assayed in 720 unselected patients with PC and compared to 1121 healthy adults. An increased risk of disease was associated with the XPD SNP, rs1799793 (Asp312Asn) AG genotype (OR=2.60; p<0.001) and with the AA genotype (OR=531; p<0.0001) compared to the control population. Haplotype analysis of XPD revealed one protective haplotype and four associated with an increased disease risk, which showed that the A allele (XPD rs1799793) appeared to drive the main effect on promoting prostate cancer risk. Polymorphism in XPD gene appears to be associated with the risk of prostate cancer.

Peng Q, Chen Z, Lu Y, et al.
Current evidences on XPC polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.
Diagn Pathol. 2014; 9:96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Reduced DNA repair capacities due to inherited polymorphisms may increase the susceptibility to cancers including gastric cancer. Previous studies investigating the association between Xeroderma Pigmentosum group C (XPC) gene polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk reported inconsistent results. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the possible association.
METHODS: All studies published up to January 2014 on the association between XPC polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk were identified by searching electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM). The association between XPC polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk was assessed by odds ratios (ORs) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS: Six studies with 1,355 gastric cancer cases and 2,573 controls were finally included in the meta-analysis. With respect to Lys939Gln polymorphism, we did not observe a significant association when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. When stratified by ethnicity, source of control, and study quality, statistical significant association was not detected in all subgroups. With respect to Ala499Val and PAT-/+polymorphisms, we also did not observe any significant association with gastric cancer risk in the pooled analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis based on current evidences suggested that the XPC polymorphisms (Lys939Gln, Val499Arg, and PAT-/+) did not contribute to gastric cancer risk. Considering the limited sample size and ethnicity included in the meta-analysis, further larger scaled and well-designed studies are needed to confirm our results.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1485880312555069.

Jin B, Dong Y, Zhang X, et al.
Association of XPC polymorphisms and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e93937 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C gene (XPC) is a key member of nucleotide excision repair pathway and plays an important role in human DNA repair system. It is reported that several common polymorphisms of XPC are associated with susceptibility to lung cancer. However, the conclusion is still elusive.
METHOD: This meta-analysis was performed to determine the relationship between XPC polymorphisms (Lys939Gln, Ala499Val, and PAT) and lung cancer risk. Published literatures were identified by searching online databases and reference lists of relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association strength. Publication bias were detected by Egger's and Begg's test.
RESULT: After strict screening, we identified 14 eligible studies in this meta-analysis, including 5647 lung cancer cases and 6908 controls. By pooling all eligible studies, we found that the homozygote Gln939Gln genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer in Asian population (GlnGln vs LysLys, OR=1.229, 95% CI: 1.000-1.510; GlnGln vs LysLys/LysGln, OR=1.257, 95% CI: 1.038-1.522). As for the PAT polymorphism, in Caucasian population, we found carriers of the -/- genotype were associated significantly reduced risk of lung cancer in homozygote comparison model (-/- vs +/+, OR=0.735, 95% CI: 0.567-0.952).
CONCLUSION: In this meta-analysis we found that Gln939Gln genotype was associated with significantly increased risk of lung cancer in Asian population; the PAT -/- genotype significantly reduced susceptibility to lung cancer in Caucasian population; while the XPC Ala499Val polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk.

Zhang XJ, Liu P, Zhu F
Polymorphisms of DNA repair-related genes with susceptibility and prognosis of prostate cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(2):4419-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to investigate the association between genetic variants of the DNA repair genes XPG, CSB, XPC, CCNH, and MMS19L in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway and risk of prostate cancer in a population in China. This study included 229 patients with newly diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed primary prostate cancer and 238 healthy controls. Genotyping of XPG, CSB, XPC, CCNH, and MMS19L were performed on a 384-well plate on the MassARRAY platform. Associations between the polymorphisms of the six genes and risk of prostate cancer were analyzed using conditional logistical regression. We found that the variant genotype TT of the XPG rs2296147 polymorphism was moderately significantly associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer compared to the wild-type genotype CC [odds ratio (OR)=1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-3.25], and individuals carrying the GG genotype of the CSB rs2228526 polymorphism were associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (OR=1.95, 95%CI=1.02-3.74). The combination genotype of the XPG T allele and the CSB G allele was associated with a moderately higher risk of prostate cancer risk (OR=1.84, 95%CI=1.06-3.20). In conclusion, we found that polymorphisms in XPG rs2296147 and CSB rs2228526 were significantly associated with prostate cancer susceptibility in the Chinese population analyzed. Our results support the hypothesis that naturally occurring genetic variation of DNA repair genes increases susceptibility to prostate cancer.

Steck SE, Butler LM, Keku T, et al.
Nucleotide excision repair gene polymorphisms, meat intake and colon cancer risk.
Mutat Res. 2014; 762:24-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Much of the DNA damage from colon cancer-related carcinogens, including heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from red meat cooked at high temperature, are repaired by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Thus, we examined whether NER non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) modified the association between red meat intake and colon cancer risk.
METHODS: The study consists of 244 African-American and 311 white colon cancer cases and population-based controls (331 African Americans and 544 whites) recruited from 33 counties in North Carolina from 1996 to 2000. Information collected by food frequency questionnaire on meat intake and preparation methods were used to estimate HCA and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP, a PAH) intake. We tested 7 nsSNPs in 5 NER genes: XPC A499V and K939Q, XPD D312N and K751Q, XPF R415Q, XPG D1104H, and RAD23B A249V. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression.
RESULTS: Among African Americans, we observed a statistically significant positive association between colon cancer risk and XPC 499 AV+VV genotype (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7, AA as referent), and an inverse association with XPC 939 QQ (OR=0.3, 95%CI: 0.2, 0.8, KK as referent). These associations were not observed among whites. For both races combined, there was interaction between the XPC 939 genotype, well-done red meat intake and colon cancer risk (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.0, 2.2 for high well-done red meat and KK genotype as compared to low well-done red meat and KK genotype, pinteraction=0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that NER nsSNPs are associated with colon cancer risk and may modify the association between well-done red meat intake and colon cancer risk.

Do H, Wong NC, Murone C, et al.
A critical re-assessment of DNA repair gene promoter methylation in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Sci Rep. 2014; 4:4186 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA repair genes that have been inactivated by promoter methylation offer potential therapeutic targets either by targeting the specific repair deficiency, or by synthetic lethal approaches. This study evaluated promoter methylation status for eight selected DNA repair genes (ATM, BRCA1, ERCC1, MGMT, MLH1, NEIL1, RAD23B and XPC) in 56 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumours and 11 lung cell lines using the methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) methodology. Frequent methylation in NEIL1 (42%) and infrequent methylation in ERCC1 (2%) and RAD23B (2%) are reported for the first time in NSCLC. MGMT methylation was detected in 13% of the NSCLCs. Contrary to previous studies, methylation was not detected in ATM, BRCA1, MLH1 and XPC. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was consistent with these findings. The study emphasises the importance of using appropriate methodology for accurate assessment of promoter methylation.

Chen C, Wang L, Liao Q, et al.
Association between six genetic polymorphisms and colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2014; 18(3):187-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether six genetic polymorphisms confer susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: A systematic search for candidate genes of CRC was performed among several online databases, including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, and Wanfang online libraries. After a comprehensive filtering procedure, we harvested five genes, including MGMT (rs12917 and rs2308321), ADH1B (rs1229984), SOD2 (rs4880), XPC (rs2228001), and PPARG (rs1801282). Using the REVMAN and Stata software, six meta-analyses were conducted for associations between CRC and the just-mentioned genetic variants.
RESULTS: A total of 34 comparative studies among 17,289 cases and 54,927 controls were involved in our meta-analyses. Significant association was found between ADH1B rs1229984 polymorphism and CRC (p=0.03, odds ratio [OR]=1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.01-1.36). We also found significant association between PPARG rs1801282 polymorphism and CRC (p=0.004, OR=1.498, 95% CI=1.139-1.970), and this significant association is specific in Caucasians (p=0.004, OR=1.603, 95% CI=1.165-2.205).
CONCLUSIONS: The current meta-analysis has established that ADH1B (rs1229984) and PPARG (rs1801282) are two risk variants of CRC.

Cheng C, Lingyan W, Yi H, et al.
Association between TLR2, MTR, MTRR, XPC, TP73, TP53 genetic polymorphisms and gastric cancer: a meta-analysis.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2014; 38(3):346-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our meta-analyses is to test the association between six genetic polymorphisms and gastric cancer.
METHODS: A systematic search was performed for all the available candidate genes and gastric cancer among several online databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, CNKI and Wanfang online libraries. After a comprehensive screening, a total of six genes were harvested for the current meta-analyses. These genes include TLR2 (-196 to -174 ins>del), MTR (rs1805087), MTRR (rs1801394), XPC (rs2228001), TP73 (G4C14-A4T14), and TP53 (rs1042522).
RESULTS: Altogether 49 comparative studies among 11 776 cases and 18 633 controls were involved in our meta-analyses. TP53 rs1042522 polymorphism was shown to be associated with gastric cancer risk under the dominant model (P=0.02, OR=1.03, 95% CI=1.00-1.05). A subgroup meta-analysis indicated a significant association under dominant model between TP53 rs1042522 and gastric cancer in the Eastern Asians (P=0.03, OR=1.17, 95%=1.02-1.34).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that TP53 rs1042522 polymorphism might contribute to the susceptibility of gastric cancer under the dominant model, especially in Eastern Asians.

Wyss AB, Weissler MC, Avery CL, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes, cancer treatment, and head and neck cancer survival.
Cancer Causes Control. 2014; 25(4):437-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Head and neck cancers (HNC) are commonly treated with radiation and platinum-based chemotherapy, which produce bulky DNA adducts to eradicate cancerous cells. Because nucleotide excision repair (NER) enzymes remove adducts, variants in NER genes may be associated with survival among HNC cases both independently and jointly with treatment.
METHODS: Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate race-stratified (White, African American) hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals for overall (OS) and disease-specific (DS) survival based on treatment (combinations of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy) and 84 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15 NER genes among 1,227 HNC cases from the Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Study.
RESULTS: None of the NER variants evaluated were associated with survival at a Bonferroni-corrected alpha of 0.0006. However, rs3136038 [OS HR = 0.79 (0.65, 0.97), DS HR = 0.69 (0.51, 0.93)] and rs3136130 [OS HR = 0.78 (0.64, 0.96), DS HR = 0.68 (0.50, 0.92)] of ERCC4 and rs50871 [OS HR = 0.80 (0.64, 1.00), DS HR = 0.67 (0.48, 0.92)] of ERCC2 among Whites, and rs2607755 [OS HR = 0.62 (0.45, 0.86), DS HR = 0.51 (0.30, 0.86)] of XPC among African Americans were suggestively associated with survival at an uncorrected alpha of 0.05. Three SNP-treatment joint effects showed possible departures from additivity among Whites.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study, a large and extensive evaluation of SNPs in NER genes and HNC survival, identified mostly null associations, though a few variants were suggestively associated with survival and potentially interacted additively with treatment.

Ming M, Soltani K, Shea CR, et al.
Dual role of SIRT1 in UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(3):357-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The protein deacetylase SIRT1 regulates various pathways in metabolism, aging and cancer. However, the role of SIRT1 in skin cancer remains unclear. Here, using mice with targeted deletions of SIRT1 in their epidermis in both resistant B6 and sensitive SKH1 hairless backgrounds, we show that the role of SIRT1 in skin cancer development induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is dependent on its gene dose. Keratinocyte-specific heterozygous deletion of SIRT1 promotes UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis, whereas homozygous deletion of SIRT1 suppresses skin tumor development but sensitizes the B6 mice to chronic solar injury. In mouse skin, SIRT1 is haploinsufficient for UVB-induced DNA damage repair and expression of xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC), a protein critical for repairing UVB-induced DNA damage. As compared with normal human skin, downregulation of SIRT1 is in parallel with downregulation of XPC in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma at both the protein and mRNA levels. In contrast, homozygous SIRT1 deletion in mouse skin augments p53 acetylation and expression of its transcriptional target Noxa, and sensitizes the epidermis to UVB-induced apoptosis in vivo, while heterozygous SIRT1 deletion has no such effect. The gene dosage-dependent function of SIRT1 in DNA repair and cell survival is consistent with the dual roles of SIRT1 in UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis. Our results reveal the gene dosage-dependent in vivo functions of SIRT1 in skin tumorigenesis and may shed light on the role of SIRT1 in epithelial cancer induced by DNA damage.

Corral R, Lewinger JP, Van Den Berg D, et al.
Comprehensive analyses of DNA repair pathways, smoking and bladder cancer risk in Los Angeles and Shanghai.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(2):335-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tobacco smoking is a bladder cancer risk factor and a source of carcinogens that induce DNA damage to urothelial cells. Using data and samples from 988 cases and 1,004 controls enrolled in the Los Angeles County Bladder Cancer Study and the Shanghai Bladder Cancer Study, we investigated associations between bladder cancer risk and 632 tagSNPs that comprehensively capture genetic variation in 28 DNA repair genes from four DNA repair pathways: base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HHR). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each tagSNP were corrected for multiple testing for all SNPs within each gene using pACT and for genes within each pathway and across pathways with Bonferroni. Gene and pathway summary estimates were obtained using ARTP. We observed an association between bladder cancer and POLB rs7832529 (BER) (pACT = 0.003; ppathway = 0.021) among all, and SNPs in XPC (NER) and OGG1 (BER) among Chinese men and women, respectively. The NER pathway showed an overall association with risk among Chinese males (ARTP NER p = 0.034). The XRCC6 SNP rs2284082 (NHEJ), also in LD with SREBF2, showed an interaction with smoking (smoking status interaction pgene = 0.001, ppathway = 0.008, poverall = 0.034). Our findings support a role in bladder carcinogenesis for regions that map close to or within BER (POLB, OGG1) and NER genes (XPC). A SNP that tags both the XRCC6 and SREBF2 genes strongly modifies the association between bladder cancer risk and smoking.

Zhu ML, Hua RX, Zheng L
Associations between polymorphisms of the XPC gene and lung cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(4):2931-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) gene plays a critical role in DNA damage recognition, and its functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may alter DNA repair capacity and cancer susceptibility. Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated the associations between XPC Lys939Gln and Ala499Val polymorphisms and lung cancer susceptibility, but the conclusions are inconclusive. We searched three electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and EBSCO) for eligible publications and performed a meta-analysis assessing the associations between XPC Lys939Gln and Ala499Val polymorphisms and lung cancer risk. We also analysed the genotype-mRNA expression correlation using the data of HapMap phase II release 23 with 270 individuals from 4 ethnicities for exploring biological plausibility of our findings. We included ten published studies of 3,882 cases and 5,219 controls for Lys939Gln, and five studies with 2,605 cases and 3,329 controls for Ala499Val. When all studies were pooled, we found a significantly increased overall lung cancer risk for Lys939Gln polymorphism (recessive model: OR = 1.14, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.29, P = 0.218 for heterogeneity). Stratification analysis also showed a higher lung cancer risk in Asian populations (recessive model: OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.04-1.52, P = 0.263 for heterogeneity). Interestingly, we found significant correlation between Lys939Gln genotypes and XPC mRNA expression for Asian populations as well. However, we did not observe any association between Ala499Val polymorphism and overall lung cancer risk, nor in further stratification analysis. This meta-analysis suggests that XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism may contribute to lung cancer risk, which needs further validation in single larger studies.

Zhang Y, Li Z, Zhong Q, et al.
Polymorphisms of the XPC gene may contribute to the risk of head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(4):3917-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polymorphisms of the XPC gene have been reported to be associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), though the exact biological effect is still unclear. Genetic association studies (GAS) investigating the associations between three common polymorphisms (PAT, Lys939Gln, and Ala499Val) of the XPC gene and HNC risk have produced contradictory and inconclusive results. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the contributions of these polymorphisms to the risk of HNC. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases to indentify eligible studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of the associations under a fixed- or random-effect model according to heterogeneity test. Twelve case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis with a total of 3,078 HNC patients and 4,311 healthy controls. For XPC PAT, a significant overall association was found under all major genetic models. Stratified analyses further indicated significant associations in the Caucasian, population-based, non-PCR-RFLP, esophageal cancer and oral cancer subgroups. For XPC Lys939Gln, few significant results were found in either the overall analysis or stratified analyses. For XPC Ala499Val, the combined results revealed a significantly increased risk of HNC for carriers of the 499Val allele. This meta-analysis shows that the XPC PAT and Ala499Val polymorphisms may be associated with an increased risk of HNC, while XPC Lys939Gln may not be associated with HNC risk. Despite some limitations, this meta-analysis establishes solid statistical evidence for an association between XPC genetic polymorphisms and HNC risk that warrants further validation.

Yang B, Chen WH, Wen XF, et al.
Role of DNA repair-related gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to risk of prostate cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(10):5839-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: We assessed the association between genetic variants of XPG, XPA, XPD, CSB, XPC and CCNH in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway and risk of prostate cancer.
METHODS: We genotyped the XPG, XPA, XPD, CSB, XPC and CCNH polymorphisms by a 384-well plate format on the MassARRAY® platform. Multivariate logistical regression analysis was used to assess the associations between the six gene polymorphisms and risk of prostate cancer.
RESULTS: Individuals carrying the XPG rs229614 TT (OR=2.01, 95%CI=1.35-3.27) genotype and T allele (OR=1.73, 95%CI=1.37-2.57) were moderately significantly associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer. Subjects with XPD rs13181 G allele had a marginally increased risk of prostate cancer, with adjusted OR(95%CI) of 1.53 (1.04-2.37). Moreover, individuals carrying with CSB rs2228526 GG genotype (OR=2.05, 95% CI=1.23-3.52) and G allele (OR=1.56, 95%CI=1.17-2.05) were associated with a higher increased risk of prostate cancer. The combination genotype of XPG rs2296147 T and CSB rs2228526 G allele had accumulative effect on the risk of this cancer, with an OR (95% CI) of 2.23(1.37-3.59).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that XPG rs2296147 and CSB rs2228526 polymorphisms are significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, and that combination of XPG rs2296147 T allele and CSB rs2228526 G allele is strongly associated with an increased risk.

Wang Y, Li Z, Liu N, Zhang G
Association between CCND1 and XPC polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on 15 case-control studies.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(4):3155-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Perturbations in cell cycle and DNA repair genes might affect susceptibility to cancer. The aim of this meta-analysis is to generate large-scale evidence to determine the degree to which common Cyclin D1 (CCND1) G870A (dbSNP: rs603965) and xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) Ala499Val (dbSNP: rs2228000) polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to bladder cancer. The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CNKI were searched for relevant studies (with an upper date limit of July 25, 2013). The principal outcome measure for evaluating the strength of association was crude odds ratios (ORs) along with their corresponding confidence intervals (95%CIs). We found and reviewed nine case-control studies on CCND1 G870A with a total of 6,823 subjects and seven studies on XPC Ala499Val with a total of 7,674 subjects. Our meta-analysis provides evidence that the variant genotype of CCND1 G870A showed a significant association in the occurrence of invasive bladder tumors in former and current smokers. The XPC Ala499Val polymorphism correlated with significant differences between patients and unaffected subjects, but when the groups were stratified by ethnicity, the magnitude of the overall effect was similar only among Caucasian populations. Results from our meta-analysis support the view that the G870A polymorphism may modulate the risk of bladder cancer in conjunction with tobacco smoking and that the Ala499Val polymorphism may contribute to the susceptibility to bladder cancer in Caucasian populations. Our findings, however, warrant larger well-designed studies to investigate the significance of these two polymorphisms as markers of susceptibility to bladder cancer.

Dupuy A, Valton J, Leduc S, et al.
Targeted gene therapy of xeroderma pigmentosum cells using meganuclease and TALEN™.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e78678 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XP-C) is a rare human syndrome characterized by hypersensitivity to UV light and a dramatic predisposition to skin neoplasms. XP-C cells are deficient in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, a complex process involved in the recognition and removal of DNA lesions. Several XPC mutations have been described, including a founder mutation in North African patients involving the deletion of a TG dinucleotide (ΔTG) located in the middle of exon 9. This deletion leads to the expression of an inactive truncated XPC protein, normally involved in the first step of NER. New approaches used for gene correction are based on the ability of engineered nucleases such as Meganucleases, Zinc-Finger nucleases or TALE nucleases to accurately generate a double strand break at a specific locus and promote correction by homologous recombination through the insertion of an exogenous DNA repair matrix. Here, we describe the targeted correction of the ΔTG mutation in XP-C cells using engineered meganuclease and TALEN™. The methylated status of the XPC locus, known to inhibit both of these nuclease activities, led us to adapt our experimental design to optimize their in vivo efficacies. We show that demethylating treatment as well as the use of TALEN™ insensitive to CpG methylation enable successful correction of the ΔTG mutation. Such genetic correction leads to re-expression of the full-length XPC protein and to the recovery of NER capacity, attested by UV-C resistance of the corrected cells. Overall, we demonstrate that nuclease-based targeted approaches offer reliable and efficient strategies for gene correction.

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