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"Aminoacridine derivative that is a potent intercalating antineoplastic agent. It is effective in the treatment of acute leukemias and malignant lymphomas, but has poor activity in the treatment of solid tumors. It is frequently used in combination with other antineoplastic agents in chemotherapy protocols. It produces consistent but acceptable myelosuppression and cardiotoxic effects." (MeSH 2013)

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Web Resources: Amsacrine
Latest Research Publications

Web Resources: Amsacrine (5 links)

Latest Research Publications

Fu W, Li X, Lu X, et al.
A novel acridine derivative, LS-1-10 inhibits autophagic degradation and triggers apoptosis in colon cancer cells.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(10):e3086 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Autophagy promotes cancer cell survival and drug resistance by degrading harmful cellular components and maintaining cellular energy levels. Disruption of autophagy may be a promising approach to sensitize cancer cells to anticancer drugs. The combination of autophagic inhibitors, such as chloroquine (CQ) and lucanthone with conventional cancer therapeutics has been investigated in clinical trials, but adverse drug-drug interactions are a high possibility. Here we designed and synthesized a novel, small-molecule library based on an acridine skeleton and the CQ structure with various modifications and substitutions and screened the compounds for effective autophagy inhibition. We found that 9-chloro-2-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)pyrrolo[2,3,4-kl]acridin-1(2H)-one (LS-1-10) was the most effective from our library at inhibiting autophagic-mediated degradation and could decrease the viability of multiple colon cancer cells. In addition, LS-1-10 induced DNA damage and caspase 8-mediated apoptosis. Overall, this small molecule was more efficient at reducing the viability of cancer cells than other conventional chemotherapeutic agents, such as CQ and amsacrine. The anticancer and autophagy-inhibiting activities of LS-1-10 were confirmed in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Collectively, this study has identified a new and efficient single compound with both autophagy-inhibiting and anticancer activity, which may provide a novel approach for cancer therapy.

Löwenberg B, Pabst T, Maertens J, et al.
Therapeutic value of clofarabine in younger and middle-aged (18-65 years) adults with newly diagnosed AML.
Blood. 2017; 129(12):1636-1645 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clofarabine has demonstrated antileukemic activity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but has yet to be critically evaluated in younger adults in the frontline with standard chemotherapy. We compared 2 induction regimens in newly diagnosed patients ages 18 to 65 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes, that is, idarubicine-cytarabine (cycle I) and amsacrine-cytarabine (cycle II) without or with clofarabine (10 mg/m

Holtick U, Herling M, Pflug N, et al.
Similar outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with a modified FLAMSA conditioning protocol substituting 4 Gy TBI with treosulfan in an elderly population with high-risk AML.
Ann Hematol. 2017; 96(3):479-487 [PubMed] Related Publications
The fludarabine, amsacrine, and cytarabine (FLAMSA)-reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) protocol has been described to be effective in patients with high-risk and refractory acute myeloic leukemia (AML) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aSCT). To increase safety and tolerability of the conditioning, we previously reported the feasibility to substitute the TBI component by treosulfan in elderly AML patients. We now present long-term follow-up data on patients treated with FLAMSA/treosulfan compared to the original FLAMSA/4Gy TBI protocol. We retrospectively analyzed 130 consecutive patients with high-risk or relapsed AML after aSCT following FLAMSA conditioning at our center. Fifty-eight patients were treated with FLAMSA/treosulfan due to age and/or comorbidities. Seventy-two patients were treated with FLAMSA/TBI. Median age of patients treated with FLAMSA/treosulfan was 60 years compared to 46 years in those treated with FLAMSA/TBI. The cumulative incidence of a non-relapse mortality at 4 years was 28% in FLAMSA/treosulfan patients as compared to 13% in FLAMSA/TBI. Cumulative incidence of relapse was higher in patients treated with FLAMSA/TBI (46 vs. 32%). This difference was even more prominent for patients treated in blast persistence prior to transplant (relapse incidence 70% for TBI vs. 35% for treosulfan). The overall and relapse-free survival rates at 4 years were 47 and 41%, respectively, for patients treated with FLAMSA/TBI as compared to 43 and 40% in patients treated with FLAMSA/treosulfan. These data indicate an anti-leukemic activity by FLAMSA/treosulfan especially in patients with a blast persistence prior to transplant. Older age was an independent factor for a higher non-relapse mortality. Translating FLAMSA/treosulfan to younger patients, a lower non-relapse mortality, and an improved anti-leukemic activity might add up to improved overall survival. Randomized studies are required to demonstrate an improved efficacy of treosulfan- versus TBI-based FLAMSA conditioning.

Ringdén O, Labopin M, Schmid C, et al.
Sequential chemotherapy followed by reduced-intensity conditioning and allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult patients with relapse or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia: a survey from the Acute Leukaemia Working Party of EBMT.
Br J Haematol. 2017; 176(3):431-439 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study analysed the outcome of 267 patients with relapse/refractory acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who received sequential chemotherapy including fludarabine, cytarabine and amsacrine followed by reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The transplants in 77 patients were from matched sibling donors (MSDs) and those in 190 patients were from matched unrelated donors. Most patients (94·3%) were given anti-T-cell antibodies. The incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of grades II-IV was 32·1% and that of chronic GVHD was 30·2%. The 3-year probability of non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 25·9%, that of relapse was 48·5%, that of GVHD-free and relapse-free survival (GRFS) was 17·8% and that of leukaemia-free survival (LFS) was 25·6%. In multivariate analysis, unrelated donor recipients more frequently had acute GVHD of grades II-IV [hazard ratio (HR) = 1·98, P = 0·017] and suffered less relapses (HR = 0·62, P = 0·01) than MSD recipients. Treatment with anti-T-cell antibodies reduced NRM (HR = 0·35, P = 0·01) and improved survival (HR = 0·49, P = 0·01), GRFS (HR = 0·37, P = 0·0004) and LFS (HR = 0·46, P = 0·005). Thus, sequential chemotherapy followed by RIC HSCT and use of anti-T-cell antibodies seems promising in patients with refractory AML.

Malard F, Labopin M, Stuhler G, et al.
Sequential Intensified Conditioning Regimen Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Adult Patients with Intermediate- or High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Complete Remission: A Study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2017; 23(2):278-284 [PubMed] Related Publications
Post-transplant relapse is the leading cause of treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients after reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). To improve their outcome, we evaluated the outcome of a sequential intermediate-intensity conditioning regimen combining fludarabine, cytosine arabinoside, amsacrine, cyclophosphamide, and either total body irradiation or busulfan (FLAMSA) in patients with intermediate or high-risk AML in first or second complete remission (CR). A total of 265 patients (median age, 55 years; range, 19 to 76) with AML who underwent allo-HSCT using a FLAMSA regimen were included. At the time of transplant, 216 (81.5%) were in CR1 and 49 (18.5%) in CR2. Cytogenetic was intermediate in 114 (43%) and poor in 42 (15.8%) patients, whereas 109 patients (41.1%) had a secondary AML. With a median follow-up of 46 months (range, 1 to 145), the Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall and leukemia-free survival at 2 years were 56.1% (95% CI, 49.7% to 62.6%) and 52.8% (95% CI, 46.4% to 59.2%), respectively. At 2 years, the cumulative incidences of relapse and nonrelapse mortality were 22.8% (95% CI, 17.6% to 28.4%) and 24.0% (95% CI, 18.8% to 29.5%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, patient age and cytogenetics were the only parameters with a significant impact on overall survival. These data suggest that the FLAMSA sequential intermediate conditioning regimen provides an efficient disease control in intermediate- and high-risk AML patients, including those in CR2 and with secondary AML.

Yang T, Lin Q, Ren J, et al.
A 5-day cytoreductive chemotherapy followed by haplo-identical hsct (FA5-BUCY) as a tumor-ablative regimen improved the survival of patients with advanced hematological malignancies.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(48):78773-78786 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Haplo-HSCT has been used when HLA-matched siblings are not available. Conditioning regimens aim to reduce tumor burden prior to HSCT and provide sufficient immunoablation. We report the outcome of haplo-HSCT in 63 consecutive patients from 2/2013 to 12/2015 (19 females/44 males) with high-risk or relapsed/refractory hematological malignancies (n=29-AML; 8-sAML; 19-ALL; 5-advanced-MDS; 2-CML-BC). Median age was 20 years (range: 1.1-49). Twenty-one patients achieved remission prior to transplant, while 42 did not. Patients received FA5-BUCY, i.e., 5-day salvage chemotherapy (Fludarabine/Ara-C) and conditioning (Busulfan/Cyclophosphamide). GvHD prophylaxis included ATG, CsA, MMF and short-term MTX. All patients received stem cells from bone marrow and peripheral blood, and achieved successful engraftment, except two who died before. With a median follow-up of 269 days (120-1081), 42/63 patients are still alive and disease-free. Two-year OS and RFS were similar in patients not in remission and in those in complete remission (61.3% vs 56.3%, p=0.88; 58.3% vs 56.3%, p=0.991). Non-relapse mortality and relapse incidence were 22.2% and 11.1%, respectively. Severe acute-GvHD occurred in 4/63 patients. Transplant-related mortality was low at day+100 (17.5%) and for the entire study period (20.6%). Unexpectedly, few patients experienced mild-to-moderate toxicity, and main causes of death were infection and GvHD. BM blast counts, age, and donor-recipient gender-pairs did not affect the outcome. Less chemotherapy cycles prior to HSCT might result in more favorable outcome. Thus, haplo-HSCT with FA5-BUCY appears promising for advanced disease, especially when TBI and amsacrine, used for FLAMSA, are not available and in pediatric patients for whom TBI is not recommended.

Afzal A, Sarfraz M, Wu Z, et al.
Integrated scientific data bases review on asulacrine and associated toxicity.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016; 104:78-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Asulacrine (ASL), a weakly basic and highly lipophilic drug was synthesized in 1980's in cancer research laboratory of Auckland by modifications to the acridine portion of amsacrine on 3-, 4- and 5-substitution patterns. In contrast to its precursor amsacrine (m-AMSA), ASL was effective not only against leukemia and Lewis lung tumor system but also a wide variety of solid tumor. Its metabolic pathway is not same to amsacrine hence different side effects, hepatotoxicity and excretion was observed. Asulacrine is under phase II clinical trials and has showed promising results but its toxicity especially phlebitis is stumbling block in its clinical implementation. This review is an effort to give a possible clue, based on scientifically proven results, to the researchers to solve the mystery of associated toxicity, phlebitis. Review covers the available literature on asulacrine and other acridine derivatives regarding pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, quantitative structure activity relationship and toxicology via electronic search using scientific databases like PubMed and others. To date, all abstracts and full-text articles were discussed and analyzed. The tabulated comparisons and circuitry mechanism of ASL are the added features of the review which give a complete understanding of hidden aspects of possible route cause of associated toxicity, the phlebitis.

Zang X, Zhang J, Zhou Y, et al.
Quantitative determination of intracellular Asulacrine in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and its application to cellular pharmacokinetic studies of P188 modified liposomes.
Biomed Chromatogr. 2016; 30(12):1908-1914 [PubMed] Related Publications
Asulacrine (ASL), an analogue of amsacrine, has shown higher anti-breast and anti-lung cancer activity. Hereby, a new sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method was developed to determine intracellular asulacrine. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Zorbax Extend-C

DeVita VT, Canellos GP
Combination chemotherapy of solid tumors: an American-Italian collaboration: a celebration of the work of Gianni Bonadonna.
Tumori. 2016 Mar-Apr; 102(2):124-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
This article highlights the important collaboration between the U.S. NCI in Bethesda, Maryland and the Istituto Tumori in Milan, Italy that had a major impact on the development of curative regimens for breast cancer, Hodgkin's disease and diffuse large B cell lymphoma.In addition to his contribution to developing new therapies, Gianni Bonadonna played an important role in bringing highly focused, disciplined, ethical clinical trials to the European continent.

Sun YW, Chen KY, Kwon CH, Chen KM
CK0403, a 9‑aminoacridine, is a potent anti‑cancer agent in human breast cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(1):933-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
3‑({4‑[4‑(Acridin‑9‑ylamino)phenylthio]phenyl}(3‑hydroxypropyl)amino)propan‑1‑ol (CK0403) is a sulfur‑containing 9‑anilinoacridine analogue of amsacrine and was found to be more potent than its analogue 2-({4-[4-(acridin-9-ylamino)phenylthio]phenyl}(2‑hydroxyethyl)amino)ethan‑1‑ol (CK0402) and amsacrine in the inhibition of the topoisomerase II‑catalyzed decatenation reaction. A previous study by our group reported that CK0402 was effective against numerous breast cancer cell lines, and the combination of CK0402 with herceptin enhanced its activity in HER2(+) SKBR‑3 cells. In order to identify novel chemotherapeutic agents with enhanced potency, the present study explored the potential of CK0403 in the treatment of breast cancer. First, the growth inhibitory activity of CK0403 in the breast cancer cell lines MCF‑7, MDA‑MB‑231, BT474 and SKBR‑3, as well as in the non‑cancerous MCF‑10A cell line, was examined using a sulforhodamine B assay. The results showed that CK0403 exerted more potent growth inhibitory activity than CK0402 in all of the breast cancer cell lines except MCF‑7. SKBR‑3 and MDA‑MB‑231 were the most sensitive cell lines tested, and the combination of CK0403 with herceptin in HER2(+) SKBR‑3 cells enhanced the growth inhibitory activity of CK0403. Analysis of cell cycle alterations induced by CK0403 in SKBR‑3 cells revealed that, similarly to CK0402, CK0403 induced G2/M‑phase arrest with a decreased S- and G0/G1-phase ratio. In addition, it was shown that CK0403 induced apoptosis more effectively than CK0402 in SKBR‑3 cells. Further analysis of autophagy protein 5 (Atg5) indicated that CK0403 induced more cleaved Atg5 than CK0402 and other chemotherapeutic agents tested. Of note, although still relatively potent, CK0403 exhibited reduced growth inhibitory activity under hypoxic conditions, which can induce autophagy. Collectively, the present results supported that CK0403 is highly potent and more effective than CK0402 against estrogen receptor-negative and HER2‑overexpressing breast cancer cell lines, suggesting its future application for chemotherapy in breast cancer.

Pfrepper C, Klink A, Behre G, et al.
Risk factors for outcome in refractory acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with a combination of fludarabine, cytarabine, and amsacrine followed by a reduced-intensity conditioning and allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(1):317-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is considered a standard treatment for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first or second complete remission (CR). Unfortunately, not all patients achieve complete remission prior to HCT. We sought to establish predictive factors for survival after HCT for refractory AML after FLAMSA-RIC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed the outcome of 44 consecutive patients aged between 21 and 65 years transplanted at the University Hospitals of Jena and Leipzig for refractory AML between 2006 and January 2013. Conditioning for HCT was performed with chemotherapy consisting of fludarabine, cytarabine, and amsacrine followed by total body irradiation or busulfan combined with cyclophosphamide. Antithymocyte globulin was given when transplanting from unrelated donors (FLAMSA-RIC).
RESULTS: Estimated overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) at 3 years after a median follow-up of 34 (range 6-71) months were 15 and 12 %, respectively. Causes of death were relapse in 66 %, infection in 11 %, and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in 7 % of all patients. Twenty-five from 42 evaluable patients (60 %) achieved CR 4 weeks after HCT, while eight patients had partial remission (PR), and nine patients had stable disease (SD). Another six patients with PR and SD achieved CR (overall CR rate 74 %) from 4 weeks to day 90 after HCT following reduction in immunosuppression. The strongest favorable factors in univariate analysis for OS, EFS, and RI were ≥98 % total donor chimerism 2-4 weeks after HCT and <3 lines of pretreatment prior to HCT. In addition, better OS was detected in patients with <20 % bone marrow blasts alone (32 vs. 5 % at 3 years) and in combination with <3 lines of pretreatment (38 vs. 4 % at 3 years). Only a trend for better EFS and lower RI was observed in patients with limited chronic GvHD. In addition, a lower RI was seen in patients with <5 % blasts 4 weeks after HCT. Multivariate analysis revealed that ≥98 % donor chimerism 2-4 weeks after HCT for OS, EFS, and RI and <3 lines of pretreatment for OS and EFS are the strongest predictors for better outcome.
CONCLUSION: FLAMSA-RIC shows long-term survival in refractory AML patients. Factors for favorable outcome are <20 % bone marrow blasts prior to HCT, <3 lines of pretreatment and complete donor chimerism after HCT.

Cortes JE, Goldberg SL, Feldman EJ, et al.
Phase II, multicenter, randomized trial of CPX-351 (cytarabine:daunorubicin) liposome injection versus intensive salvage therapy in adults with first relapse AML.
Cancer. 2015; 121(2):234-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CPX-351 is a liposome-encapsulated fixed-molar-ratio formulation of cytarabine and daunorubicin that exploits molar ratio-dependent drug-drug synergy to enhance antileukemic efficacy.
METHODS: This phase II study randomized 125 patients 2:1 to CPX-351 or investigators' choice of first salvage chemotherapy. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first relapse after initial Complete Remission (CR) lasting ≥1 month were stratified per the European Prognostic Index (EPI) into favorable, intermediate, and poor-risk groups based on duration of first CR, cytogenetics, age, and transplant history. Control salvage treatment was usually based on cytarabine and anthracycline, often with 1 or more additional agents. Survival at 1 year was the primary efficacy end point.
RESULTS: Patient characteristics were well balanced between the 2 study arms. Improvements in efficacy outcomes were observed following CPX-351, but did not meet prospectively defined statistical criteria for 1-year survival improvement in the overall population. Subset analyses of the EPI-defined poor-risk strata demonstrated higher response rates (39.3% vs 27.6%) and improvements in event-free survival (HR, 0.63; P = .08) and overall survival (HR, 0.55; P = .02). Also, 60-day mortality was lower in the CPX-351 study arm for poor-risk patients (16.1% vs 24.1%).
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the data suggest possible improved outcomes in CPX-351-treated first relapse AML patients with EPI-defined poor-risk disease.

Zagotto G, Gianoncelli A, Sissi C, et al.
Novel ametantrone-amsacrine related hybrids as topoisomerase IIβ poisons and cytotoxic agents.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2014; 347(10):728-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
The precise definition of the structural requirements for effective topoisomerase II poisoning by drug molecules is still an elusive issue. In the attempt to better define a pharmacophoric pattern, we prepared several conjugates combining the chemical features of two well-known topoisomerase II poisons, amsacrine and ametantrone. Indeed, an appropriate fusion geometry, which entails the anthracenedione moiety of ametantrone appropriately connected to the methanesulfonamidoaniline side chain of amsacrine, elicits DNA-intercalating properties, the capacity to inhibit the human topoisomerase IIβ isoform, and cytotoxic activity resembling that of the parent compounds. In addition, the properties of the lateral groups linked to the anthracenedione group play an important role in modulating DNA binding and cell cytotoxicity. Among the compounds tested, 10, 11, and 19 appear to be promising for further development.

Liu WH, Chen YJ, Chien JH, Chang LS
Amsacrine suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)/MMP-9 expression in human leukemia cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2014; 229(5):588-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study explores the suppression mechanism of amsacrine (4-(9-Acridinylamino)-N-(methanesulfonyl)-m-anisidine hydrochloride) on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expression in human leukemia cells. Amsacrine attenuated cell invasion with decreased MMP-2/MMP-9 protein expression and mRNA levels in U937, Jurkat, HL-60, K562, KU812, and MEG-01 cells. Moreover, amsacrine reduced both MMP-2/MMP-9 promoter luciferase activity and MMP-2/MMP-9 mRNA stability in leukemia cells. Studies on amsacrine-treated U937 cells revealed that amsacrine-elicited ROS generation induced JNK and p38 MAPK activation but reduced the phospho-ERK level. Amsacrine-induced ERK inactivation and p38 MAPK/JNK activation were demonstrated to suppress MMP-2/MMP-9 promoter luciferase activity and promote MMP-2/MMP-9 mRNA decay, respectively. p38 MAPK/JNK activation led to up-regulation of protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit α (PP2Acα) in amsacrine-treated U937 cells. Okadaic acid (PP2A inhibitor) treatment increased MMP-2/MMP-9 mRNA stability in amsacrine-treated cells, whereas PP2Acα over-expression increased MMP-2/MMP-9 mRNA decay. Amsacrine-induced MMP-2/MMP-9 down-regulation was also related to PP2Acα up-regulation on Jurkat, HL-60, K562, KU812, and MEG-01 cells. Collectively, our data indicate that amsacrine induces MMP-2/MMP-9 down-regulation via simultaneous suppression of genetic transcription and mRNA stability in human leukemia cells.

Burnett AK, Russell NH, Hills RK, et al.
Optimization of chemotherapy for younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia: results of the medical research council AML15 trial.
J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31(27):3360-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Treatment outcomes in younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have improved, but optimization and new combinations are needed. We assess three combinations in induction and consolidation.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Younger untreated patients with AML (median age, 49 years; range, 0 to 73 years) were randomly allocated to two induction courses of daunorubicin and cytarabine (DA) with or without etoposide (ADE; n = 1983) or ADE versus fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and idarubicin (FLAG-Ida; n = 1268), and to amsacrine, cytarabine, etoposide, and then mitoxantrone/cytarabine (MACE-MidAC) or high-dose cytarabine (n = 1,445) 3 g/m(2) or 1.5 g/m(2) (n = 657) in consolidation, and finally to a fifth course (cytarabine) or not (n = 227).
RESULTS: Overall remission rates were similar for DA versus ADE (84% v 86%; P = .14) and ADE versus FLAG-Ida (86% v 85%; P = .7), with more course 1 remissions after FLAG-Ida (77%) reducing relapse (38% v 55%; P < .001) and improving relapse-free survival (45% v 34%; P = .01), overall and in subgroups, but with increased myelosuppression, reducing participation in the consolidation randomization. Overall outcomes were similar between MACE/MidAc and high-dose cytarabine (1.5/3.0 g/m(2)), but cytarabine required less supportive care. MACE/MidAc was superior for high-risk patients. A fifth course provided no benefit. The outcome for recipients of only two FLAG-Ida courses were not different from that with DA/ADE with consolidation.
CONCLUSION: FLAG-Ida is an effective remission induction treatment, with a high complete remission rate after course 1 and reduced relapse. Consolidation with MACE/MidAc is similar overall to high-dose cytarabine, but superior in high-risk patients. Cytarabine at 1.5 g/m(2) is equivalent to a 3 g/m(2) dose. A fifth course is unnecessary. In patients receiving FLAG-Ida (two courses) and cytarabine (two courses), 8-year survival was 63% for patients with intermediate-risk and 95% for those with favorable-risk disease.

Abaza MS, Al-Attiyah R, Bhardwaj R, et al.
Syringic acid from Tamarix aucheriana possesses antimitogenic and chemo-sensitizing activities in human colorectal cancer cells.
Pharm Biol. 2013; 51(9):1110-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: For its variety of biological activities, Tamarix aucheriana (Decne.) Baum. (Tamaricaceae) has an extensive history as a traditional Arab medicine.
OBJECTIVES: Antimitogenic and chemo-sensitizing activities of syringic acid (SA) were studied against human colorectal cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chromatographic and spectral data were used for the isolation and identification of SA. MTT, flow cytometry, in vitro invasion and angiogenesis assays, fluoremetry, ELISA and Real Time qPCR were used to test antimitogenic and chemo-sensitizing activities of SA, cell cycle, apoptosis, proteasome and NFκB-DNA-binding activities, cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis, and expression of cell cycle/apoptosis-related genes.
RESULTS: SA showed a time- and dose-dependent (IC₅₀ = 0.95-1.2 mg mL⁻¹) antimitogenic effect against cancer cells with little cytotoxicity on normal fibroblasts (≤20%). SA-altered cell cycle (S/G2-M or G1/G2-M phases) in a time-dependent manner, induced apoptosis, inhibited DNA-binding activity of NFκB (p ≤ 0.0001), chymotrypsin-like/PGPH (peptidyl-glutamyl peptide-hydrolyzing) (p ≤ 0.0001) and the trypsin-like (p ≤ 0.002) activities of 26S proteasome and angiogenesis. SA also differentially sensitized cancer cells to standard chemotherapies with a marked increase in their sensitivity to camptothecin (500-fold), 5FU (20,000-fold), doxorubicin (210-fold), taxol (3134-fold), vinblastine (1000-fold), vincristine (130-fold) and amsacrine (107-fold) compared to standard drugs alone.
DISCUSSION: SA exerted its chemotherapeutic and chemo-sensitizing effects through an array of mechanisms including cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, inhibition of cell proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis, NFκB DNA-binding and proteasome activities.
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the potential of SA as an antimitogenic and chemo-sensitizing agent for human colorectal cancer.

Krejci M, Doubek M, Dusek J, et al.
Combination of fludarabine, amsacrine, and cytarabine followed by reduced-intensity conditioning and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia.
Ann Hematol. 2013; 92(10):1397-403 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sequential use of chemotherapy and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) has been proposed to improve the treatment outcomes in patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we present our experience with this procedure in a cohort of 60 AML patients with primary induction failure (n = 9); early, refractory, or ≥ second relapse (n = 41); or unfavorable cytogenetics (n = 10). A combination of fludarabine (30 mg/m²/day), cytarabine (2 g/m²/day), and amsacrine (100 mg/m²/day) for 4 days was used. After 3 days of rest, RIC was carried out, consisting of 4 Gy total body irradiation, antithymocyte globulin (ATG-Fresenius), and cyclophosphamide (fludarabine, amsacrine, and cytarabine (FLAMSA)-RIC protocol). Prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusions (pDLIs) were given in patients with complete remission (CR) and without evidence of graft-versus-host disease ≥120 days after SCT. The median time of neutrophil engraftment was 17 days. CR was achieved in 47 of 60 patients (78%). Eleven patients received pDLIs resulting in long-term CR in eight of them. Non-relapse mortality after 1 and 3 years was 25 and 28%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 37 months (range, 10-69), 3-year overall survival and 3-year progression-free survival were 42 and 33%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, dose of CD34(+) cells >5 × 10⁶/kg (p = 0.005; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.276), remission of AML before SCT (p = 0.044; HR = 0.421), and achievement of complete chimerism after SCT (p = 0.001; HR = 0.205) were significant factors of better overall survival. The use of the FLAMSA-RIC protocol in suitable high-risk AML patients results in a long-term survival rate of over 40%.

Schneidawind D, Federmann B, Faul C, et al.
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning following FLAMSA for primary refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia.
Ann Hematol. 2013; 92(10):1389-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patients with primary refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a dismal prognosis. We report a retrospective single center analysis of aplasia-inducing chemotherapy using fludarabine, cytarabine, and amsacrine (FLAMSA) followed by reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in 62 consecutive primary refractory or relapsed AML patients. Two-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) were 26 and 39%, respectively. Risk stratification according to cytogenetic and molecular genetic markers showed superior survival in patients in the intermediate-1 risk group (2-year OS 70%) compared to the intermediate-2 risk (2-year OS 34%, p = 0.03) and adverse risk (2-year OS 38%, p = 0.06) group. The use of HLA-matched versus HLA-mismatched donors had no significant influence on survival (p = 0.98). Two-year OS in the elderly subgroup defined by age ≥60 years was 31% compared to 46% in the group of younger patients <60 years (p = 0.19). Cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality at 2 years adjusted for relapse as competing risk was 20% for patients <60 years and 26% for older patients (p = 0.55). Chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with a statistically significant superior survival (p < 0.01). FLAMSA-RIC followed by allogeneic HCT enables long-term disease-free survival in primary refractory or relapsed AML even in the elderly patient population.

Schaich M, Parmentier S, Kramer M, et al.
High-dose cytarabine consolidation with or without additional amsacrine and mitoxantrone in acute myeloid leukemia: results of the prospective randomized AML2003 trial.
J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31(17):2094-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To assess the treatment outcome benefit of multiagent consolidation in young adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between December 2003 and November 2009, 1,179 patients (median age, 48 years; range, 16 to 60 years) with untreated AML were randomly assigned at diagnosis to receive either standard high-dose cytarabine consolidation with three cycles of 18 g/m(2) (3× HD-AraC) or multiagent consolidation with two cycles of mitoxantrone (30 mg/m(2)) plus cytarabine (12 g/m(2)) and one cycle of amsacrine (500 mg/m(2)) plus cytarabine (10 g/m(2); MAC/MAMAC/MAC). Allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantations were performed in a risk-adapted and priority-based manner.
RESULTS: After double induction therapy using a 3 + 7 regimen including standard-dose cytarabine and daunorubicin, complete remission was achieved in 65% of patients. In the primary efficacy population of patients evaluable for consolidation outcomes, consolidation with either 3× HD-AraC or MAC/MAMC/MAC did not result in any significant difference in 3-year overall (69% v 64%; P = .18) or disease-free survival (46% v 48%; P = .99) according to the intention-to-treat analysis. Furthermore, MAC/MAMAC/MAC led to additional GI and hepatic toxicity and a higher rate of infection and bleeding, resulting in significantly shorter 3-year overall survival in the per-protocol analysis compared with 3× HD-AraC (63% v 72%; P = .04).
CONCLUSION: In younger adults with AML, multiagent consolidation using mitoxantrone and amsacrine in combination with high-dose cytarabine does not improve treatment outcome and confers additional toxicity.

Pfeiffer T, Schleuning M, Mayer J, et al.
Influence of molecular subgroups on outcome of acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype in 141 patients undergoing salvage allogeneic stem cell transplantation in primary induction failure or beyond first relapse.
Haematologica. 2013; 98(4):518-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Based on molecular aberrations, in particular the NPM1 mutation (NPM1(mut)) and the FLT3 internal tandem duplication (Flt3-ITD), prognostic subgroups have been defined among patients with acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype. Whereas these subgroups are known to play an important role in outcome in first complete remission, and also in the indication for allogeneic stem cell transplantation, data are limited on their role after transplantation in advanced disease. To evaluate the role of molecular subgroups of acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype after allogeneic stem cell transplantation beyond first complete remission, we analyzed the data from 141 consecutive adults (median age: 51.0 years, range 18.4-69.3 years) who had received an allogeneic transplant either in primary induction failure or beyond first complete remission. A sequential regimen of cytoreductive chemotherapy (fludarabine, high-dose AraC, amsacrine) followed by reduced intensity conditioning (FLAMSA-RIC), was uniformly used for conditioning. After a median follow up of three years, overall survival from transplantation was 64 ± 4%, 53 ± 4% and 44 ± 5% at one, two and four years, respectively. Forty patients transplanted in primary induction failure achieved an encouraging 2-year survival of 69%. Among 101 patients transplanted beyond first complete remission, 2-year survival was 81% among patients with the NPM1(mut)/FLT3(wt) genotype in contrast to 43% in other genotypes. Higher numbers of transfused CD34(+) cells (hazard ratio 2.155, 95% confidence interval 0.263-0.964, P=0.039) and favorable genotype (hazard ratio 0.142, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.898, P=0.048) were associated with superior overall survival in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, patients with acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype can frequently be rescued after primary induction failure by allogeneic transplantation following FLAMSA-RIC. The prognostic role of NPM1(mut)/FLT3-ITD based subgroups was carried through after allogeneic stem cell transplantation beyond first complete remission.

Fong CY, Grigoriadis G, Hocking J, et al.
Fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and amsacrine: an effective salvage therapy option for acute myeloid leukemia at first relapse.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2013; 54(2):336-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Improved therapeutic options for relapsing patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are urgently needed. Poor outcomes following salvage therapy have been reported in those with short initial remission duration, adverse risk karyotype, prior allograft, older age, FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) AML and prior high-dose cytarabine (HiDAC) induction therapy. We present a cohort of 58 patients (aged 18-70) treated with fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and amsacrine (FLAG-amsacrine) as salvage chemotherapy for AML at first relapse. 83% had received prior HiDAC-based therapy. The overall complete remission (CR/CR with incomplete blood count recovery [CRi]) rate was 59%, with median event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of 6.9 and 10.6 months, respectively. FLAG-amsacrine was an effective bridge to allogeneic transplant with 38% successfully transplanted with excellent outcomes (median OS not reached). FLAG-amsacrine was also effective in elderly patients (≥ 60 years), with 61% achieving second remission. The regimen was well tolerated, with 30- and 42-day treatment-related mortality of 3.4% and 13.8%, respectively. Outcomes remained poor in those with short initial remission duration (<6 months). We conclude that FLAG-amsacrine is a useful salvage option for AML at first relapse.

Hengeveld M, Suciu S, Karrasch M, et al.
Intensive consolidation therapy compared with standard consolidation and maintenance therapy for adults with acute myeloid leukaemia aged between 46 and 60 years: final results of the randomized phase III study (AML 8B) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche Maligne dell'Adulto (GIMEMA) Leukemia Cooperative Groups.
Ann Hematol. 2012; 91(6):825-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The most effective post-remission treatment to maintain complete remission (CR) in adults aged between 46 and 60 years with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is uncertain. Previously untreated patients with AML in CR after induction chemotherapy with daunorubicin and cytarabine were randomized between two intensive courses of consolidation therapy containing high-dose cytarabine, combined with amsacrine or daunorubicin and a standard consolidation and maintenance therapy containing standard dose cytarabine and daunorubicin. One hundred fifty-eight CR patients were assigned to the intensive group and 157 patients to the standard group. After a median follow-up of 7.5 years, the 4-year survival rate was 32 % in the intensive group versus 34 % in the standard group (P = 0.29). In the intensive group, the 4-year relapse incidence was lower than in the standard group: 55 and 75 %, respectively (P = 0.0003), whereas treatment-related mortality incidence was higher: 22 versus 3 % (P < 0.0001). Two intensive consolidation courses containing high-dose cytarabine as post-remission treatment in patients with AML aged between 46 and 60 years old did not translate in better long-term outcome despite a 20 % lower relapse incidence. Better supportive care and prevention of treatment-related complications may improve the overall survival after intensified post-remission therapy in this age group.

Saure C, Schroeder T, Zohren F, et al.
Upfront allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome or secondary acute myeloid leukemia using a FLAMSA-based high-dose sequential conditioning regimen.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2012; 18(3):466-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patients suffering from high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) secondary to MDS (sAML) are characterized by poor response to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. The purpose of our prospective single-center study was to examine the safety and efficacy of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) following a sequential conditioning regimen as first-line therapy for previously untreated patients with high-risk MDS or sAML. Between November 2003 and June 2010, 30 patients (20 high-risk MDS, 10 sAML) received fludarabine (4 × 30 mg/m(2)), amsacrine (4 × 100 mg/m(2)), and Ara-C (4 × 2 g/m(2), FLAMSA). After 2 to 3 days of rest, patients received high-dose melphalan alone (200 mg/m(2) for patients with an age <50 years, 150 mg/m(2) for patients with an age between 50 and 60 years, and 100 mg/m(2) for patients with an age >60 years; n = 24) or melphalan and thiotepa (10 mg/kg, Mel/Thio, n = 6). Following these high-dose conditioning regimens, a median number of 7.7 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg body weight (range: 2.9 × 10(6)-17.2 × 10(6)) were transplanted from 13 related or 17 unrelated donors. Antithymocyte globulin (Fresenius 30-60 mg/kg) as well as tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. All patients except 1 with primary graft failure achieved complete remission after HSCT. After a median follow-up time of 28 months (range: 7-81), 21 patients (70%) were alive and free of disease. Overall, 4 patients relapsed. At 2 years, overall survival, event-free survival, and treatment-related mortality were 70%, 63%, and 30%, respectively. Because of undue toxicity, thiotepa is no longer part of the conditioning regimen. Our results add to the body of evidence that a FLAMSA-based sequential conditioning therapy is effective for previously untreated patients with high-risk MDS or sAML.

Cooper TM, Franklin J, Gerbing RB, et al.
AAML03P1, a pilot study of the safety of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in combination with chemotherapy for newly diagnosed childhood acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
Cancer. 2012; 118(3):761-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The development of antigen-targeted therapies may provide additional options to improve outcomes in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The Children's Oncology Group AAML03P1 trial sought to determine the safety of adding 2 doses of gemtuzumab ozogamicin, a humanized anti-CD33 antibody-targeted agent, to intensive chemotherapy during remission induction and postremission intensification for children with de novo AML.
METHODS: AAML03P1 enrolled 350 children with previously untreated AML. Patients with a matched family donor received 3 courses of chemotherapy followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; those without a matched family donor received 5 courses of chemotherapy. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin 3 mg/m(2)/dose was administered on Day 6 of Course 1 and Day 7 of Course 4.
RESULTS: Toxicities observed in all courses of therapy were typical of AML chemotherapy regimens, with infection being most common. Patients achieved a complete remission rate of 83% after 1 course and 87% after 2 courses. The mortality rate was 1.5% after the first gemtuzumab ozogamicin-containing induction course and 2.6% after 2 induction courses. The 3-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 53 ± 6% and 66 ± 5%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: This trial determined that it is safe and feasible to include gemtuzumab ozogamicin in combination with intensive chemotherapy. The survival rates compare favorably with the recently published results of clinical trials worldwide.

Schaich M, Röllig C, Soucek S, et al.
Cytarabine dose of 36 g/m² compared with 12 g/m² within first consolidation in acute myeloid leukemia: results of patients enrolled onto the prospective randomized AML96 study.
J Clin Oncol. 2011; 29(19):2696-702 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To assess the optimal cumulative dose of cytarabine for treatment of young adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) within a prospective multicenter treatment trial.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1996 and 2003, 933 patients (median age, 47 years; range 15 to 60 years) with untreated AML were randomly assigned at diagnosis to receive cytarabine within the first consolidation therapy at either a intermediate-dose of 12 g/m² (I-MAC) or a high-dose of 36 g/m² (H-MAC) combined with mitoxantrone. Autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation or intermediate-dose cytarabine (10 g/m²) were offered as second consolidation. Patients with a matched donor could receive an allogeneic transplantation in a risk-adapted manner.
RESULTS: After double induction therapy including intermediate-dose cytarabine (10 g/m²), mitoxantrone, etoposide, and amsacrine, complete remission was achieved in 66% of patients. In the primary efficacy analysis population, a consolidation with either I-MAC or H-MAC did not result in significant differences in the 5-year overall (30% v 33%; P = .77) or disease-free survival (37% v 38%; P = .86) according to the intention-to-treat analysis. Besides a prolongation of neutropenia and higher transfusion demands in the H-MAC arm, rates of serious adverse events were comparable in the two groups.
CONCLUSION: In young adults with AML receiving intermediate-dose cytarabine induction, intensification of the cytarabine dose beyond 12 g/m² within first consolidation did not improve treatment outcome.

Schmid C, Schleuning M, Tischer J, et al.
Early allo-SCT for AML with a complex aberrant karyotype--results from a prospective pilot study.
Bone Marrow Transplant. 2012; 47(1):46-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
In AML, a complex aberrant karyotype is associated with poor response to chemotherapy and dismal prognosis. We prospectively studied the concept of allogeneic haematopoietic SCT (HSCT), performed early and regardless of response to induction treatment in patients with complex karyotype AML (CK-AML). The preparative regimen consisted of fludarabine, Ara-C and amsacrine (FLAMSA) chemotherapy, followed by reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) 3 days later. In vivo T-cell depletion by anti-thymocyte globulin was used to protect from early GvHD, and prophylactic donor lymphocyte transfusion was given from day+120 to augment the GvL effect, once tolerance was established. Eighteen consecutive patients with CK-AML (median age: 53 years) received HSCT from related (n=7) or unrelated (n=11) donors. Before FLAMSA-RIC, nine patients each had received one and two induction courses. Stage at start of FLAMSA-RIC was CR/CRi (n=8) or persistent disease (n=10). Following HSCT, 16 patients achieved CR. After a follow-up of 51 months, 11 patients are alive in CR, whereas seven have died in remission (n=3), or from leukaemia (n=4). Cumulative incidence of relapse, non-relapse mortality, acute GvHD≥II and chronic GvHD were 0.222±0.098, 0.235±0.104, 0.367±0.120 and 0.481±0.123, respectively. Four-year survival from HSCT is 61%. Early HSCT following FLAMSA-RIC may improve the outcome of this unfavourable AML subgroup.

Burnett AK, Hills RK, Milligan D, et al.
Identification of patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia who benefit from the addition of gemtuzumab ozogamicin: results of the MRC AML15 trial.
J Clin Oncol. 2011; 29(4):369-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Antibody-directed chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may permit more treatment to be administered without escalating toxicity. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) is an immunoconjugate between CD33 and calicheamicin that is internalized when binding to the epitope. We previously established that it is feasible to combine GO with conventional chemotherapy. We now report a large randomized trial testing the addition of GO to induction and/or consolidation chemotherapy in untreated younger patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this open-label trial, 1,113 patients, predominantly younger than age 60 years, were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of GO (3 mg/m(2)) on day 1 of induction course 1 with one of the following three induction schedules: daunorubicin and cytarabine; cytarabine, daunorubicin, and etoposide; or fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and idarubicin. In remission, 948 patients were randomly assigned to GO in course 3 in combination with amsacrine, cytarabine, and etoposide or high-dose cytarabine. The primary end points were response rate and survival.
RESULTS: The addition of GO was well tolerated with no significant increase in toxicity. There was no overall difference in response or survival in either induction of consolidation. However, a predefined analysis by cytogenetics showed highly significant interaction with induction GO (P = .001), with significant survival benefit for patients with favorable cytogenetics, no benefit for patients with poor-risk disease, and a trend for benefit in intermediate-risk patients. An internally validated prognostic index identified approximately 70% of patients with a predicted benefit of 10% in 5-year survival.
CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of younger patients with AML have improved survival with the addition of GO to induction chemotherapy with little additional toxicity.

Chen YH, Chiou TJ, Hsu YN, Liu CY
Idiopathic hyperammonemia after chemotherapy with vinorelbine, topotecan, and cisplatin in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2010; 3(4):199-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
Idiopathic hyperammonemia (IHA) had been reported in some patients with hematological malignancy after receiving intensive chemotherapy, following bone marrow transplantation, or after using 5-fluorouracil for some solid tumors. The chemotherapeutic agents involved include cytarabine, daunomycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, amsacrine, etoposide, asparaginase, busulfan, and methotraxate, all used for treating hematological malignancies. No previous reports have described the association between idiopathic hyperammonemia and combined chemotherapy with vinorelbine, topotecan, and cisplatin. We describe a 20-year-old girl with normal liver function and relapsed precursor B-lymphoblastic leukemia receiving the modified TVTG (topotecan, vinorelbine, thiotepa, dexamethasone, and gemcitabine) protocol to control her disease. We used cisplatin (30 mg/m2/day) to replace thiotepa on day 3 because thiotepa was not available in Taiwan. The patient developed acute idiopathic hyperammonemia after 5 days of chemotherapy and died 9 days after chemotherapy. To our knowledge, this patient is the first report of the association of hyperammonemia and chemotherapy with vinorelbine, topotecan, and cisplatin in the English literature.

Verma D, Kantarjian H, Faderl S, et al.
Late relapses in acute myeloid leukemia: analysis of characteristics and outcome.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2010; 51(5):778-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Relapse after 5 years of complete remission (CR) is uncommon in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Among 2347 patients seen between 1980 and 2008, 1366 achieved CR; 942 relapsed. Eleven (1.16% of all relapses) relapsed after a CR of >5 years. The median age was 66 years (range, 37-79). Initial therapy was cytarabine plus anthracycline in six, amsacrine-based in three, and other in two. The median CR1 duration was 81 months (range, 60-137). At relapse, the karyotype was different from the initial finding in five of eight (63%) patients with available data. Treatment for relapse included cytarabine with anthracycline in eight, and other in three patients, with a second CR (CR2) achieved in four (36%). The median CR2 duration was 1 month (range, 0-37), and median survival after relapse was 6.4 months (range, 1-39). Late relapses in AML are infrequent, with poor response to therapy. Karyotype at relapse is frequently different, raising the question of second AML versus relapse with the original clone.

van Vliet MJ, Tissing WJ, Rings EH, et al.
Citrulline as a marker for chemotherapy induced mucosal barrier injury in pediatric patients.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009; 53(7):1188-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The currently used National Cancer Institute (NCI) adverse events criteria for mucosal barrier injury (MBI) are insufficient for use in children. We searched for objective, easily measurable indicators for MBI in children with cancer.
PURPOSE: In children with acute myeloid leukemia, various MBI-related clinical and laboratory tests were investigated, reflecting clinical severity (NCI symptomatic adverse events criteria (gold standard), daily gut score (DGS)), inflammation (plasma and fecal interleukin-8 (IL-8), fecal calprotectin), enterocytic loss (plasma citrulline, ratio fecal human DNA/total DNA) and intestinal permeability (sugar absorption tests).
RESULTS: Intestinal MBI as detected by the NCI adverse events criteria was found in 55% of chemotherapy cycles, correlating well with the continuous DGS (n = 55, rho = 0.581; P < 0.001). Intestinal cell loss as measured by the ratio fecal human DNA/total DNA and plasma citrulline correlated well with both NCI criteria (n = 61, rho = 0.357, P = 0.005 resp. n = 58, rho = -0.482; P < 0.001) and DGS (n = 54, rho = 0.352, P = 0.009 resp. n = 55, rho = -0.625; P < 0.001). Plasma IL-8 correlated strongly to plasma citrulline (n = 46, rho = -0.627; P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: MBI was reflected by parameters indicating inflammation (IL-8) and cell loss (plasma citrulline, ratio fecal human DNA/total DNA). We conclude that plasma citrulline might be a good parameter for MBI. Further studies are needed to show whether plasma citrulline can be used as a marker for MBI in future research.

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