Gene Summary

Gene:CCL3; C-C motif chemokine ligand 3
Aliases: MIP1A, SCYA3, G0S19-1, LD78ALPHA, MIP-1-alpha
Summary:This locus represents a small inducible cytokine. The encoded protein, also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha, plays a role in inflammatory responses through binding to the receptors CCR1, CCR4 and CCR5. Polymorphisms at this locus may be associated with both resistance and susceptibility to infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-C motif chemokine 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (65)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (4)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chemokine CCL4
  • Chemokines
  • Spleen
  • Apoptosis
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Cultured Cells
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins
  • RANK Ligand
  • Cytokines
  • Cell Survival
  • Cell Movement
  • Transfection
  • Osteolysis
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Mutation
  • Protein Array Analysis
  • Phosphorylation
  • Chromosome 17
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Bone Marrow
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Gene Expression
  • Osteoclasts
  • Coculture Techniques
  • Stem Cell Niche
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Chemokine CCL3
  • Western Blotting
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Up-Regulation
  • Lung Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • siRNA
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CCL3 (cancer-related)

Kassen D, Lath D, Lach A, et al.
Myeloma impairs mature osteoblast function but causes early expansion of osteo-progenitors: temporal changes in bone physiology and gene expression in the KMS12BM model.
Br J Haematol. 2016; 172(1):64-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myeloma bone disease results from an uncoupling of osteoclastic resorption and osteoblastic bone formation, but early changes in osteogenic function remain poorly defined. We used the KMS12BM xenograft model to investigate cellular and molecular events at early and late stages of disease. Lytic lesions and changes in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers occur late (8 weeks), however, micro-computed tomography of femora revealed significant reduction in bone volume at earlier disease stages (3 weeks) when tumour burden is low. Calcein labelling demonstrated reduced mineralization and bone formation at 3 weeks, suggesting functional impairment despite preserved osteoblast numbers. Osteo-progenitors from compact bone increased early (1 week), but fell at 3 weeks and were profoundly suppressed by 8 weeks. Exposure of osteoblast progenitors to multiple myeloma (MM) cells in vitro induced cell cycling, suggesting a mechanistic basis for early expansion of osteo-progenitors. We observed temporal changes in chemokine, osteogenic and osteoclastogenic genes in the stromal compartment. Notably, an early rise in CCL3 may underlie functional changes in mature osteoblasts at 3 weeks. Our data indicate that MM has distinct effects on mature osteoblasts and immature osteo-progenitors. Our findings argue for early clinical intervention to prevent bone changes that ultimately lead to the development of osteolytic disease.

Yeh CR, Ou ZY, Xiao GQ, et al.
Infiltrating T cells promote renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression via altering the estrogen receptor β-DAB2IP signals.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(42):44346-59 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous studies indicated the T cells, one of the most common types of immune cells existing in the microenvironment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), may influence the progression of RCC. The potential linkage of T cells and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), a key player to impact RCC progression, however, remains unclear. Our results demonstrate that RCC cells can recruit more T cells than non-malignant kidney cells. Using an in vitro matrigel invasion system, we found infiltrating T cells could promote RCC cells invasion via increasing ERβ expression and transcriptional activity. Mechanism dissection suggested that co-culturing T cells with RCC cells released more T cell attraction factors, including IFN-γ, CCL3 and CCL5, suggesting a positive regulatory feed-back mechanism. Meanwhile, infiltrating T cells may also promote RCC cell invasion via increased ERβ and decreased DAB2IP expressions, and knocking down DAB2IP can then reverse the T cells-promoted RCC cell invasion. Together, our results suggest that infiltrating T cells may promote RCC cell invasion via increasing the RCC cell ERβ expression to inhibit the tumor suppressor DAB2IP signals. Further mechanism dissection showed that co-culturing T cells with RCC cells could produce more IGF-1 and FGF-7, which may enhance the ERβ transcriptional activity. The newly identified relationship between infiltrating T cells/ERβ/DAB2IP signals may provide a novel therapeutic target in the development of agents against RCC.

Hartmann EM, Rudelius M, Burger JA, Rosenwald A
CCL3 chemokine expression by chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells orchestrates the composition of the microenvironment in lymph node infiltrates.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2016; 57(3):563-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous experiments demonstrated that survival and proliferation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells depends upon complex cross-talk between CLL cells and accessory cells in the tissue microenvironment. To further dissect these interactions in situ, we analyzed lymph nodes from 43 different patients infiltrated by CLL cells for expression of the chemokine CCL3, Ki-67, macrophages, and T cell subsets by immunohistochemistry. CCL3 expression was detected in 24 of 43 cases (56%), particularly in prolymphocytes and paraimmunoblasts within the proliferation centers. Significantly higher numbers of CD3+ T cells and CD57+ cells were noticed in CCL3 positive cases. Furthermore, denser infiltration of CLL lymph node tissues by CD57+ cells correlated with higher proliferation rates of the CLL cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate an association of CCL3 expression by CLL cells with increased numbers of CD3+ T cells and CD57+ cells in the lymph node microenvironment, which may promote CLL cell survival and proliferation.

De Cecco L, Capaia M, Zupo S, et al.
Interleukin 21 Controls mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in CD40-Activated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0134706 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several factors support CLL cell survival in the microenvironment. Under different experimental conditions, IL21 can either induce apoptosis or promote CLL cell survival. To investigate mechanisms involved in the effects of IL21, we studied the ability of IL21 to modulate gene and miRNA expressions in CD40-activated CLL cells. IL21 was a major regulator of chemokine production in CLL cells and it modulated the expression of genes involved in cell movement, metabolism, survival and apoptosis. In particular, IL21 down-regulated the expression of the chemokine genes CCL4, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL17, and CCL2, while it up-regulated the Th1-related CXCL9 and CXCL10. In addition, IL21 down-regulated the expression of genes encoding signaling molecules, such as CD40, DDR1 and PIK3CD. IL21 modulated a similar set of genes in CLL and normal B-cells (e.g. chemokine genes), whereas other genes, including MYC, TNF, E2F1, EGR2 and GAS-6, were regulated only in CLL cells. An integrated analysis of the miRNome and gene expression indicated that several miRNAs were under IL21 control and these could, in turn, influence the expression of potential target genes. We focused on hsa-miR-663b predicted to down-regulate several relevant genes. Transfection of hsa-miR-663b or its specific antagonist showed that this miRNA regulated CCL17, DDR1, PIK3CD and CD40 gene expression. Our data indicated that IL21 modulates the expression of genes mediating the crosstalk between CLL cells and their microenvironment and miRNAs may take part in this process.

Li Y, Zheng Y, Li T, et al.
Chemokines CCL2, 3, 14 stimulate macrophage bone marrow homing, proliferation, and polarization in multiple myeloma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(27):24218-29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously showed that macrophages (MΦs) infiltrate the bone marrow (BM) of patients with myeloma and may play a role in drug resistance. This study analyzed chemokines expressed by myeloma BM that are responsible for recruiting monocytes to the tumor bed. We found that chemokines CCL3, CCL14, and CCL2 were highly expressed by myeloma and BM cells, and the levels of CCL14 and CCL3 in myeloma BM positively correlated with the percentage of BM-infiltrating MΦs. In vitro, these chemokines were responsible for chemoattracting human monocytes to tumor sites and in vivo for MΦ infiltration into myeloma-bearing BM in the 5TGM1 mouse model. Surprisingly, we also found that these chemokines stimulated MΦ in vitro proliferation induced by myeloma cells and in vivo in a human myeloma xenograft SCID mouse model. The chemokines also activated normal MΦ polarization and differentiation into myeloma-associated MΦs. Western blot analysis revealed that these chemokines promoted growth and survival signaling in MΦs via activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK MAPK pathways and c-myc expression. Thus, this study provides novel insight into the mechanism of MΦ infiltration of BM and also potential targets for improving the efficacy of chemotherapy in myeloma.

Wang G, Wei Z, Jia H, et al.
Knockdown of SOX18 inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(3):1121-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Recent studies have demonstrated that SOX18 is highly expressed in various types of cancer. In the present study, we found that SOX18 mRNA was overexpressed in HCC compared with non-tumorous tissues. We aimed to explore the effects of SOX18 siRNA on the proliferation, invasion and migration of two HCC cell lines, MHCC97H and HepG2, which overexpress SOX18. We found that SOX18 siRNA significantly inhibited the proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Results of the Transwell assay showed that the migration and invasion of the HCC cells were markedly impaired in the SOX18-knockdown cells. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that KEGG focal adhesion and chemokine signaling pathways were correlated with SOX18 expression. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of RhoA, PDGFB, IGF1R, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5 were decreased in the SOX18-knockdown cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that upregulation of SOX18 was associated with a poor outcome in HCC patients. These results indicate that SOX18 may serve as a prognostic factor and a promising therapeutic strategy for HCC.

Shi P, Fang C, Pang X
Astrocyte elevated gene-1 regulates CCL3/CCR5-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via Erk1/2 and Akt signaling in cardiac myxoma.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(3):1319-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recent years, astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) has been reported as a key mediator that is involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. However, the mechanisms underlying CCL3/CCR5-AEG-1 pathway-mediated EMT in cardiac myxoma (CM) has not been well featured till now. We used immnohistochemistry and immunoblotting to assess the expression of CCR5 and AEG-1 in 30 cases of CM tissues and cells. Subsequently, cultured CM cells were treated with si-AEG-1 or si-CCR5 and then subjected to in vitro assays. We observed that CCR5 and AEG-1 proteins were highly expressed in CM tissues (73.3 and 76.7%, respectively) and closely correlated with tumor size (>5 cm). Importantly, we validated the expression of AEG-1, p-Erk1/2, p-Akt, vimentin, N-cadherin and MMP2 increased in the CM cell with CCL3 treatment in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. When CM cells were treated with si-CCR5, the expression of AEG-1, p-Erk1/2, p-Akt, vimentin, N-cadherin and MMP2 was downregulated. In addition, when CM cells were treated with si-AEG-1, the expression of p-Erk1/2, p-Akt, vimentin, N-cadherin and MMP2 was also downregulated. Using the cell cycle and proliferation assay, the knockdown of AEG-1 inhibited the entry of G1 into S phase and the proliferation capacity of CM cells. In conclusion, AEG-1 mediates CCL3/CCR5-induced EMT development via both Erk1/2 and Akt signaling pathway in CM patients, which indicates CCL3/CCR5-AEG-1-EMT pathway could be suggested as a useful target to affect the progression of CM.

Pimienta G, Fok V, Haslip M, et al.
Proteomics and Transcriptomics of BJAB Cells Expressing the Epstein-Barr Virus Noncoding RNAs EBER1 and EBER2.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0124638 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent infection, the EBV-encoded RNAs EBER1 and EBER2 accumulate in the host cell nucleus to ~10(6) copies. While the expression of EBERs in cell lines is associated with transformation, a mechanistic explanation of their roles in EBV latency remains elusive. To identify EBER-specific gene expression features, we compared the proteome and mRNA transcriptome from BJAB cells (an EBV-negative B lymphoma cell line) stably transfected with an empty plasmid or with one carrying both EBER genes. We identified ~1800 proteins with at least 2 SILAC pair measurements, of which only 8 and 12 were up- and downregulated ≥ 2-fold, respectively. One upregulated protein was PIK3AP1, a B-cell specific protein adapter known to activate the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, which regulates alternative splicing and translation in addition to its pro-survival effects. In the mRNA-seq data, the mRNA levels for some of the proteins changing in the SILAC data did not change. We instead observed isoform switch events. We validated the most relevant findings with biochemical assays. These corroborated the upregulation of PIK3AP1 and AKT activation in BJAB cells expressing high levels of both EBERs and EBNA1 (a surrogate of Burkitt's lymphoma EBV latency I) relative to those expressing only EBNA1. The mRNA-seq data in these cells showed multiple upregulated oncogenes whose mRNAs are enriched for 3´-UTR AU-rich elements (AREs), such as ccl3, ccr7, il10, vegfa and zeb1. The CCL3, CCR7, IL10 and VEGFA proteins promote cell proliferation and are associated with EBV-mediated lymphomas. In EBV latency, ZEB1 represses the transcription of ZEBRA, an EBV lytic phase activation factor. We previously found that EBER1 interacts with AUF1 in vivo and proposed stabilization of ARE-containing mRNAs. Thus, the ~10(6) copies of EBER1 may promote not only cell proliferation due to an increase in the levels of ARE-containing genes like ccl3, ccr7, il10, and vegfa, but also the maintenance of latency, through higher levels of zeb1.

Han H, Xue-Franzén Y, Miao X, et al.
Early growth response gene (EGR)-1 regulates leukotriene D4-induced cytokine transcription in Hodgkin lymphoma cells.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2015; 121(Pt A):122-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has a unique pathological feature characterized by a minority of malignant Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) cells surrounded by numerous inflammatory cells. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (CysLTs) are produced by eosinophils, macrophages and mast cells in the HL tumor microenvironment. In the present study we have explored the signal transduction pathways leading to leukotriene (LT) D4 induced expression of cytokines in the Hodgkin lymphoma cell line L1236 and KM-H2. Stimulation of L1236 and KM-H2 cells with LTD4 led to a concentration- and time-dependent increase at the transcriptional level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) and CCL4. The expression of several transcription factors was induced upon stimulation of Hodgkin cell lines with LTD4. Among these, EGR-1 was required for cytokine production. Inhibition of EGR-1 expression using shEGR-1 transduced by lentivirus led to suppression of the expression of TNF-α and IL-6. The effect of LTD4 on the expression of transcription factors and cytokines were also blocked by the specific CysLT1 receptor antagonist zafirlukast. These results demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in LTD4-induced cytokine transcription in Hodgkin cell lines.

d'Audigier C, Cochain C, Rossi E, et al.
Thrombin receptor PAR-1 activation on endothelial progenitor cells enhances chemotaxis-associated genes expression and leukocyte recruitment by a COX-2-dependent mechanism.
Angiogenesis. 2015; 18(3):347-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC) represent a subpopulation of endothelial progenitor cells involved in endothelial repair. The activation of procoagulant mechanisms associated with the vascular wall's inflammatory responses to injury plays a crucial role in the induction and progression of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about ECFC proinflammatory potential.
AIMS: To explore the role of the thrombin receptor PAR-1 proinflammatory effects on ECFC chemotaxis/recruitment capacity.
METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of 30 genes known to be associated with inflammation and chemotaxis was quantified in ECFC by real-time qPCR. PAR-1 activation with the SFLLRN peptide (PAR-1-ap) resulted in a significant increase in nine chemotaxis-associated genes expression, including CCL2 and CCL3 whose receptors are present on ECFC. Furthermore, COX-2 expression was found to be dramatically up-regulated consequently to PAR-1 activation. COX-2 silencing with the specific COX-2-siRNA also triggered down-regulation of the nine target genes. Conditioned media (c.m.) from control-siRNA- and COX-2-siRNA-transfected ECFC, stimulated or not with PAR-1-ap, were produced and tested on ECFC capacity to recruit leukocytes in vitro as well in the muscle of ischemic hindlimb in a preclinical model. The capacity of the c.m. from ECFC stimulated with PAR-1-ap to recruit leukocytes was abrogated when COX-2 gene expression was silenced in vitro (in terms of U937 cells migration and adhesion to endothelial cells) as well as in vivo. Finally, the postnatal vasculogenic stem cell derived from infantile hemangioma tumor (HemSC) incubated with PAR-1-ap increased leukocyte recruitment in Matrigel(®) implant.
CONCLUSIONS: PAR-1 activation in ECFC increases chemotactic gene expression and leukocyte recruitment at ischemic sites through a COX-2-dependent mechanism.

Huang Y, Zhang SD, McCrudden C, et al.
The prognostic significance of PD-L1 in bladder cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(6):3075-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immunotherapy is a promising strategy for the treatment of various types of cancer. An antibody that targets programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) pathway has been shown to be active towards various types of cancer, including melanoma and lung cancer. MPDL3280A, an anti-PD-L1 antibody, has shown clear clinical activity in PD-L1-overexpressing bladder cancer with an objective response rate of 40-50%, resulting in a breakthrough therapy designation granted by FDA. These events pronounce the importance of targeting the PD-L1 pathway in the treatment of bladder cancer. In the present study, we investigated the prognostic significance of the expression of three genes in the PD-L1 pathway, including PD-L1, B7.1 and PD-1, in three independent bladder cancer datasets in the Gene Expression Omnibus database. PD-L1, B7.1 and PD-1 were significantly associated with clinicopathological parameters indicative of a more aggressive phenotype of bladder cancer, such as a more advanced stage and a higher tumor grade. In addition, a high level expression of PD-L1 was associated with reduced patient survival. Of note, the combination of PD-L1 and B7.1 expression, but not other combinations of the three genes, were also able to predict patient survival. Our findings support the development of anti-PD-L1, which blocks PD-L1-PD-1 and B7.1-PD-L1 interactions, in treatment of bladder cancer. The observations were consistent in the three independent bladder cancer datasets consisting of a total of 695 human bladder specimens. The datasets were then assessed and it was found that the expression levels of the chemokine CC-motif ligand (CCL), CCL3, CCL8 and CCL18, were correlated with the PD-L1 expression level, while ADAMTS13 was differentially expressed in patients with a different survival status (alive or deceased). Additional investigations are required to elucidate the role of these genes in the PD-L1-mediated immune system suppression and bladder cancer progression. In conclusion, findings of this study suggested that PD-L1 is an important prognostic marker and a therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

Wada A, Ito A, Iitsuka H, et al.
Role of chemokine CX3CL1 in progression of multiple myeloma via CX3CR1 in bone microenvironments.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(6):2935-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several chemokines/chemokine receptors such as CXCL12, CCL3, CXCR4 and CCR1 attract multiple myelomas to specific microenvironments. In the present study, we investigated whether the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis is involved in the interaction of the multiple myeloma cells with their microenvironment. The expression of CX3CR1 (also known as fractalkine) was detected in three of the seven human myeloma cell lines. CX3CL1-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 was detected in the CX3CR1-positive cell lines, but not in the CX3CR1-negative cell lines. In addition, CX3CL1-induced cell adhesion to fibronectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the human myeloma RPMI-8226 cell line. We also investigated whether a relationship existed between myeloma cells and osteoclasts that may function via the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis. Conditioned medium from CX3CL1-stimulated RPMI-8226 cells drastically increased the osteoclast differentiation. Collectively, the results from the present study support the concept of the CX3CL1-mediated activation of the progression of the multiple myeloma via CX3CR1. Thus, CX3CR1 may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of multiple myeloma in a bone microenvironment.

Yoshii M, Tanaka H, Ohira M, et al.
Regulation of neutrophil infiltration into peritoneal cavity by laparoscopic gastrectomy.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):546-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive operation developed for treating gastrointestinal malignancies. We aimed to characterize the differences in the intra-abdominal environment following open and laparoscopic surgeries.
METHODOLOGY: We investigated data of 48 patients who underwent gastrectomy between 2010 and 2012. We analyzed the mRNA expression of chemokines, indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), and so on in peritoneal lavage fluid with real-time RT-PCR. We also determined the leukocyte population and calculated the granulocyte/lymphocyte (G/L) ratio in peritoneal lavage fluid using flow cytometry.
RESULTS: CCL3 mRNA was significantly upregulated, whereas IDO mRNA was significantly downregulated, in the open group compared to the laparoscopic surgery group. Flow cytometry revealed that the G/L ratio was significantly higher in the open group.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the production of chemokines and neutrophil infiltration into the abdominal cavity may be suppressed in the laparoscopic surgery. Thus, laparoscopic surgery may be beneficial in preserving local immunity.

Motiwala T, Kutay H, Zanesi N, et al.
PTPROt-mediated regulation of p53/Foxm1 suppresses leukemic phenotype in a CLL mouse model.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(6):1350-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The gene encoding PTPROt (truncated isoform of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type O) is methylated and suppressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). PTPROt exhibits in vitro tumor-suppressor characteristics through the regulation of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling. Here we generated transgenic (Tg) mice with B-cell-specific expression of PTPROt. Although lymphocyte development is normal in these mice, crossing them with TCL1 Tg mouse model of CLL results in a survival advantage compared with the TCL1 Tg mice. Gene expression profiling of splenic B-lymphocytes before detectable signs of CLL followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that the most prominently regulated functions in TCL1 Tg vs non-transgenic (NTg) and TCL1 Tg vs PTPROt/TCL1 double Tg are the same and also biologically relevant to this study. Further, enhanced expression of the chemokine Ccl3, the oncogenic transcription factor Foxm1 and its targets in TCL1 Tg mice were significantly suppressed in the double Tg mice, suggesting a protective function of PTPROt against leukemogenesis. This study also showed that PTPROt-mediated regulation of Foxm1 involves activation of p53, a transcriptional repressor of Foxm1, which is facilitated through suppression of BCR signaling. These results establish the in vivo tumor-suppressive function of PTPROt and identify p53/Foxm1 axis as a key downstream effect of PTPROt-mediated suppression of BCR signaling.

Fiorcari S, Martinelli S, Bulgarelli J, et al.
Lenalidomide interferes with tumor-promoting properties of nurse-like cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2015; 100(2):253-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent clinically active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. The specific mechanism of action is still undefined, but includes modulation of the microenvironment. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, nurse-like cells differentiate from CD14(+) mononuclear cells and protect chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from apoptosis. Nurse-like cells resemble M2 macrophages with potent immunosuppressive functions. Here, we examined the effect of lenalidomide on the monocyte/macrophage population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. We found that lenalidomide induces high actin polymerization on CD14(+) monocytes through activation of small GTPases, RhoA, Rac1 and Rap1 that correlated with increased adhesion and impaired monocyte migration in response to CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL12. We observed that lenalidomide increases the number of nurse-like cells that lost the ability to nurture chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, acquired properties of phagocytosis and promoted T-cell proliferation. Gene expression signature, induced by lenalidomide in nurse-like cells, indicated a reduction of pivotal pro-survival signals for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, such as CCL2, IGF1, CXCL12, HGF1, and supported a modulation towards M1 phenotype with high IL2 and low IL10, IL8 and CD163. Our data provide new insights into the mechanism of action of lenalidomide that mediates a pro-inflammatory switch of nurse-like cells affecting the protective microenvironment generated by chronic lymphocytic leukemia into tissues.

Tung CY, Lewis DE, Han L, et al.
Activation of dendritic cell function by soypeptide lunasin as a novel vaccine adjuvant.
Vaccine. 2014; 32(42):5411-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The addition of an appropriate adjuvant that activates the innate immunity is essential to subsequent development of the adaptive immunity specific to the vaccine antigens. Thus, any innovation capable of improving the immune responses may lead to a more efficacious vaccine. We recently identified a novel immune modulator using a naturally occurring seed peptide called lunasin. Lunasin was originally isolated from soybeans, and it is a small peptide containing 43 amino acids. Our studies revealed stimulatory effects of lunasin on innate immune cells by regulating expression of a number of genes that are important for immune responses. The objective was to define the effectiveness of lunasin as an adjuvant that enhances immune responses. The immune modulating functions of lunasin were characterized in dendritic cells (DCs) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Lunasin-treated conventional DCs (cDCs) not only expressed elevated levels of co-stimulatory molecules (CD86, CD40) but also exhibited up-regulation of cytokines (IL1B, IL6) and chemokines (CCL3, CCL4). Lunasin-treated cDCs induced higher proliferation of allogeneic CD4+ T cells when comparing with medium control treatment in the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). Immunization of mice with ovalbumin (OVA) and lunasin inhibited the growth of OVA-expressing A20 B-lymphomas, which was correlated with OVA-specific CD8+ T cells. In addition, lunasin was an effective adjuvant for immunization with OVA, which together improved animal survival against lethal challenge with influenza virus expressing the MHC class I OVA peptide SIINFEKL (PR8-OTI). These results suggest that lunasin may function as a vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC maturation, which in turn enhances the development of protective immune responses to the vaccine antigens.

Cameron S, Gieselmann M, Blaschke M, et al.
Immune cells in primary and metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST).
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(7):3563-79 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have previously described immune cells in untreated primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Here we compare immune cells in metastatic and primary GIST, and describe their chemoattractants. For this purpose, tissue microarrays from 196 patients, 188 primary and 51 metastasized GIST were constructed for paraffin staining. Quantitative analysis was performed for cells of macrophage lineage (Ki-M1P, CD68), T-cells (CD3, CD56) and B-cells (CD20). Chemokine gene-expression was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Immuno-localisation was verified by immunofluorescence. Ki-M1P+ cells were the predominant immune cells in both primary and metastatic GIST (2 8.8% ± 7.1, vs. 26.7% ± 6.3). CD68+ macrophages were significantly fewer, with no significant difference between primary GIST (3.6% ± 2.1) and metastases (4.6% ± 1.5). CD3+ T-cells were the most dominant lymphocytes with a significant increase in metastases (7.3% ± 2.3 vs. 2.2% ± 1.8 in primary GIST, P < 0.01). The percentage of CD56+ NK-cells was 1.1% ± 0.9 in the primary, and 2.4 ± 0.7 (P < 0.05) in the metastases. The number of CD20+ B-cells was generally low with 0.6% ± 0.7 in the primary and 1.8% ± 0.3 (P < 0.05) in the metastases. Analysis of the metastases showed significantly more Ki-M1P+ cells in peritoneal metastases (31.8% ± 7.4 vs. 18.2% ± 3.7, P < 0.01), whilst CD3+ T-cells were more common in liver metastases (11.7% ± 1.8 vs. 4.4% ± 2.6, P < 0.01). The highest transcript expression was seen for monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1/CCL2), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α/CCL3) and the pro-angiogenic growth-related oncoprotein 1 (Gro-α/CXCL-1). Whilst the ligands were predominantly expressed in tumor cells, their receptors were mostly present in immune cells. This locally specific microenvironment might influence neoplastic progression of GIST at the different metastatic sites.

Mittal AK, Chaturvedi NK, Rai KJ, et al.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in a lymph node microenvironment depict molecular signature associated with an aggressive disease.
Mol Med. 2014; 20:290-301 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells survive longer in vivo than in vitro, suggesting that the tissue microenvironment provides prosurvival signals to tumor cells. Primary and secondary lymphoid tissues are involved in the pathogenesis of CLL, and the role of these tissue microenvironments has not been explored completely. To elucidate host-tumor interactions, we performed gene expression profiling (GEP) of purified CLL cells from peripheral blood (PB; n = 20), bone marrow (BM; n = 18), and lymph node (LN; n = 15) and validated key pathway genes by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and/or TCL1 trans-genic mice. Gene signatures representing several pathways critical for survival and activation of B cells were altered in CLL cells from different tissue compartments. Molecules associated with the B-cell receptor (BCR), B cell-activating factor/a proliferation-inducing ligand (BAFF/APRIL), nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway and immune suppression signature were enriched in LN-CLL, suggesting LNs as the primary site for tumor growth. Immune suppression genes may help LN-CLL cells to modulate antigen-presenting and T-cell behavior to suppress antitumor activity. PB CLL cells overexpressed chemokine receptors, and their cognate ligands were enriched in LN and BM, suggesting that a chemokine gradient instructs B cells to migrate toward LN or BM. Of several chemokine ligands, the expression of CCL3 was associated with poor prognostic factors. The BM gene signature was enriched with antiapoptotic, cytoskeleton and adhesion molecules. Interestingly, PB cells from lymphadenopathy patients shared GEP with LN cells. In Eμ-TCL1 transgenic mice (the mouse model of the disease), a high percentage of leukemic cells from the lymphoid compartment express key BCR and NF-κB molecules. Together, our findings demonstrate that the lymphoid microenvironment promotes survival, proliferation and progression of CLL cells via chronic activation of BCR, BAFF/APRIL and NF-κB activation while suppressing the immune response.

Nzabarushimana E, Miousse IR, Shao L, et al.
Long-term epigenetic effects of exposure to low doses of 56Fe in the mouse lung.
J Radiat Res. 2014; 55(4):823-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite significant progress, the long-term health effects of exposure to high charge (Z) and energy (E) nuclei (HZEs) and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Mouse studies show that space missions can result in pulmonary pathological states. The goal of this study was to evaluate the pro-fibrotic and pro-carcinogenic effects of exposure to low doses of heavy iron ions ((56)Fe) in the mouse lung. Exposure to (56)Fe (600 MeV; 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 Gy) resulted in minor pro-fibrotic changes, detected at the beginning of the fibrotic phase (22 weeks post exposure), which were exhibited as increased expression of chemokine Ccl3, and interleukin Il4. Epigenetic alterations were exhibited as global DNA hypermethylation, observed after exposure to 0.4 Gy. Cadm1, Cdh13, Cdkn1c, Mthfr and Sfrp1 were significantly hypermethylated after exposure to 0.1 Gy, while exposure to higher doses resulted in hypermethylation of Cdkn1c only. However, expression of these genes was not affected by any dose. Congruently with the observed patterns of global DNA methylation, DNA repetitive elements were hypermethylated after exposure to 0.4 Gy, with minor changes observed after exposure to lower doses. Importantly, hypermethylation of repetitive elements coincided with their transcriptional repression. The findings of this study will aid in understanding molecular determinants of pathological states associated with exposure to (56)Fe, as well as serve as robust biomarkers for the delayed effects of irradiation. Further studies are clearly needed to investigate the persistence and outcomes of molecular alterations long term after exposure.

Calvi LM
Osteolineage cells and regulation of the hematopoietic stem cell.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2013; 26(3):249-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Over the last 10 years, progress has been made in understanding the relationship between hematopoietic stem cells and their microenvironment, or niche. Increased knowledge of the microenvironment and its effects on hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis based on murine models may lead to the identification of relevant new therapeutic targets for leukemia. In particular, the chemokine CCL3 has potential as a mediator of leukemia-induced microenvironmental changes, as it has been found to be increased in human acute myeloid leukemia.

Tsirakis G, Roussou P, Pappa CA, et al.
Increased serum levels of MIP-1alpha correlate with bone disease and angiogenic cytokines in patients with multiple myeloma.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(1):778 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many cytokines possess variable roles in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) is an osteoclast-activating factor with a major role in myeloma bone disease. The aim of the study was to examine its participation in the angiogenic process of the disease. We measured, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, its serum levels in 56 newly diagnosed myeloma patients, in several skeletal grades and stages of the disease and in 25 healthy controls. Concurrently, we measured serum levels of the angiogenic cytokines basic-fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and interleukin-18. All the above cytokines were higher in myeloma patients (p < 0.001 for all cases) and were increasing in parallel with disease stage (p < 0.001 for all cases) and skeletal grade (p < 0.04 for MIP-1alpha and p < 0.001 for the other cases). Moreover, positive correlations between MIP-1alpha and all the angiogenic cytokines were noted (p < 0.001 for all cases). MIP-1alpha seems to be a predominant factor responsible for the enhancement of bone resorption and increased angiogenesis. The positive correlation between MIP-1alpha and the angiogenic chemoattractants supports the involvement of these factors in the biology of myeloma cell growth. Moreover, they could be used as possible therapeutic targets as well as markers of disease activity.

Baba T, Naka K, Morishita S, et al.
MIP-1α/CCL3-mediated maintenance of leukemia-initiating cells in the initiation process of chronic myeloid leukemia.
J Exp Med. 2013; 210(12):2661-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In the initiation process of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a small number of transformed leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) coexist with a large number of normal hematopoietic cells, gradually increasing thereafter and eventually predominating in the hematopoietic space. However, the interaction between LICs and normal hematopoietic cells at the early phase has not been clearly delineated because of the lack of a suitable experimental model. In this study, we succeeded in causing a marked leukocytosis resembling CML from restricted foci of LICs in the normal hematopoietic system by direct transplantation of BCR-ABL gene-transduced LICs into the bone marrow (BM) cavity of nonirradiated mice. Herein, we observed that BCR-ABL(+)lineage(-)c-kit(-) immature leukemia cells produced high levels of an inflammatory chemokine, MIP-1α/CCL3, which promoted the development of CML. Conversely, ablation of the CCL3 gene in LICs dramatically inhibited the development of CML and concomitantly reduced recurrence after the cessation of a short-term tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Finally, normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells can directly impede the maintenance of LICs in BM in the absence of CCL3 signal.

Kristensen IB, Christensen JH, Lyng MB, et al.
Expression of osteoblast and osteoclast regulatory genes in the bone marrow microenvironment in multiple myeloma: only up-regulation of Wnt inhibitors SFRP3 and DKK1 is associated with lytic bone disease.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2014; 55(4):911-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) lytic bone disease (LBD) is caused by osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition. RANK/RANKL/OPG play central roles in osteoclast activation and Wnt inhibitor DKK1 in osteoblast inhibition. The role of other Wnt inhibitors is less clear. We evaluated gene expression of osteoclast regulators (RANK, RANKL, OPG, TRAIL, MIP1A), Wnt inhibitors (DKK1, SFRP2, SFRP3, sclerostin, WIF1) and osteoblast transcription factors (RUNX2, osterix) by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment using snap-frozen BM biopsies, thereby achieving minimal post-sampling manipulation, and gene expression profiling (GEP) data, reflecting the in vivo situation. We analyzed 110 biopsies from newly diagnosed patients with MM and monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) and healthy volunteers. LBD was evaluated using standard radiographs and the bone resorption marker CTX-1. Protein levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry. Among Wnt inhibitors, only SFRP3 and DKK1 were significantly overexpressed in advanced LBD, correlating with protein levels. SFRP3 correlated with CTX-1. Our findings support osteoblast inhibition as the driving force behind MM LBD.

Manuel SL, Sehgal M, Connolly J, et al.
Lack of recall response to Tax in ATL and HAM/TSP patients but not in asymptomatic carriers of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1.
J Clin Immunol. 2013; 33(7):1223-39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE & METHODS: The immunopathogenic mechanisms responsible for debilitating neurodegenerative and oncologic diseases associated with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) are not fully understood. Quality of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is being increasingly associated with the outcome of persistent HTLV-1 infection. In this respect, a patient cohort (from HTLV-1 endemic region) consisting of seronegative controls (controls), asymptomatic carriers (ACs), and patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) or HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) was analyzed for CD8(+) T cells polyfunctionality in response to the viral antigen Tax.
RESULTS: Compared to ACs, ATL and HAM/TSP patients had lower frequency and polyfunctionality of CTLs in response to Tax suggesting dysfunction of CD8(+) T cells in these individuals. As an underlying mechanism, programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor was found to be highly unregulated in Tax-responsive as well as total CD8(+) T cells from ATL and HAM/TSP but not from ACs and directly correlated with the lack of polyfunctionality in these individuals. Further, PD-1 expression showed a direct whereas MIP-1α expression had an indirect correlation with the proviral load providing new insights about the immunopathogenesis of HTLV-associated diseases. Additionally, we identified key cytokine signatures defining the immune activation status of clinical samples by the luminex assay.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our findings suggest that reconstitution of fully functional CTLs, stimulation of MIP-1α expression, and/or blockade of the PD-1 pathway are potential approaches for immunotherapy / therapeutic vaccine against HTLV-mediated diseases.

Skachkova OV, Khranovska NM, Gorbach OI, et al.
Immunological markers of anti-tumor dendritic cells vaccine efficiency in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Exp Oncol. 2013; 35(2):109-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the quantitative and functional status of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer during DC-vaccine therapy and identify the most informative immunological parameters which are associated with clinical outcome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted within the framework of randomized phase III clinical trial of DC-vaccine efficacy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Quantitative composition of peripheral blood lymphocytes was determined by flow cytometry. Cytokines mRNA expression level was estimated using real-time RT-PCR.
RESULTS: In our study the most pronounced changes in the immune system have been defined after fourth DC-vaccine injection. Immunologic features such as reduction the MIP-1α mRNA expression level, increasing the RANTES mRNA expression level and NK-cells count, retention CD4/CD8 ratio at physiological level were associated with favorable clinical outcome after DC-immunotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Immunological markers established in our investigation can be used for estimation of DC-immunotherapy efficiency. The results of our research are very promising, but these data should be confirmed in further studies with a large cohort of patients.

Chang DH, Rutledge JR, Patel AA, et al.
The effect of lung cancer on cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e64456 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The purpose of this study is to evaluate cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from stage I lung cancer patients and to confirm these expression patterns by exposing PBMCs to lung cancer cells in vitro. Five altered cytokines in stage I lung cancer patients (CCL3, IL8, IL1β, CXCL10, sIL2Rα) were identified in plasma from subjects (n = 15) before and after resection using a 30-plex panel protein assay. Gene expression studies using quantitative RT-qPCR were performed on PBMCs from stage I lung cancer patients (n = 62) before and after resection, and compared to non-cancer patients (n = 32) before and after surgery for benign disease. Co-culture experiments that exposed healthy donor PBMCs to lung cancer cells in vitro were performed to evaluate the effect on PBMC cytokine expression. PBMC gene expression of CCL3, IL8 and IL1β was higher in lung cancer patients compared to the same patients at each of four sequential timepoints after removal of their tumors, while CXCL10 and IL2Rα were essentially unchanged. This pattern was also detected when lung cancer patients were compared to non-cancer patients. When non-cancer patients underwent surgery for benign diseases, these cytokine expression changes were not demonstrable. Lung cancer cell lines, but not benign bronchial epithelial cells, induced similar changes in cytokine gene and protein expression by healthy donor PBMCs in an in vitro co-culture system. We conclude that PBMCs from stage I lung cancer patients possess distinct cytokine expression patterns compared to both non-cancer patients, and lung cancer patients following tumor removal. These expression patterns are replicated by healthy donor PBMCs exposed to lung cancer cell lines, but not benign bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. These findings have implications for understanding the immune response to lung cancer.

Staudt ND, Jo M, Hu J, et al.
Myeloid cell receptor LRP1/CD91 regulates monocyte recruitment and angiogenesis in tumors.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(13):3902-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recruitment of monocytes into sites of inflammation is essential in the immune response. In cancer, recruited monocytes promote invasion, metastasis, and possibly angiogenesis. LDL receptor-related protein (LRP1) is an endocytic and cell-signaling receptor that regulates cell migration. In this study, we isografted PanO2 pancreatic carcinoma cells into mice in which LRP1 was deleted in myeloid lineage cells. Recruitment of monocytes into orthotopic and subcutaneous tumors was significantly increased in these mice, compared with control mice. LRP1-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) expressed higher levels of multiple chemokines, including, most prominently, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/CCL3, which is known to amplify inflammation. Increased levels of CCL3 were detected in LRP1-deficient tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), isolated from PanO2 tumors, and in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells in which LRP1 was silenced. LRP1-deficient BMDMs migrated more rapidly than LRP1-expressing cells in vitro. The difference in migration was reversed by CCL3-neutralizing antibody, by CCR5-neutralizing antibody, and by inhibiting NF-κB with JSH-23. Inhibiting NF-κB reversed the increase in CCL3 expression associated with LRP1 gene silencing in RAW 264.7 cells. Tumors formed in mice with LRP1-deficient myeloid cells showed increased angiogenesis. Although VEGF mRNA expression was not increased in LRP1-deficient TAMs, at the single-cell level, the increase in TAM density in tumors with LRP1-deficient myeloid cells may have allowed these TAMs to contribute an increased amount of VEGF to the tumor microenvironment. Our results show that macrophage density in tumors is correlated with cancer angiogenesis in a novel model system. Myeloid cell LRP1 may be an important regulator of cancer progression.

Scotece M, Gómez R, Conde J, et al.
Oleocanthal inhibits proliferation and MIP-1α expression in human multiple myeloma cells.
Curr Med Chem. 2013; 20(19):2467-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy that causes devastating bone destruction by activating osteoclasts in the bone marrow milieu. MM is the second of all hematological malignancies. Thus, the search for new pharmacological weapons is under intensive investigation being MM a critically important public health goal. Recently, it has been demonstrated that macrophage inflammatory protein 1- alpha (MIP-1 α) is crucially involved in the development of osteolytic bone lesions in MM. Phenolic components of extra virgin olive oil are reported to have anti tumor activity. However, the underlying mechanisms and specific targets of extra virgin olive oil remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a recently isolated novel extra virgin olive oil polyphenol, oleocanthal, on the human multiple myeloma cell line ARH-77. Here we report that this natural compound has a remarkable in vitro activity by inhibiting MIP-1 α expression and secretion in MM cells. In addition, we also demonstrated that oleocanthal inhibits MM cells proliferation by inducing the activation of apoptosis mechanisms and by down-regulating ERK1/2 and AKT signal transduction pathways. This in vitro study suggests a therapeutic potential of oleocanthal in treating multiple myeloma.

Storti P, Bolzoni M, Donofrio G, et al.
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α suppression in myeloma cells blocks tumoral growth in vivo inhibiting angiogenesis and bone destruction.
Leukemia. 2013; 27(8):1697-706 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1α) is overexpressed in multiple myeloma (MM) cells within the hypoxic microenvironment. Herein, we explored the effect of persistent HIF-1α inhibition by a lentivirus short hairpin RNA pool on MM cell growth either in vitro or in vivo and on the transcriptional and pro-angiogenic profiles of MM cells. HIF-1α suppression did not have a significant impact on MM cell proliferation and survival in vitro although, increased the antiproliferative effect of lenalidomide. On the other hand, we found that HIF-1α inhibition in MM cells downregulates the pro-angiogenic genes VEGF, IL8, IL10, CCL2, CCL5 and MMP9. Pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines were also inhibited, such as IL-7 and CCL3/MIP-1α. The effect of HIF-1α inhibition was assessed in vivo in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice both in a subcutaneous and an intratibial MM model. HIF-1α inhibition caused a dramatic reduction in the weight and volume of the tumor burden in both mouse models. Moreover, a significant reduction of the number of vessels and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) immunostaining was observed. Finally, in the intratibial experiments, HIF-1α inhibition significantly blocked bone destruction. Overall, our data indicate that HIF-1α suppression in MM cells significantly blocks MM-induced angiogenesis and reduces MM tumor burden and bone destruction in vivo, supporting HIF-1α as a potential therapeutic target in MM.

Liu F, Zhang G, Liu F, et al.
Effect of shRNA targeting mouse CD99L2 gene in a murine B cell lymphoma in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(4):1405-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mouse CD99 antigen-like 2 (mCD99L2) has previously been confirmed to be expressed in murine B lymphoma (A20) cells by our group. The present study aimed to establish a mCD99L2‑downregulated A20 cell line and to investigate the effect of shRNA targeting mCD99L2 in A20 cells in vitro and in vivo. Four pLenti6/mCD99L2 expression vectors containing the mCD99L2 shRNA-expressing cassette were constructed, transfected into A20 cells and stable mCD99L2-downregulated A20 subclones, termed A20-mCD99L2- cells, were established and identified by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. Light and transmission electron microscopy, MTT assay, flow cytometry and immunofluorenscence labeling were used to observe the morphological, biological and phenotypic characteristics in vitro. Some of the A20-mCD99L2- cells exhibited H/RS‑cell like morphology, a decreased proliferative ability, a prolonged G2 phase and increased CD30 and CD15 expression. Upon injecting cells into nude or immunocompetent BALB/c mice, tumorigenesis, tumor growth, morphology and phenotypes in vivo were observed. A20-mCD99L2- cells induced tumors in nude and BALB/c mice, but with less potency in the latter compared with the controls. Similar morphological, biological and phenotypic characteristics were observed in the A20-mCD99L2- cell-induced tumors as those in vitro. Several cytokines including CD30T, IL-12p40/p70, IL-3, IFN-γ, CXCL16, MIP-1α and CD40 were upregulated following mCD99L2 downregulation when detected using antibody arrays. The results from western blot analysis indicated that the regulation of mCD99L2 expression may involve the activated nuclear factor-κB pathway in the murine B lymphoma cells. The present study provides data for further investigation into the mCD99L2 gene in tumor cells.

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