Gene Summary

Gene:CCNA2; cyclin A2
Aliases: CCN1, CCNA
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members function as regulators of the cell cycle. This protein binds and activates cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and thus promotes transition through G1/S and G2/M. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CCNA2 (cancer-related)

Chen J, Liu Y, Sun Q, et al.
CYR61 suppresses growth of human malignant melanoma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2697-2704 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1/CYR61) is an important marker of proliferation and metastasis in malignant melanoma, making it a potential target for melanoma treatment. In this study, we compared the expression of CRY61 in Chinese patients with malignant melanoma with its expression in patients with other skin tumors or with no skin pathological conditions. We examined the effects of anti-human CYR61 monoclonal antibody on proliferation and evaluated the changes in CYR61 expression and cell proliferation in response to treatment with either epirubicin or interferon (IFN)-α. CYR61 was expressed at lower levels in patients with malignant melanoma than in patients with other skin tumors or with no pathology. Following the treatment of B16 cells with epirubicin and IFN-α, CYR61 levels increased, cell growth was inhibited, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression decreased. Thus, CYR61 could become a therapeutic target for malignant melanoma patients with high CYR61 expression.

Huang X, Zhou W, Zhang Y, Liu Y
High Expression of PTGR1 Promotes NSCLC Cell Growth via Positive Regulation of Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase Complex.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:5230642 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer has been the most common cancer and the main cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide for several decades. PTGR1 (prostaglandin reductase 1), as a bifunctional enzyme, has been involved in the occurrence and progression of cancer. However, its impact on human lung cancer is rarely reported. In this study, we found that PTGR1 was overexpressed in lung cancer based on the analyses of Oncomine. Moreover, lentivirus-mediated shRNA knockdown of PTGR1 reduced cell viability in human lung carcinoma cells 95D and A549 by MTT and colony formation assay. PTGR1 depletion led to G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and increased the proportion of apoptotic cells in 95D cells by flow cytometry. Furthermore, silencing PTGR1 in 95D cells resulted in decreased levels of cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex (CDK1, CDK2, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1) by western blotting and then PTGR1 is positively correlated with cyclin-dependent protein by using the data mining of the Oncomine database. Therefore, our findings suggest that PTGR1 may play a role in lung carcinogenesis through regulating cell proliferation and is a potential new therapeutic strategy for lung cancer.

Wang Q, Ao Y, Yang K, et al.
Circadian clock gene Per2 plays an important role in cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle progression in human oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(6):3387-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies have shown that the aberrant expression of period circadian clock 2 (Per2) is closely related to the occurrence and development of cancers, but the specific mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we used shRNA to downregulate Per2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) Tca8113 cells, and then detected the alterations in cell cycle, cell proliferation and apoptosis by flow cytometric analysis and mRNA expression alterations in all the important genes in the cyclin/cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK)/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) cell cycle network by RT-qPCR. We found that in the Tca8113 cells, after Per2 downregulation, the mRNA expression levels of cyclin A2, B1 and D1, CDK4, CDK6 and E2F1 were significantly increased (P<0.05), the mRNA expression levels of p53, p16 and p21 were significantly decreased (P<0.05), cell proliferation was significantly higher (P<0.05), apoptosis was significantly lower (P<0.05) and the number of cells in the G1/G0 phase was significantly decreased (P<0.05). The present study proves that in OSCC, clock gene Per2 plays an important role in cell cycle progression and the balance of cell proliferation and apoptosis by regulation of the cyclin/CDK/CKI cell cycle network. Further research on Per2 may provide a new effective molecular target for cancer treatments.

Long J, Liu Z, Wu X, et al.
Screening for genes and subnetworks associated with pancreatic cancer based on the gene expression profile.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(5):3779-86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The present study aimed to screen for potential genes and subnetworks associated with pancreatic cancer (PC) using the gene expression profile. The expression profile GSE 16515 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which included 36 PC tissue samples and 16 normal samples. Limma package in R language was used to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which were grouped as up‑ and downregulated genes. Then, PFSNet was applied to perform subnetwork analysis for all the DEGs. Moreover, Gene Ontology (GO) and REACTOME pathway enrichment analysis of up‑ and downregulated genes was performed, followed by protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network construction using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes. In total, 1,989 DEGs including 1,461 up‑ and 528 downregulated genes were screened out. Subnetworks including pancreatic cancer in PC tissue samples and intercellular adhesion in normal samples were identified, respectively. A total of 8 significant REACTOME pathways for upregulated DEGs, such as hemostasis and cell cycle, mitotic were identified. Moreover, 4 significant REACTOME pathways for downregulated DEGs, including regulation of β‑cell development and transmembrane transport of small molecules were screened out. Additionally, DEGs with high connectivity degrees, such as CCNA2 (cyclin A2) and PBK (PDZ binding kinase), of the module in the protein‑protein interaction network were mainly enriched with cell‑division cycle. CCNA2 and PBK of the module and their relative pathway cell‑division cycle, and two subnetworks (pancreatic cancer and intercellular adhesion subnetworks) may be pivotal for further understanding of the molecular mechanism of PC.

Chan CK, Chan G, Awang K, Abdul Kadir H
Deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber Inhibits HCT116 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Growth through Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest.
Molecules. 2016; 21(3):385 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deoxyelephantopin (DET), one of the major sesquiterpene lactones derived from Elephantopus scaber was reported to possess numerous pharmacological functions. This study aimed to assess the apoptosis inducing effects and cell cycle arrest by DET followed by elucidation of the mechanisms underlying cell death in HCT116 cells. The anticancer activity of DET was evaluated by a MTT assay. Morphological and biochemical changes were detected by Hoescht 33342/PI and Annexin V/PI staining. The results revealed that DET and isodeoxyelephantopin (isoDET) could be isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of E. scaber leaves via a bioassay-guided approach. DET induced significant dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition of HCT116 cells. Characteristics of apoptosis including nuclear morphological changes and externalization of phosphatidylserine were observed. DET also significantly resulted in the activation of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Additionally, DET induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase along with dose-dependent upregulation of p21 and phosphorylated p53 protein expression. DET dose-dependently downregulated cyclin D1, A2, B1, E2, CDK4 and CDK2 protein expression. In conclusion, our data showed that DET induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HCT116 colorectal carcinoma, suggesting that DET has potential as an anticancer agent for colorectal carcinoma.

Niwa AM, D Epiro GF, Marques LA, et al.
Salinomycin efficiency assessment in non-tumor (HB4a) and tumor (MCF-7) human breast cells.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2016; 389(6):557-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
The search for anticancer drugs has led researchers to study salinomycin, an ionophore antibiotic that selectively destroys cancer stem cells. In this study, salinomycin was assessed in two human cell lines, a breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and a non-tumor breast cell line (HB4a), to verify its selective action against tumor cells. Real-time assessment of cell proliferation showed that HB4a cells are more resistant to salinomycin than MCF-7 tumor cell line, and these data were confirmed in a cytotoxicity assay. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values show the increased sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to salinomycin. In the comet assay, only MCF-7 cells showed the induction of DNA damage. Flow cytometric analysis showed that cell death by apoptosis/necrosis was only induced in the MCF-7 cells. The increased expression of GADD45A and CDKN1A genes was observed in all cell lines. Decreased expression of CCNA2 and CCNB1 genes occurred only in tumor cells, suggesting G2/M cell cycle arrest. Consequently, cell death was activated in tumor cells through strong inhibition of the antiapoptotic genes BCL-2, BCL-XL, and BIRC5 genes in MCF-7 cells. These data demonstrate the selectivity of salinomycin in killing human mammary tumor cells. The cell death observed only in MCF-7 tumor cells was confirmed by gene expression analysis, where there was downregulation of antiapoptotic genes. These data contribute to clarifying the mechanism of action of salinomycin as a promising antitumor drug and, for the first time, we observed the higher resistance of HB4a non-tumor breast cells to salinomycin.

Lee H, Hwang SJ, Kim HR, et al.
Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) controls the invasiveness of glioblastoma through YAP-dependent expression of CYR61/CCN1 and miR-296-3p.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1859(4):599-611 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor derived from non-neuronal glial cells. Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) protein, also termed as merlin, is a well-known tumor suppressor; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this effect has not yet been fully defined. To investigate the role of NF2 in the invasiveness of GBM, we used two GBM cell lines: NF2-expressing T98G cells and NF2-deficient A172 cells. Knockdown of NF2 increased the invasiveness of T98G cells, whereas NF2-overexpressing A172 cells showed decreased invasive activity. Moreover, re-expression of NF2 reversed the high invasiveness of NF2-silenced T98G cells, indicating that NF2 negatively regulates GBM invasiveness. We further found that the NF2-mediated regulation of invasiveness was dependent on YAP and TEAD2 expression levels. NF2 also controlled the expression of YAP targets, including cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61/CCN1), by regulating the nuclear localization of YAP. Silencing of CYR61/CCN1 blocked the increased invasiveness of T98G cells, suggesting that CYR61/CCN1 is required for NF2-mediated invasiveness. Through microRNA microarray analysis, we found that NF2 negatively regulates the expression of miR-296-3p. Overexpression of miR-296-3p suppressed the expression of STAT5A, induced the phosphorylation of STAT3 by downregulating SOCS2, and increased the invasiveness of T98G cells. Taken together, we demonstrate that NF2 negatively controls the invasiveness of GBM through YAP-dependent induction of CYR61/CCN1 and miR-296-3p.

Bednarek K, Kiwerska K, Szaumkessel M, et al.
Recurrent CDK1 overexpression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):11115-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this study, we analyzed the expression profile of four genes (CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNB2, and CDK1) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cell lines and tumor samples. With the application of microarray platform, we have shown the overexpression of these genes in all analyzed LSCC samples in comparison to non-cancer controls from head and neck region. We have selected CDK1 for further analysis, due to its leading role in cell cycle regulation. It is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family of proven oncogenic properties. The results obtained for CDK1 were further confirmed with the application of reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) technique, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The observed upregulation of CDK1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma has encouraged us to analyze for genetic mechanisms that can be responsible this phenomenon. Therefore, with the application of array-CGH, sequencing analysis and two methods for epigenetic regulation analysis (DNA methylation and miRNA expression), we tried to identify such potential mechanisms. Our attempts to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for observed changes failed as we did not observe significant alterations neither in the DNA sequence nor in the gene copy number that could underline CDK1 upregulation. Similarly, the pyrosequencing and miRNA expression analyses did not reveal any differences in methylation level and miRNA expression, respectively; thus, these mechanisms probably do not contribute to elevation of CDK1 expression in LSCC. However, our results suggest that alteration of CDK1 expression on both mRNA and protein level probably appears on the very early step of carcinogenesis.

Chang Q, Chandrashekhar M, Ketela T, et al.
Cytokinetic effects of Wee1 disruption in pancreatic cancer.
Cell Cycle. 2016; 15(4):593-604 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Wee1 kinase, which is activated in response to DNA damage, regulates exit from G2 through inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1/Cdc2, and is an attractive drug target. However, recent work has highlighted effects of Cdk2 phosphorylation by Wee1 on movement through S-phase, suggesting the potential to sensitize to S-phase specific agents by Wee1 inhibitors. In this paper we applied multiparametric flow cytometry to patient-derived pancreatic cancer xenograft tumor cells to study the cell cycle perturbations of Wee1 disruption via the small molecule inhibitor MK-1775, and genetic knockdown. We find that in vitro treatment with MK-1775, and to a lesser degree, Wee1 RNA transcript knockdown, results in the striking appearance of S-phase cells prematurely entering into mitosis. This effect was not seen in vivo in any of the models tested. Here, although we noted an increase of S-phase cells expressing the damage response marker γH2AX, treatment with MK-1775 did not significantly sensitize cells to the cytidine analog gemcitabine. Treatment with MK-1775 did result in a transient but large increase in cells expressing the mitotic marker phosphorylated H3S10 that reached a peak 4 hours after treatment. This suggests a role for Wee1 regulating the progression of genomically unstable cancer cells through G2 in the absence of extrinsically-applied DNA damage. A single dose of 8Gy ionizing radiation resulted in the time-dependent accumulation of Cyclin A2 positive/phosphorylated H3S10 negative cells at the 4N position, which was abrogated by treatment with MK-1775. Consistent with these findings, a genome-scale pooled RNA interference screen revealed that toxic doses of MK-1775 are suppressed by CDK2 or Cyclin A2 knockdown. These findings support G2 exit as the more significant effect of Wee1 inhibition in pancreatic cancers.

Leisegang M, Kammertoens T, Uckert W, Blankenstein T
Targeting human melanoma neoantigens by T cell receptor gene therapy.
J Clin Invest. 2016; 126(3):854-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In successful cancer immunotherapy, T cell responses appear to be directed toward neoantigens created by somatic mutations; however, direct evidence that neoantigen-specific T cells cause regression of established cancer is lacking. Here, we generated T cells expressing a mutation-specific transgenic T cell receptor (TCR) to target different immunogenic mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) that naturally occur in human melanoma. Two mutant CDK4 isoforms (R24C, R24L) similarly stimulated T cell responses in vitro and were analyzed as therapeutic targets for TCR gene therapy. In a syngeneic HLA-A2-transgenic mouse model of large established tumors, we found that both mutations differed dramatically as targets for TCR-modified T cells in vivo. While T cells expanded efficiently and produced IFN-γ in response to R24L, R24C failed to induce an effective antitumor response. Such differences in neoantigen quality might explain why cancer immunotherapy induces tumor regression in some individuals, while others do not respond, despite similar mutational load. We confirmed the validity of the in vivo model by showing that the melan-A-specific (MART-1-specific) TCR DMF5 induces rejection of tumors expressing analog, but not native, MART-1 epitopes. The described model allows identification of those neoantigens in human cancer that serve as suitable T cell targets and may help to predict clinical efficacy.

Liu Q, Tao B, Liu G, et al.
Thromboxane A2 Receptor Inhibition Suppresses Multiple Myeloma Cell Proliferation by Inducing p38/c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-mediated G2/M Progression Delay and Cell Apoptosis.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(9):4779-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy without effective therapeutics. Thromboxane A2 (TxA2)/TxA2 receptor (T prostanoid receptor (TP)) modulates the progression of some carcinomas; however, its effects on MM cell proliferation remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and downstream prostaglandin profiles in human myeloma cell lines RPMI-8226 and U-266 and analyzed the effects of COX-1/-2 inhibitors SC-560 and NS-398 on MM cell proliferation. Our observations implicate COX-2 as being involved in modulating cell proliferation. We further incubated MM cells with prostaglandin receptor antagonists or agonists and found that only the TP antagonist, SQ29548, suppressed MM cell proliferation. TP silencing and the TP agonist, U46619, further confirmed this finding. Moreover, SQ29548 and TP silencing promoted MM cell G2/M phase delay accompanied by reducing cyclin B1/cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (CDK1) mRNA and protein expression. Notably, cyclin B1 overexpression rescued MM cells from G2/M arrest. We also found that the TP agonist activated JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and inhibitors of JNK and p38 MAPK depressed U46619-induced proliferation and cyclin B1/CDK1 protein expression. In addition, SQ29548 and TP silencing led to the MM cell apoptotic rate increasing with improving caspase 3 activity. The knockdown of caspase 3 reversed the apoptotic rate. Taken together, our results suggest that TxA2/TP promotes MM cell proliferation by reducing cell delay at G2/M phase via elevating p38 MAPK/JNK-mediated cyclin B1/CDK1 expression and hindering cell apoptosis. The TP inhibitor has potential as a novel agent to target kinase cascades for MM therapy.

Cyniak-Magierska A, Stasiak M, Naze M, et al.
Patterns of cyclin A and B1 immunostaining in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015; 22(4):741-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Cyclin A, encoded by CCNA (cyclin A) gene with locus in chromosome 4q27, and cyclin B1, encoded by CCNB1 (cyclin B1) gene with locus in chromosome 5q12, are proteins that play a key role in the passage through the restriction point in G2 phase of the cell cycle. The aim of the study was to analyse immunohistochemically the expression of cyclins A and B1 in different variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The immunostaining patterns of the proteins in question in the tissue of 40 resected PTC (20 cases of classic variant of PTC, 9 cases of PTC follicular variant and 11 cases of other non-classic variants of PTC) were investigated.
RESULTS: On analyzing cyclin A and B1 expression, positive staining in 90% cases of PTC were observed. The study revealed a significant difference in expression of cyclins A and B1 between classic and non-classic variants of PTC. The expression of both examined cyclins was weaker in the classic variant of PTC. In the group of follicular variant of PTC, the expression of cyclins was of medium intensity and in the group of other non-classic variants of PTC, the expression was clearly higher.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the presented study suggest that cyclins A and B1 expression may have a characteristic pattern of immunostaining for particular variants of PTC. If the obtained results are confirmed in a larger group of patients, the diagnostic panel constructed of the antibodies against these proteins may increase the diagnostic accuracy in PTC cases.

Dachineni R, Ai G, Kumar DR, et al.
Cyclin A2 and CDK2 as Novel Targets of Aspirin and Salicylic Acid: A Potential Role in Cancer Prevention.
Mol Cancer Res. 2016; 14(3):241-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Data emerging from the past 10 years have consolidated the rationale for investigating the use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; however, the mechanisms leading to its anticancer effects are still being elucidated. We hypothesized that aspirin's chemopreventive actions may involve cell-cycle regulation through modulation of the levels or activity of cyclin A2/cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2). In this study, HT-29 and other diverse panel of cancer cells were used to demonstrate that both aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decreased cyclin A2 (CCNA2) and CDK2 protein and mRNA levels. The downregulatory effect of either drugs on cyclin A2 levels was prevented by pretreatment with lactacystin, an inhibitor of proteasomes, suggesting the involvement of 26S proteasomes. In-vitro kinase assays showed that lysates from cells treated with salicylic acid had lower levels of CDK2 activity. Importantly, three independent experiments revealed that salicylic acid directly binds to CDK2. First, inclusion of salicylic acid in naïve cell lysates, or in recombinant CDK2 preparations, increased the ability of the anti-CDK2 antibody to immunoprecipitate CDK2, suggesting that salicylic acid may directly bind and alter its conformation. Second, in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS)-CDK2 fluorescence assays, preincubation of CDK2 with salicylic acid dose-dependently quenched the fluorescence due to ANS. Third, computational analysis using molecular docking studies identified Asp145 and Lys33 as the potential sites of salicylic acid interactions with CDK2. These results demonstrate that aspirin and salicylic acid downregulate cyclin A2/CDK2 proteins in multiple cancer cell lines, suggesting a novel target and mechanism of action in chemoprevention.
IMPLICATIONS: Biochemical and structural studies indicate that the antiproliferative actions of aspirin are mediated through cyclin A2/CDK2.

Lee E, Jin D, Lee BB, et al.
Negative effect of cyclin D1 overexpression on recurrence-free survival in stage II-IIIA lung adenocarcinoma and its expression modulation by vorinostat in vitro.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:982 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at identifying prognostic biomarkers for stage II-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) according to histology and at investigating the effect of vorinostat on the expression of these biomarkers.
METHODS: Expression levels of cyclin D1, cyclin A2, cyclin E, and p16 proteins that are involved in the G1-to-S phase progression of cell cycle were analyzed using immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 372 samples of stage II-IIIA NSCLC. The effect of vorinostat on the expression of these proteins, impacts on cell cycle, and histone modification was explored in lung cancer cells.
RESULTS: Abnormal expression of cyclin A2, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and p16 was found in 66, 47, 34, and 51 % of 372 cases, respectively. Amongst the four proteins, only cyclin D1 overexpression was significantly associated with poor recurrence-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.87; 95 % confidence interval = 1.12 - 2.69, P = 0.02) in adenocarcinoma but not in squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.44). Vorinostat inhibited cell cycle progression to the S-phase and induced down-regulation of cyclin D1 in vitro. The down-regulation of cyclin D1 by vorinostat was comparable to a siRNA-mediated knockdown of cyclin D1 in A549 cells, but vorinostat in the presence of benzo[a]pyrene showed a differential effect in different lung cancer cell lines. Cyclin D1 down-regulation by vorinostat was associated with the accumulation of dimethyl-H3K9 at the promoter of the gene.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that cyclin D1 may be an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival in stage II-IIIA adenocarcinoma of lung and its expression may be modulated by vorinostat.

Huang Z, Wang L, Chen L, et al.
Induction of cell cycle arrest via the p21, p27-cyclin E,A/Cdk2 pathway in SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells by clioquinol.
Acta Pharm. 2015; 65(4):463-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clioquinol has been shown to have anticancer activity in several carcinoma cells. In this study, we preliminarily examined the effect of clioquinol in human SMMC-7721 hepatoma and QSG-7701 normal hepatic cells. Our results indicated that clioquinol did not significantly affect survival of QSG-7701 cells, whereas it reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in SMMC-7721 cells. Clioquinol did not trigger autophagy and apoptosis, while it induced cell cycle arrest in the S-phase in SMMC- 7721 cells. Additionally, down-regulation of cyclin D1, A2, E1, Cdk2 and up-regulation of p21, p27 were detected after the treatment with clioquinol. The results demonstrated for the first time that clioquinol suppressed cell cycle progression in the S-phase in SMMC-7721 cells via the p21, p27-cyclin E,A/Cdk2 pathway. This suggests that clioquinol may have a therapeutic potential as an anticancer drug for certain malignances.

Tang H, Ji F, Sun J, et al.
RBEL1 is required for osteosarcoma cell proliferation via inhibiting retinoblastoma 1.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(2):1275-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is the most common type of primary malignant tumor of the bone. However, mechanisms underlying osteosarcoma cell proliferation are poorly understood. The present study shows that RBEL1, a newly identified Rab-like GTPase, may be a key regulator of osteosarcoma cell proliferation. Knockdown of RBEL1 in osteosarcoma cells resulted in impaired colony formation and cell proliferation. Cell cycle analysis suggested that RBEL1 depletion induced G1-S arrest in osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that retinoblastoma 1 (Rb) was upregulated and activated following RBEL1 knockdown. In addition, Rb inhibitory downstream targets, such as cyclin A2, cyclin D1, c-Myc and cyclin-dependent kinase 2, were downregulated. Rb knockdown reversed RBEL1 depletion-induced tumor suppressive effects. In conclusion, the present results suggest that RBEL1 modulates cell proliferation and G1‑S transition by inhibiting Rb in osteosarcoma. These results suggest a potential therapeutic target in osteosarcoma.

Wang D, Wang L, Zhou Y, et al.
The involvement of hematopoietic pre-B cell leukemia transcription factor-interacting protein in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human spinal glioblastoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):5897-903 [PubMed] Related Publications
To date, hematopoietic pre-B cell leukemia transcription factor-interacting protein (HPIP), a co-repressor for the transcription factor PBX, has been involved into the initiation and onset in a wide variety of cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying HPIP-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the spinal glioblastoma have been under investigation. In the present study, spinal glioblastoma tissues, U87, and U251 cell lines were used and subjected to in vitro assays, such as RT-PCR, and Western blot. Here, in vitro assays revealed that HPIP mRNA and protein were highly expressed in five cases of spinal glioblastoma tissues, compared with non-tumor tissues. Subsequently, in vitro experiments demonstrated HPIP promoted the U87 and U251 cell growth and regulated the G1/S phase transitions in U87 and U251 cell cycle, respectively, accompanied by the increased expression of cyclin A2, cyclin B1, and cyclin D1. Furthermore, HPIP increased the expression of N-cadherin, Slug, and MMP2, and decreased the expression of E-cadherin. By contrast, knockdown of HPIP reversed HPIP-induced EMT biomarkers, migration, and invasion in U87 and U251 cells. In conclusion, our findings identified HPIP plays an important role in the progression and EMT of spinal glioblastoma, by which cell growth is improved. Thus, HPIP gene or protein could act as a useful target in the clinical practice.

Shi H, Xu H, Li Z, et al.
BAG3 regulates cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in human colorectal cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(4):5591-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) has been reported to be elevated in various tumors. However, it is unclear whether BAG3 has a functional role in the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we collected CRC samples and cell lines to validate the pathway by using gene and protein assays. RT-PCR showed that the expression of BAG3 mRNA in CRC tissues was obviously higher than that in non-tumor tissues (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that immunoreactivity of BAG3 was found in most CRC tissues and strongly correlated with TNM stage (p = 0.001), differentiation (p = 0.003), and metastasis (p = 0.010). Low expression of BAG3 in HCT-8 significantly reduced cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion. The analysis of in vitro cell showed that HCT-8 cells were exposed to si-BAG3, and its growth was inhibited depending on modulation of cell cycle G1/S checkpoints and cell cycle regulators, involving cyclin D1, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1. Furthermore, suppression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by si-BAG3 is linked to the decreased expression of E-cadherin and the increased expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, and MMP9. In conclusion, in the present study, we demonstrated that BAG3 overexpression plays a critical role in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of colorectal cancer. Our data suggests targeted inhibition of BAG3 may be useful for patients with CRC.

Wang SM, Sun ZQ, Li HY, et al.
Temporal Identification of Dysregulated Genes and Pathways in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Based on Systematic Tracking of Disrupted Modules.
Comput Math Methods Med. 2015; 2015:313740 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work is to identify dysregulated genes and pathways of ccRCC temporally according to systematic tracking of the dysregulated modules of reweighted Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) networks.
METHODS: Firstly, normal and ccRCC PPI network were inferred and reweighted based on Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC). Then, we identified altered modules using maximum weight bipartite matching and ranked them in nonincreasing order. Finally, gene compositions of altered modules were analyzed, and pathways enrichment analyses of genes in altered modules were carried out based on Expression Analysis Systematic Explored (EASE) test.
RESULTS: We obtained 136, 576, 693, and 531 disrupted modules of ccRCC stages I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Gene composition analyses of altered modules revealed that there were 56 common genes (such as MAPK1, CCNA2, and GSTM3) existing in the four stages. Besides pathway enrichment analysis identified 5 common pathways (glutathione metabolism, cell cycle, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, and metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450) across stages I, II, III, and IV.
CONCLUSIONS: We successfully identified dysregulated genes and pathways of ccRCC in different stages, and these might be potential biological markers and processes for treatment and etiology mechanism in ccRCC.

Minchenko DO, Kharkova AP, Tsymbal DO, et al.
IRE1 inhibition affects the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein genes and modifies its sensitivity to glucose deprivation in U87 glioma cells.
Endocr Regul. 2015; 49(4):185-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling mediated by IRE1/ERN1 (inositol-requiring enzyme 1/endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1) on the expression of genes encoding different groups of insulin-like growth binding proteins (IGFBP6 and IGFBP7) and CCN family (IGFBP8/CTGF/CCN2, IGFBP9/NOV/CCN3, IGFBP10/CYR61/CCN1, WISP1/CCN4, and WISP2/CCN5) and its sensitivity to glucose deprivation in U87 glioma cells.
METHODS: The expression of IGFBP6, IGFBP7, IGFBP8, IGFBP9, IGFBP10, WISP1, and WISP2 genes was studied by qPCR in control U87 glioma cells (wild-type) and its subline with IRE1 signaling enzyme loss of function upon glucose deprivation.
RESULTS: The expression of IGFBP8, IGFBP9, and WISP2 genes was up-regulated in control glioma cells upon glucose deprivation with most significant changes for IGFBP9 gene. At the same time, the expression of IGFBP6, IGFBP10, and WISP1 genes was resistant to glucose deprivation in these glioma cells, but the IGFBP7 gene expression was down-regulated. The inhibition of both enzymatic activities (kinase and endoribonuclease) of IRE1 in glioma cells modified the sensitivity of most studied gene expressions to glucose deprivation condition: introduced sensitivity of IGFBP10 and WISP1 genes to glucose deprivation, enhanced the effect of this deprivation on IGFBP7 and IGFBP9 gene expressions, and reduced this effect on WISP2 gene and induced suppressive effect of glucose deprivation on the expression of IGFBP8 gene. Furthermore, the inhibition of IRE1 strongly affected the expression of all studied genes in glioma cells upon regular growing condition in gene specific manner: up-regulated the expression levels of IGFBP7, IGFBP8, IGFBP10, WISP1, and WISP2 genes and down-regulated the IGFBP6 and IGFBP9 genes.
CONCLUSIONS: The data of this investigation demonstrate that the expression of IGFBP7, IGFBP8, IGFBP9, and WISP2 genes are sensitive to glucose deprivation in U87 glioma cells and that inhibition of IRE1 signaling enzyme function may significantly affect the expression of all studied genes in the presence of glucose as well as modify the effect of glucose deprivation on the expression of most studied genes. These data also show that proteins encoded by these genes may participate in the regulation of metabolic and proliferative processes via IGF/INS receptors and possibly other signaling pathways as well, via IRE1 signaling, which is a central mediator of the unfolded protein response and an important component of the tumor growth and metabolic diseases.

Xiong XY, Hu XJ, Li Y, Liu CM
Inhibitory Effects of Enterolactone on Growth and Metastasis in Human Breast Cancer.
Nutr Cancer. 2015; 67(8):1324-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
A lignan-rich diet is associated with a lower risk of human breast cancer. Enterolactone, an active polyphenol metabolites of lignan, was reported to have an antitumor effect. We investigated the mechanism for the effect of enterolactone against human breast cancer. Cellular changes, and associated genes induced by enterolactone, were investigated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Enterolactone showed an antiproliferative effect, and its IC50 was 261.9 ± 10.5 μM for a treatment period of 48 hr. The mRNA levels of the genes related to cell proliferation, Ki67, PCNA, and FoxM1, were reduced. Enterolactone induced accumulation of cells in the S phase, and a lower expression of Cyclin E1, Cyclin A2, Cyclin B1, and Cyclin B2 genes. There were almost no changes in the transcription levels of the genes that participate in G0/G1 phase regulation, CDK4, CDK6, and Cyclin D1. Furthermore, enterolactone interfered with the cytoskeleton by downregulating phosphorylation of the FAK/paxillin pathway, inhibiting migration and invasion of cells. The results suggest that enterolactone exerts an antitumor effect by regulating the expression of genes associated with cell proliferation and the cell cycle and by blocking the FAK/paxillin signaling pathway. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms behind the antitumor effect of enterolactone.

Zhou W, Yin M, Cui H, et al.
Identification of potential therapeutic target genes and mechanisms in non-small-cell lung carcinoma in non-smoking women based on bioinformatics analysis.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 19(18):3375-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms and identify the potential target genes by bioinformatics analysis for non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) treatment in non-smoking women.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The microarray data of GSE19804 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Paired samples (from the same patient) of tumor and normal lung tissues from 60 non-smoking female NSCLC patients were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The functional enrichment analysis was performed. Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the DEGs was constructed by Cytoscape software. The module analysis was performed.
RESULTS: Totally, 817 DEGs including 273 up- and 544 down-regulated genes were identified. The up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, focal adhesion and cell cycle functions, while down-regulated genes were mainly enriched in the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway. DEGs including hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR), collagen, type I alpha 2 (COL1A2), cyclin A2 (CCNA2), MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (MAD2L1), interleukin 6 (IL6) and interleukin 1, beta (IL1B) were identified in these functions. These genes were hub nodes in PPI networks. Besides, there were 3 up-regulated modules and 1 down-regulated module. The significant pathways were ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion in up-regulated modules, while in down-regulated module, the significant pathway was mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: The ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, cell cycle and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction functions may be associated with NSCLC development. Genes such as HMMR, COL1A2, CCNA2, MAD2L1, IL6 and IL1B may be potential therapeutic target genes for NSCLC.

Huang HL, Chen WC, Hsu HP, et al.
Argininosuccinate lyase is a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(6):3131-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arginine is a non-essential amino acid that modulates nitric oxide production and cancer homeostasis. In our previous study, we observed that blocking argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) attenuates tumor progression in liver cancer. However, the role of ASL in human breast cancer has been studied to a lesser degree. In the present study, we investigated the effect of targeting ASL in breast cancer. We found that ASL was induced by ER stress and was significantly upregulated in breast cancer tissues compared to that in the corresponding normal tissues. Downregulation of ASL inhibited the growth of breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. The level of cell cycle-related gene, cyclin A2, was reduced and was accompanied by a delay in G2/M transition. ASL shRNA-induced cell inhibition was rescued by exogenous cyclin A2. Furthermore, autophagy was observed in the cells expressing ASL shRNA, and inhibition of autophagy reduced cell growth, indicating that autophagy played a cell survival role in the ASL knockdown cells. Moreover, inhibition of ASL reduced NO content. Introduction of the NO donor partially restored the growth inhibition by ASL shRNA. Thus, the mechanism induced by ASL shRNA which occurred in human breast cancer may be attributed to a decrease in cyclin A2 and NO.

Liang W, Guan H, He X, et al.
Down-regulation of SOSTDC1 promotes thyroid cancer cell proliferation via regulating cyclin A2 and cyclin E2.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(31):31780-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sclerostin domain containing protein 1 (SOSTDC1) is down-regulated and acts as a tumor suppressor in some kinds of cancers. However, the expression pattern and biological significance of SOSTDC1 in thyroid cancer are largely unknown. We demonstrated that SOSTDC1 was significantly down-regulated in thyroid cancer. Ectopic over-expression of SOSTDC1 inhibited proliferation and induced G1/S arrest in thyroid cancer cells. Moreover, SOSTDC1 over-expression suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts in nude mice. We also found that elevated SOSTDC1 led to inhibition of cyclin A2 and cyclin E2. Together,our results demonstrate that SOSTDC1 is down-regulated in thyroid cancer and might be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

Li J, Zhu SC, Li SG, et al.
TKTL1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2015; 74:71-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), which is a rate-limiting enzyme in the non-oxidative part of the pentose-phosphate pathway, has been demonstrated to promote carcinogenesis through enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Dysregulation of TKTL1 expression also leads to poor prognosis in patients with urothelial and colorectal cancer. However, the expression pattern and underlying cellular functions in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain largely unexplored. In this study, we measured TKTL1 expression in ESCC cell lines and paraffin-embedded ESCC tumor tissues. Our results revealed that TKTL1 expression was upregulated in all of the four ESCC cell lines and in 61.25% (98/160) of ESCC specimens detected, while only 27.5% (11/40) in normal epithelium. Silencing of TKTL1 expression decreased cell proliferation through inhibiting the expression of MKI67 and cyclins including Ccna2, Ccnb1, Ccnd1 and Ccne1. Meanwhile, down-regulation of TKTL1 also associated with increased apoptotic ratio and altered protein expression of Bcl-2 family in ESCC cells. Furthermore, knockdown of TKTL1 significantly reduced the invasive potential of ESCC cells through up-regulation of anti-metastasis genes (MTSS1, TIMP2 and CTSK) and down-regulation of pr-metastasis genes (MMP2, MMP9, MMP10 and MMP13). Taken together, our results indicate that TKTL1 is associated with a more aggressive behavior in ESCC cells and suppresses its expression or enzyme activity might represents a potential target for developing novel therapies in human ESCCs.

Yang XR, Xiong Y, Duan H, Gong RR
Identification of genes associated with methotrexate resistance in methotrexate-resistant osteosarcoma cell lines.
J Orthop Surg Res. 2015; 10:136 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to better understand the mechanisms underlying methotrexate (MTX)-resistance in osteosarcoma.
METHODS: The raw transcription microarray data GSE16089 collected from three MTX-sensitive osteosarcoma (Saos-2) cell samples and three MTX-resistant osteosarcoma (Saos-2) cell samples were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. After data processing, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Next, DEGs were submitted to DAVID for functional annotation based on the GO (Gene Ontology) database, as well as pathway enrichment analysis based on the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) database. Transcription factors (TFs) and tumor-associated genes (TAGs) were identified with reference to TRANSFAC and TAG, and TSGene databases, respectively. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the gene-encoded products was constructed, and the subnetwork with the highest score was also detected using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes and BioNet package.
RESULTS: A total of 690 up-regulated genes and down-regulated 626 genes were identified. Up-regulated DEGs (including AARS and PARS2) were associated to transfer RNA (tRNA) aminoacylation while down-regulated DEGs (including AURKA, CCNB1, CCNE2, CDK1, and CENPA) were correlated with mitotic cell cycle. Totally, 13 TFs (including HMGB2), 13 oncogenes (including CCNA2 and AURKA), and 19 tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) (including CDKN2C) were identified from the down-regulated DEGs. Ten DEGs, including nine down-regulated genes (such as AURKA, CDK1, CCNE2, and CENPA) and one up-regulated gene (GADD45A), were involved in the highest score subnetwork.
CONCLUSION: AARS, AURKA, AURKB, CENPA, CCNB1, CCNE2, and CDK may contribute to MTX resistance via aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis pathway, cell cycle pathway, or p53 signaling pathway.

Sathe A, Koshy N, Schmid SC, et al.
CDK4/6 Inhibition Controls Proliferation of Bladder Cancer and Transcription of RB1.
J Urol. 2016; 195(3):771-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The retinoblastoma signaling network is frequently altered in advanced bladder cancer. We investigated the potential of CDK4/6 as a therapeutic target and determined biomarkers for patient stratification.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic alterations were analyzed using public databases, including TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas), COSMIC (Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer) and CCLE (Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia). Effects of the CDK4/6-inhibitor PD-0332991 or LY2835219 were examined in 10 bladder cancer cell lines by immunoblot, cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Efficacy of the PD-0332991 and cisplatin combination was analyzed using the combination index. Gene expression level was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cytomegalovirus promoter regulated recombinant retinoblastoma was used for reconstitution. Three-dimensional xenografts were grown on chicken chorioallantoic membrane and analyzed by measuring tumor weight and immunohistochemical expression of total retinoblastoma and Ki-67.
RESULTS: PD-0332991 treatment decreased the proliferation of retinoblastoma positive bladder cancer cell lines and was synergistic in combination with cisplatin. PD-0332991 or LY2835219 treatment decreased the phosphorylation, total protein and transcript level of retinoblastoma. Treatment resulted in a decrease in E2F target gene expression (CCNA2 and CCNE2) and cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to the S-phase but did not affect apoptosis. In retinoblastoma negative cells reconstituted with recombinant retinoblastoma PD-0332991 affected only phosphorylation and not the total retinoblastoma level. These cells remained resistant to treatment. In 3-dimensional retinoblastoma xenografts, treatment resulted in reduced tumor weight and decreased expression of total retinoblastoma and Ki-67.
CONCLUSIONS: We provide preclinical evidence that CDK4/6 inhibition is a potential therapeutic strategy for retinoblastoma positive bladder cancer that probably acts by negatively regulating retinoblastoma transcription.

Nault JC, Datta S, Imbeaud S, et al.
Recurrent AAV2-related insertional mutagenesis in human hepatocellular carcinomas.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(10):1187-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are liver tumors related to various etiologies, including alcohol intake and infection with hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) virus. Additional risk factors remain to be identified, particularly in patients who develop HCC without cirrhosis. We found clonal integration of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) in 11 of 193 HCCs. These AAV2 integrations occurred in known cancer driver genes, namely CCNA2 (cyclin A2; four cases), TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase; one case), CCNE1 (cyclin E1; three cases), TNFSF10 (tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 10; two cases) and KMT2B (lysine-specific methyltransferase 2B; one case), leading to overexpression of the target genes. Tumors with viral integration mainly developed in non-cirrhotic liver (9 of 11 cases) and without known risk factors (6 of 11 cases), suggesting a pathogenic role for AAV2 in these patients. In conclusion, AAV2 is a DNA virus associated with oncogenic insertional mutagenesis in human HCC.

McAllister SC, Hanson RS, Manion RD
Propranolol Decreases Proliferation of Endothelial Cells Transformed by Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus and Induces Lytic Viral Gene Expression.
J Virol. 2015; 89(21):11144-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is common in Africa, but economic constraints hinder successful treatment in most patients. Propranolol, a generic β-adrenergic antagonist, decreased proliferation of KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-infected cells. Downregulation of cyclin A2 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) recapitulated this phenotype. Additionally, propranolol induced lytic gene expression in association with downregulation of CDK6. Thus, propranolol has diverse effects on KSHV-infected cells, and this generic drug has potential as a therapeutic agent for KS.

Zhang F, Wang Z, Yuan J, et al.
RNAi-mediated silencing of Anxa2 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating cyclin D1 in STAT3-dependent pathway.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 153(2):263-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the upregulated expression of Anxa2 has been implicated in carcinogenesis, cancer progression, and poor prognosis of cancer patients, the detailed molecular mechanisms involved in these processes remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Anxa2 downregulation with small interference RNA on breast cancer proliferation. To explore molecular mechanisms underlying Anxa2-mediated cancer cell proliferation. We analyzed cell cycle distribution and signaling pathways using semi-quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Anxa2 depletion in breast cancer cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation by decelerating cell cycle progression. The retarded G1-to-S phase transition in Anxa2-silenced cells was attributed to the decreased levels of cyclin D1, which is a crucial promoting factor for cell proliferation because it regulates G1-to-S phase transition during cell cycle progression. We provided evidence that Anxa2 regulates epidermal growth factor-induced phosphorylation of STAT3. The reduced expression of phosphorylated STAT3 is the main factor responsible for decreased cyclin D1 levels in Anxa2-silenced breast cancer cells. Our results revealed the direct relationship between Anxa2 and activation of STAT3, a key transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in regulating breast cancer proliferation and survival. This study provides novel insights into the functions of Anxa2 as a critical molecule in cellular signal transduction and significantly improves our understanding of the mechanism through which Anxa2 regulates cell cycle and cancer cell proliferation.

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