Gene Summary

Gene:CDH13; cadherin 13
Aliases: CDHH, P105
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cadherin superfamily. The encoded protein is localized to the surface of the cell membrane and is anchored by a GPI moiety, rather than by a transmembrane domain. The protein lacks the cytoplasmic domain characteristic of other cadherins, and so is not thought to be a cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein. This protein acts as a negative regulator of axon growth during neural differentiation. It also protects vascular endothelial cells from apoptosis due to oxidative stress, and is associated with resistance to atherosclerosis. The gene is hypermethylated in many types of cancer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: CDH13 (cancer-related)

Kitanaka N, Nakano R, Kitanaka T, et al.
NF-κB p65 and p105 implicate in interleukin 1β-mediated COX-2 expression in melanoma cells.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0208955 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inflammatory and microenvironmental factors produced by cancer cells are thought to directly or indirectly promote cancer cell growth. Prostaglandins, including prostaglandin E2, have key roles as a microenvironment factor in influencing the development of tumors, and are produced by the rate limiting enzyme cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). In this study, we used canine melanoma cells treated with the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and investigated the transcriptional factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression. IL-1β induced prostaglandin E2 release and COX-2 mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In the cells treated with the NF-κB inhibitors BAY11-7082 and TPC-1, IL-1β-mediated prostaglandin E2 release and COX-2 mRNA expression were inhibited. IL-1β also provoked phosphorylation of p65/RelA and p105/NF-κB1, which are members of the NF-κB families. The IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of p65 and p105 was attenuated in the presence of both NF-κB inhibitors. In melanoma cells transfected with siRNA of p65 or p105, IL-1β-mediated COX-2 mRNA expression was inhibited. These findings suggest that canonical activation of NF-κB signaling plays a crucial role for inflammatory states in melanoma cells.

Yang Z, Qi W, Sun L, et al.
DNA methylation analysis of selected genes for the detection of early-stage lung cancer using circulating cell-free DNA.
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2019; 28(3):361-366 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is still the deadliest cancer in the world, but early diagnosis cannot be achieved because of the limitations of diagnostic methods. DNA methylation has been proven to be a potentially powerful tool for cancer detection and diagnosis over the past decade.
OBJECTIVES: We explored whether free DNA methylation in plasma can be a reliable biomarker for noninvasive lung cancer detection.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We detected the methylation of 8 genes in plasma-free DNA of patients with pulmonary space-occupying lesions using real-time quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (QMSP). Among the 50 selected patients, 39 were confirmed using pathological analysis as having early lung cancer and 11 had an inflammatory pseudotumor.
RESULTS: The QMSP detection showed that the methylation levels of 8 genes in the patients were significantly higher than in the non-lung cancer group. The methylation level of CALCA was the highest and the methylation level of HOXA9 was the lowest. Methylation of RASSF1A, CDKN2A and DLEC1 occured only in lung cancer patients, while methylation of CALCA, CDH13, PITX2, HOXA9, and WT1 occured not only in lung cancer patients, but also in non-lung cancers. The specificity reached 95~100%, whether for a single gene or overall, but the sensitivity was relatively low for each gene. The sensitivity can reach 72% if the methylation of any of the 8 genes is positive and the overall specificity was 91%. The positive and negative predictive values were 96% and 60%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative detection of DNA methylation in plasma is a potential method for early diagnosis of lung cancer.

Moses-Fynn E, Tang W, Beyene D, et al.
Correlating blood-based DNA methylation markers and prostate cancer risk in African-American men.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(9):e0203322 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The objective of this work was to investigate the clinical significance of promoter gene DNA methylation changes in whole blood from African-American (AA) men with prostate cancer (PCa). We used high throughput pyrosequencing analysis to quantify percentage DNA methylation levels in a panel of 8 genes (RARβ2, TIMP3, SPARC, CDH13, HIN1, LINE1, CYB5R2 and DRD2) in blood DNA obtained from PCa and non-cancerous controls cases. Correlations of methylation status and various clinicopathological features were evaluated. Six genes tested achieved significant difference in DNA methylation levels between the PCa compared to control cases (P < 0.05). The TIMP3 loci demonstrated significant correlation of DNA methylation with age for all cases analyzed (p < 0.05). We observed an inverse correlation between CDH13 methylation (p = 0.045; r = -0.21) and serum vitamin D level whereas TIMP3 methylation (p = 0.021; r = -0.24) and DRD2 methylation (p = 0.056; r = -0.201) showed inverse correlation with supplementary vitamin D in the cancer cases. We also observed a direct correlation between methylation of RARβ2 (p = 0.0036; r = 0.293) and SPARC (p = 0.0134; r = 0.20) loci with PSA level in the controls but not the cancer cases. In addition, alcohol cases significantly correlated with higher RARβ2 methylation (p = 0.0314) in comparison with non-alcohol cases. Furthermore, we observed an inverse correlation of DRD2 methylation (p = 0.0349; r = -0.343) and Gleason score. Our data suggests that promoter methylation occurred more frequently in the blood of AA PCa and is associated with various clinicopathological features in AA men with PCa.

Ma HS, Wang EL, Xu WF, et al.
Overexpression of DNA (Cytosine-5)-Methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) And DNA (Cytosine-5)-Methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior and Hypermethylation of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Human Pituitary Adenomas.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:4841-4850 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Alteration of DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) is one of the most consistent epigenetic changes in human cancers. DNMTs play several important roles in DNA methylation and development of cancers. Regarding DNMTs protein expressions, little is known about the clinical significance and correlation with promoter methylation status of TSGs in human pituitary adenomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the protein expression of 3 DNMTs using immunohistochemistry and assessed DNA hypermethylation of RASSF1A, CDH13, CDH1, and CDKN2A (p16) in 63 pituitary adenomas. We examined associations between DNMTs expression and clinicopathological features or promoter methylation status of TSGs. RESULTS Overexpression of DNMTs was detected in pituitary adenomas. Frequencies of DNMT1 overexpression were significantly higher in macroadenomas, invasive tumors, and grade III and IV tumors. DNMT3A was frequently detected in invasive tumors and grade IV tumors. In addition, DNMT1 and DNMT3A were frequently detected in high-methylation tumors. Furthermore, in multivariate logistic regression, the significant association between DNMT1 or DNMT3A and high-methylation status persisted after adjusting for clinicopathological features. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggested that tumor overexpression of DNMT1 and DNMT3A is associated with tumor aggressive behavior and high-methylation status in pituitary adenomas. Our data support a possible role of DNMT1 and DNMT3A in TSG promoter methylation leading to pituitary adenoma invasion and suggest that inhibition of DNMTs has the potential to become a new therapeutic approach for invasive pituitary adenoma.

van der Heijden AG, Mengual L, Ingelmo-Torres M, et al.
Urine cell-based DNA methylation classifier for monitoring bladder cancer.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10:71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Current standard methods used to detect and monitor bladder cancer (BC) are invasive or have low sensitivity. This study aimed to develop a urine methylation biomarker classifier for BC monitoring and validate this classifier in patients in follow-up for bladder cancer (PFBC).
Methods: Voided urine samples (
Results: A three-gene methylation classifier containing
Conclusions: The combination of the three-gene methylation classifier and cytology results has high sensitivity and high negative predictive value in a real clinical scenario (PFBC). The proposed classifier is a useful test for predicting BC recurrence and decrease the number of cystoscopies in the follow-up of BC patients. If only patients with a positive combined classifier result would be cystoscopied, 36% of all cystoscopies can be prevented.

Laco J, Kovarikova H, Chmelarova M, et al.
Analysis of DNA methylation and microRNA expression in NUT (nuclear protein in testis) midline carcinoma of the sinonasal tract: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic study.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(1):113-123 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was a detailed clinicopathological investigation of sinonasal NUT midline carcinoma (NMC), including analysis of DNA methylation and microRNA (miRNA) expression. Three (5%) cases of NMC were detected among 56 sinonasal carcinomas using immunohistochemical screening and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The series comprised 2 males and 1 female, aged 46, 60, and 65 years. Two tumors arose in the nasal cavity and one in the maxillary sinus. The neoplasms were staged pT1, pT3, and pT4a (all cN0M0). All patients were treated by radical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy. Two patients died 3 and 8 months after operation, but one patient (pT1 stage; R0 resection) experienced no evidence of disease at 108 months. Microscopically, all tumors consisted of infiltrating nests of polygonal cells with vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli and basophilic cytoplasm. Abrupt keratinization was present in only one case. Immunohistochemically, there was a diffuse expression of cytokeratin (CK) cocktail, CK7, p40, p63, and SMARCB1/INI1. All NMCs tested negative for EBV and HPV infection. Two NMCs showed methylation of RASSF1 gene. All other genes (APC, ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CADM1, CASP8, CD44, CDH13, CDKN1B, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CHFR, DAPK1, ESR1, FHIT, GSTP1, HIC1, KLLN, MLH1a, MLH1b, RARB, TIMP3, and VHL) were unmethylated. All NMCs showed upregulation of miR-9 and downregulation of miR-99a and miR-145 and two cases featured also upregulation of miR-21, miR-143, and miR-484. In summary, we described three cases of sinonasal NMCs with novel findings on DNA methylation and miRNA expression, which might be important for new therapeutic strategies in the future.

Alonso-González C, Menéndez-Menéndez J, González-González A, et al.
Melatonin enhances the apoptotic effects and modulates the changes in gene expression induced by docetaxel in MCF‑7 human breast cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(2):560-570 [PubMed] Related Publications
Results from clinical trials and multiple in vivo and in vitro studies point to melatonin as a promising adjuvant molecule with many beneficial effects when concomitantly administered with chemotherapy. Melatonin palliates side‑effects and enhances the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. However, the mechanisms through which melatonin regulates molecular changes induced by chemotherapeutic agents remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that melatonin enhanced the anti-proliferative and apoptotic responses to low doses of docetaxel in breast cancer cells. Importantly, these effects were more potent when melatonin was added prior to docetaxel. Treatment with 1 µM docetaxel (equivalent to the therapeutic dosage) induced changes in gene expression profiles and melatonin modulated these changes. Specifically, docetaxel downregulated TP53, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) and cadherin 13 (CDH13), and upregulated mucin 1 (MUC1), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) and c-MYC, whereas melatonin counteracted these effects. Melatonin further stimulated the expression of the pro-apoptotic BAD and BAX genes, and enhanced the inhibition of the anti-apoptotic gene BCL-2 induced by docetaxel. The findings of this study suggest that melatonin is a molecule with potential for use as an adjuvant in cancer chemotherapy, which may have implications for designing clinical trials using chemotherapeutic drugs in combination with melatonin.

A P S, Laishram RS
Nuclear Phosphatidylinositol-Phosphate Type I Kinase α-Coupled Star-PAP Polyadenylation Regulates Cell Invasion.
Mol Cell Biol. 2018; 38(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Star-PAP, a nuclear phosphatidylinositol (PI) signal-regulated poly(A) polymerase (PAP), couples with type I PI phosphate kinase α (PIPKIα) and controls gene expression. We show that Star-PAP and PIPKIα together regulate 3'-end processing and expression of pre-mRNAs encoding key anti-invasive factors (

Iotzova-Weiss G, Freiberger SN, Johansen P, et al.
TLR4 as a negative regulator of keratinocyte proliferation.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(10):e0185668 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TLR4 is an innate immune receptor with expression in human skin, keratinocytes as well as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. In the present study we investigate the role of TLR4 as a negative regulator of keratinocyte proliferation. We present here that the expression of TLR4 increased with the differentiation of cultured keratinocytes in a passage-dependent manner or under calcium-rich conditions. Moreover, the down-regulation of TLR4 by specific knockdown increased the proliferation of HaCaT keratinocytes in vitro. In addition, subcutaneously injected HaCaT keratinocytes with shTLR4 formed growing tumors in nude mice. In contrast, we observed lower proliferation and increased migration in vitro of the SCC13 cell line stably overexpressing TLR4 in comparison to SCC13 TLR4 negative cells. In vivo, SCC13 TLR4-overexpressing tumors showed delayed growth in comparison to TLR4 negative tumors. The overexpression of TLR4 in SCC13 tumor cells was followed by phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK and increased expression of ATF3. In gene expression arrays, the overexpression of TLR4 in tumor cells correlated with gene expression of ATF-3, IL-6, CDH13, CXCL-1 and TFPI. In summary, TLR4 negatively regulates the proliferation of keratinocytes and its overexpression reduces tumor growth of SCC cells.

Cardoso MFS, Castelletti CHM, Lima-Filho JL, et al.
Putative biomarkers for cervical cancer: SNVs, methylation and expression profiles.
Mutat Res. 2017; 773:161-173 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is primarily caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, but other factors such as smoking habits, co-infections and genetic background, can also contribute to its development. Although this cancer is avoidable, it is the fourth most frequent type of cancer in females worldwide and can only be treated with chemotherapy and radical surgery. There is a need for biomarkers that will enable early diagnosis and targeted therapy for this type of cancer. Therefore, a systems biology pipeline was applied in order to identify potential biomarkers for cervical cancer, which show significant reports in three molecular aspects: DNA sequence variants, DNA methylation pattern and alterations in mRNA/protein expression levels. CDH1, CDKN2A, RB1 and TP53 genes were selected as putative biomarkers, being involved in metastasis, cell cycle regulation and tumour suppression. Other ten genes (CDH13, FHIT, PTEN, MLH1, TP73, CDKN1A, CACNA2D2, TERT, WIF1, APC) seemed to play a role in cervical cancer, but the lack of studies prevented their inclusion as possible biomarkers. Our results highlight the importance of these genes. However, further studies should be performed to elucidate the impact of DNA sequence variants and/or epigenetic deregulation and altered expression of these genes in cervical carcinogenesis and their potential as biomarkers for cervical cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

Zhu C, Feng X, Ye G, Huang T
Meta-analysis of possible role of cadherin gene methylation in evolution and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma with a PRISMA guideline.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(16):e6650 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cadherins (CDHs) have been reported to be associated with cancer. However, the clinical significance of CDH gene methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear.
METHODS: Based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement criteria, available studies were identified from online electronic database. The overall odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated and analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 29 eligible studies with 2562 HCC samples and 1685 controls were included. E-cadherin (CDH1) hypermethylation was observed to be significantly higher in HCC than in benign, adjacent, or normal samples. Moreover, CDH1 hypermethylation was not associated with gender, tumor grade, clinical stage, hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HCC patients. H-cadherin (CDH13), protocadherin-10 (PCDH10), P-cadherin (CDH3), and M-cadherin (CDH15) methylation may have an increased risk of HCC in fewer than 4 studies, and methylated cadherin 8, type 2 (CDH8) and OB-cadherin (CDH11) had a similar OR in HCC and adjacent samples. When HCC samples were compared with normal samples, the analysis of sample type revealed a significantly higher OR in normal blood samples than in normal tissues for hypermethylated CDH1 (50.82 vs 4.44).
CONCLUSION: CDH1 hypermethylation may play a key role in the carcinogenesis of HCC. However, CDH1 hypermethylation was not correlated with clinicopathological features. Methylated CDH13, PCDH10, CDH3, and CDH15, but not methylated CDH8 or CDH11, may lead to an increased risk of HCC. Hypermethylated CDH1 may become a noninvasive blood biomarker. Further studies with more data are necessary.

Wang BH, Li YY, Han JZ, et al.
Gene methylation as a powerful biomarker for detection and screening of non-small cell lung cancer in blood.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(19):31692-31704 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA methylation has been reported to become a potential powerful tool for cancer detection and diagnosis. However, the possibilities for the application of blood-based gene methylation as a biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) detection and screening remain unclear. Hence, we performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the value of gene methylation detected in blood samples as a noninvasive biomarker in NSCLC. A total of 28 genes were analyzed from 37 case-control studies. In the genes with more than three studies, we found that the methylation of P16, RASSF1A, APC, RARβ, DAPK, CDH13, and MGMT was significantly associated with risks of NSCLC. The methylation statuses of P16, RASSF1A, APC, RARβ, DAPK, CDH13, and MGMT were not linked to age, gender, smoking behavior, and tumor stage and histology in NSCLC. Therefore, the use of the methylation status of P16, RASSF1A, APC, RARβ, DAPK, CDH13, and MGMT could become a promising and powerful biomarker for the detection and screening of NSCLC in blood in clinical settings. Further large-scale studies with large sample sizes are necessary to confirm our findings in the future.

Iida Y, Ciechanover A, Marzese DM, et al.
Epigenetic Regulation of KPC1 Ubiquitin Ligase Affects the NF-κB Pathway in Melanoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(16):4831-4842 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Guo X, Koff JL, Moffitt AB, et al.
Molecular impact of selective NFKB1 and NFKB2 signaling on DLBCL phenotype.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(29):4224-4232 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been categorized into two molecular subtypes that have prognostic significance, namely germinal center B-cell like (GCB) and activated B-cell like (ABC). Although ABC-DLBCL has been associated with NF-κB activation, the relationships between activation of specific NF-κB signals and DLBCL phenotype remain unclear. Application of novel gene expression classifiers identified two new DLBCL categories characterized by selective p100 (NF-κB2) and p105 (NF-κB1) signaling. Interestingly, our molecular studies showed that p105 signaling is predominantly associated with GCB subtype and histone mutations. Conversely, most tumors with p100 signaling displayed ABC phenotype and harbored ABC-associated mutations in genes such as MYD88 and PIM1. In vitro, MYD88 L265P mutation promoted p100 signaling through TAK1/IKKα and GSK3/Fbxw7a pathways, suggesting a novel role for this protein as an upstream regulator of p100. p100 signaling was engaged during activation of normal B cells, suggesting p100's role in ABC phenotype development. Additionally, silencing p100 in ABC-DLBCL cells resulted in a GCB-like phenotype, with suppression of Blimp, IRF4 and XBP1 and upregulation of BCL6, whereas introduction of p52 or p100 into GC cells resulted in differentiation toward an ABC-like phenotype. Together, these findings identify specific roles for p100 and p105 signaling in defining DLBCL molecular subtypes and posit MYD88/p100 signaling as a regulator for B-cell activation.

Ye M, Huang T, Li J, et al.
Role of CDH13 promoter methylation in the carcinogenesis, progression, and prognosis of colorectal cancer: A systematic meta-analysis under PRISMA guidelines.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(4):e5956 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: H-cadherin (CDH13) is commonly downregulated through promoter methylation in various cancers. However, the role of CDH13 promoter methylation status in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) remains to be clarified.
METHODS: Eligible articles were identified from online electronic database based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement criteria. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated and analyzed.
RESULTS: Eventually, a total of nine studies were included in this meta-analysis, including 488 CRC, 298 adjacent, 144 normal, 68 premalignant tissues. The results demonstrated that CDH13 promoter methylation was notably higher in CRC than in normal, adjacent, and premalignant tissues (cancer tissues vs normal tissues: OR = 16.94, P < 0.001; cancer tissues vs adjacent tissues: OR = 20.06, P < 0.001; cancer tissues vs premalignant tissues: OR = 2.23, P = 0.038). CDH13 promoter methylation had a significantly increased risk for poorly differentiated CRC (OR = 4.07, P = 0.001). CDH13 promoter methylation was not associated with sex status, tumor stage, and lymph node status (all P > 0.05). One study with 85 CRC patients reported that CDH13 promoter methylation was correlated with poor prognosis in overall survival (OS).
CONCLUSIONS: CDH13 promoter methylation may play an important role in the initiation and progression of CRC, and may be correlated with OS of patients with CRC. Additional studies with large sample sizes are needed to further confirm our findings in the future.

Costales M, López-Hernández A, García-Inclán C, et al.
Gene Methylation Profiling in Sinonasal Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016; 155(5):808-815 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To identify epigenetic events in intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma (ITAC) and sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) and to evaluate their relation to clinicopathologic features and follow-up data.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study.
SETTING: Academic research hospital.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The methylation status of 23 genes in 50 ITACs and 32 SNSCCs was analyzed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and its relation to clinicopathologic features and follow-up data.
RESULTS: Gene methylation was observed in 50% of all tumors. Recurrent methylated genes in SNSCC were RASSF1 and CDH13 (for both, 6 of 32 cases), CHFR (4 of 32 cases), and TIMP3 (2 of 32 cases). None of these genes showed significant correlation to clinicopathologic features or overall survival. In ITAC, recurrent methylated genes were CDH13 (18 of 50 cases), ESR1 (13 of 50 cases), APC (7 of 50 cases), TIMP3 (5 of 50 cases), CASP8 (3 of 50 cases), and HIC1 and RASSF1 (for both, 2 of 50 cases). Papillary and colonic ITAC subtypes carried a mean of 1.26 gene methylations per tumor versus 0.63 in solid and mucinous subtypes. Methylation of TIMP3 was associated with a significantly worse survival in ITAC patients.
CONCLUSION: ITAC carries a higher number and a different profile of gene methylations as compared with SNSCC. Gene methylation plays a greater role in papillary and colonic ITAC subtypes, which may indicate a different tumorigenic pathway for these ITAC subtypes. These findings could be used as prognosticators and may have implications for future individualized therapies based on epigenetic changes.

Jin X, Liu X, Li X, Guan Y
Integrated Analysis of DNA Methylation and mRNA Expression Profiles Data to Identify Key Genes in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:4369431 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Introduction. Lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is the most frequent type of lung cancer and has a high metastatic rate at an early stage. This study is aimed at identifying LAC-associated genes. Materials and Methods. GSE62950 downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus included a DNA methylation dataset and an mRNA expression profiles dataset, both of which included 28 LAC tissue samples and 28 adjacent normal tissue samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by Limma package in R, and their functions were predicted by enrichment analysis using TargetMine online tool. Then, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using STRING and Cytoscape. Finally, LAC-associated methylation sites were identified by CpGassoc package in R and mapped to the DEGs to obtain LAC-associated DEGs. Results. Total 913 DEGs were identified in LAC tissues. In the PPI networks, MAD2L1, AURKB, CCNB2, CDC20, and WNT3A had higher degrees, and the first four genes might be involved in LAC through interaction. Total 8856 LAC-associated methylation sites were identified and mapped to the DEGs. And there were 29 LAC-associated methylation sites located in 27 DEGs (e.g., SH3GL2, BAI3, CDH13, JAM2, MT1A, LHX6, and IGFBP3). Conclusions. These key genes might play a role in pathogenesis of LAC.

Chen F, Huang T, Ren Y, et al.
Clinical significance of CDH13 promoter methylation as a biomarker for bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.
BMC Urol. 2016; 16(1):52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Methylation of the tumor suppressor gene H-cadherin (CDH13) has been reported in many cancers. However, the clinical effect of the CDH13 methylation status of patients with bladder cancer remains to be clarified.
METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify eligible studies in the PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, CKNI and Wanfang databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) was calculated and summarized.
RESULTS: Nine eligible studies were included in the present meta-analysis consisting of a total of 1017 bladder cancer patients and 265 non-tumor controls. A significant association was found between CDH13 methylation levels and bladder cancer (OR = 21.71, P < 0.001). The results of subgroup analyses based on sample type suggested that CDH13 methylation was significantly associated with bladder cancer risk in both the tissue and the urine (OR = 53.94, P < 0.001; OR = 7.71, P < 0.001; respectively). A subgroup analysis based on ethnic population showed that the OR value of methylated CDH13 was higher in Asians than in Caucasians (OR = 35.18, P < 0.001; OR = 8.86, P < 0.001; respectively). The relationships between CDH13 methylation and clinicopathological features were also analyzed. A significant association was not observed between CDH13 methylation status and gender (P = 0.053). Our results revealed that CDH13 methylation was significantly associated with high-grade bladder cancer, multiple bladder cancer and muscle invasive bladder cancer (OR = 2.22, P < 0.001; OR = 1.45, P = 0.032; OR = 3.42, P < 0.001; respectively).
CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that CDH13 methylation may play an important role in the carcinogenesis, development and progression of bladder cancer. In addition, CDH13 methylation has the potential to be a useful biomarker for bladder cancer screening in urine samples and to be a prognostic biomarker in the clinic.

Chmelařová M, Sirák I, Mžik M, et al.
Importance of Tumour Suppressor Gene Methylation in Sinonasal Carcinomas.
Folia Biol (Praha). 2016; 62(3):110-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetic changes are considered to be a frequent event during tumour development. Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands represents an alternative mechanism for inactivation of tumour suppressor genes, DNA repair genes, cell cycle regulators and transcription factors. The aim of this study was to investigate promoter methylation of specific genes in samples of sinonasal carcinoma by comparison with normal sinonasal tissue. To search for epigenetic events we used methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) to compare the methylation status of 64 tissue samples of sinonasal carcinomas with 19 control samples. We also compared the human papilloma virus (HPV) status with DNA methylation. Using a 20% cut-off for methylation, we observed significantly higher methylation in RASSF1, CDH13, ESR1 and TP73 genes in the sinonasal cancer group compared with the control group. HPV positivity was found in 15/64 (23.4 %) of all samples in the carcinoma group and in no sample in the control group. No correlation was found between DNA methylation and HPV status. In conclusion, our study showed that there are significant differences in promoter methylation in the RASSF1, ESR 1, TP73 and CDH13 genes between sinonasal carcinoma and normal sinonasal tissue, suggesting the importance of epigenetic changes in these genes in carcinogenesis of the sinonasal area. These findings could be used as prognostic factors and may have implications for future individualised therapies based on epigenetic changes.

Guo Q, Wang HB, Li YH, et al.
Correlations of Promoter Methylation in WIF-1, RASSF1A, and CDH13 Genes with the Risk and Prognosis of Esophageal Cancer.
Med Sci Monit. 2016; 22:2816-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND This study was designed to explore the correlations of promoter methylation in Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1), ras-association domain family member 1A (RASSF1A), and Cadherin 13 (CDH13) genes with the risk and prognosis of esophageal cancer (EC). MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 71 EC tissues from resection and 35 adjacent normal tissues were collected. Methylation status in the promoter region was detected by methylation- and non-methylation-specific primers. Corresponding mRNA levels were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Correlations between the methylations of these 3 genes and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model were used to investigate the relationships between WIF-1, RASSF1A, and CDH13 promoter methylations and the prognosis of EC. RESULTS Compared with adjacent normal tissues, the methylation frequencies of WIF-1, RASSF1A, and CDH13 genes were significantly higher but the mRNA levels of these 3 genes were significantly lower in EC tissues (all P<0.05). WIF-1 and CDH13 promoter methylations were associated with the degree of tumor differentiation and WIF-1 and RASSF1A promoter methylations were associated with age (all P<0.05). The survival rates of patients with WIF-1, RASSF1A, and CDH13 methylations were significantly lower than those of patients without methylation (all P<0.05). WIF-1, RASSF1A, and CDH13 promoter methylations were independent risk factors affecting the prognosis of EC (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS WIF-1, RASSF1A, and CDH13 promoter methylations are associated with EC. The methylation levels are negatively related with the prognosis in EC.

Xu Y, Li X, Wang H, et al.
Hypermethylation of CDH13, DKK3 and FOXL2 promoters and the expression of EZH2 in ovary granulosa cell tumors.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 14(3):2739-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant epigenetic modification is associated with the development and progression of cancer. Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor gene promoters and cooperative histone modification have been considered to be the primary mechanisms of epigenetic modification. Ovary granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are relatively rare, accounting for ~3% of all ovarian malignancies. The present study assessed hypermethylation of the cadherin 13 (CDH13), dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 3 (DKK3) and forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) promoters in 30 GCT tissues and 30 healthy control tissues using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. The data showed that the frequencies of CDH13, DKK3 and FOXL2 promoter methylation were significantly higher in the GCT tissues, compared with the healthy control tissues (86.67, vs. 23.33%; 80, vs. 26.67% and 66.67, vs. 20%, respectively; P<0.001). Immunostaining of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone H3K27 methyltransferase, showed that the EZH2 protein was expressed in 11 of the 30 GCT tissue samples, whereas no EZH2 protein was expressed in the 30 healthy control tissues (P<0.01). These data suggested that hypermethylation of the CDH13, DKK3 and FOXL2 gene promoters, and overexpression of the EZH2 protein were involved in the development of GCT.

Wijetunga NA, Belbin TJ, Burk RD, et al.
Novel epigenetic changes in CDKN2A are associated with progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
Gynecol Oncol. 2016; 142(3):566-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive mapping of the genomic DNA methylation in CDKN2A, which codes for the p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF) proteins, and 14 of the most promising DNA methylation marker candidates previously reported to be associated with progression of low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN1) to cervical cancer.
METHODS: We analyzed DNA methylation in 68 HIV-seropositive and negative women with incident CIN1, CIN2, CIN3 and invasive cervical cancer, assaying 120 CpG dinucleotide sites spanning APC, CDH1, CDH13, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, DAPK1, FHIT, GSTP1, HIC1, MGMT, MLH1, RARB, RASSF1, TERT and TIMP3 using the Illumina Infinium array. Validation was performed using high resolution mapping of the target genes with HELP-tagging for 286 CpGs, followed by fine mapping of candidate genes with targeted bisulfite sequencing. We assessed for statistical differences in DNA methylation levels for each CpG loci assayed using univariate and multivariate methods correcting for multiple comparisons.
RESULTS: In our discovery sample set, we identified dose dependent differences in DNA methylation with grade of disease in CDKN2A, APC, MGMT, MLH1 and HIC1, whereas single CpG locus differences between CIN2/3 and cancer groups were seen for CDH13, DAPK1 and TERT. Only those CpGs in the gene body of CDKN2A showed a monotonic increase in methylation between persistent CIN1, CIN2, CIN3 and cancers.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggests a novel link between early cervical disease progression and DNA methylation in a region downstream of the CDKN2A transcription start site that may lead to increased p16(INK4A)/p14(ARF) expression prior to development of malignant disease.

Liu JF, Li YS, Drew PA, Zhang C
The effect of celecoxib on DNA methylation of CDH13, TFPI2, and FSTL1 in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in vivo.
Anticancer Drugs. 2016; 27(9):848-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study examined the in-vivo effect of the NSAID celecoxib on DNA methylation in the promoter region of the tumor-suppressor genes cadherin 13, tissue factor pathway inhibitor 12, and follistatin-like protein 1, and on apoptosis, in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Forty-five patients who underwent an esophagectomy for ESCC were allocated to either a treatment group (n=22) or a control group (n=23). Patients in the treatment group were administered 800 mg/day of celecoxib for 14 days before surgery. Patients in the control group did not take any type of NSAID. Biopsies of the tumor were collected before surgery and tissue from the resection specimens after surgery. Methylation-specific PCR was used to measure DNA methylation and apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. There was no difference in the proportion of patients with methylation for each of the genes between the patient groups before treatment. In those patients with pretreatment methylation, there was a significant reduction in the proportion with methylation and a significant increase in the corresponding messenger RNA expression after treatment with celecoxib. In those tissues in which there was a reduction in methylation following celecoxib treatment, there was a significant increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells, but not in the tissues with no change in methylation. In ESCC, in-vivo treatment with celecoxib is associated with a reduction in DNA methylation and increase in messenger RNA expression of tumor-suppressor genes, and increases in apoptosis.

Scarpa M, Scarpa M, Castagliuolo I, et al.
CD80 down-regulation is associated to aberrant DNA methylation in non-inflammatory colon carcinogenesis.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:388 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The lack of positive costimulatory molecules represents one of the mechanisms by which tumor cells evade immune surveillance. Promoter hypermethylation plays a major role in cancer development through transcriptional silencing of critical genes. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the costimulatory molecule CD80 in relationship with genomic methylation in non-inflammatory colon carcinogenesis.
METHODS: Colonic mucosal samples were collected from healthy subjects (n = 30) and from dysplastic adenoma (n = 14), and colon adenocarcinoma (n = 10). DNA methyltransferases-1, -3a, -3b and CD80 mRNA expression were quantified by real time qRT-PCR. The methylation status of CDH13, APC, MLH1, MGMT1 and RUNX3 gene promoters was assessed by methylation-specific PCR. CD80 expression was assessed in HT29, HCT-15 and LoVo cell lines after treatment with the DNA-methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine.
RESULTS: CD80 mRNA levels were significantly lower in the non-inflammatory dysplastic colonic mucosa of patients with one or more methylated genes and inversely correlated with patients' methylation scores (τ = -0.41, p = 0.05 and τ = -0.37, p = 0.05, respectively). Treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine significantly increased CD80 expression both in terms of the level of CD80 mRNA (p = 0.007) and of CD80+ cells (p = 0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the failure of immune surveillance mechanisms in non-inflammatory colon carcinogenesis may be linked to genomic methylation directly or indirectly affecting CD80 expression.

Hernandez-Muñoz I, Figuerola E, Sanchez-Molina S, et al.
RING1B contributes to Ewing sarcoma development by repressing the NaV1.6 sodium channel and the NF-κB pathway, independently of the fusion oncoprotein.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(29):46283-46300 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive tumor defined by EWSR1 gene fusions that behave as an oncogene. Here we demonstrate that RING1B is highly expressed in primary ES tumors, and its expression is independent of the fusion oncogene. RING1B-depleted ES cells display an expression profile enriched in genes functionally involved in hematological development but RING1B depletion does not induce cellular differentiation. In ES cells, RING1B directly binds the SCN8A sodium channel promoter and its depletion results in enhanced Nav1.6 expression and function. The signaling pathway most significantly modulated by RING1B is NF-κB. RING1B depletion results in enhanced p105/p50 expression, which sensitizes ES cells to apoptosis by FGFR/SHP2/STAT3 blockade. Reduced NaV1.6 function protects ES cells from apoptotic cell death by maintaining low NF-κB levels. Our findings identify RING1B as a trait of the cell-of-origin and provide a potential targetable vulnerability.

Wang C, Pan Z, Hou H, et al.
The Enhancement of Radiation Sensitivity in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells via Activation of the Rac1/NADPH Signaling Pathway.
Radiat Res. 2016; 185(6):638-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
We reported in an earlier study that using mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analysis demonstrated Rac1 protein might be mostly mitochondrial target in the radiosensitization process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-1 cells. The goal of our current study was to reveal the relationship between Rac1/NADPH pathway and radiosensitization in CNE-1 cells using Rac1 activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766. The Rac1-GTP expression was determined using a pulldown assay, the Rac1 location using a immunofluorescence with a laser scanning confocal microscope, the NADPH oxidase activity with NBT assay and the reactive oxygen species with DCFH-DA probe. The apoptosis rate was analyzed by flow cytometry, and the expressions of p67(phox) and NFκB-p105/p50 were analyzed by Western blot. After treatment with PMA and 2 Gy radiation (compared to the control), Rac1-GTP was activated and translocated to the cell membrane. NADPH oxidase activity, reactive oxygen species of intracellular concentration and the apoptosis rate increased significantly. The expression of p67(phox) and NFκB-p50 protein also increased. However, in the cells treated with NSC23766 alone or NSC23766 combined with 2 Gy irradiation, the results were just the opposite. Overall, these results indicate that the Rac1 protein may be the key target involved in the radiosensitization of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. The activated Rac1/NADPH pathway combined with radiation can increase the radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, and the Rac1/NADPH pathway may be the signaling pathway involved in the radiosensitization process.

Liu B, Song J, Luan J, et al.
Promoter methylation status of tumor suppressor genes and inhibition of expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 in non-small cell lung cancer.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2016; 241(14):1531-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA methylation is an epigenetic DNA modification catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). The purpose of this study was to investigate DNMT1 gene and protein expression and the effects of methylation status on tumor suppressor genes in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines grown in vitro and in vivo Human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 and H838, were grown in vitro and inoculated subcutaneously into nude mice to form tumors and were then treated with the DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, with and without treatment with the benzamide histone deacetylase inhibitor, entinostat (MS-275). DNMT1 protein expression was quantified by Western blot. Promoter methylation status of tumor suppressor genes (RASSF1A, ASC, APC, MGMT, CDH13, DAPK, ECAD, P16, and GATA4) was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Methylation status of the tumor suppressor genes was regulated by the DNMT1 gene, with the decrease of DNMT1 expression following DNA methylation treatment. Demethylation of tumor suppressor genes (APC, ASC, and RASSF1A) restored tumor growth in nude mice. The results of this study support a role for methylation of DNA as a potential epigenetic clinical biomarker of prognosis or response to therapy and for DNMT1 as a potential therapeutic target in NSCLC.

Yang J, Niu H, Huang Y, Yang K
A Systematic Analysis of the Relationship of CDH13 Promoter Methylation and Breast Cancer Risk and Prognosis.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0149185 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CDH13 (cadherin 13) is a special cadherin cell adhesion molecule, and the methylation of its promoter causes inactivation in a considerable number of human cancers. To explore the association between CDH13 promoter methylation and breast cancer risk and prognosis, we systematically integrated published articles to investigate the diagnostic performance of the CDH13 methylation test for breast cancer. An independent DNA methylation microarray dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas project (TCGA) project was used to validate the results of the meta-analysis.
METHODS: The relevant literature was searched using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases for articles published in English up to May 2015. Data were analyzed using random effect or fixed effect models. The effect sizes were estimated by measuring an odds ratio (OR) or hazard ratio (HR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). A chi-squared based Q test and sensitivity analysis were performed to examine the between-study heterogeneity and the contribution of single studies to the final results, respectively. Funnel plots were constructed to evaluate publication bias.
RESULTS: Seven hundred and twenty-six breast tumor samples and 422 controls were collected from 13 published studies. The data from the TCGA set include both tumor and normal samples. A significant association was observed between CDH13 promoter methylation and breast cancer, with an aggregated OR equal to 13.73 (95%CI: 8.09~23.31, z = 9.70, p<0.0001) as measured using the fixed effect model and 14.23 (95%CI: 5.06~40.05, z = 5.03, p<0.0001) as measured using a random effect model. The HR values were calculated as 0.77 (95%CI: 0.27~2.21, z = -0.49, p = 0.622) and 0.38 (95%CI: 0.09~1.69, z = -1.27, p = 0.20) for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), respectively, using the random effect model. This result indicated that breast cancer patients with CDH13 promoter methylation correlated non-significantly with prognosis and is therefore similar to the findings of the TCGA project.
CONCLUSIONS: The methylation status of CDH13 promoter was strongly associated with breast cancer risk. However, CDH13 promoter methylation was not significantly related to the OS and DFS of breast cancer and may have limited prognostic value for breast cancer patients.

Altenburg A, Abdel-Naser MB, Nikolakis G, et al.
CD40/CD40 ligand interactions and TNFα treatment reduce activity of P105 promoter of the human papilloma virus-18 in vitro.
Exp Oncol. 2016; 38(1):22-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cervical carcinoma cells including those infected with the oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) and several cervical carcinoma cell lines show a strong expression of the CD40 receptor, unlike benign cervical epithelial cells infected with HPV. The functional relevance of this up-regulated expression in the tumor is not fully understood. Nevertheless, it might offer a unique possibility to target those malignant cells due to the antiviral and antitumoral effects of the CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) interactions.
AIM: In vitro assessment of the effect of CD40L on HPV 18-P105 promoter activity and the subsequent release of IL-6 by the promoter transfected HeLa(CD40) cells, which express CD40 constitutively.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Transfection of HeLa(CD40) cells was achieved by electroporation after optimizing the parameters by the pCMV-β-Gal vector and β-Gal stain. Transfected HeLa(CD40) cells were challenged with BHK(CD40L) and TNFα, in addition to BHK(wt) and medium alone as controls. HPV18-P105 promoter activity was demonstrated by luciferase reporter gene assay while IL-6 was assessed by ELISA.
RESULTS: CD40/CD40L interactions and TNFα treatment significantly reduced HPV18-P105 promoter activity (56.0 ± 10.2% and 64.1 ± 9.1% vs. control, respectively; p < 0.001). Likewise, IL-6, which is a sensitive cytokine of CD40 activation, was significantly increased in HeLa(CD40) cells in the same experiments (2.7 fold after stimulation with BHK(CD40L) and 5.2 fold after stimulation with TNFα vs. control; p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSION: It is likely that the CD40/CD40L interactions and TNFα are effective against cervical carcinomas by repressing transcriptional activity of HPV promoter. This can result in new adjuvant treatments.

de Oliveira KA, Kaergel E, Heinig M, et al.
A roadmap of constitutive NF-κB activity in Hodgkin lymphoma: Dominant roles of p50 and p52 revealed by genome-wide analyses.
Genome Med. 2016; 8(1):28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: NF-κB is widely involved in lymphoid malignancies; however, the functional roles and specific transcriptomes of NF-κB dimers with distinct subunit compositions have been unclear.
METHODS: Using combined ChIP-sequencing and microarray analyses, we determined the cistromes and target gene signatures of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB species in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cells.
RESULTS: We found that the various NF-κB subunits are recruited to regions with redundant κB motifs in a large number of genes. Yet canonical and non-canonical NF-κB dimers up- and downregulate gene sets that are both distinct and overlapping, and are associated with diverse biological functions. p50 and p52 are formed through NIK-dependent p105 and p100 precursor processing in HL cells and are the predominant DNA binding subunits. Logistic regression analyses of combinations of the p50, p52, RelA, and RelB subunits in binding regions that have been assigned to genes they regulate reveal a cross-contribution of p52 and p50 to canonical and non-canonical transcriptomes. These analyses also indicate that the subunit occupancy pattern of NF-κB binding regions and their distance from the genes they regulate are determinants of gene activation versus repression. The pathway-specific signatures of activated and repressed genes distinguish HL from other NF-κB-associated lymphoid malignancies and inversely correlate with gene expression patterns in normal germinal center B cells, which are presumed to be the precursors of HL cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We provide insights that are relevant for lymphomas with constitutive NF-κB activation and generally for the decoding of the mechanisms of differential gene regulation through canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling.

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