CXCL10

Gene Summary

Gene:CXCL10; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10
Aliases: C7, IFI10, INP10, IP-10, crg-2, mob-1, SCYB10, gIP-10
Location:4q21.1
Summary:This antimicrobial gene encodes a chemokine of the CXC subfamily and ligand for the receptor CXCR3. Binding of this protein to CXCR3 results in pleiotropic effects, including stimulation of monocytes, natural killer and T-cell migration, and modulation of adhesion molecule expression. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-X-C motif chemokine 10
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (25)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 4
  • Liver Cancer
  • Cytokines
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Virus Replication
  • Down-Regulation
  • CXCR3
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Apoptosis
  • Lung Cancer
  • Umbilical Veins
  • Trans-Activators
  • BAK1
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • NF-kappa B
  • Breast Cancer
  • Th2 Cells
  • Chemokines, CXC
  • Chemokine CXCL9
  • Chemokine CXCL10
  • Melanoma
  • Protein Array Analysis
  • Homologous Transplantat
  • Staging
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • TNF
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Vaccination
  • Survival Rate
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • Gene Expression
  • Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Chemokines
  • Cell Movement
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CXCL10 (cancer-related)

Zhu H, Qin H, Li DM, et al.
Effect of PPM1H on malignant phenotype of human pancreatic cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2926-2934 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silencing gene protein phosphatase 1H (PPM1H) on malignant phenotype of human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3. In order to explore the function of PPM1H in pancreatic cancer cells, real-time PCR and western blotting were used to detect the expression of PPM1H in different pancreatic cancer cell lines. Human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 was treated with 10 ng/ml TGF-β1 and 200 ng/ml BMP2 for 72 h, respectively, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of PPM1H and EMT-related markers (E-cadherin, vimentin) were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Using exogenous RNA interference technology to silence the PPM1H gene, the expression of PPM1H and EMT-related markers at mRNA and protein levels were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting. The cell migration and invasion were measured using Transwell assays. Finally, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry were used to determine the effect of PPM1H on cell proliferation and apoptosis of BxPC-3 cells. The expression levels of PPM1H in all of the examined pancreatic cancer cell lines (BxPC-3, MIA-PACA2, PANC-1, SW1990, PANC-03.27) were lower than that of normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (HPDE6-C7) at both mRNA and protein levels. Both TGF-β1 and BMP2 treatment induced EMT and downregulation of PPM1H in BxPC-3 cells. By using RNA interference to transiently knock down PPM1H expression in BxPC-3 cells, we found that the expression of E-cadherin was downregulated while vimentin was up-regulated. The data suggested that silencing PPM1H gene can induce EMT in BxPC-3 cells. In addition, Transwell migration assays showed that silencing PPM1H gene can promote the invasion and metastasis of BxPC-3 cells. Cell proliferation and apotosis detection demonstrated that silencing PPM1H gene can promote the proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of BxPC-3 cells. In conclusion, PPM1H is aberrantly expressed in human pancreatic cancer cell lines and can be downregulated when EMT is induced by cytokine stimulation. Silencing PPM1H gene can induce EMT in BxPC-3 cells, and promote the invasion and metastasis of BxPC-3 cells. Moreover, silencing PPM1H gene can promote the proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of BxPC-3 cells. PPM1H may be a new tumor-suppressor factor for pancreatic cancer and provides new insight into molecular targets for gene therapy of pancreatic cancer.

Zhou H, Wu J, Wang T, et al.
CXCL10/CXCR3 axis promotes the invasion of gastric cancer via PI3K/AKT pathway-dependent MMPs production.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 82:479-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
CXCR3, a G-protein coupled chemokine receptor, has been found to be overexpressed in many tumors and act as an independent prognostic marker. However, it is still unclear whether CXCR3 is involved in gastric cancer progression. In this study, we found that CXCR3 was markedly expressed in gastric cancer cells and tissues. High CXCR3 expression correlated with advanced tumor stage, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis and poor survival of gastric cancer patients. Activation of CXCR3 by one of its ligands CXCL10 promoted the invasion and migration of gastric cancer BGC-823 and MGC-803 cells, and increased the secretion and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, the effects of CXCL10 on gastric cancer cells were attenuated by CXCR3 siRNA transfection. Furthermore, overexpression of CXCR3 enhanced CXCL10-mediated cell invasion and migration of gastric cancer MKN28 cells. In addition, CXCR3 time-dependently induced activation of AKT. PI3K/AKT pathway was required for CXCR3-mediated gastric cancer cell invasion, migration and MMP-2/9 production. Together, our findings suggest that CXCL10/CXCR3 axis promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and migration by upregulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 production via PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, CXCR3 could be a potential target for the gastric cancer treatment.

Qiu C, Bu X, Jiang Z
Protocadherin-10 acts as a tumor suppressor gene, and is frequently downregulated by promoter methylation in pancreatic cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(1):383-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protocadherin-10 (PCDH10), a member of non-clustered protocadherin family which plays important roles in calcium-dependent cell-cell signal transduction and adhesion. PCDH10 functions as a tumor suppressor gene and its expression is downregulated by promoter methylation in many malignances. In the present study, we explored PCDH10 expression and promoter methylation status, and its biological effects in pancreatic cancer cells, and furthermore, we explored the mechanism of PCDH10 preliminary in pancreatic cancer cells. the mRNA level of PCDH10 was detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR and promoter methylation status examined by methylation-specific PCR in the pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-1, Panc-1, AsPC-1 and BxPC-3) as well as the human normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells HPDE6-C7 which was used as a control. The human pancreatic cells were transfected with plasmid pcDNA3.1-PCDH10 or pcDNA3.1 by lipofectamine 2000. The biological function of PCDH10 in pancreatic cancer cells was determined by CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry, Transwell invasion assay and wound-healing assay. The levels of apoptosis related proteins were examined by western blotting. PCDH10 expression was obviously downregulated in the pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-1, Panc-1, BxPC-3) compared to the normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. PCDH10 promoter methylation was observed in the two pancreatic cancer cells Capan-1 and BxPC-3,and the expression of PCDH10 could be restored after treating with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A in the two cell types. Overexpression of PCDH10 can inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion ability of pancreatic cancer cells and induce apoptosis. Ectopic expression of PCDH10 could increase the levels of PARP, caspase-3, caspase-9 and decrease the level of bcl-2, AKT and p-AKT. PCDH10 acts as a tumor suppressor gene, and is frequently down-regulated by promoter methylation in pancreatic cancer cells. PCDH10 may induce cancer cell apoptosis via the AKT pathway.

Jafarzadeh A, Fooladseresht H, Nemati M, et al.
Higher circulating levels of chemokine CXCL10 in patients with breast cancer: Evaluation of the influences of tumor stage and chemokine gene polymorphism.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 16(4):545-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The CXCL10 receptor, CXCR3, is preferentially expressed on Th1 and NK cells. Therefore, CXCL10 acts as a chemoattractant for these cells.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the CXCL10 levels and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs4508917, in chemokine gene, in patients with breast cancer (BC).
METHODS: A total of 200 subjects including 100 women with BC and 100 healthy women were enrolled into study. The serum CXCL10 levels were measured by ELISA and the SNP rs4508917 was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
RESULTS: The CXCL10 levels were significantly higher in patients than control group (P< 0.0001). There was also significant difference between tumor stages regarding the CXCL10 levels (P< 0.0001). The frequencies of GG genotype and G allele at rs4508917 were significantly higher in patients than controls (P< 0.0001). The CXCL10 levels were higher in patients with GG genotype whereas they were lower in healthy subjects having GG genotype as compared with those having AA genotype at rs4508917 (P< 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Higher CXCL10 levels in patients with BC represent that the chemokine may contributes in tumor development. The rs4508917 may play a role in the susceptibility to BC. Different association was also observed between rs4508917 and CXCL10 levels in patients with BC and healthy subjects.

van Ommeren R, Staudt MD, Xu H, Hebb MO
Advances in HSP27 and HSP90-targeting strategies for glioblastoma.
J Neurooncol. 2016; 127(2):209-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. There is a critical need for novel strategies to abolish the molecular mechanisms that support GBM growth, invasion and treatment resistance. The heat shock proteins, HSP27 and HSP90, serve these pivotal roles in tumor cells and have been identified as effective targets for developing therapeutics. Natural and synthetic inhibitors have been evaluated in clinical trials for several forms of systemic cancer but none as yet for GBM. This topic review summarizes the current preclinical evidence and rationale to define the potential of HSP27 and HSP90 inhibitors in GBM management.

Morata-Tarifa C, Jiménez G, García MA, et al.
Low adherent cancer cell subpopulations are enriched in tumorigenic and metastatic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-induced cancer stem-like cells.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:18772 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer stem cells are responsible for tumor progression, metastasis, therapy resistance and cancer recurrence, doing their identification and isolation of special relevance. Here we show that low adherent breast and colon cancer cells subpopulations have stem-like properties. Our results demonstrate that trypsin-sensitive (TS) breast and colon cancer cells subpopulations show increased ALDH activity, higher ability to exclude Hoechst 33342, enlarged proportion of cells with a cancer stem-like cell phenotype and are enriched in sphere- and colony-forming cells in vitro. Further studies in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells reveal that TS subpopulation expresses higher levels of SLUG, SNAIL, VIMENTIN and N-CADHERIN while show a lack of expression of E-CADHERIN and CLAUDIN, being this profile characteristic of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The TS subpopulation shows CXCL10, BMI-1 and OCT4 upregulation, differing also in the expression of several miRNAs involved in EMT and/or cell self-renewal such as miR-34a-5p, miR-34c-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-93-5p and miR-100-5p. Furthermore, in vivo studies in immunocompromised mice demonstrate that MDA-MB-231 TS cells form more and bigger xenograft tumors with shorter latency and have higher metastatic potential. In conclusion, this work presents a new, non-aggressive, easy, inexpensive and reproducible methodology to isolate prospectively cancer stem-like cells for subsequent biological and preclinical studies.

Seol HS, Lee SE, Song JS, et al.
Complement proteins C7 and CFH control the stemness of liver cancer cells via LSF-1.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 372(1):24-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor-initiating cells are important for the formation and maintenance of tumor bulks in various tumors. To identify surface markers of liver tumor-initiating cells, we performed primary tumorsphere culture and analyzed the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) antigen genes using NanoString. Interestingly, we found significant upregulation of the complement proteins (p = 1.60 × 10(-18)), including C7 and CFH. Further studies revealed that C7 and CFH are required to maintain stemness in liver cancer cells. Knockdown of C7 and CFH expression abrogated tumorsphere formation and induced differentiation, whereas overexpression stimulated stemness factor expression as well as in vivo cell growth. Mechanistically, by studying C7 and CFH-dependent LSF-1 expression and its direct role on stemness factor transcription, we found that LSF-1 is involved in this regulation. Taken together, our data demonstrate the unprecedented role of complement proteins on the maintenance of stemness in liver tumor-initiating cells.

Punganuru SR, Madala HR, Venugopal SN, et al.
Design and synthesis of a C7-aryl piperlongumine derivative with potent antimicrotubule and mutant p53-reactivating properties.
Eur J Med Chem. 2016; 107:233-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Small molecules that can restore biological function to the p53 mutants found in human cancers have been highly sought to increase the anticancer efficacy. In efforts to generate hybrid anticancer drugs that can impact two or more targets simultaneously, we designed and developed piperlongumine (PL) derivatives with an aryl group inserted at the C-7 position. This insertion bestowed a combretastatin A4 (CA4, an established microtubule disruptor) like structure while retaining the piperlongumine configuration. The new compounds exhibited potent antiproliferative activities against eight cancer cell lines, in particular, were more cytotoxic against the SKBR-3 breast cancer cells which harbor a R175H mutation in p53 suppressor. KSS-9, a representative aryl PL chosen for further studies induced abundant ROS generation and protein glutathionylation. KSS-9 strongly disrupted the tubulin polymerization in vitro, destabilized the microtubules in cells and induced a potent G2/M cell cycle block. More interestingly, KSS-9 showed the ability to reactivate the p53 mutation and restore biological activity to the R175H mutant protein present in SKBR3 cells. Several procedures, including immunocytochemistry using conformation-specific antibodies for p53, immunoprecipitation combined with western blotting, electrophoretic shift mobility shift assays showed a reciprocal loss of mutant protein and generation of wild-type like protein. p53 reactivation was accompanied by the induction of the target genes, MDM2, p21cip1 and PUMA. Mechanistically, the redox-perturbation in cancer cells by the hybrid drug appears to underlie the p53 reactivation process. This anticancer drug approach merits further development.

Wang Z, Deng Z, Dahmane N, et al.
Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) constitutes a nucleoprotein component of extracellular inflammatory exosomes.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(46):E6293-300 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) has been identified as a telomere-associated regulator of chromosome end protection. Here, we report that TERRA can also be found in extracellular fractions that stimulate innate immune signaling. We identified extracellular forms of TERRA in mouse tumor and embryonic brain tissue, as well as in human tissue culture cell lines using RNA in situ hybridization. RNA-seq analyses revealed TERRA to be among the most highly represented transcripts in extracellular fractions derived from both normal and cancer patient blood plasma. Cell-free TERRA (cfTERRA) could be isolated from the exosome fractions derived from human lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) culture media. cfTERRA is a shorter form (∼200 nt) of cellular TERRA and copurifies with CD63- and CD83-positive exosome vesicles that could be visualized by cyro-electron microscopy. These fractions were also enriched for histone proteins that physically associate with TERRA in extracellular ChIP assays. Incubation of cfTERRA-containing exosomes with peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated transcription of several inflammatory cytokine genes, including TNFα, IL6, and C-X-C chemokine 10 (CXCL10) Exosomes engineered with elevated TERRA or liposomes with synthetic TERRA further stimulated inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that exosome-associated TERRA augments innate immune signaling. These findings imply a previously unidentified extrinsic function for TERRA and a mechanism of communication between telomeres and innate immune signals in tissue and tumor microenvironments.

Peng D, Kryczek I, Nagarsheth N, et al.
Epigenetic silencing of TH1-type chemokines shapes tumour immunity and immunotherapy.
Nature. 2015; 527(7577):249-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic silencing including histone modifications and DNA methylation is an important tumorigenic mechanism. However, its role in cancer immunopathology and immunotherapy is poorly understood. Using human ovarian cancers as our model, here we show that enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2)-mediated histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1)-mediated DNA methylation repress the tumour production of T helper 1 (TH1)-type chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, and subsequently determine effector T-cell trafficking to the tumour microenvironment. Treatment with epigenetic modulators removes the repression and increases effector T-cell tumour infiltration, slows down tumour progression, and improves the therapeutic efficacy of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1; also known as B7-H1) checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell transfusion in tumour-bearing mice. Moreover, tumour EZH2 and DNMT1 are negatively associated with tumour-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells and patient outcome. Thus, epigenetic silencing of TH1-type chemokines is a novel immune-evasion mechanism of tumours. Selective epigenetic reprogramming alters the T-cell landscape in cancer and may enhance the clinical efficacy of cancer therapy.

Ding Y, Shen J, Zhang G, et al.
CD40 controls CXCR5-induced recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells to gastric cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(36):38901-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To explore the mechanisms of MDSC trafficking and accumulation during tumor progression. In this study, we report significant CD40 upregulation in tumor-infiltrating MDSC when compared with splenic MDSC. Microarray analyses comparing CD40(high) and CD40l(ow) MDSC revealed 1872 differentially expressed genes, including CD83, CXCR5, BTLA, CXCL9, TLR1, FLT3, NOD2 and CXCL10. In vivo experiments comparing wild-type (WT) and CD40 knockout (KO) mice demonstrated that CD40 critically regulates CXCR5 expression. Consistently, the transwell analysis confirmed the essential role of CXCR5-CXCL13 crosstalk in the migration of CD40+ MDSC toward gastric cancer. Furthermore, more MDSC accumulated in the gastric cancers of WT mice when compared with KO mice, and the WT tumors mostly contained CD40+ cells. Functionally, tumors grew faster in WT than KO mice. In conclusion, we demonstrate that CD40 expression upregulates the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and promotes MDSC migration toward and accumulation within cancer. Therefore, this study provides preliminary evidence that CD40 may stimulate tumor growth by enabling immune evasion via MDSC recruitment and inhibition of T cell expansion.

Delitto D, Perez C, Han S, et al.
Downstream mediators of the intratumoral interferon response suppress antitumor immunity, induce gemcitabine resistance and associate with poor survival in human pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2015; 64(12):1553-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cancer microenvironment allows tumor cells to evade immune surveillance through a variety of mechanisms. While interferon-γ (IFNγ) is central to effective antitumor immunity, its effects on the microenvironment are not as clear and have in some cancers been shown to induce immune checkpoint ligands. The heterogeneity of these responses to IFNγ remains poorly characterized in desmoplastic malignancies with minimal inflammatory cell infiltration, such as pancreatic cancer (PC). Thus, the IFNγ response within and on key cells of the PC microenvironment was evaluated. IFNγ induced expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II on PC cell lines, primary pancreatic cancer epithelial cells (PPCE) and patient-derived tumor-associated stroma, concomitant with an upregulation of PDL1 in the absence of CD80 and CD86 expression. As expected, IFNγ also induced high levels of CXCL10 from all cell types. In addition, significantly higher levels of CXCL10 were observed in PC specimens compared to those from chronic pancreatitis, whereby intratumoral CXCL10 concentration was an independent predictor of poor survival. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a subset of CXCR3-positive cancer cells in over 90 % of PC specimens, as well as on a subset of cultured PC cell lines and PPCE, whereby exposure to CXCL10 induced resistance to the chemotherapeutic gemcitabine. These findings suggest that IFNγ has multiple effects on many cell types within the PC microenvironment that may lead to immune evasion, chemoresistance and shortened survival.

Agostini M, Janssen KP, Kim IJ, et al.
An integrative approach for the identification of prognostic and predictive biomarkers in rectal cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(32):32561-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world, a small fraction of which is represented by locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). If not medically contraindicated, preoperative chemoradiotherapy, represent the standard of care for LARC patients. Unfortunately, patients shows a wide range of response rates in which approximately 20% has a complete pathological response, whereas in 20 to 40% the response is poor or absent.
RESULTS: The following specific gene signature, able to discriminate responders' patients from non-responders, were founded: AKR1C3, CXCL11, CXCL10, IDO1, CXCL9, MMP12 and HLA-DRA. These genes are mainly involved in immune system pathways and interact with drugs traditionally used in the adjuvant treatment of rectal cancer.
DISCUSSION: The present study suggests that new ideas for therapy could be found not only limited to studying genes differentially expressed between the two groups of patients but deepening the mechanisms, associated to response, in which they are involved.
METHODS: Gene expression studies performed by: Agostini et al., Rimkus et al. and Kim et al. have been merged through a meta-analysis of the raw data. Gene expression data-sets have been processed using A-MADMAN. Common differentially expressed gene (DEG) were identified through SAM analysis. To further characterize the identified DEG we deeply investigated its biological role using an integrative computational biology approach.

Meyer CU, Kurlemann G, Sauter M, et al.
Inflammatory Characteristics of Monocytes from Pediatric Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis.
Neuropediatrics. 2015; 46(5):335-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic options for the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) syndrome showed varying outcomes. Malfunctional tsc1/tsc2 genes leave mTOR uninhibited, a positive downstream modulator of the innate proinflammatory immune system, which has not yet been described in pediatric patients with TSC.
METHODS: Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gene expression levels of monocytes after cultivation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or with LPS + mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, patients with TSC (n = 16) were compared with healthy subjects (n = 20).
RESULTS: Compared with monocytes from healthy controls, LPS showed a more prominent gene expression pattern in patients with TSC (CCL24, CXCL10, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1B). Proinflammatory reactions against LPS were modulated by rapamycin. With LPS + rapamycin monocytes from patients with TSC showed gene expression patterns different from healthy subjects. Furthermore, developmental differences were discernible in patients with TSC, compared with gene expression levels for patients 0 to 5 years to those 6 to 11 years of age, the latter with marked expression of IL-6 IL-1A, IL-1B, RIPK2, but also IL-10.
CONCLUSION: The effects of LPS, even more of LPS with rapamycin on monocytes from patients with TSC suggested that inflammatory processes are distinct from those in healthy subjects. Furthermore, reaction to rapamycin indicates age-related gene expression levels. Our findings offer a model to decipher the unknown and varying gene expression pattern induced by rapamycin.

Geng W, Lo CM, Ng KT, et al.
Interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 (IP10) induced cisplatin resistance of HCC after liver transplantation through ER stress signaling pathway.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(29):28042-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor recurrence remains an obstacle after liver surgery, especially in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The acute-phase liver graft injury might potentially induce poor response to chemotherapy in recurrent HCC after liver transplantation. We here intended to explore the mechanism and to identify a therapeutic target to overcome such chemoresistance. The associations among graft injury, overexpression of IP10 and multidrug resistant genes were investigated in a rat liver transplantation model, and further validated in clinical cohort. The role of IP10 on HCC cell proliferation and tumor growth under chemotherapy was studied both in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanism was revealed by detecting the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathways. Moreover, the effect of IP10 neutralizing antibody sensitizing cisplatin treatment was further explored. In rat liver transplantation model, significant up-regulation of IP10 associated with multidrug resistant genes was found in small-for-size liver graft. Clinically, high expression of circulating IP10 was significant correlated with tumor recurrence in HCC patients underwent LDLT. Overexpression of IP10 promoted HCC cell proliferation and tumor growth under cisplatin treatment by activation of ATF6/Grp78 signaling. IP10 neutralizing antibody sensitized cisplatin treatment in nude mice. The overexpression of IP10, which induced by liver graft injury, may lead to cisplatin resistance via ATF6/Grp78 ER stress signaling pathway. IP10 neutralizing antibody could be a potential adjuvant therapy to sensitize cisplatin treatment.

Wu T, Yin X, Zhou Y, et al.
Roles of noncoding RNAs in metastasis of nonsmall cell lung cancer: A mini review.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2015; 11 Suppl 1:C7-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent advances in genome-wide sequencing and gene expression profiling technologies has facilitated the discovery of a huge amount of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcripts. In general, these lncRNAs have been reported to participate in multiple biological processes and human diseases through transcriptional, posttranscriptional and epigenetic pathway. Furthermore, emerging evidence has suggested that dysregulation of lncRNA contributes to the development and progression of human malignancies, notably lung cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. In this review, we will summarize the functions of lncRNAs from recent reports in human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) research, especially in the metastasis of NSCLC, and highlight the future opportunities and challenges in diagnostics and therapy of NSCLC patients.

Liu J, Li F, Ping Y, et al.
Local production of the chemokines CCL5 and CXCL10 attracts CD8+ T lymphocytes into esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):24978-89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a very common malignant tumor with poor prognosis in China. Chemokines secreted by tumors are pivotal for the accumulation of CD8(+) T lymphocytes within malignant lesions in several types of cancers, but the exact mechanism underlying CD8(+) T lymphocyte homing is still unknown in ESCC. In this study, we revealed that, compared with marginal tissues, the expression of both chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) and (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) was upregulated in ESCC tissues. CCL5 expression was positively associated with the overall survival of patients. Meanwhile, RT-PCR data showed that the expression of CCL5 and CXCL10 was positively correlated with the local expressions of the CD8(+) T lymphocyte markers (CD8 and Granzyme B) in tumor tissues. Correspondingly, CD8(+) T lymphocytes were more frequently CCR5- and CXCR3-positive in tumor than in peripheral blood. Transwell analysis showed both CCL5 and CXCL10 were important for the chemotactic movement of CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Our data indicate that CCL5 and CXCL10 serve as the key chemokines to recruit CD8(+) T lymphocytes into ESCC tissue and may play a role in patient survival.

De Cecco L, Capaia M, Zupo S, et al.
Interleukin 21 Controls mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in CD40-Activated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0134706 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several factors support CLL cell survival in the microenvironment. Under different experimental conditions, IL21 can either induce apoptosis or promote CLL cell survival. To investigate mechanisms involved in the effects of IL21, we studied the ability of IL21 to modulate gene and miRNA expressions in CD40-activated CLL cells. IL21 was a major regulator of chemokine production in CLL cells and it modulated the expression of genes involved in cell movement, metabolism, survival and apoptosis. In particular, IL21 down-regulated the expression of the chemokine genes CCL4, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL17, and CCL2, while it up-regulated the Th1-related CXCL9 and CXCL10. In addition, IL21 down-regulated the expression of genes encoding signaling molecules, such as CD40, DDR1 and PIK3CD. IL21 modulated a similar set of genes in CLL and normal B-cells (e.g. chemokine genes), whereas other genes, including MYC, TNF, E2F1, EGR2 and GAS-6, were regulated only in CLL cells. An integrated analysis of the miRNome and gene expression indicated that several miRNAs were under IL21 control and these could, in turn, influence the expression of potential target genes. We focused on hsa-miR-663b predicted to down-regulate several relevant genes. Transfection of hsa-miR-663b or its specific antagonist showed that this miRNA regulated CCL17, DDR1, PIK3CD and CD40 gene expression. Our data indicated that IL21 modulates the expression of genes mediating the crosstalk between CLL cells and their microenvironment and miRNAs may take part in this process.

Shen J, Su J, Wu D, et al.
Growth Inhibition Accompanied by MOB1 Upregulation in Human Acute Lymphoid Leukemia Cells by 3-Deazaneplanocin A.
Biochem Genet. 2015; 53(9-10):268-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our purpose was to investigate the effect of 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) on human T-cell acute lymphoid leukemia (T-ALL) cells, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The human T-ALL cell line Molt4 was treated with DZNep, and cell proliferation was examined. The expression of Mps one binder kinase activator 1 gene (MOB1) mRNA and protein was determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The histone modification effect of DZNep on the lysine 9 of histone 3 associated with MOB1 promoters was examined with chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative PCR, and CpG methylation in MOB1 promoters was detected by bisulfite sequencing PCR. DZNep treatment inhibited the growth of Molt4 cells. The expressions of MOB1 genes were upregulated by DZNep treatment, and histone methylations in their promoters were significantly reduced. The results indicate that DZNep is a promising therapeutic compound for the treatment of human T-ALL.

Ilhan-Mutlu A, Siehs C, Berghoff AS, et al.
Expression profiling of angiogenesis-related genes in brain metastases of lung cancer and melanoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(1):1173-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Brain metastases (BM) are the most common brain tumors of adults and are associated with fatal prognosis. Formation of new blood vessels, named angiogenesis, was proposed to be the main hallmark of the growth of BM. Previous preclinical evidence revealed that angiogenic blockage might be considered for treatment; however, there were varying responses. In this study, we aimed to characterize the expression pattern of angiogenesis-related genes in BM of lung cancer and melanoma, which might be of importance for the different responses against anti-angiogenic treatment. Fifteen snap-frozen tissues obtained from BM of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), and melanoma patients were analyzed for angiogenesis-related genes using a commercially available gene expression kit. Epilepsy tissue was used as control. Expression values were analyzed using hierarchical clustering investigating relative fold changes and mapping to Omicsnet protein interaction network. CXCL10, CEACAM1, PECAM1, KIT, COL4A2, COL1A1, and HSPG2 genes were more than 50-fold up-regulated in all diagnosis groups when compared to control, whereas genes such as ANGPT4, PDGFRB, and SERPINF1 were down-regulated only in SCLC and melanoma groups, respectively. Using hierarchical clustering, 12 out of 15 cases were allocated to the correct histological primary tumor type. We identified genes with consistent up-regulation in BM of lung cancer and melanoma and other genes with differential expression across BM of these tumor types. Our data may be of relevance for targeted therapy or prophylaxis of BM using anti-angiogenic agents.

Liu RX, Wei Y, Zeng QH, et al.
Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3-positive B cells link interleukin-17 inflammation to protumorigenic macrophage polarization in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2015; 62(6):1779-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: B cells consistently represent abundant cellular components in tumors; however, direct evidence supporting a role for B cells in the immunopathogenesis of human cancers is lacking, as is specific knowledge of their trafficking mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3-positive (CXCR3(+)) B cells constitute approximately 45% of B-cell infiltrate in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and that their levels are positively correlated with early recurrence of HCC. These cells selectively accumulate at the invading edge of HCC and undergo further somatic hypermutation and immunoglobulin G-secreting plasma cell differentiation. Proinflammatory interleukin-17(+) cells are important for the induction of epithelial cell-derived CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, which subsequently promote the sequential recruitment and further maturation of CXCR3(+) B cells. More importantly, we provide evidence that CXCR3(+) B cells, but not their CXCR3(-) counterparts, may operate in immunoglobulin G-dependent pathways to induce M2b macrophage polarization in human HCC. Depletion of B cells significantly suppresses M2b polarization and the protumorigenic activity of tumor-associated macrophages and restores the production of antitumorigenic interleukin-12 by those cells in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Selective recruitment of CXCR3(+) B cells bridges proinflammatory interleukin-17 response and protumorigenic macrophage polarization in the tumor milieu, and blocking CXCR3(+) B-cell migration or function may help defeat HCC.

Li M, Qiu M, Xu Y, et al.
Differentially expressed protein-coding genes and long noncoding RNA in early-stage lung cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(12):9969-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Due to the application of low-dose computed tomography screening, more and more early-stage lung cancers have been diagnosed. Thus, it is essential to characterize the gene expression profile of early-stage lung cancer to develop potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and therapeutic targets. Here, we analyzed microarray data of 181 early-stage lung cancer patients. By comparing gene expression between different tumor and lymph node metastasis stages, we identified various differentially expressed protein-coding genes and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in the comparisons of T2 vs. T2 and N1- vs. N0-stage lung cancer. Functional analyses revealed that these differentially expressed genes were enriched in various tumorigenesis or metastasis-related pathways. Survival analysis indicated that two protein-coding genes, C7 and SCN7A, were significantly associated survival of lung cancer. Notably, a novel lncRNA, LINC00313, was highly expressed in both T2- and N1-stage lung cancers. On the other hand, LINC00313 was also upregulated in lung cancer and metastasized lung cancer tissues, compared with adjacent lung tissues and primary lung cancer tissues. Additionally, higher expression level of LINC00313 indicated poor prognosis of lung cancer (hazard ratio = 0.658). Overall, we characterized the expression profiles of protein-coding genes and lncRNA in early-stage lung cancer and found that LINC00313 could be a biomarker for lung cancer.

Lamarthée B, Malard F, Gamonet C, et al.
Donor interleukin-22 and host type I interferon signaling pathway participate in intestinal graft-versus-host disease via STAT1 activation and CXCL10.
Mucosal Immunol. 2016; 9(2):309-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a major complication following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, limiting the success of this therapy. We previously reported that interleukin-22 (IL-22) participates to aGVHD development, but the underlying mechanisms of its contribution remain poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism of the pathological function of IL-22 in intestinal aGVHD. Ex-vivo colon culture experiments indicated that IL-22 was able to induce Th1-like inflammation via signal transducer and activator of transcription factor-1 (STAT1) and CXCL10 induction in the presence of type I interferon (IFN). To evaluate a potential synergy between IL-22 and type I IFN in aGVHD, we transplanted recipient mice, either wild-type (WT) or type I IFN receptor deficient (IFNAR(-/-)), with bone marrow cells and WT or IL-22 deficient (IL-22(-/-)) T cells. We observed a decreased GVHD severity in IFNAR(-/-) recipient of IL-22(-/-) T cells, which was associated with a lower level of STAT1 activation and reduced CXCL10 expression in the large intestine. Finally, immunohistochemistry staining of STAT1 performed on gastrointestinal biopsies of 20 transplanted patients showed exacerbated STAT1 activation in gastrointestinal tissues of patients with aGVHD as compared with those without aGVHD. Thus, interfering with both IL-22 and type I IFN signaling may provide a novel approach to limit aGVHD.

Onabajo OO, Porter-Gill P, Paquin A, et al.
Expression of Interferon Lambda 4 Is Associated with Reduced Proliferation and Increased Cell Death in Human Hepatic Cells.
J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2015; 35(11):888-900 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interferon lambda 4 (IFN-λ4) is a novel type-III interferon that can be generated only in individuals carrying a ΔG frame-shift allele of an exonic genetic variant (rs368234815-ΔG/TT). The rs368234815-ΔG allele is strongly associated with decreased clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Here, we further explored the biological function of IFN-λ4 expressed in human hepatic cells-a hepatoma cell line HepG2 and fresh primary human hepatocytes (PHHs). We performed live confocal imaging, cell death and proliferation assays, mRNA expression profiling, protein detection, and antibody blocking assays using transient and inducible stable in vitro systems. Not only did we observe significant intracellular retention of IFN-λ4 but also detected secreted IFN-λ4 in the culture media of expressing cells. Secreted IFN-λ4 induced strong activation of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in IFN-λ4-expressing and surrounding cells in transwell assays. Specifically, in PHHs, secreted IFN-λ4 induced expression of the CXCL10 transcript and a corresponding pro-inflammatory chemokine, IP-10. In IFN-λ4-expressing HepG2 cells, we also observed decreased proliferation and increased cell death. All IFN-λ4-induced phenotypes--activation of ISGs, decreased proliferation, and increased cell death--could be inhibited by an anti-IFN-λ4-specific antibody. Our study offers new insights into biology of IFN-λ4 and its possible role in HCV clearance.

Fűri I, Kalmár A, Wichmann B, et al.
Cell Free DNA of Tumor Origin Induces a 'Metastatic' Expression Profile in HT-29 Cancer Cell Line.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0131699 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epithelial cells in malignant conditions release DNA into the extracellular compartment. Cell free DNA of tumor origin may act as a ligand of DNA sensing mechanisms and mediate changes in epithelial-stromal interactions.
AIMS: To evaluate and compare the potential autocrine and paracrine regulatory effect of normal and malignant epithelial cell-related DNA on TLR9 and STING mediated pathways in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and normal fibroblasts.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA isolated from normal and tumorous colonic epithelia of fresh frozen surgically removed tissue samples was used for 24 and 6 hour treatment of HT-29 colon carcinoma and HDF-α fibroblast cells. Whole genome mRNA expression analysis and qRT-PCR was performed for the elements/members of TLR9 signaling pathway. Immunocytochemistry was performed for epithelial markers (i.e. CK20 and E-cadherin), DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) and NFκB (for treated HDFα cells).
RESULTS: Administration of tumor derived DNA on HT29 cells resulted in significant (p<0.05) mRNA level alteration in 118 genes (logFc≥1, p≤0.05), including overexpression of metallothionein genes (i.e. MT1H, MT1X, MT1P2, MT2A), metastasis-associated genes (i.e. TACSTD2, MACC1, MALAT1), tumor biomarker (CEACAM5), metabolic genes (i.e. INSIG1, LIPG), messenger molecule genes (i.e. DAPP, CREB3L2). Increased protein levels of CK20, E-cadherin, and DNMT3a was observed after tumor DNA treatment in HT-29 cells. Healthy DNA treatment affected mRNA expression of 613 genes (logFc≥1, p≤0.05), including increased expression of key adaptor molecules of TLR9 pathway (e.g. MYD88, IRAK2, NFκB, IL8, IL-1β), STING pathway (ADAR, IRF7, CXCL10, CASP1) and the FGF2 gene.
CONCLUSIONS: DNA from tumorous colon epithelium, but not from the normal epithelial cells acts as a pro-metastatic factor to HT-29 cells through the overexpression of pro-metastatic genes through TLR9/MYD88 independent pathway. In contrast, DNA derived from healthy colonic epithelium induced TLR9 and STING signaling pathway in normal fibroblasts.

Kobayashi H, Nobeyama Y, Nakagawa H
Tumor-suppressive effects of natural-type interferon-β through CXCL10 in melanoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 464(2):416-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Type 1 interferon is in widespread use as adjuvant therapy to inhibit melanoma progression. Considering the tumor-suppressive effects of local administration of interferon-β (IFN-β) on lymphatic metastasis, the present study was conducted to identify melanoma-suppressive molecules that are up-regulated by IFN-β treatment of lymphatic endothelial cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lymphatic endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and melanoma cells were treated with natural-type IFN-β, and melanoma cells were treated with CXCL10. Genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis was performed using lymphatic endothelial cells with or without IFN-β treatment. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed to examine CXCL10 expression. A proliferation assay was performed to examine the effects of IFN-β and CXCL10 in melanoma cells.
RESULTS: Genome-wide microarray analyses detected CXCL10 as a gene encoding a secretory protein that was up-regulated by IFN-β in lymphatic endothelial cells. IFN-β treatment significantly induced CXCL10 in dermal lymphatic endothelial cells and melanoma cells that are highly sensitive to IFN-β. CXCL10 reduced melanoma cell proliferation in IFN-β-sensitive cells as well as resistant cells. Melanoma cells in which CXCL10 was knocked down were sensitive to IFN-β. CXCR3-B, which encodes the CXCL10 receptor, was up-regulated in melanoma cells with high sensitivity to IFN-β and down-regulated in melanoma cells with medium to low sensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that IFN-β suppresses proliferation and metastasis from the local lymphatic system and melanoma cells via CXCL10. Down-regulation of CXCR3-B by IFN-β may be associated with resistance to IFN-β.

Seo GS, Jiang WY, Chi JH, et al.
Heme oxygenase-1 promotes tumor progression and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma cells by inhibiting antitumor immunity.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(23):19792-806 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is upregulated in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells. However, the role of HO-1 in the metastatic potential of CRC remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential of HO-1 to control the antitumor immunity of CRC. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays an important role in the immune surveillance system. Hemin-induced HO-1 expression suppressed the expression of ICAM-1 in human CRC cells. HO-1 regulated ICAM-1 expression via tristetraprolin, an mRNA-binding protein, at the posttranscriptional level in CRC cells. The upregulated HO-1 expression in CRC cells markedly decreased the adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocytes (PBMLs) to CRC cells and PBML-mediated cytotoxicity against CRC cells. Production of CXCL10, an effector T cell-recruiting chemokine, was significantly reduced by the increased HO-1 expression. The expression of the CXCL10 receptor, CXCR3, decreased significantly in PBMLs that adhered to CRC cells. HO-1 expression correlated negatively, although nonsignificantly, with ICAM-1 and CXCL10 expression in xenograft tumors. Taken together, our data suggest that HO-1 expression is functionally linked to the mediation of tumor progression and metastasis of CRC cells by inhibiting antitumor immunity.

Ejaeidi AA, Craft BS, Puneky LV, et al.
Hormone receptor-independent CXCL10 production is associated with the regulation of cellular factors linked to breast cancer progression and metastasis.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2015; 99(1):163-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer (BC) is a major health problem for women around the world. Although advances in the field of molecular therapy have been achieved, the successful therapeutic management of BC, particularly metastatic disease, remains a challenge for patients and clinicians. One of the areas of current investigation is the circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which have a determinant role in the development of distant metastasis. At the present, many of the available treatment strategies for metastatic disease are of limited benefit. However, the elucidation of the mechanisms of tumor progression and metastasis may help to identify key molecules/components that may function as therapeutic targets in the future. In the present study, the functional analysis of CTCs revealed their ability to grow and proliferate to form colonies. Immunofluorescence staining of the CTCs' colonies exhibits elevated expression of cell growth and survival associated proteins such as, survivin, ERK and Akt1. More importantly, the functional screening of the chemokine profile in BC patients' sera revealed an HR-independent elevation of the chemokine CXCL10 when compared to healthy controls. The analysis of chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL11 demonstrated an HR-dependent production pattern. The levels of both CXCL9 and CXCL11 were markedly high in HR+ patients' sera when compared to HR- patients and healthy controls. The functional analysis of HR+ and HR- BC derived cell lines when cultivated in media supplemented with patients' sera demonstrated the alteration of tumor progression and metastasis related proteins. We noted the induction of survivin, β-catenin, MKP-1, pERK, CXCR4 and MMP-1 both at the protein and mRNA levels. The induction of those proteins was in keeping with patients' sera induced cell proliferation as measured by the MTT assay. In conclusion, our data emphasizes the role of chemokines, especially CXCL10, in BC progression and metastasis via the induction of signaling pathways, which mainly involve survivin, β-catenin, MKP-1 and MMP-1.

Sun X, Fang M, Guan Y, et al.
Changes of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia correlate with glucocorticoid resistance.
Pharmazie. 2015; 70(5):316-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alternative splicing of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene results in several GR isoforms, we examined their expression (GRα, GRβ, GRγ and GR-P) by real-time RT-PCR in glucocorticoid (GC) sensitive (CEM-C7), GC resistant (CEM-C1) cells and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients, to determine the association of GR isoform expression profiles and GC resistance in adult ALL patients. With GC treatment, GR levels in C1 cells showed no obvious changes. In C7 cells, the mRNA levels of GRα, GRβ and GRγ first increased and then decreased, whereas GR-P mRNA had a continued rising trend. C7 cells had a higher GRα/GRγ, lower GRα/GR-P and GRγ/GR-P ratios than C1 cells (P < 0.01). In adult ALL patients, GRγ mRNA varied in different ALL stages (complete remission CR 15.82 vs. relapsed 8.21 vs. initial 1.93 P < 0.05). It also did in the ratios between GR isoforms that GRα/GRγ and GRα/GR-P in initial patients were higher than relapsed and CR (P < 0.05), while GRγ/GR-P in CR was higher than initial and relapsed patients (P < 0.05). GR-P mRNA in T-ALL patients was much higher than that in B-ALL patients (P < 0.05). Peripheral blood hemoglobin (HB) was positively correlated with GRα mRNA and GR-P mRNA (P < 0.05), while white blood cells (WBC) negatively correlated with GRγ mRNA (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrates that GR autoinduction is more important to GC sensitivity than its basal level expression. GC sensitivity is also significantly correlated with GRα mRNA and mildly associated with GRβ mRNA expression. Both GRγ mRNA and the ratios between GR isoforms (GRα/GRγ, GRα/GR-P and GRγ/GR-P) are correlated with ALL stages. The changes of mRNA expression levels of GRα, GR-P and GRγ may provide valuable information for GC resistance. Peripheral blood HB and WBC affect GR isoform expression.

Yue C, Shen S, Deng J, et al.
STAT3 in CD8+ T Cells Inhibits Their Tumor Accumulation by Downregulating CXCR3/CXCL10 Axis.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2015; 3(8):864-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
One of the obstacles for cancer immunotherapy is the inefficiency of CD8(+) T-cell recruitment to tumors. STAT3 has been shown to suppress CD8(+) T-cell antitumor functions in various cancer models, in part by restricting accumulation of CD8(+) T cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism by which STAT3 in CD8(+) T cells inhibits their accumulation in tumors remains to be defined. Here, we show that STAT3 signaling in CD8(+) T cells inhibits chemokine CXCL10 production by tumor-associated myeloid cells by reducing IFNγ expression by T cells. We further demonstrate that ablating STAT3 in T cells allows expression of CXCR3, the receptor of CXCL10, on CD8(+) T cells, resulting in efficient accumulation of CD8(+) T cells at tumor sites. Blocking IFNγ or CXCR3 impairs the accumulation of STAT3-deficient CD8(+) T cells in tumor and their antitumor effects. Together, our study reveals a negative regulation by STAT3 signaling in T cells on cross-talk between myeloid cells and T cells through IFNγ/CXCR3/CXCL10, which is important for CD8(+) T cells homing to tumors. Our results thus provide new insights applicable to cancer immunotherapy and adoptive T-cell strategies.

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