Gene Summary

Gene:CXCL10; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10
Aliases: C7, IFI10, INP10, IP-10, crg-2, mob-1, SCYB10, gIP-10
Summary:This antimicrobial gene encodes a chemokine of the CXC subfamily and ligand for the receptor CXCR3. Binding of this protein to CXCR3 results in pleiotropic effects, including stimulation of monocytes, natural killer and T-cell migration, and modulation of adhesion molecule expression. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-X-C motif chemokine 10
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (25)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Protein Array Analysis
  • Chromosome 4
  • Trans-Activators
  • TNF
  • Down-Regulation
  • CXCR3
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Survival Rate
  • BAK1
  • Liver Cancer
  • Th2 Cells
  • Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating
  • Chemokine CXCL9
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cytokines
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • NF-kappa B
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Melanoma
  • Staging
  • Chemokine CXCL10
  • Virus Replication
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Vaccination
  • Disease Progression
  • Umbilical Veins
  • Respiratory Mucosa
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cell Movement
  • Messenger RNA
  • Chemokines, CXC
  • Chemokines
  • Lung Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Homologous Transplantat
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CXCL10 (cancer-related)

Banerjee S, Karunagaran D
An integrated approach for mining precise RNA-based cervical cancer staging biomarkers.
Gene. 2019; 712:143961 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since international federation of gynecology and obstetrics (FIGO) staging is mainly based on clinical assessment, an integrated approach for mining RNA based biomarkers for understanding the molecular deregulation of signaling pathways and RNAs in cervical cancer was proposed in this study. Publicly available data were mined for identifying significant RNAs after patient staging. Significant miRNA families were identified from mRNA-miRNA and lncRNA-miRNA interaction network analyses followed by stage specific mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA association network generation. Integrated bioinformatic analyses of selected mRNAs and lncRNAs were performed. Results suggest that HBA1, HBA2, HBB, SLC2A1, CXCL10 (stage I), PKIA (stage III) and S100A7 (stage IV) were important. miRNA family enrichment of interacting miRNA partners of selected RNAs indicated the enrichment of let-7 family. Assembly of collagen fibrils and other multimeric structures_Homosapiens_R-HSA-2022090 in pathway analysis and progesterone_CTD_00006624 in DSigDB analysis were the most significant and SLC2A1, hsa-miR-188-3p, hsa-miR-378a-3p and hsa-miR-150-5p were selected as survival markers.

Wang Y, Sun L, Luo Y, He S
Knockdown of KDM1B inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(5):1054-1060 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the common malignant tumors in digestive tract with a high fatality rate. The oncogenic role of lysine-specific demethylase1 (LSD1/KDM1 A) has been well recognized in PC. While, the role of its homolog LSD2 (KDM1B) in regulating PC progression is poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the functional role of KDM1B in PC cells. The expression of KDM1B was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting in PC tissues and cells. Lentivirus-mediated shRNA was applied to silence KDM1B in PANC-1 and SW1990 cells. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT and Celigo assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by both Caspase-Glo

El-Serafi AT, Sandeep D, Abdallah S, et al.
Paradoxical effects of the epigenetic modifiers 5-aza-deoxycytidine and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on adipogenesis.
Differentiation. 2019 Mar - Apr; 106:1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adipogenesis is an important biological process that is linked to obesity and metabolic disorders. On the other hand, fat regeneration is crucial as a restorative approach following mastectomy or severe burn injury. Furthermore, optimizing an in-vitro model of adipogenesis, which would help in understanding the possible effects and/or side effects of fat-soluble drugs and anti-obesity remedies, in addition to the developmental studies. Epigenetic is an important factor that is involved in cellular differentiation and commitment. This study aimed at investigating the effect of DNA methylation and histone deactylases inhibitors, 5-Aza-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) and Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), on the adipogenic differentiation process. The two modifiers were applied according to our previously published protocol, followed by three cycles of a classical, two-step adipogenesis protocol. The cells pretreated with SAHA showed enhanced expression of the many adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ as well as the accumulation of intracytoplasmic fat as shown by oil red and Nile red staining and the secretion of adipokines, such as MCP-1 and IP-10. On contrary, 5-Aza-dC inhibited all these markers. In conclusion, adding the reported step with SAHA to the differentiation protocols could have an impact on the progress of the in-vitro fat regenerative approach. The possible role of 5-Aza-dC in the inhibition of adipogenesis can be of clinical interest and will need further characterization in the future.

Hollande C, Boussier J, Ziai J, et al.
Inhibition of the dipeptidyl peptidase DPP4 (CD26) reveals IL-33-dependent eosinophil-mediated control of tumor growth.
Nat Immunol. 2019; 20(3):257-264 [PubMed] Related Publications
Post-translational modification of chemokines mediated by the dipeptidyl peptidase DPP4 (CD26) has been shown to negatively regulate lymphocyte trafficking, and its inhibition enhances T cell migration and tumor immunity by preserving functional chemokine CXCL10. By extending those initial findings to pre-clinical models of hepatocellular carcinoma and breast cancer, we discovered a distinct mechanism by which inhibition of DPP4 improves anti-tumor responses. Administration of the DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin resulted in higher concentrations of the chemokine CCL11 and increased migration of eosinophils into solid tumors. Enhanced tumor control was preserved in mice lacking lymphocytes and was ablated after depletion of eosinophils or treatment with degranulation inhibitors. We further demonstrated that tumor-cell expression of the alarmin IL-33 was necessary and sufficient for eosinophil-mediated anti-tumor responses and that this mechanism contributed to the efficacy of checkpoint-inhibitor therapy. These findings provide insight into IL-33- and eosinophil-mediated tumor control, revealed when endogenous mechanisms of DPP4 immunoregulation are inhibited.

Wei Y, Lao XM, Xiao X, et al.
Plasma Cell Polarization to the Immunoglobulin G Phenotype in Hepatocellular Carcinomas Involves Epigenetic Alterations and Promotes Hepatoma Progression in Mice.
Gastroenterology. 2019; 156(6):1890-1904.e16 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the composition and generation of plasma cell subsets in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and how these associate with outcomes. We investigated whether, or how, plasma cells differentiate and function in patients with HCC and mice with liver tumors.
METHODS: We analyzed subset composition and distribution of plasma cells in HCC samples from 342 patients who underwent curative resection at the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University in China; samples of non-tumor liver tissue were used as controls. We associated plasma cell profiles with patient outcomes. Tissue-derived leukocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The ability of macrophages to regulate plasma cell differentiation was determined in ex vivo cultures of cells from human HCC tissues. C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were given injections of Hepa1-6 cells, which formed hepatomas, or H22 cells, which formed ascitic hepatomas. Gene expression patterns were analyzed in human HCC, mouse hepatoma, and non-tumor tissues by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mice with hepatomas were given injections of GSK126 (an inhibitor of histone H3 lysine 27 methyltransferase [EZH2]) and 5-AZA-dC (an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases); tumor tissues were analyzed by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry for the presence of immune cells and cytokines.
RESULTS: B cells isolated from HCCs had somatic hypermutations and class-switch recombinations to the IgG phenotype that were not observed in non-tumor tissues. Increased level of plasma cells correlated with poor outcomes of patients. Activated CD4
CONCLUSIONS: Human HCC tissues contain B cells with class-switch recombinations to the IgG phenotype. Activated CD4

Yahata T, Mizoguchi M, Kimura A, et al.
Programmed cell death ligand 1 disruption by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9-genome editing promotes antitumor immunity and suppresses ovarian cancer progression.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(4):1279-1292 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on tumor cells suppresses anti-tumor immunity and has an unfavorable prognostic impact in ovarian cancer patients. We herein report the pathophysiological and therapeutic impacts of PD-L1 disruption in ovarian cancer. PD-L1 was genetically disrupted in the murine ovarian cancer cell line ID8 using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated genome editing. PD-L1 knockout (KO) and control ovarian cancer cells were intraperitoneally inoculated into syngeneic mice, and survival and tumor dissemination were evaluated. Survival times were significantly longer in the PD-L1-KO ID8-inoculated groups than in their control groups, and its therapeutic benefit was enhanced in combination with the cisplatin treatment. Tumor weights and ascites volumes were significantly lower in the PD-L1-KO ID8 groups than in their control groups. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses showed that intratumoral CD4

Qian L, Yu S, Yin C, et al.
Plasma IFN-γ-inducible chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 correlate with survival and chemotherapeutic efficacy in advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Pancreatology. 2019; 19(2):340-345 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have suggested that the CXCL9, 10, 11/CXCR3 axis is significant in immune regulation and therapeutic efficacy in human cancers; however, its role in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unknown. This study serves to evaluate the prognostic prediction value of plasma IFN-γ-inducible chemokines, CXCL9 and CXCL10, in advanced PDAC.
METHODS: Two hundred patients with advanced PDAC receiving palliative chemotherapy were retrospectively recruited. The association between Plasma CXCL9/CXCL10 levels and survival time was first analyzed in a test group of 110 patients and then confirmed in a validation group of 90 patients.
RESULTS: High levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 were significantly correlated with longer overall survival (OS) in advanced PDAC patients (314 vs. 136 days for CXCL9, P < 0.0001, and 374 vs. 163 days for CXCL10, P < 0.0001, respectively) in the test group, which was consistent with the results derived from the validation group. In addition, high levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 were associated with longer time to progression (TTP) in patients receiving chemotherapy (100 vs. 60 days for CXCL9, P = 0.0021, and 104 vs. 67 days for CXCL10, P = 0.0057, respectively). Multivariate analyses confirmed that CXCL9 and CXCL10 were independent prognostic predictors for OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.452, P < 0.001 for CXCL9; and HR: 0.586, P = 0.007 for CXCL10, respectively) and TTP (HR: 0.656, P = 0.015 for CXCL9; and HR: 0.687, P = 0.040 for CXCL10, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Plasma CXCL9 and CXCL10 can be used to predict survival of advanced PDAC patients receiving chemotherapy, allowing clinicians to potentially improve treatment outcomes by identifying candidates for aggressive therapy.

Navas A, Giraldo-Parra L, Prieto MD, et al.
Phenotypic and functional stability of leukocytes from human peripheral blood samples: considerations for the design of immunological studies.
BMC Immunol. 2019; 20(1):5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are extensively used for research of immune cell functions, identification of biomarkers and development of diagnostics and therapeutics for human diseases, among others. The assumption that "old blood samples" are not appropriate for isolation of PBMCs for functional assays has been a dogma in the scientific community. However, partial data on the impact of time after phlebotomy on the quality and stability of human PBMCs preparations impairs the design of studies in which time-controlled blood sampling is challenging such as field studies involving multiple sampling centers/sites. In this study, we evaluated the effect of time after phlebotomy over a 24 h time course, on the stability of human blood leukocytes used for immunological analyses. Blood samples from eight healthy adult volunteers were obtained and divided into four aliquots, each of which was left in gentle agitation at room temperature (24 °C) for 2 h (control), 7 h, 12 h and 24 h post phlebotomy. All samples at each time point were independently processed for quantification of mononuclear cell subpopulations, cellular viability, gene expression and cytokine secretion.
RESULTS: A 24 h time delay in blood sample processing did not affect the viability of PBMCs. However, a significantly lower frequency of CD3+ T cells (p < 0.05) and increased LPS-induced CXCL10 secretion were observed at 12 h post-phlebotomy. Alterations in TNFα, CCL8, CCR2 and CXCL10 gene expression were found as early as 7 h after blood sample procurement.
CONCLUSIONS: These data reveal previously unrecognized early time-points for sample processing control, and provide an assay-specific time reference for the design of studies that involve immunological analyses of human blood samples.

Yoshino Y, Qi H, Kanazawa R, et al.
RACK1 regulates centriole duplication by controlling localization of BRCA1 to the centrosome in mammary tissue-derived cells.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(16):3077-3092 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) is a tumor suppressor that is associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. BRCA1 functions in DNA repair and centrosome regulation together with BRCA1-associated RING domain protein (BARD1), a heterodimer partner of BRCA1. Obg-like ATPase 1 (OLA1) was identified as a protein that interacts with BARD1. OLA1 regulates the centrosome by binding to and collaborating with BRCA1 and BARD1. We identified receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1) as a protein that interacts with OLA1. RACK1 directly bound to OLA1, the N-terminal region of BRCA1, and γ-tubulin, associated with BARD1, and localized the centrosomes throughout the cell cycle. Knockdown of RACK1 caused abnormal centrosomal localization of BRCA1 and abrogated centriole duplication. Overexpression of RACK1 increased the centrosomal localization of BRCA1 and caused centrosome amplification due to centriole overduplication. The number of centrioles in cells with two γ-tubulin spots was higher in cell lines derived from mammary tissue compared to those derived from other tissues. The effects of aberrant RACK1 expression level on centriole duplication were observed in cell lines derived from mammary tissue, but not in those derived from other tissues. Two BRCA1 variants, R133H and E143K, and a RACK1 variant, K280E, associated with cancer, which weakened the BRCA1-RACK1 interaction, interfered with the centrosomal localization of BRCA1 and reduced centrosome amplification induced by overexpression of RACK1. These results suggest that RACK1 regulates centriole duplication by controlling the centrosomal localization of BRCA1 in mammary tissue-derived cells and that this is dependent on the BRCA1-RACK1 interaction.

De Silva P, Garaud S, Solinas C, et al.
FOXP1 negatively regulates tumor infiltrating lymphocyte migration in human breast cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 39:226-238 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: FOXP1, a transcriptional regulator of lymphocyte development, is abnormally expressed in some human tumors. This study investigated FOXP1-mediated regulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in untreated primary breast cancer (BC).
METHODS: FOXP1 expression was analyzed in tissues from primary untreated breast tumors, BC cell lines and the METABRIC gene expression BC dataset. Cytokine and chemokine expression and lymphocyte migration in response to primary tumor supernatants (SN) was compared between FOXP1
FINDING: FOXP1 expression was higher in estrogen receptor positive compared to negative BC. FOXP1
INTERPRETATION: These data identify FOXP1 as an important negative regulator of immune responses in BC via its regulation of cytokine and chemokine expression. FUND: Belgian Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS 3.4513.12F) and Opération Télévie (7.4636.13F and 7.4609.15F), Fonds J.C. Heuson and Fonds Lambeau-Marteaux.

Juric V, O'Sullivan C, Stefanutti E, et al.
MMP-9 inhibition promotes anti-tumor immunity through disruption of biochemical and physical barriers to T-cell trafficking to tumors.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0207255 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), whose expression is frequently dysregulated in cancer, promotes tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis by multiple mechanisms, including extracellular matrix remodeling and growth-factor and cytokine activation. We developed a monoclonal antibody against murine MMP-9, which we found decreased growth of established primary tumors in an orthotopic model of HER2-driven breast cancer (HC11-NeuT) in immunocompetent mice. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) profiling of NeuT tumors and additional mouse model tumors revealed that anti-MMP-9 treatment resulted in upregulation of immune signature pathways associated with cytotoxic T-cell response. As there is a need to boost the low response rates observed with anti-PDL1 antibody treatment in the clinical setting, we assessed the potential of anti-MMP-9 to improve T-cell response to immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-PDL1 in NeuT tumors. Anti-MMP-9 and anti-PDL1 cotreatment reduced T-cell receptor (TCR) clonality and increased TCR diversity, as detected by TCR sequencing of NeuT tumors. Flow cytometry analyses of tumors showed that the combination treatment increased the frequency of CD3+ T cells, including memory/effector CD4 and CD8 T cells, but not regulatory T cells, among tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. Moreover, in vitro enzymatic assays corroborated that MMP-9 cleaves key T-cell chemoattractant CXC receptor 3 ligands (CXC ligand [CXCL] 9, CXCL10, and CXCL11) and renders them inactive in T-cell migration assays. Consistent with our in vitro experiments, analysis of NeuT tumor protein lysates showed that anti-MMP-9 treatment increases expression of CXCL10 and other T cell-stimulating factors, such as interleukin (IL)-12p70 and IL-18. We show that inhibition of MMP-9, a key component of the tumor-promoting and immune-suppressive myeloid inflammatory milieu, increases T-helper cell 1 type cytokines, trafficking of effector/memory T cells into tumors, and intratumoral T-cell diversity.

Bajpai M, Seril DN, Van Gurp J, et al.
Effect of Long-Term Mesalamine Therapy on Cancer-Associated Gene Expression in Colonic Mucosa of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.
Dig Dis Sci. 2019; 64(3):740-750 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The role of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA or mesalamine) in the prevention of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients was reported, but the effect on molecular targets in UC colon mucosa is unknown.
AIM: This observational study evaluates gene expression levels of 5-ASA targets using serial colon biopsy specimens from UC patients undergoing long-term 5-ASA therapy.
METHODS: Transcript levels were compared between colonoscopic biopsy specimens collected from 62 patients at initial and final follow-up colonoscopy at 2-6 years. All patients had mild-to-moderate UC and were undergoing long-term 5-ASA maintenance. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to correlate changes in transcript levels with therapeutic response (Mayo clinical score endoscopy and DAI and/or Nancy histopathology score) and nonclinical variables.
RESULTS: The transcript levels of colorectal carcinogenesis-associated known 5-ASA target genes were significantly reduced after prolonged 5-ASA therapy (P < 0.005-0.03). Multiple linear regression models predicted significant association between transcript levels of Ki-67, NF-kB (p65), PPARγ, COX-2 and IL-8, CDC25A, and CXCL10 with duration of drug (5-ASA) exposure (P ≤ 0.05). Ki-67, NF-kB (p65), and CXCL10 transcripts were also correlated with reduced endoscopy sub-score (P ≤ 0.05). COX-2, IL-8, CDC25A, and TNF transcripts strongly correlated with DAI sub-scores (P ≤ 0.05). Only COX-2 and IL-8 transcript levels correlated (P ≤ 0.05) with Nancy histological score.
CONCLUSION: This study provides molecular evidence of changes in carcinogenesis-related targets/pathways in colon tissue during long-term 5-ASA maintenance therapy that may contribute to the observed chemopreventive effects of 5-ASA in UC patients.

Spake CSL, Reid DBC, Daniels AH
Rapid Progression of Metastatic Panspinal Epidural Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer After Discontinuation of Alectinib.
World Neurosurg. 2019; 122:590-592 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Rapid progression of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors has been described and is associated with a poor prognosis. We describe the first reported case of accelerated NSCLC tumor extension throughout the entire spinal epidural space.
CASE DESCRIPTION: A 68-year-old woman with stage IV ALK-positive metastatic NSCLC presented with acute neck pain, urinary retention, and lower extremity weakness 15 days post discontinuation of alectinib. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast was significant for a new compressive lesion spanning the entire cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, which was new compared with MRI obtained 20 days before and was suspicious for infection. Cervical (C3-C7), thoracic (T9-T12), and lumbar (L3-L5) decompression were performed with collection of culture and pathology specimens. Repeat MRI obtained for acute neurologic deterioration on postoperative day 2 noted further progression of disease and continued thoracic cord compression. After urgent T1-9 laminectomy, specimens were again sent for pathology, cultures, and cytology. No evidence of infection was noted, and all pathologic specimens evaluated were consistent with metastatic adenocarcinoma. Despite operative intervention, the patient continued to decline, suffering from recurrent pleural effusions, and eventual cardiopulmonary arrest 11 days after admission.
CONCLUSIONS: The differential diagnosis when evaluating presumed spine epidural abscess should include tumor and metastatic disease, even in cases of rapid development. Recent termination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors or ALK inhibitors may result in severe disease flares, and a history of such should raise clinical suspicion for metastatic progression. In addition to cultures, biopsy for pathologic diagnosis should be collected during decompressive surgery.

Alshareeda AT, Rakha E, Alghwainem A, et al.
The effect of human placental chorionic villi derived mesenchymal stem cell on triple-negative breast cancer hallmarks.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0207593 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can influence the tumour microenvironment (TEM) and play a major role in tumourigenesis. Triple-negative [Ostrogen receptor (ER-), Progesterone receptor (PgR-), and HER2/neu receptor (HER2-)] breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive class of BC characterized by poor prognosis and lacks the benefit of routinely available targeted therapies. This study aims to investigate the effect of human placental chorionic villi derived MSCs (CVMSCs) on the behavior of TNBC in vitro. This was done by assaying different cancer hallmarks including proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. Cell proliferation rate of TNBC cell line (MDA-MB231) was monitored in real time using the xCELLigence system. Whereas, Boyden chamber migration assay was used to measure MDA-MB231 motility and invasiveness toward CVMSCs. Finally, a three-dimensional (3D) model using a co-culture system of CVMSCs with MDA-MB231 with or without the addition of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was created to assess tumour angiogenesis in vitro. CVMSCs were able to significantly reduce the proliferative and migratory capacity of MDA-MB231 cells. Co-culturing of MDA-MB231 with CVMSCs, not only inhibited the tube formation ability of HUVECs but also reduced the expression of the BC characteristic cytokines; IL-10, IL-12, CXCL9 and CXCL10 of CVMSCs. These results support the hypothesis that CVMSCs can influence the behavior of TNBC cells and provides a basic for a potential therapeutic approach in a pre-clinical settings. The data from this study also highlight the complexity of the in vitro cancer angiogenesis model settings and regulations.

Kikuchi N, Ye J, Hirakawa J, Kawashima H
Forced Expression of CXCL10 Prevents Liver Metastasis of Colon Carcinoma Cells by the Recruitment of Natural Killer Cells.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2019; 42(1):57-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) is a CXC chemokine family protein that transmits signals by binding to its specific receptor, CXCR3. CXCL10 is also known as an interferon-γ-inducible chemokine involved in various biological phenomena, including chemotaxis of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, that suppress tumor growth and inhibition of angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the effects of forced expression of CXCL10 in a murine colon carcinoma cell line (CT26) on growth and metastasis in syngeneic mice. We first established CT26 cells that were stably expressing murine CXCL10 (CT26/CXCL10) and compared their growth with their parental CT26 cells in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro growth of the CT26/CXCL10 and CT26 cells was comparable, whereas the in vivo growth of the CT26/CXCL10 cells in the skin was strongly suppressed. Liver metastasis of the CT26/CXCL10 cells was also significantly suppressed after intra-splenic implantation. Removal of NK cells by the administration of anti-asialo GM1 antibody canceled the suppression of subcutaneous growth and liver metastasis of CT26/CXCL10 cells. Immunofluorescence clearly showed that abundant NKp46-positive NK cells were recruited into the liver metastatic lesions of the CT26/CXCL10 cells, consistent with specific NK cell migration towards the culture supernatant from the CT26/CXCL10 cells in the chemotaxis assay using transwells. These findings indicate that CXCL10 prevents in vivo growth and metastasis of colon carcinoma cells by recruiting NK cells, suggesting that forced expression of CXCL10 in the colon tumors by gene delivery should lead to a favorable clinical outcome.

Wenzl K, Manske MK, Sarangi V, et al.
Loss of TNFAIP3 enhances MYD88
Blood Cancer J. 2018; 8(10):97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MYD88 mutations are one of the most recurrent mutations in hematologic malignancies. However, recent mouse models suggest that MYD88

Wang Y, Wang Y, Liu F
A 44-gene set constructed for predicting the prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 42(6):3105-3114 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most frequent type of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The present study aimed to examine prognostic markers and construct a prognostic prediction system for ccRCC. The mRNA sequencing data of ccRCC was downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and the GSE40435 dataset was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Using the Limma package, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the TCGA dataset and GSE40435 dataset were obtained, respectively, and the overlapped DEGs were selected. Subsequently, Cox regression analysis was applied for screening prognosis‑associated genes. Following visualization of the co‑expression network using Cytoscape software, the network modules were examined using the GraphWeb tool. Functional annotation for genes in the network was performed using the clusterProfiler package. Finally, a prognostic prediction system was constructed through Bayes discriminant analysis and confirmed with the GSE29609 validation dataset. The results revealed a total of 263 overlapped DEGs and 161 prognosis‑associated genes. Following construction of the co‑expression network, 16 functional terms and three pathways were obtained for genes in the network. In addition, red, yellow (involving chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), CD27 molecule (CD27) and runt‑related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3)], green (involving angiopoietin‑like 4 (ANGPTL4), stanniocalcin 2 (STC2), and sperm associated antigen 4 (SPAG4)], and cyan modules were extracted from the co‑expression network. Additionally, the prognostic prediction system involving 44 signature genes, including ANGPTL4, STC2, CXCL10, SPAG4, CD27, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP9) and RUNX3, was identified and confirmed. In conclusion, the 44‑gene prognostic prediction system involving ANGPTL4, STC2, CXCL10, SPAG4, CD27, MMP9 and RUNX3 may be utilized for predicting the prognosis of patients with ccRCC.

Braun SA, Baran J, Schrumpf H, et al.
Ingenol mebutate induces a tumor cell-directed inflammatory response and antimicrobial peptides thereby promoting rapid tumor destruction and wound healing.
Eur J Med Res. 2018; 23(1):45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ingenol mebutat (IM)-gel is effective for the topical treatment of epithelial tumors, including actinic keratoses (AKs) or anogenital warts (AGW). AK patients treated with IM develop intensified inflammatory reactions on sights of prior clinical visible or palpable AKs as compared to the surrounding actinically damaged skin, suggesting the induction of a tumor cell-directed inflammation. AGW patients treated with IM develop even stronger inflammatory reactions with large erosions, suggesting a directed inflammatory response against HPV-infected keratinocytes. Of note, even widespread erosions heal very fast without any superinfections. Here, we set out to elucidate underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of these clinical observations.
METHODS: The effects of IM (10
RESULTS: Ingenol mebutat significantly and dose-dependently induced the expression of proinflammatory chemokines (CXCL8, CCL2) and AMP (RNase7, HBD3) in HEK and epithelial cancer cell lines. A significantly stronger induction of CXCL8 and CCL2 was observed in our tested tumor cells as compared to HEK. We did not observe any significant effect of IM on HEK migration, respectively wound healing responses in vitro for any tested concentration (10
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that tumor cells are more susceptible to IM as compared to differentiated HEK. This is evident by a stronger IM-mediated induction of proinflammatory chemokines in tumor cells, which may result in a tumor cell-directed inflammatory response and rapid tumor destruction. In addition, IM induces AMP in keratinocytes and seems not to severely interfere with keratinocyte migration, which contributes to a fast and uncomplicated wound healing. Surprising is a selective inhibition of keratinocyte migration by IM at the concentration of 10

Choi J, Ahn SS, Lim Y, et al.
Inhibitory Effect of
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CXC motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) and its receptor CXC motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), play important roles in the motility of breast cancer cells.

Qin Y, Vasilatos SN, Chen L, et al.
Inhibition of histone lysine-specific demethylase 1 elicits breast tumor immunity and enhances antitumor efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(3):390-405 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immunotherapy strategies have been emerging as powerful weapons against cancer. Early clinical trials reveal that overall response to immunotherapy is low in breast cancer patients, suggesting that effective strategies to overcome resistance to immunotherapy are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated whether epigenetic reprograming by modulating histone methylation could enhance effector T lymphocyte trafficking and improve therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade in breast cancer with focus on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype. In silico analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data shows that expression of histone lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is inversely associated with the levels of cytotoxic T cell-attracting chemokines (C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9 and 10 (CXCL9, CXCL10)) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in clinical TNBC specimens. Tiling chromatin immunoprecipitation study showed that re-expression of chemokines by LSD1 inhibition is associated with increased H3K4me2 levels at proximal promoter regions. Rescue experiments using concurrent treatment with small interfering RNA or inhibitor of chemokine receptors blocked LSD1 inhibitor-enhanced CD8+ T cell migration, indicating a critical role of key T cell chemokines in LSD1-mediated CD8+ lymphocyte trafficking to the tumor microenvironment. In mice bearing TNBC xenograft tumors, anti-PD-1 antibody alone failed to elicit obvious therapeutic effect. However, combining LSD1 inhibitors with PD-1 antibody significantly suppressed tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis, which was associated with reduced Ki-67 level and augmented CD8+ T cell infiltration in xenograft tumors. Overall, these results suggest that LSD1 inhibition may be an effective adjuvant treatment with immunotherapy as a novel management strategy for poorly immunogenic breast tumors.

de Lange MJ, Nell RJ, Lalai RN, et al.
Digital PCR-Based T-cell Quantification-Assisted Deconvolution of the Microenvironment Reveals that Activated Macrophages Drive Tumor Inflammation in Uveal Melanoma.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(12):1902-1911 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uveal melanoma progression can be predicted by gene expression profiles enabling a clear subdivision between tumors with a good (class I) and a poor (class II) prognosis. Poor prognosis uveal melanoma can be subdivided by expression of immune-related genes; however, it is unclear whether this subclassification is justified; therefore, T cells in uveal melanoma specimens were quantified using a digital PCR approach. Absolute T-cell quantification revealed that T-cell influx is present in all uveal melanomas associated with a poor prognosis. However, this infiltrate is only accompanied by differential immune-related gene expression profiles in uveal melanoma with the highest T-cell infiltrate. Molecular deconvolution of the immune profile revealed that a large proportion of the T-cell-related gene expression signature does not originate from lymphocytes but is derived from other immune cells, especially macrophages. Expression of the lymphocyte-homing chemokine CXCL10 by activated macrophages correlated with T-cell infiltration and thereby explains the correlation of T-cell numbers and macrophages. This was validated by

de Lima RE, de Holanda Martins CM, do Carmo RF, et al.
Two sides of a coin: GG genotype of C7 provides protection against fibrosis severity while showing a higher risk for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C.
Hum Immunol. 2018; 79(9):702-707 [PubMed] Related Publications
The complement system (CS) is a key element of immunity against pathogens but also seems to influence other events, such as tumorigenesis and tissue repair. Complement component 7 (C7) is a key component of the lytic pathway of CS, leading to the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). This study aimed to investigate the existence of the association of a polymorphism in the C7 gene, rs1063499, with hepatic fibrosis and the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis C. We analyzed 456 samples from patients with chronic hepatitis C. Real-time PCR was used for allelic discrimination. Patients were classified by their METAVIR score as F1 (n = 100), F2 (n = 83), F3 (n = 101) or F4 (n = 66); 106 patients were diagnosed with HCC. Patients carrying the G/G genotype of C7 had a lower chance of developing severe fibrosis in the recessive model (p = 0.042; OR: 0.65 95% CI 0.41-1.02). However, the G/G genotype frequency was higher in patients with HCC (P = 0.01; OR: 2.07 95% CI 1.20-3.53) and in those with larger tumors (p = 0.04). The G/G C7 genotype seems to be a protective factor against advanced fibrosis; however, it was associated with a higher risk of HCC and the occurrence of larger hepatic nodules, suggesting the involvement of C7 in the physiopathogenesis of HCC and fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV).

Feng R, Morine Y, Ikemoto T, et al.
Nab-paclitaxel interrupts cancer-stromal interaction through C-X-C motif chemokine 10-mediated interleukin-6 downregulation in vitro.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(8):2509-2519 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), derived from stroma of cancer tissues, interact with cancer cells and play an important role in cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis. Nab-paclitaxel (nab-PTX) is a 130 nm albumin-binding paclitaxel and recommended for many types of cancer chemotherapy. The nab-PTX stromal-disrupting effect during pancreatic cancer treatment has been reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of nab-PTX in cancer cells and CAF interaction. Cancer cells (MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1) were cocultured with CAF or treated with CAF conditioned medium, after which their migration and invasion ability, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related marker expression and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) expression and secretion were detected. Nab-PTX treatment was carried out during the coculture system or during preparation of CAF conditioned medium. Then cancer cell migration and invasion ability, EMT-related marker expression, CXCL10 expression and secretion, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression and secretion by CAF were checked After coculture with CAF, migration and invasion ability of cancer cells increased. CAF also downregulated E-cadherin and upregulated N-cadherin and vimentin expression in cancer cells. During coculture or stimulation with cancer cell-cultured medium, CAF significantly increased IL-6 expression and secretion. However, nab-PTX in the coculture system canceled CAF-induced migration and invasion promotion and EMT-related gene changes. Moreover, nab-PTX increased CXCL10 expression of cancer cells which blocked CAF IL-6 expression and secretion. Nab-PTX treatment could increase CXCL10 expression of cancer cells which blocks CAF cancer cell migration and invasion-promoting effect by inhibiting IL-6 expression.

Yoshino Y, Qi H, Fujita H, et al.
BRCA1-Interacting Protein OLA1 Requires Interaction with BARD1 to Regulate Centrosome Number.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(10):1499-1511 [PubMed] Related Publications
BRCA1 functions as a tumor suppressor in DNA repair and centrosome regulation. Previously, Obg-like ATPase 1 (OLA1) was shown to interact with BARD1, a heterodimer partner of BRCA1. OLA1 binds to BRCA1, BARD1, and γ-tubulin and functions in centrosome regulation. This study determined that overexpression of wild-type OLA1 (OLA1-WT) caused centrosome amplification due to centriole overduplication in mammary tissue-derived cells. Centrosome amplification induced by overexpression of the cancer-derived OLA1 mutant, which is deficient at regulating centrosome number, occurred in significantly fewer cells than in that induced by overexpression of OLA1-WT. Thus, it was hypothesized that overexpression of OLA1 with normal function efficiently induces centrosome amplification, but not that of OLA1 mutants, which are deficient at regulating centrosome number. We analyzed whether overexpression of OLA1 missense mutants of nine candidate phosphorylation residues, three residues modified with acetylation, and two ATP-binding residues caused centrosome amplification and identified five missense mutants that are deficient in the regulation of centrosome number. Three of them did not bind to BARD1. Two phosphomimetic mutations restored the binding to BARD1 and the efficient centrosome amplification by their overexpression. Knockdown and overexpression of BARD1 also caused centrosome amplification. BARD1 mutant reported in cancer failed to bind to OLA1 and rescue the BARD1 knockdown-induced centrosome amplification and reduced its centrosomal localization. Combined, these data reveal that the OLA1-BARD1 interaction is important for the regulation of centrosome number.

Zhang C, Li Z, Xu L, et al.
CXCL9/10/11, a regulator of PD-L1 expression in gastric cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):462 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an immunosuppressor that plays an important role in cancer treatments. Although majority of the studies demonstrated that PD-L1 expression was regulated by cellular intrinsic and extrinsic controls, and IFN-γ was a key molecule of extrinsic control, other studies imply that other cytokines play important roles in PD-L1 expression. In this study, we investigated the regulation of PD-L1 by chemokine signaling pathway in gastric cancer (GC) cells.
METHODS: Bioinformatics was used to explore the PD-L1-related genes in GC and propose a hypothesis. PD-L1 and CXCR3 expression were detected by western blot in SGC7901 and MKN74 cell lines. Meanwhile, PD-L1 and CXCR3 expressions were immunohistochemically assessed for their relevance. Moreover, PD-L1, pSTAT3 and pAkt were detected after treatment with CXCL9/10/11. Furthermore,PD-L1, pSTAT3 and pAkt were evaluated after blocking chemokine signaling in SGC7901 cells.
RESULTS: Based on online database analysis, CXCL9/10/11-CXCR3 is proposed to upregulate PD-L1 expression by activating the STAT and PI3K-Akt pathways. This hypothesis was confirmed by in vitro and vivo experiments. CXCR3 and PD-L1 were expressed in GC cell lines and tissues, and the expression of CXCR3 and PD-L1 was positively related. PD-L1 was upregulated after treatment with CXCL9/10/11, accompanied by activation of STAT3 and Akt. After blocking chemokine signaling, upregulation of PD-L1 and activation of STAT3 and Akt were diminished.
CONCLUSIONS: CXCL9/10/11-CXCR3 upregulated the expression of PD-L1 by activating the STAT and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways in GC cells. There was a significant positive correlation between the expression of PD-L1 and CXCR3 in gastric cancer patient tissues.

Liu X, Jin G, Qian J, et al.
Digital gene expression profiling analysis and its application in the identification of genes associated with improved response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
World J Surg Oncol. 2018; 16(1):82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to screen sensitive biomarkers for the efficacy evaluation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
METHODS: In this study, Illumina digital gene expression sequencing technology was applied and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between patients presenting pathological complete response (pCR) and non-pathological complete response (NpCR) were identified. Further, gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were then performed. The genes in significant enriched pathways were finally quantified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to confirm that they were differentially expressed. Additionally, GSE23988 from Gene Expression Omnibus database was used as the validation dataset to confirm the DEGs.
RESULTS: After removing the low-quality reads, 715 DEGs were finally detected. After mapping to KEGG pathways, 10 DEGs belonging to the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (HECTD3, PSMB10, UBD, UBE2C, and UBE2S) and cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions (CCL2, CCR1, CXCL10, CXCL11, and IL2RG) were selected for further analysis. These 10 genes were finally quantified by qRT-PCR to confirm that they were differentially expressed (the log
CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that these 10 genes belonging to these two pathways might be useful as sensitive biomarkers for the efficacy evaluation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

Chen PY, Tien HJ, Chen SF, et al.
Response of Myeloid Leukemia Cells to Luteolin is Modulated by Differentially Expressed Pituitary Tumor-Transforming Gene 1 (PTTG1) Oncoprotein.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Luteolin, a flavonoid nutraceutical abundant in vegetables and fruits, exhibits a wide range of bioactive properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1), an oncoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, is highly expressed in several types of cancer cells including leukemia. In this study, we aim to investigate the anti-cancer effects of luteolin on cells with differential PTTG1 expression and their underlying mechanisms in human myeloid leukemia cells. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay data showed that luteolin (25-100 μM) significantly reduced cell viability in THP-1, HL-60 and K562 cells but did not affect normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Flow cytometric analysis and Western blot data demonstrated that luteolin induced a stronger apoptosis on undifferentiated myeloid leukemia cells with higher PTTG1 protein levels than on 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- or all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-differentiated cells with lower PTTG1 expression. Furthermore, PTTG1 knockdown by shRNA in leukemia cells suppressed cell proliferation, arrested cell-cycle progression and impaired the effectiveness of luteolin on cell-cycle regulation. Moreover, PTTG1-knockdown cells with luteolin exposure presented a reduction of the apoptotic proteins and maintained higher levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins such as Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and p21, which exhibited greater resistance to apoptosis. Finally, microarray analysis showed that 20 genes associated with cell proliferation, such as

Liu M, Solomon W, Cespedes JC, et al.
Neuregulin-1 attenuates experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) pathogenesis by regulating ErbB4/AKT/STAT3 signaling.
J Neuroinflammation. 2018; 15(1):104 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human cerebral malaria (HCM) is a severe form of malaria characterized by sequestration of infected erythrocytes (IRBCs) in brain microvessels, increased levels of circulating free heme and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, brain swelling, vascular dysfunction, coma, and increased mortality. Neuregulin-1β (NRG-1) encoded by the gene NRG1, is a member of a family of polypeptide growth factors required for normal development of the nervous system and the heart. Utilizing an experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) model (Plasmodium berghei ANKA in C57BL/6), we reported that NRG-1 played a cytoprotective role in ECM and that circulating levels were inversely correlated with ECM severity. Intravenous infusion of NRG-1 reduced ECM mortality in mice by promoting a robust anti-inflammatory response coupled with reduction in accumulation of IRBCs in microvessels and reduced tissue damage.
METHODS: In the current study, we examined how NRG-1 treatment attenuates pathogenesis and mortality associated with ECM. We examined whether NRG-1 protects against CXCL10- and heme-induced apoptosis using human brain microvascular endothelial (hCMEC/D3) cells and M059K neuroglial cells. hCMEC/D3 cells grown in a monolayer and a co-culture system with 30 μM heme and NRG-1 (100 ng/ml) were used to examine the role of NRG-1 on blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Using the in vivo ECM model, we examined whether the reduction of mortality was associated with the activation of ErbB4 and AKT and inactivation of STAT3 signaling pathways. For data analysis, unpaired t test or one-way ANOVA with Dunnett's or Bonferroni's post test was applied.
RESULTS: We determined that NRG-1 protects against cell death/apoptosis of human brain microvascular endothelial cells and neroglial cells, the two major components of BBB. NRG-1 treatment improved heme-induced disruption of the in vitro BBB model consisting of hCMEC/D3 and human M059K cells. In the ECM murine model, NRG-1 treatment stimulated ErbB4 phosphorylation (pErbB4) followed by activation of AKT and inactivation of STAT3, which attenuated ECM mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a potential pathway by which NRG-1 treatment maintains BBB integrity in vitro, attenuates ECM-induced tissue injury, and reduces mortality. Furthermore, we postulate that augmenting NRG-1 during ECM therapy may be an effective adjunctive therapy to reduce CNS tissue injury and potentially increase the effectiveness of current anti-malaria therapy against human cerebral malaria (HCM).

Liu Y, Liu Y, Wu J, et al.
Innate responses to gene knockouts impact overlapping gene networks and vary with respect to resistance to viral infection.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(14):E3230-E3237 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Analyses of the levels of mRNAs encoding IFIT1, IFI16, RIG-1, MDA5, CXCL10, LGP2, PUM1, LSD1, STING, and IFNβ in cell lines from which the gene encoding LGP2, LSD1, PML, HDAC4, IFI16, PUM1, STING, MDA5, IRF3, or HDAC 1 had been knocked out, as well as the ability of these cell lines to support the replication of HSV-1, revealed the following: (

Matsumura T, Hida S, Kitazawa M, et al.
Fascin1 suppresses RIG-I-like receptor signaling and interferon-β production by associating with IκB kinase ϵ (IKKϵ) in colon cancer.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(17):6326-6336 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fascin1 is an actin-bundling protein involved in cancer cell migration and has recently been shown also to have roles in virus-mediated immune cell responses. Because viral infection has been shown to activate immune cells and to induce interferon-β expression in human cancer cells, we evaluated the effects of fascin1 on virus-dependent signaling via the membrane- and actin-associated protein RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) in colon cancer cells. We knocked down fascin1 expression with shRNA retrovirally transduced into a DLD-1 colon cancer and L929 fibroblast-like cell lines and used luciferase reporter assays and co-immunoprecipitation to identify fascin1 targets. We found that intracellular poly(I·C) transfection to mimic viral infection enhances the RIG-I/MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5)-mediated dimerization of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3). The transfection also significantly increased the expression levels of IRF-7, interferon-β, and interferon-inducible cytokine IP-10 in fascin1-deleted cells compared with controls while significantly suppressing cell growth, migration, and invasion. We also found that fascin1 constitutively interacts with IκB kinase ϵ (IKKϵ) in the RIG-I signaling pathway. In summary, we have identified fascin1 as a suppressor of the RIG-I signaling pathway associating with IκB kinase ϵ in DLD-1 colon cancer cells to suppress immune responses to viral infection.

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