CXCL13

Gene Summary

Gene:CXCL13; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 13
Aliases: BLC, BCA1, ANGIE, BCA-1, BLR1L, ANGIE2, SCYB13
Location:4q21.1
Summary:B lymphocyte chemoattractant, independently cloned and named Angie, is an antimicrobial peptide and CXC chemokine strongly expressed in the follicles of the spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches. It preferentially promotes the migration of B lymphocytes (compared to T cells and macrophages), apparently by stimulating calcium influx into, and chemotaxis of, cells expressing Burkitt's lymphoma receptor 1 (BLR-1). It may therefore function in the homing of B lymphocytes to follicles. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-X-C motif chemokine 13
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • WT1
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Chemokines, CXC
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cell Movement
  • Breast Cancer
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Risk Factors
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Immunoblastic Lymphadenopathy
  • Knockout Mice
  • Staging
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • Receptors, CXCR5
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • p53 Protein
  • Up-Regulation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral
  • Chromosome 4
  • X-Ray Computed Tomography
  • Follicular Lymphoma
  • Messenger RNA
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer
  • Chemokine CXCL13
  • T-Cell Lymphoma
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Receptors, Cytokine
  • T-Lymphocyte Gene Rearrangement
  • CD Antigens
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CXCL13 (cancer-related)

Dorand RD, Nthale J, Myers JT, et al.
Cdk5 disruption attenuates tumor PD-L1 expression and promotes antitumor immunity.
Science. 2016; 353(6297):399-403 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancers often evade immune surveillance by adopting peripheral tissue- tolerance mechanisms, such as the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), the inhibition of which results in potent antitumor immunity. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a serine-threonine kinase that is highly active in postmitotic neurons and in many cancers, allows medulloblastoma (MB) to evade immune elimination. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced PD-L1 up-regulation on MB requires Cdk5, and disruption of Cdk5 expression in a mouse model of MB results in potent CD4(+) T cell-mediated tumor rejection. Loss of Cdk5 results in persistent expression of the PD-L1 transcriptional repressors, the interferon regulatory factors IRF2 and IRF2BP2, which likely leads to reduced PD-L1 expression on tumors. Our finding highlights a central role for Cdk5 in immune checkpoint regulation by tumor cells.

Zhou H, Dai Y, Zhu L, et al.
Poor response to platinum-based chemotherapy is associated with KRAS mutation and concomitant low expression of BRAC1 and TYMS in NSCLC.
J Int Med Res. 2016; 44(1):89-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate treatment response, survival, and the associations between KRAS mutation status and tumour expression levels of BRCA1, TYMS and SRC retrospectively in a cohort of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), treated exclusively with conjunctive platinum-based doublet chemotherapy.
METHODS: KRAS mutation status was determined via amplification refractory mutation and multiple quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Tumour expression levels of BRCA1, TYMS and SRC were determined via real time quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: Patients with KRAS mutations (n = 3) had significantly shorter survival duration than patients with wild type KRAS (n = 42). Tumour expression levels of BRCA1 and TYMS, but not SRC, were significantly lower in patients with, than in those without, KRAS mutations. Tumour expression level of BRCA1 was positively correlated with survival duration.
CONCLUSIONS: KRAS mutation status and BRCA1 tumour expression are potential biomarkers for tailoring chemotherapy and predicting clinical outcome.

Lee KE, Spata M, Bayne LJ, et al.
Hif1a Deletion Reveals Pro-Neoplastic Function of B Cells in Pancreatic Neoplasia.
Cancer Discov. 2016; 6(3):256-69 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with an exceedingly low 5-year survival rate. PDAC tumors are characterized by an extensive desmoplastic stromal response and hypovascularity, suggesting that tumor hypoxia could regulate PDAC initiation and/or progression. Using a well-defined, autochthonous Kras(G12D)-driven murine model, as well as human tumors, we demonstrate that hypoxia and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), a principal mediator of hypoxic adaptation, emerge early during preinvasive stages of PDAC. Surprisingly, pancreas-specific Hif1a deletion drastically accelerated Kras(G12D)-driven pancreatic neoplasia and was accompanied by significant increases in intrapancreatic B lymphocytes, featuring prominent influx of a rare "B1b" B-cell subtype. Finally, treatment of HIF1α-deficient mice with B cell-depleting αCD20 monoclonal antibodies inhibited progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). Our data reveal a previously unrecognized role for B cells in promoting pancreatic tumorigenesis and implicate HIF1α as a critical regulator of PDAC development.
SIGNIFICANCE: We show here that pancreas-specific Hif1a deletion promotes PDAC initiation, coincident with increased intrapancreatic accumulation of B cells, and that B-cell depletion suppresses pancreatic tumorigenesis. We therefore demonstrate a protective role for HIF1α in pancreatic cancer initiation and uncover a previously unrecognized function of B cells.

Gupta SK, Kizilbash SH, Carlson BL, et al.
Delineation of MGMT Hypermethylation as a Biomarker for Veliparib-Mediated Temozolomide-Sensitizing Therapy of Glioblastoma.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016; 108(5) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sensitizing effects of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors have been studied in several preclinical models, but a clear understanding of predictive biomarkers is lacking. In this study, in vivo efficacy of veliparib combined with temozolomide (TMZ) was evaluated in a large panel of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and potential biomarkers were analyzed.
METHODS: The efficacy of TMZ alone vs TMZ/veliparib was compared in a panel of 28 GBM PDX lines grown as orthotopic xenografts (8-10 mice per group); all tests of statistical significance were two-sided. DNA damage was analyzed by γH2AX immunostaining and promoter methylation of DNA repair gene O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) by Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-approved methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: The combination of TMZ/veliparib statistically significantly extended survival of GBM models (P < .05 by log-rank) compared with TMZ alone in five of 20 MGMT-hypermethylated lines (average extension in median survival = 87 days, range = 20-150 days), while the combination was ineffective in six MGMT-unmethylated lines. In the MGMT promoter-hypermethylated GBM12 line (median survival with TMZ+veliparib = 189 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 59 to 289 days, vs TMZ alone = 98 days, 95% CI = 49 to 210 days, P = .04), the profound TMZ-sensitizing effect of veliparib was lost when MGMT was overexpressed (median survival with TMZ+veliparib = 36 days, 95% CI = 28 to 38 days, vs TMZ alone = 35 days, 95% CI = 32 to 37 days, P = .87), and a similar association was observed in two nearly isogenic GBM28 sublines with an intact vs deleted MGMT locus. In comparing DNA damage signaling after dosing with veliparib/TMZ or TMZ alone, increased phosphorylation of damage-responsive proteins (KAP1, Chk1, Chk2, and H2AX) was observed only in MGMT promoter-hypermethylated lines.
CONCLUSION: Veliparib statistically significantly enhances (P < .001) the efficacy of TMZ in tumors with MGMT promoter hypermethylation. Based on these data, MGMT promoter hypermethylation is being used as an eligibility criterion for A071102 (NCT02152982), the phase II/III clinical trial evaluating TMZ/veliparib combination in patients with GBM.

Ding Y, Shen J, Zhang G, et al.
CD40 controls CXCR5-induced recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells to gastric cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(36):38901-11 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
To explore the mechanisms of MDSC trafficking and accumulation during tumor progression. In this study, we report significant CD40 upregulation in tumor-infiltrating MDSC when compared with splenic MDSC. Microarray analyses comparing CD40(high) and CD40l(ow) MDSC revealed 1872 differentially expressed genes, including CD83, CXCR5, BTLA, CXCL9, TLR1, FLT3, NOD2 and CXCL10. In vivo experiments comparing wild-type (WT) and CD40 knockout (KO) mice demonstrated that CD40 critically regulates CXCR5 expression. Consistently, the transwell analysis confirmed the essential role of CXCR5-CXCL13 crosstalk in the migration of CD40+ MDSC toward gastric cancer. Furthermore, more MDSC accumulated in the gastric cancers of WT mice when compared with KO mice, and the WT tumors mostly contained CD40+ cells. Functionally, tumors grew faster in WT than KO mice. In conclusion, we demonstrate that CD40 expression upregulates the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and promotes MDSC migration toward and accumulation within cancer. Therefore, this study provides preliminary evidence that CD40 may stimulate tumor growth by enabling immune evasion via MDSC recruitment and inhibition of T cell expansion.

Lee HJ, Lee JJ, Song IH, et al.
Prognostic and predictive value of NanoString-based immune-related gene signatures in a neoadjuvant setting of triple-negative breast cancer: relationship to tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 151(3):619-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and immune signals has been described previously in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Furthermore, recent studies have shown that immunologic parameters are relevant for the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer as well as for outcomes after adjuvant chemotherapy. However, immune signals are variable, and which signals are important is largely unknown. We, therefore, evaluated the expression of immune-related genes in TNBC treated with NAC. We retrospectively evaluated biopsy tissue from 55 patients with primary TNBC treated with NAC (anthracycline, cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel) against the NanoString nCounter GX Human Immunology Panel (579 immune-related genes). Higher expression of cytotoxic molecules, T cell receptor signaling pathway components, cytokines related to T helper cell type 1 (Th1), and B cell markers was associated with a pathologic complete response (pCR). Higher expression of NFKB1, MAPK1, TRAF1, CXCL13, GZMK, and IL7R was significantly associated with pCR, higher Miller-Payne grade, and lower residual cancer burden class. Expression of NFKB1, TRAF1, and CXCL13genes, in particular, was significantly correlated with a longer disease-free survival rate. Conversely, patients those who failed to achieve a pCR showed increased expression of genes related to neutrophils. Higher expression of cytotoxic molecules, T cell receptor signaling pathway components, Th1-related cytokines, and B cell markers is correlated with pCR and survival in TNBC patients treated with NAC. Our results suggest that the activation status of neutrophils may provide additional predictive information for TNBC patients treated with NAC.

Chen L, Huang Z, Yao G, et al.
The expression of CXCL13 and its relation to unfavorable clinical characteristics in young breast cancer.
J Transl Med. 2015; 13:168 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Young breast cancer occupies a higher and higher proportion of breast cancer, especially in Asia, and is associated with a more unfavorable prognosis compared with the disease arising in older women. However, the poor prognosis of young breast cancer cannot be fully explained by the clinical and molecular factors.
METHODS: This study investigated 1125 Chinese breast cancer patients diagnosed from 2009 to 2013. A data mining of gene expression profiles was performed for the young and older breast cancer patients, identifying significantly differentially expressed genes. Quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry assay were carried out for the clinical sample validations.
RESULTS: The investigation firstly displayed that young patients (≤45 years) accounted for 47.6 % (535/1125) of breast cancer, and clinically associated with some unfavorable factors related to poor prognosis, such as invasive pathological type, high tumor grade, lymph node positive, ER negative and triple-negative subtype. Subsequently, 553 significantly differentially expressed genes were identified by the data mining. Of them, a set of genes related to immune function were observed to be up-regulated in young patients with breast cancer. Impressively, the CXCL13 (C-X-C motif chemokine 13) expression level showed the most significant difference (FC = 2.64, P = 8.2 × 10(-4)). Furthermore, the validations with clinical samples and correlation analysis demonstrated that CXCL13 was indeed highly expressed in young breast cancer and closely associated with some prognostic factors including lymph node positive and ER negative.
CONCLUSION: This is the first to indicate the clinical relevance of CXCL13 to young breast cancer and represents a potential therapeutic target for young breast cancer.

Pentheroudakis G, Raptou G, Kotoula V, et al.
Immune response gene expression in colorectal cancer carries distinct prognostic implications according to tissue, stage and site: a prospective retrospective translational study in the context of a hellenic cooperative oncology group randomised trial.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0124612 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although host immune response is an emerging prognostic factor for colorectal cancer, there is no consensus on the optimal methodology, surrogate markers or tissue for study.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumour blocks were prospectively collected from 344 patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Whole section lymphocytic infiltration was studied along with mRNA expression of CD3Z, CD8, CD4, CXCL9, CXCL13, IGHM, FOXP3, SNAI2 and ESR1 by qRT-qPCR in tissue microarray (TMA) cores from the centre of tumour, invasive margin and adjacent normal mucosa.
RESULTS: Lymphocytic infiltration, deficient MMR (10.9%), KRAS (40.7%) and BRAF (4.9%) mutations or single mRNA gene expression were not prognostic. Tumour ESR1 gene expression (Hazard Ratio [HR] for relapse 2.33, 95% CI 1.35-4.02; HR for death 1.74, 95% CI 1.02-2.97) and absence of necrosis (HR for relapse 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.71; HR for death 1.98, 95% CI 1.14-3.43) were adverse prognostic features. We used CD3Z and CD8 expression in order to devise the mRNA-based Immune Score (mIS) and proceeded to partitioning analysis in 267 patients, with age, stage, tumour site (Right vs Left CRC), KRAS mutation and tumour mIS as input factors. Only in patients with stage III right-sided colon cancer, a low immune response was associated with inferior disease-free survival (mIS-low, HR for relapse 2.28, 95% CI 1.05-8.02). No prognostic significance was seen for tumour mIS in any other stage or site of CRC, or for a similar mIS score derived from adjacent normal mucosa. Independent adverse prognostic significance was retained in multivariable analysis for absence of necrosis, tumour ESR1 expression in all patients and low tumour mIS in stage III right-sided CRC.
CONCLUSIONS: In localised CRC, mRNA-based CD3Z/CD8 profiling of tumour immune response may have stage, site and tissue-specific prognostic significance, along with ESR1 expression.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ANZCTR.org.au ACTRN12610000509066.

Shalapour S, Font-Burgada J, Di Caro G, et al.
Immunosuppressive plasma cells impede T-cell-dependent immunogenic chemotherapy.
Nature. 2015; 521(7550):94-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Cancer-associated genetic alterations induce expression of tumour antigens that can activate CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), but the microenvironment of established tumours promotes immune tolerance through poorly understood mechanisms. Recently developed therapeutics that overcome tolerogenic mechanisms activate tumour-directed CTLs and are effective in some human cancers. Immune mechanisms also affect treatment outcome, and certain chemotherapeutic drugs stimulate cancer-specific immune responses by inducing immunogenic cell death and other effector mechanisms. Our previous studies revealed that B cells recruited by the chemokine CXCL13 into prostate cancer tumours promote the progression of castrate-resistant prostate cancer by producing lymphotoxin, which activates an IκB kinase α (IKKα)-BMI1 module in prostate cancer stem cells. Because castrate-resistant prostate cancer is refractory to most therapies, we examined B cell involvement in the acquisition of chemotherapy resistance. Here we focus on oxaliplatin, an immunogenic chemotherapeutic agent that is effective in aggressive prostate cancer. We show that mouse B cells modulate the response to low-dose oxaliplatin, which promotes tumour-directed CTL activation by inducing immunogenic cell death. Three different mouse prostate cancer models were refractory to oxaliplatin unless genetically or pharmacologically depleted of B cells. The crucial immunosuppressive B cells are plasmocytes that express IgA, interleukin (IL)-10 and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), the appearance of which depends on TGFβ receptor signalling. Elimination of these cells, which also infiltrate human-therapy-resistant prostate cancer, allows CTL-dependent eradication of oxaliplatin-treated tumours.

Mitkin NA, Hook CD, Schwartz AM, et al.
p53-dependent expression of CXCR5 chemokine receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:9330 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Elevated expression of chemokine receptors in tumors has been reported in many instances and is related to a number of survival advantages for tumor cells including abnormal activation of prosurvival intracellular pathways. In this work we demonstrated an inverse correlation between expression levels of p53 tumor suppressor and CXCR5 chemokine receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Lentiviral transduction of MCF-7 cells with p53 shRNA led to elevated CXCR5 at both mRNA and protein levels. Functional activity of CXCR5 in p53-knockdown MCF-7 cells was also increased as shown by activation of target gene expression and chemotaxis in response to B-lymphocyte chemoattractant CXCL13. Using deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the cxcr5 gene promoter and enhancer elements, we demonstrated that p53 appears to act upon cxcr5 promoter indirectly, by repressing the activity of NFκB transcription factors. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter gene analysis, we further demonstrated that p65/RelA was able to bind the cxcr5 promoter in p53-dependent manner and to directly transactivate it when overexpressed. Through the described mechanism, elevated CXCR5 expression may contribute to abnormal cell survival and migration in breast tumors that lack functional p53.

Delas A, Gaulard P, Plat G, et al.
Follicular variant of peripheral T cell lymphoma with mediastinal involvement in a child: a case report.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(3):351-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peripheral T cell lymphomas are rare in young patients. We report the first case of a follicular variant of peripheral T cell lymphoma not otherwise specified in an 11-year-old boy, who presented with a large mediastinal mass. Microscopic examination of the mediastinal biopsy revealed nodular infiltration of medium- to large-sized atypical lymphocytes. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of follicular helper T cell markers (CD10, PD1, CXCL13, and BCL6) in tumor T cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was not detected by an in situ hybridization assay for EBV-encoded RNA. Interestingly, fluorescence in situ hybridization detected the presence in the tumor cells of the t(5;9)(q33;q22) translocation, involving ITK and SYK rearrangement. T cell clonality was detected by multiplex PCR analysis of TRG and TRD gene rearrangements. After 4 cycles of systemic chemotherapy, the patient was in complete remission. Although this entity is very rare, our observations show that lymphomas arising from T follicular helper cells may occur in children and that this should be distinguished from other lymphomas, such T-lymphoblastic lymphomas, which require a specific therapeutic approach.

Denkert C, von Minckwitz G, Brase JC, et al.
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without carboplatin in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and triple-negative primary breast cancers.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(9):983-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Modulation of immunologic interactions in cancer tissue is a promising therapeutic strategy. To investigate the immunogenicity of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive and triple-negative (TN) breast cancers (BCs), we evaluated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and immunologically relevant genes in the neoadjuvant GeparSixto trial.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: GeparSixto investigated the effect of adding carboplatin (Cb) to an anthracycline-plus-taxane combination (PM) on pathologic complete response (pCR). A total of 580 tumors were evaluated before random assignment for stromal TILs and lymphocyte-predominant BC (LPBC). mRNA expression of immune-activating (CXCL9, CCL5, CD8A, CD80, CXCL13, IGKC, CD21) as well as immunosuppressive factors (IDO1, PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA4, FOXP3) was measured in 481 tumors.
RESULTS: Increased levels of stromal TILs predicted pCR in univariable (P < .001) and multivariable analyses (P < .001). pCR rate was 59.9% in LPBC and 33.8% for non-LPBC (P < .001). pCR rates ≥ 75% were observed in patients with LPBC tumors treated with PMCb, with a significant test for interaction with therapy in the complete (P = .002) and HER2-positive (P = .006), but not the TNBC, cohorts. Hierarchic clustering of mRNA markers revealed three immune subtypes with different pCR rates (P < .001). All 12 immune mRNA markers were predictive for increased pCR. The highest odds ratios (ORs) were observed for PD-L1 (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.34 to 1.86; P < .001) and CCL5 (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.62; P < .001).
CONCLUSION: Immunologic factors were highly significant predictors of therapy response in the GeparSixto trial, particularly in patients treated with Cb. After further standardization, they could be included in histopathologic assessment of BC.

Pimenta EM, De S, Weiss R, et al.
IRF5 is a novel regulator of CXCL13 expression in breast cancer that regulates CXCR5(+) B- and T-cell trafficking to tumor-conditioned media.
Immunol Cell Biol. 2015 May-Jun; 93(5):486-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clinical studies using prognostic and predictive signatures have shown that an immune signal emanating from whole tumors reflects the level of immune cell infiltration--a high immune signal linked to improved outcome. Factors regulating immune cell trafficking to the tumor, however, are not known. Previous work has shown that expression of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), a critical immune regulator, is lost in ~80% of invasive ductal carcinomas examined. We postulated that IRF5-positive and -negative breast tumors would differentially regulate immune cell trafficking to the tumor. Using a focused tumor inflammatory array, differences in cytokine and chemokine expression were examined between IRF5-positive and -negative MDA-MB-231 cells grown in three-dimensional culture. A number of cytokines/chemokines were found to be dysregulated between cultures. CXCL13 was identified as a direct target of IRF5 resulting in the enhanced recruitment of B and T cells to IRF5-positive tumor-conditioned media. The ability of IRF5 to regulate mediators of cell migration was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, small interfering RNA knockdown and immunofluorescence staining of human breast tumor tissues. Analysis of primary immune cell subsets revealed that IRF5 specifically recruits CXCR5(+) B and T cells to the tumor; CXCR5 is the receptor for CXCL13. Analysis of primary breast tumor tissues revealed a significant correlation between IRF5 and CXCL13 expression providing clinical relevance to the study. Together, these data support that IRF5 directly regulates a network of genes that shapes a tumor immune response and may, in combination with CXCL13, serve as a novel prognostic marker for antitumor immunity.

Zhu Z, Zhang X, Guo H, et al.
CXCL13-CXCR5 axis promotes the growth and invasion of colon cancer cells via PI3K/AKT pathway.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2015; 400(1-2):287-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
CXCL13, an inflammatory factor in the microenvironment, plays a vital role in the progression of inflammatory diseases and tumors. CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5 have been reported to be associated with poor prognosis of advanced colon cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of CXCL13-CXCR5 axis in colon cancer remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of CXCR5-CXCL13 axis in the growth and invasion of colon cancer cells. Our results showed that CXCL13 promoted the growth, migration, and matrigel invasion of colon cancer cells. Furthermore, CXCL13 increased the expression and secretion of MMP-13, and stimulated the activation of PI3K/AKT pathway. After knockdown of CXCR5 by siRNA, the biological functions of colon cancer cells regulated by CXCL13 were significantly inhibited. In addition, inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway by specific inhibitor LY294002 suppressed the CXCL13-mediated growth, migration, and invasion of colon cancer cells. Together, our findings suggest that CXCL13-CXCR5 axis promotes the growth, migration, and invasion of colon cancer cells, probably via PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, CXCL13 may be a useful biomarker for the detection and treatment of colon cancer.

Sugita Y, Terasaki M, Nakashima S, et al.
Perivascular microenvironment in primary central nervous system lymphomas: the role of chemokines and the endothelin B receptor.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2015; 32(1):41-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemokines are peptides that function as chemoattractant cytokines in cell activation, differentiation and trafficking. Endothelin B receptor (ETBR) is a receptor for endothelin, which is known to function as a vasoconstrictor. In the present study, to clarify the immune escape mechanism of primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs), the expression of ETBR and of subsets of chemokines (CXCL12, 13) in 24 PCNSLs was investigated. CXCL12 was expressed by lymphoma cells in different resident brain cell populations in 22/24 cases. CXCL13 expression was identified in tumor cells in 19/24 cases, but was only expressed by tumor cells and by proliferating vascular endothelial cells. In addition, tumor-infiltrated lymphocytes (TILs) accumulated in areas with expression of chemokines, particularly of CXCL13. ETBR expression was detected in 12/24 cases. Positive ETBR cases were associated with a paucity of TILs, particularly of cytotoxic T cells, whereas negative ETBR cases were associated with an abundance of TILs. The combined data indicate that CXCL12 and CXCL13 up-regulation may be differently linked to the development of PCNSLs and to the accumulation of TILs. In addition, ETBR expression by lymphoma and endothelial cells may mediate trafficking of TILs, which may explain the immune escape processes of PCNSLs.

Argyris PP, Koutlas IG, Cooley S, et al.
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma of the oral cavity presenting as gingival mass: report of the histopathologic and molecular characteristics of an unusual case featuring clonal T-cell receptor γ gene rearrangement by polymerase chain reaction.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2014; 118(6):e198-204 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a rare neoplastic process constituting 15% to 20% of peripheral T-cell lymphomas. We report the clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics of an unusual intraoral manifestation of AITL. A 35-year-old white man with a history of AITL presented with a 2.5-cm, poorly circumscribed, erythematous, exophytic lesion occupying the free and attached buccal gingiva of the right maxillary lateral incisor and canine. Histopathologically, the tumor showed diffuse and intense polymorphic infiltration by small to medium-sized lymphocytes admixed with numerous eosinophils. The neoplastic cells showed strong and diffuse reactivity for CD2, CD3, CD4, CD10, and PD-1 (programmed cell death 1 [PDCD1]). Rare immunopositivity was seen with BCL6 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6) and CXCL13 (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 13). Neoplastic cells were negative for CD7 and EBER ISH (Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization). CD21 did not show any increased follicular dendritic cell component. Polymerase chain reaction-based assay found monoclonal T-cell receptor γ (TRG) gene rearrangements. Diagnosis of recurrent/residual AITL was rendered. Chemotherapy was administered, with the intraoral tumor resolving completely 3 months later.

Singh R, Gupta P, Kloecker GH, et al.
Expression and clinical significance of CXCR5/CXCL13 in human non‑small cell lung carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(6):2232-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
CXCR5 and/or CXCL13 expression is elevated in certain carcinomas and lymphomas. To determine if these factors are involved in progression of non-small cell lung cancer (LuCa), we evaluated their expression in patients with various forms of this disease. Lung biopsies from patients with non-neoplastic cells (n=8), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; n=24), or adenocarcinoma (AC; n=54) were stained for CXCR5. Histopathological analysis of these samples showed significantly higher expression of CXCR5 (p<0.001) in carcinomas (i.e., SCCs and ACs) relative to non‑neoplastic lung tissue. Nuclear and membrane CXCR5 intensities were highest in ACs, with median values of 185 and 130, respectively, followed by SCCs with median values of 170 and 110, respectively. The lowest nuclear and membrane expressions of CXCR5 were found in non-neoplastic tissues, having median values of 142 and 90, respectively. Sera from SCC patients (n=17), AC patients (n=14), and healthy controls (n=9) were tested for the presence of CXCL13. Serum CXCL13 levels in LuCa patients were higher than in healthy controls. CXCR5 expression in cell lines of human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NCI-H1915) and small cell lung carcinoma (SW-1271) were evaluated by flow cytometry. CXCR5 expression was higher in NCI-H1915 cells relative to SW-1271 cells. The functional significance of CXCR5 expression was tested in a migration assay. In response to CXCL13, more NCI-H1915 cells migrated than SW-1271 cells. These findings suggest that the CXCR5‑CXCL13 axis influences LuCa progression. After validation in larger patient groups, CXCR5 and CXCL13 may prove useful as biomarkers for LuCa. Correspondingly, blockade of this axis could serve as an effective therapy for LuCa.

Ammirante M, Shalapour S, Kang Y, et al.
Tissue injury and hypoxia promote malignant progression of prostate cancer by inducing CXCL13 expression in tumor myofibroblasts.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(41):14776-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PC) is a slowly progressing malignancy that often responds to androgen ablation or chemotherapy by becoming more aggressive, acquiring a neuroendocrine phenotype, and undergoing metastatic spread. We found that B lymphocytes recruited into regressing androgen-deprived tumors by C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13), a chemokine whose expression correlates with clinical severity, play an important role in malignant progression and metastatic dissemination of PC. We now describe how androgen ablation induces CXCL13 expression. In both allografted and spontaneous mouse PC, CXCL13 is expressed by tumor-associated myofibroblasts that are activated on androgen ablation through a hypoxia-dependent mechanism. The same cells produce CXCL13 after chemotherapy. Myofibroblast activation and CXCL13 expression also occur in the normal prostate after androgen deprivation, and CXCL13 is expressed by myofibroblasts in human PC. Hypoxia activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and induces autocrine TGF-β signaling that promotes myofibroblast activation and CXCL13 induction. In addition to TGF-β receptor kinase inhibitors, myofibroblast activation and CXCL13 induction are blocked by phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Both inhibitor types and myofibroblast immunodepletion block the emergence of castration-resistant PC in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model of spontaneous metastatic PC with neuroendocrine differentiation.

Adham SA, Al Harrasi I, Al Haddabi I, et al.
Immunohistological insight into the correlation between neuropilin-1 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in epithelial ovarian cancer.
J Histochem Cytochem. 2014; 62(9):619-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mechanism by which neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) induces malignancy in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) is still unknown. This study is the first to demonstrate the relationship between NRP-1 expression and EMT markers vimentin, N-cadherin, E-cadherin and Slug. We used tissue microarrays containing the three main subtypes of EOC tumors: serous, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and endometrioid adenocarcinoma and representative cases retrieved from our pathology archives. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression levels and location of NRP-1 and the aforementioned EMT proteins. NRP-1 was mainly expressed on cancer cells but not in normal ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). The Immunoreactive Scoring (IRS) values revealed that the expression of NRP-1, Slug and E-cadherin in the malignant subtypes of ovarian tissues was significantly higher (5.18 ± 0.64, 4.84 ± 0.7, 4.98 ± 0.68, respectively) than their expression in the normal and benign tissues (1.04 ± 0.29, 0.84 ± 0.68, 1.71 ± 0.66, respectively), with no significant differences among the studied subtypes. Vimentin was expressed in the cancer cell component of 43% of tumors and it was exclusively localized in the stroma of all mucinous tumors. The Spearman's rho value indicated that NRP-1 is positively related to the EMT markers E-cadherin and Slug. This notion might indicate that NRP-1 is a partner in the EMT process in EOC tumors.

Ahearne MJ, Allchin RL, Fox CP, Wagner SD
Follicular helper T-cells: expanding roles in T-cell lymphoma and targets for treatment.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 166(3):326-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Follicular helper T-cells (Tfh cells) are a subset of CD4(+) T-cells that are essential for normal production of high affinity antibodies. Tfh cells characteristically produce IL21 and IL4 and show high expression of surface markers CXCR5, ICOS, PDCD1 (PD-1) and the chemokine CXCL13. In this review we will focus on the emerging links between Tfh cells and subtypes of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and ~20% of peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) have surface marker features of Tfh cells and share a spectrum of genetic abnormalities. The recurrent genetic abnormalities associated with AITL include mutations in epigenetic modifiers such as TET2 and DNMT3A and the motility and adhesion gene, RHOA, is mutated in up to 70% of cases. ~20% of PTCL-NOS demonstrate RHOA mutations and have other characteristics suggesting an origin in Tfh cells. The recognition that specific genetic and surface markers are associated with malignant Tfh cells suggests that the next few years will bring major changes in diagnostic and treatment possibilities. For example, antibodies against IL21, PDCD1 and ICOS are already in clinical trials for autoimmune disease or other malignancies and antibodies against CXCL13 are in pre-clinical development.

Schwartz MD, Valdimarsdottir HB, Peshkin BN, et al.
Randomized noninferiority trial of telephone versus in-person genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(7):618-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Although guidelines recommend in-person counseling before BRCA1/BRCA2 gene testing, genetic counseling is increasingly offered by telephone. As genomic testing becomes more common, evaluating alternative delivery approaches becomes increasingly salient. We tested whether telephone delivery of BRCA1/2 genetic counseling was noninferior to in-person delivery.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants (women age 21 to 85 years who did not have newly diagnosed or metastatic cancer and lived within a study site catchment area) were randomly assigned to usual care (UC; n = 334) or telephone counseling (TC; n = 335). UC participants received in-person pre- and post-test counseling; TC participants completed all counseling by telephone. Primary outcomes were knowledge, satisfaction, decision conflict, distress, and quality of life; secondary outcomes were equivalence of BRCA1/2 test uptake and costs of delivering TC versus UC.
RESULTS: TC was noninferior to UC on all primary outcomes. At 2 weeks after pretest counseling, knowledge (d = 0.03; lower bound of 97.5% CI, -0.61), perceived stress (d = -0.12; upper bound of 97.5% CI, 0.21), and satisfaction (d = -0.16; lower bound of 97.5% CI, -0.70) had group differences and confidence intervals that did not cross their 1-point noninferiority limits. Decision conflict (d = 1.1; upper bound of 97.5% CI, 3.3) and cancer distress (d = -1.6; upper bound of 97.5% CI, 0.27) did not cross their 4-point noninferiority limit. Results were comparable at 3 months. TC was not equivalent to UC on BRCA1/2 test uptake (UC, 90.1%; TC, 84.2%). TC yielded cost savings of $114 per patient.
CONCLUSION: Genetic counseling can be effectively and efficiently delivered via telephone to increase access and decrease costs.

Biswas S, Sengupta S, Roy Chowdhury S, et al.
CXCL13-CXCR5 co-expression regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells during lymph node metastasis.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 143(2):265-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the expression of -CXC chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) and its receptor -CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) in 98 breast cancer (BC) patients with infiltrating duct carcinoma, out of which 56 were found lymph node metastasis (LNM) positive. Interestingly, co-expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 showed a significant correlation with LNM. Since, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is highly associated with metastasis we investigated EMT-inducing potential of CXCL13 in BC cell lines. In CXCL13-stimulated BC cells, expression of various mesenchymal markers (Vimentin, N-cadherin), EMT regulators (Snail, Slug), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) was increased, whereas the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin was found to be decreased. In addition, expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), which is known to regulate MMP9 expression via Src activation, was also significantly increased after CXCL13 stimulation. Using specific protein kinase inhibitors, we confirmed that CXCL13 stimulated EMT and MMP9 expression via RANKL-Src axis in BC cell lines. To further validate this observation, we examined gene expression patterns in primary breast tumors and detected significantly higher expression of various mesenchymal markers and regulators in CXCL13-CXCR5 co-expressing patients. Therefore, this study showed the EMT-inducing potential of CXCL13 as well as demonstrated the prognostic value of CXCL13-CXCR5 co-expression in primary BC. Moreover, CXCL13-CXCR5-RANKL-Src axis may present a therapeutic target in LNM positive BC patients.

Ally MS, Prasad Hunasehally RY, Rodriguez-Justo M, et al.
Evaluation of follicular T-helper cells in primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma and dermatitis.
J Cutan Pathol. 2013; 40(12):1006-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma (SMPTCL) is a controversial primary cutaneous lymphoma, in which the candidate neoplastic cells express a follicular T-helper phenotype. We describe 16 cases of SMPTCL and compare expression of PD-1, CXCL-13 and ICOS in these tumors with 40 dermatitis cases.
METHODS: Histopathologic examination and immunocytochemistry were performed for 16 tumors and 40 assorted dermatitis cases.
RESULTS: All but one patient presented with solitary lesions. Each biopsy revealed a dense nodular non-epitheliotropic infiltrate of atypical T-cells. Neoplastic cells were CD3+/CD4+/CD8(-)/CD30(-). Cutaneous recurrence occurred in one patient over a median follow up of 8 months (range 5-36). All tumors widely expressed PD-1 and ICOS to a lesser extent. CXCL-13 stained much fewer cells. Of the dermatitis cases, PD-1 (most numerous) and ICOS labeled lymphoid cells in all cases, albeit fewer than in the tumors, and CXCL-13 was negative in 32. A rosette pattern of PD-1 expression was identified in all the SMPTCL cases but not in dermatitis.
CONCLUSIONS: There remains uncertainty about the appropriate nosological status of SMPTCL, which some authors consider to be a pseudolymphoma. However, this study suggests a significant difference in the prevalence and pattern of follicular T-helper cell markers between this tumor and lymphoid proliferations known to be reactive.

Yau C, Sninsky J, Kwok S, et al.
An optimized five-gene multi-platform predictor of hormone receptor negative and triple negative breast cancer metastatic risk.
Breast Cancer Res. 2013; 15(5):R103 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Outcome predictors in use today are prognostic only for hormone receptor-positive (HRpos) breast cancer. Although microarray-derived multigene predictors of hormone receptor-negative (HRneg) and/or triple negative (Tneg) breast cancer recurrence risk are emerging, to date none have been transferred to clinically suitable assay platforms (for example, RT-PCR) or validated against formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) HRneg/Tneg samples.
METHODS: Multiplexed RT-PCR was used to assay two microarray-derived HRneg/Tneg prognostic signatures IR-7 and Buck-4) in a pooled FFPE collection of 139 chemotherapy-naïve HRneg breast cancers. The prognostic value of the RTPCR measured gene signatures were evaluated as continuous and dichotomous variables, and in conditional risk models incorporating clinical parameters. An optimized five-gene index was derived by evaluating gene combinations from both signatures.
RESULTS: RT-PCR measured IR-7 and Buck-4 signatures proved prognostic as continuous variables; and conditional risk modeling chose nodal status, the IR-7 signature, and tumor grade as significant predictors of distant recurrence (DR). From the Buck-4 and IR-7 signatures, an optimized five-gene (TNFRSF17, CLIC5, HLA-F, CXCL13, XCL2) predictor was generated, referred to as the Integrated Cytokine Score (ICS) based on its functional pathway linkage through interferon-γ and IL-10. Across all FFPE cases, the ICS was prognostic as either a continuous or dichotomous variable, and conditional risk modeling selected nodal status and ICS as DR predictors. Further dichotomization of node-negative/ICS-low FFPE cases identified a subset of low-grade HRneg tumors with <10% 5-year DR risk. The prognostic value of ICS was reaffirmed in two previously studied microarray assayed cohorts containing 274 node-negative and chemotherapy naive HRneg breast cancers, including 95 Tneg cases where it proved prognostically independent of Tneg molecular subtyping. In additional HRneg/Tneg microarray assayed cohorts, the five-gene ICS also proved prognostic irrespective of primary tumor nodal status and adjuvant chemotherapy intervention.
CONCLUSION: We advanced the measurement of two previously reported microarray-derived HRneg/Tneg breast cancer prognostic signatures for use in FFPE samples, and derived an optimized five-gene Integrated Cytokine Score (ICS) with multi-platform capability of predicting metastatic outcome from primary HRneg/Tneg tumors independent of nodal status, adjuvant chemotherapy use, and Tneg molecular subtype.

Bindea G, Mlecnik B, Tosolini M, et al.
Spatiotemporal dynamics of intratumoral immune cells reveal the immune landscape in human cancer.
Immunity. 2013; 39(4):782-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
The complex interactions between tumors and their microenvironment remain to be elucidated. Combining large-scale approaches, we examined the spatio-temporal dynamics of 28 different immune cell types (immunome) infiltrating tumors. We found that the immune infiltrate composition changed at each tumor stage and that particular cells had a major impact on survival. Densities of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and innate cells increased, whereas most T cell densities decreased along with tumor progression. The number of B cells, which are key players in the core immune network and are associated with prolonged survival, increased at a late stage and showed a dual effect on recurrence and tumor progression. The immune control relevance was demonstrated in three endoscopic orthotopic colon-cancer mouse models. Genomic instability of the chemokine CXCL13 was a mechanism associated with Tfh and B cell infiltration. CXCL13 and IL21 were pivotal factors for the Tfh/B cell axis correlating with survival. This integrative study reveals the immune landscape in human colorectal cancer and the major hallmarks of the microenvironment associated with tumor progression and recurrence.

Purdue MP, Hofmann JN, Kemp TJ, et al.
A prospective study of 67 serum immune and inflammation markers and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Blood. 2013; 122(6):951-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Although severe immune dysregulation is an established risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the importance of subclinical immunologic effects is unclear. We compared baseline serum levels of 67 immune and inflammation markers between 301 patients with NHL diagnosed 5+ years after blood collection and 301 control patients within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We observed associations with NHL for elevated B-cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1; fourth quartile vs first: odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-4.2; Ptrend = 1.0 × 10(-6)), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2; OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.0-5.8; Ptrend = 1.1 × 10(-6)), and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (sVEGFR2; OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.9; Ptrend = .0005) that remained significant after Bonferroni correction, simultaneous model adjustment, and restriction to cases diagnosed 8 to 13 years after blood collection. Associations with other markers were observed, although none remained associated with NHL after adjustment for BCA-1, sTNFR2, and sVEGFR2. Our findings suggest that circulating BCA-1, sTNFR2, and sVEGFR2 are associated with NHL risk well in advance of diagnosis. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings and elucidate the underlying biologic mechanisms.

Gu-Trantien C, Loi S, Garaud S, et al.
CD4⁺ follicular helper T cell infiltration predicts breast cancer survival.
J Clin Invest. 2013; 123(7):2873-92 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
CD4⁺ T cells are critical regulators of immune responses, but their functional role in human breast cancer is relatively unknown. The goal of this study was to produce an image of CD4⁺ T cells infiltrating breast tumors using limited ex vivo manipulation to better understand the in vivo differences associated with patient prognosis. We performed comprehensive molecular profiling of infiltrating CD4⁺ T cells isolated from untreated invasive primary tumors and found that the infiltrating T cell subpopulations included follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, which have not previously been found in solid tumors, as well as Th1, Th2, and Th17 effector memory cells and Tregs. T cell signaling pathway alterations included a mixture of activation and suppression characterized by restricted cytokine/chemokine production, which inversely paralleled lymphoid infiltration levels and could be reproduced in activated donor CD4⁺ T cells treated with primary tumor supernatant. A comparison of extensively versus minimally infiltrated tumors showed that CXCL13-producing CD4⁺ Tfh cells distinguish extensive immune infiltrates, principally located in tertiary lymphoid structure germinal centers. An 8-gene Tfh signature, signifying organized antitumor immunity, robustly predicted survival or preoperative response to chemotherapy. Our identification of CD4⁺ Tfh cells in breast cancer suggests that they are an important immune element whose presence in the tumor is a prognostic factor.

AbdulMajeed AA, Dalley AJ, Farah CS
Loss of ELF3 immunoexpression is useful for detecting oral squamous cell carcinoma but not for distinguishing between grades of epithelial dysplasia.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2013; 17(4):331-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Early diagnosis and targeted therapy are crucial to mitigating the morbidity and mortality of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Among the potentially malignant oral disorders, epithelial dysplasia has known association with malignant transformation, but defensible gradation of dysplasia severity presents unmet challenges. Published microarray data has denoted dysregulation of CLSP, ELF3, IFI44, USP18, and CXCL13 genes in potentially malignant oral disorders. The present study investigated the diagnostic potential of these gene products to grade oral epithelial dysplasia severity. Archived biopsies from independent patient cohorts comprised "training" (n=107) and "test" (n=278) sample sets. Immunoreactivity for candidate markers was determined in the "training" set of normal oral mucosa (NOM), mild dysplasia (MD), moderate to severe dysplasia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The diagnostic potential of ELF3 immunoscoring to improve detection and severity gradation of epithelial dysplasia was assessed with the "test" set. A reciprocal relationship between disease severity and immunoreactivity score for CLSP and ELF3 was observed (MD/NOM to OSCC: P<.08, Mann-Whitney U test), whereas elevated IFI44 immunostaining was present for OSCC compared to MD/NOM (P<.08, Mann-Whitney U test). Loss of ELF3 immunostaining effectively distinguished OSCC from non-malignant tissues (sensitivity=0.81; specificity=0.56; area under the curve [AUC]=0.68) but did not distinguish dysplasia from NOM (sensitivity=0.55; specificity=0.40; AUC=0.47) or moderate to severe dysplasia from MD (sensitivity=0.63; specificity=0.51; AUC=0.57). The results confirm via immunohistochemistry the relevance of published CLSP, ELF3, and IFI44 (but not USP18 or CXCL13) gene expression data to potentially malignant oral lesion severity. Loss of ELF3 immunostaining discriminated OSCC from dysplasia but was unreliable for grading dysplasia severity.

Rubenstein JL, Wong VS, Kadoch C, et al.
CXCL13 plus interleukin 10 is highly specific for the diagnosis of CNS lymphoma.
Blood. 2013; 121(23):4740-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Establishing the diagnosis of focal brain lesions in patients with unexplained neurologic symptoms represents a challenge. The goal of this study is to provide evidence supporting functional roles for CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)13 and interleukin (IL)-10 in central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas and to evaluate the utility of each as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. We demonstrate for the first time that elevated CXCL13 concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is prognostic and that CXCL13 and CXCL12 mediate chemotaxis of lymphoma cells isolated from CNS lymphoma lesions. Expression of the activated form of Janus kinase 1 supported a role for IL-10 in prosurvival signaling. We determined the concentration of CXCL13 and IL-10 in CSF of CNS lymphoma patients and control cohorts including inflammatory and degenerative neurologic disease in a multicenter study involving 220 patients. Bivariate elevated CXCL13 plus IL-10 was 99.3% specific for primary and secondary CNS lymphoma, with sensitivity significantly greater than reference standard CSF tests. These results identify CXCL13 and IL-10 as potentially important biomarkers of CNS lymphoma that merit further evaluation and support incorporation of CXCL13 and IL-10 into diagnostic algorithms for the workup of focal brain lesions in which lymphoma is a consideration.

Rachidi SM, Qin T, Sun S, et al.
Molecular profiling of multiple human cancers defines an inflammatory cancer-associated molecular pattern and uncovers KPNA2 as a uniform poor prognostic cancer marker.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e57911 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Immune evasion is one of the recognized hallmarks of cancer. Inflammatory responses to cancer can also contribute directly to oncogenesis. Since the immune system is hardwired to protect the host, there is a possibility that cancers, regardless of their histological origins, endow themselves with a common and shared inflammatory cancer-associated molecular pattern (iCAMP) to promote oncoinflammation. However, the definition of iCAMP has not been conceptually and experimentally investigated.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genome-wide cDNA expression data was analyzed for 221 normal and 324 cancer specimens from 7 cancer types: breast, prostate, lung, colon, gastric, oral and pancreatic. A total of 96 inflammatory genes with consistent dysregulation were identified, including 44 up-regulated and 52 down-regulated genes. Protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry for some of these genes. The iCAMP contains proteins whose roles in cancer have been implicated and others which are yet to be appreciated. The clinical significance of many iCAMP genes was confirmed in multiple independent cohorts of colon and ovarian cancer patients. In both cases, better prognosis correlated strongly with high CXCL13 and low level of GREM1, LOX, TNFAIP6, CD36, and EDNRA. An "Inflammatory Gene Integrated Score" was further developed from the combination of 18 iCAMP genes in ovarian cancer, which predicted overall survival. Noticeably, as a selective nuclear import protein whose immuno-regulatory function just begins to emerge, karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2) is uniformly up-regulated across cancer types. For the first time, the cancer-specific up-regulation of KPNA2 and its clinical significance were verified by tissue microarray analysis in colon and head-neck cancers.
CONCLUSION: This work defines an inflammatory signature shared by seven epithelial cancer types and KPNA2 as a consistently up-regulated protein in cancer. Identification of iCAMP may not only serve as a novel biomarker for prognostication and individualized treatment of cancer, but also have significant biological implications.

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