Gene Summary

Gene:CXCL14; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 14
Aliases: KEC, KS1, BMAC, BRAK, NJAC, MIP2G, MIP-2g, SCYB14
Summary:This antimicrobial gene belongs to the cytokine gene family which encode secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The protein encoded by this gene is structurally related to the CXC (Cys-X-Cys) subfamily of cytokines. Members of this subfamily are characterized by two cysteines separated by a single amino acid. This cytokine displays chemotactic activity for monocytes but not for lymphocytes, dendritic cells, neutrophils or macrophages. It has been implicated that this cytokine is involved in the homeostasis of monocyte-derived macrophages rather than in inflammation. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-X-C motif chemokine 14
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Survival Rate
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Cytokines
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Base Sequence
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Liver Cancer
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Gene Expression
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • rab GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Disease Progression
  • Down-Regulation
  • Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • DNA Methylation
  • Chemokines, CXC
  • Transcription
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Silencing
  • Messenger RNA
  • Lung Cancer
  • Staging
  • Cohort Studies
  • Promoter Regions
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Chemokine CXCL12
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Transcription Factor AP-1
  • Cell Movement
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts
  • Chromosome 5
  • Angiogenesis
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Up-Regulation
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CXCL14 (cancer-related)

Klein S, Mauch C, Wagener-Ryczek S, et al.
Immune-phenotyping of pleomorphic dermal sarcomas suggests this entity as a potential candidate for immunotherapy.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(6):973-982 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic dermal sarcomas (PDS) are sarcomas of the skin with local recurrences in up to 28% of cases, and distant metastases in up to 20%. Although recent evidence provides a strong rational to explore immunotherapeutics in solid tumors, nothing is known about the immune environment of PDS.
METHODS: In the current study, a comprehensive immune-phenotyping of 14 PDS using RNA and protein expression analyses, as well as quantitative assessment of immune cells using an image-analysis tool was performed.
RESULTS: Three out of 14 PDS revealed high levels of CD8-positive tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes (TILs), also showing elevated levels of immune-related cytokines such as IL1A, IL2, as well as markers that were very recently linked to enhanced response of immunotherapy in malignant melanoma, including CD27, and CD40L. Using a multivariate analysis, we found a number of differentially expressed genes in the CD8-high group including: CD74, LYZ and HLA-B, while the remaining cases revealed enhanced levels of immune-suppressive cytokines including CXCL14. The "CD8-high" PDS showed strong MHC-I expression and revealed infiltration by PD-L1-, PD-1- and LAG-3-expressing immune cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) predominantly consisted of CD68 + , CD163 + , and CD204 + M2 macrophages showing an accentuation at the tumor invasion front.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, we provide first explorative evidence about the immune-environment of PDS tumors that may guide future decisions whether individuals presenting with advanced PDS could qualify for immunotherapeutic options.

Sjöberg E, Meyrath M, Milde L, et al.
A Novel ACKR2-Dependent Role of Fibroblast-Derived CXCL14 in Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Metastasis of Breast Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 25(12):3702-3717 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Fibroblasts expressing the orphan chemokine CXCL14 have been previously shown to associate with poor breast cancer prognosis and promote cancer growth. This study explores the mechanism underlying the poor survival associations of stromal CXCL14.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, and metastasis were studied in
RESULTS: CXCL14 fibroblasts stimulated breast cancer EMT, migration, and invasion in breast cancer cells and in a xenograft model. Furthermore, tumor cells primed by CXCL14 fibroblasts displayed enhanced lung colonization after tail-vein injection. By loss-of function experiments, the atypical G-protein-coupled receptor ACKR2 was identified to mediate CXCL14-stimulated responses. Downregulation of ACKR2, or CXCL14-induced NOS1, attenuated the pro-EMT and migratory capacity. CXCL14/ACKR2 expression correlated with EMT and survival in gene expression datasets.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the findings imply an autocrine fibroblast CXCL14/ACKR2 pathway as a clinically relevant stimulator of EMT, tumor cell invasion, and metastasis. The study also identifies ACKR2 as a novel mediator for CXCL14 function and thereby defines a pathway with drug target potential.

Gerashchenko GV, Grygoruk OV, Kononenko OA, et al.
Expression pattern of genes associated with tumor microenvironment in prostate cancer.
Exp Oncol. 2018; 40(4):315-322 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To assess relative expression (RE) levels of CAF-, TAM-specific, immune defense-associated genes in prostate tumors and to show correlation of RE with clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics, with the aim to define clinically significant specific alterations in a gene expression pattern.
METHODS: RE of 23 genes was analyzed by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 37 freshly frozen samples of prostate cancer tissues of a different Gleason score (GS) and at various tumor stages, compared with RE in 37 paired conventionally normal prostate tissue (CNT) samples and 20 samples of prostate adenomas.
RESULTS: Differences in RE were shown for 11 genes out of 23 studied, when tumor samples were compared with corresponding CNTs. 7 genes, namely ACTA2, CXCL14, CTGF, THY1, FAP, CD163, CCL17 were upregulated in tumors. 4 genes, namely CCR4, NOS2A, MSMB, IL1R1 were downregulated in tumors. 14 genes demonstrated different RE in TNA at different stages: CXCL12, CXCL14, CTGF, FAP, HIF1A, THY1, CCL17, CCL22, CCR4, CD68, CD163, NOS2A, CTLA4, IL1R1. RE changes of 9 genes - CXCL12, CXCL14, HIF1A, CCR4, CCL17, NOS2A, CTLA4, IL1R1, IL2RA - were found in tumors with different GS. Moreover, 9 genes showed differences in RE in TNA, dependently on the presence or absence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion and 7 genes showed differences in RE of groups with differential PTEN expression. Significant correlations were calculated between RE of 9 genes in adenocarcinomas and the stage, and GS; also, between RE of 2 genes and the fusion presence; and between RE of 4 genes and PTEN expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Several gene expression patterns were identified that correlated with the GS, stage and molecular characteristics of tumors, i.e. presence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion and alterations in PTEN expression. These expression patterns can be used for molecular profiling of prostate tumors, with the aim to develop personalized medicine approaches. However, the proposed profiling requires a more detailed analysis and a larger cohort of patients with prostate tumor.

Braun SA, Baran J, Schrumpf H, et al.
Ingenol mebutate induces a tumor cell-directed inflammatory response and antimicrobial peptides thereby promoting rapid tumor destruction and wound healing.
Eur J Med Res. 2018; 23(1):45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ingenol mebutat (IM)-gel is effective for the topical treatment of epithelial tumors, including actinic keratoses (AKs) or anogenital warts (AGW). AK patients treated with IM develop intensified inflammatory reactions on sights of prior clinical visible or palpable AKs as compared to the surrounding actinically damaged skin, suggesting the induction of a tumor cell-directed inflammation. AGW patients treated with IM develop even stronger inflammatory reactions with large erosions, suggesting a directed inflammatory response against HPV-infected keratinocytes. Of note, even widespread erosions heal very fast without any superinfections. Here, we set out to elucidate underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of these clinical observations.
METHODS: The effects of IM (10
RESULTS: Ingenol mebutat significantly and dose-dependently induced the expression of proinflammatory chemokines (CXCL8, CCL2) and AMP (RNase7, HBD3) in HEK and epithelial cancer cell lines. A significantly stronger induction of CXCL8 and CCL2 was observed in our tested tumor cells as compared to HEK. We did not observe any significant effect of IM on HEK migration, respectively wound healing responses in vitro for any tested concentration (10
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that tumor cells are more susceptible to IM as compared to differentiated HEK. This is evident by a stronger IM-mediated induction of proinflammatory chemokines in tumor cells, which may result in a tumor cell-directed inflammatory response and rapid tumor destruction. In addition, IM induces AMP in keratinocytes and seems not to severely interfere with keratinocyte migration, which contributes to a fast and uncomplicated wound healing. Surprising is a selective inhibition of keratinocyte migration by IM at the concentration of 10

He Z, You C, Zhao D
Long non-coding RNA UCA1/miR-182/PFKFB2 axis modulates glioblastoma-associated stromal cells-mediated glycolysis and invasion of glioma cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 500(3):569-576 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common and deadliest malignant primary brain tumor with a high recurrence. In this study, lncRNA UCA1/miR-182 axis has been regarded as a nodal driver of glioma invasion mediated by GB-associated stromal cells (GASCs) and GASC-secreted chemokine CXCL14. In clinical specimens, CXCL14 upregulation in GASCs also correlated with poor prognosis. Notably, CXCL14-high GASCs mediated lncRNA UCA1 upregulation and miR-182 downregulation in glioma cells. Moreover, miR-182 directly bound to the fructose-2,6-biphosphatase PFKFB2; UCA1/miR-182 axis thereby modulated GASC-induced glycolysis in glioma cells. Overall, UCA1/miR-182/PFKFB2 axis modulates chemokine CXCL14 secretion, glycolysis and invasion of glioma cells in GASCs.

Ji X, Shen Z, Zhao B, et al.
CXCL14 and NOS1 expression in specimens from patients with stage I-IIIA nonsmall cell lung cancer after curative resection.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(10):e0101 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Many studies show that CXC chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14) is highly expressed in tumor-associated stromal cells, promoting tumor cell growth, and invasion. Because of its unclear receptors, CXCL14-initiated intracellular signal cascades remain largely unknown. However, CXCL14 can regulate nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) as its intracellular molecular target. In this paper, we investigated the expression of CXCL14 and NOS1 in specimens from patients with stage I-IIIA nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after curative resection, and evaluated the prognostic significance of this gene expression in stromal fibroblasts and cancer cells.Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of CXCL14 and NOS1 in 106 formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from patients with stage I-IIIA NSCLC. The chi-square test was performed to examine the correlation of CXCL14 and NOS1 expression level with clinicopathological features. The effects of the expression of CXCL14 or NOS1 on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined by Kaplan-Meier and Cox hazard proportional model.The percentages of high CXCL14 expression in stromal fibroblasts and that in cancer cells were 46.2% (49/106) and 23.6% (25/106), respectively. The positive expression rates of NOS1 in cancer cells were 42.5% (45/106). The result indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between CXCL14 expression level in stromal fibroblasts and that in cancer cells (χ = 4.158, P = .041). In addition, the expression of CXCL14 in stromal fibroblasts was significantly correlated with NOS1 expression in cancer cells (χ = 16.156, P < .001). The 5-year PFS rates with low and high CXCL14 expression in stromal fibroblasts were 66.7% and 14.3% (χ = 44.008, P < .001), respectively, and the 5-year OS rates with those were 87.1% and 43.5% (χ = 21.531, P < .001), respectively. The 5-year PFS rates with negative and positive expression of NOS1 in cancer cells were 62.3% and 15.6% (χ = 33.756, P < .001), respectively, and the 5-year OS rates with those were 86.4% and 40.1% (χ = 24.430, P < 0.01), respectively.Both the high expression of CXCL14 in stromal fibroblasts and the positive expression of NOS1 in cancer cells are independent negative predictors of PFS and OS in patients with stage I-IIIA NSCLC after curative resection.

Doebar SC, Sieuwerts AM, de Weerd V, et al.
Gene Expression Differences between Ductal Carcinoma in Situ with and without Progression to Invasive Breast Cancer.
Am J Pathol. 2017; 187(7):1648-1655 [PubMed] Related Publications
To understand the molecular alterations driving the progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), we compared patients with pure DCIS and patients with DCIS and synchronous invasive breast cancer (IBC). Twelve patients with extensive pure DCIS were included as a representation of indolent lesions with limited invasive capacity. These cases were matched with 12 patients with a limited DCIS component and IBC, representing lesions with a high invasive potential. Matching included age and surrogate DCIS subtypes. Gene expression profiling was performed on DCIS cells to identify transcriptional differences between these two groups. The identified genes were validated by immunohistochemistry. Nine genes showed significantly different expression. Most of these genes were highly expressed in DCIS samples with IBC, including PLAU (P = 0.002), COL1A1 (P = 0.006), KRT81 (P = 0.009), S100A7 (P = 0.015), SCGB1D2 (P = 0.023), KRT18 (P = 0.029), and NOTCH3 (P = 0.044), whereas EGFR and CXCL14 showed a higher expression in cases with pure DCIS (P = 0.015 and P = 0.028, respectively). This difference was only significant for SCGB1D2 (P = 0.009). Hierarchical clustering revealed distinct clustering of patients with and without invasion. Patients with pure DCIS have a different gene expression pattern as compared to patients with DCIS and synchronous IBC. These genes may pinpoint to driver pathway(s) that play an important role in DCIS progression.

Cicchini L, Blumhagen RZ, Westrich JA, et al.
High-Risk Human Papillomavirus E7 Alters Host DNA Methylome and Represses HLA-E Expression in Human Keratinocytes.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):3633 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection distinctly alters methylation patterns in HPV-associated cancer. We have recently reported that HPV E7-dependent promoter hypermethylation leads to downregulation of the chemokine CXCL14 and suppression of antitumor immune responses. To investigate the extent of gene expression dysregulated by HPV E7-induced DNA methylation, we analyzed parallel global gene expression and DNA methylation using normal immortalized keratinocyte lines, NIKS, NIKS-16, NIKS-18, and NIKS-16∆E7. We show that expression of the MHC class I genes is downregulated in HPV-positive keratinocytes in an E7-dependent manner. Methylome analysis revealed hypermethylation at a distal CpG island (CGI) near the HLA-E gene in NIKS-16 cells compared to either NIKS cells or NIKS-16∆E7 cells, which lack E7 expression. The HLA-E CGI functions as an active promoter element which is dramatically repressed by DNA methylation. HLA-E protein expression on cell surface is downregulated by high-risk HPV16 and HPV18 E7 expression, but not by low-risk HPV6 and HPV11 E7 expression. Conversely, demethylation at the HLA-E CGI restores HLA-E protein expression in HPV-positive keratinocytes. Because HLA-E plays an important role in antiviral immunity by regulating natural killer and CD8

Liu Y, Zhang J, Sun X, et al.
Down-regulation of miR-29b in carcinoma associated fibroblasts promotes cell growth and metastasis of breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(24):39559-39570 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play important roles in breast cancer development and progression. Recent studies show that microRNAs (miRNAs) are the main regulators in CAFs. MiR-29b is one of the significant down-regulated miRNAs in CAFs from the miRNA screening. The role of miR-29b in the interaction between CAFs and breast cancer is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CAFs on breast cancer cell proliferation and metastasis regulated by miR-29b. We found that fibroblasts activated by co-cultured breast cancer cells produced higher levels of some chemokines like CCL11, CXCL14, which accelerated breast cancer cell growth and induced drug resistance and metastasis. Increased miR-29b expression in activated fibroblasts could suppress the activating p38-STAT1 signal pathway in breast cancer cells. We also found that the expression of CCL11 and CXCL14 could be regulated by miR-29b in CAFs. Our results illustrate that down-regulation of miR-29b in CAFs plays an important role in tumor stroma by activating p38-STAT1 in breast cancer cells. The study indicates that cancer cells and fibroblasts interaction promotes breast cancer cell growth, drug resistance, migration and invasion due to the lack of miR-29b expression in CAFs.

Zeraati M, Moye AL, Wong JWH, et al.
Cancer-associated noncoding mutations affect RNA G-quadruplex-mediated regulation of gene expression.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):708 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer is a multifactorial disease driven by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Many cancer driver mutations have been characterised in protein-coding regions of the genome. However, mutations in noncoding regions associated with cancer have been less investigated. G-quadruplex (G4) nucleic acids are four-stranded secondary structures formed in guanine-rich sequences and prevalent in the regulatory regions. In this study, we used published whole cancer genome sequence data to find mutations in cancer patients that overlap potential RNA G4-forming sequences in 5' UTRs. Using RNAfold, we assessed the effect of these mutations on the thermodynamic stability of predicted RNA G4s in the context of full-length 5' UTRs. Of the 217 identified mutations, we found that 33 are predicted to destabilise and 21 predicted to stabilise potential RNA G4s. We experimentally validated the effect of destabilising mutations in the 5' UTRs of BCL2 and CXCL14 and one stabilising mutation in the 5' UTR of TAOK2. These mutations resulted in an increase or a decrease in translation of these mRNAs, respectively. These findings suggest that mutations that modulate the G4 stability in the noncoding regions could act as cancer driver mutations, which present an opportunity for early cancer diagnosis using individual sequencing information.

Santos JMO, Fernandes M, Araújo R, et al.
Dysregulated expression of microRNA-150 in human papillomavirus-induced lesions of K14-HPV16 transgenic mice.
Life Sci. 2017; 175:31-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the major causes of infection-related cancers worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), whose dysregulated levels may cause an aberrant expression of genes involved in oncogenic pathways and consequently lead to cancer development. This is the case of the miRNA-150 (miR-150), whose expression in HPV-induced lesions remains unclear and the present work aims to clarify it. We employed K14-HPV16 mice, which express the early genes of HPV16 in basal keratinocytes, leading to the development of hyperplastic and dysplastic skin lesions and squamous cell carcinomas, and are a representative model of HPV-induced cancers.
MAIN METHODS: In order to evaluate the expression of miR-150 in HPV-induced lesions, we performed qPCR in wild-type mice (HPV
KEY FINDINGS: 24-26weeks-old HPV
SIGNIFICANCE: The present results suggest that miR-150 is overexpressed in HPV-induced lesions in this model and its expression seems to increase with lesion progression, along the process of multi-step carcinogenesis.

Kojiro-Sanada S, Yasuda K, Nishio S, et al.
CXCL14-CXCR4 and CXCL12-CXCR4 Axes May Play Important Roles in the Unique Invasion Process of Endometrioid Carcinoma With MELF-Pattern Myoinvasion.
Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2017; 36(6):530-539 [PubMed] Related Publications
The term "MELF-pattern myometrial invasion" (MELF pattern) denotes an unusual morphology of myometrial invasion in endometrioid carcinomas, and is associated with frequent lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis. In this study, tumor cells were directly collected from a MELF pattern site, using laser microdissection. Comprehensive microarray analysis of the genes was conducted, and based on the results, expression of a metastasis progression gene, CXCR4, and its ligands CXCL14 and CXCL12, was further investigated. In vitro studies of endometrioid carcinoma cell lines revealed elevated invasion activity in a manner dependent on the CXCL14-CXCR4 or CXCL12-CXCR4 axis. Immunohistochemical analysis of 93 (MELF group, 46; non-MELF group, 47) cases illustrated CXCR4 was expressed in all endometrioid carcinomas, while based on CXCL14 and CXCL12 expression score, high proportions of cells were positive at the sites of the MELF pattern (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in progression-free survival or overall survival between MELF group and non-MELF group by Kaplan-Meier analysis. These findings suggest a possibility that cells at the sites of MELF pattern had acquired increased invasiveness through the function of the CXCL14-CXCR4 and CXCL12-CXCR4 axes.

Jia G, Chandriani S, Abbas AR, et al.
CXCL14 is a candidate biomarker for Hedgehog signalling in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Thorax. 2017; 72(9):780-787 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is associated with aberrant expression of developmental pathways, including Hedgehog (Hh). As Hh signalling contributes to multiple pro-fibrotic processes, Hh inhibition may represent a therapeutic option for IPF. However, no non-invasive biomarkers are available to monitor lung Hh activity.
METHODS: We assessed gene and protein expression in IPF and control lung biopsies, mouse lung, fibroblasts stimulated in vitro with sonic hedgehog (SHh), and plasma in IPF patients versus controls, and cancer patients before and after treatment with vismodegib, a Hh inhibitor.
RESULTS: Lung tissue from IPF patients exhibited significantly greater expression of Hh-related genes versus controls. The gene most significantly upregulated in both IPF lung biopsies and fibroblasts stimulated in vitro with SHh was
CONCLUSIONS: CXCL14 is a systemic biomarker that could be used to identify IPF patients with increased Hh pathway activity and monitor the pharmacodynamic effects of Hh antagonist therapy in IPF.

Eiro N, Fernandez-Gomez J, Sacristán R, et al.
Stromal factors involved in human prostate cancer development, progression and castration resistance.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(2):351-359 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To detect new predictive markers from the prostate cancer tissue, to study the expression by cultured cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of stromal factors implicated in prostate carcinogenesis, and to compare their expressions in localized, metastatic, castration-sensitive (CSCP), castration-resistant prostate tumors (CRCP) as well as in fibroblasts from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genomic expression of 20 stroma-derived factors, including the androgen receptor (AR), growth factors (FGF2, FGF7, FGF10, HGF, TGFβ, PDGFB), protein implicated in invasion (MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-11), inflammation (IL-6, IL-17, STAT-3 and NFκB), stroma/epithelium interaction (CDH11, FAP, CXCL12 and CXCL14) and chaperones (HPA1A and HSF1), was evaluated in cultured fibroblasts both from BHP and prostate carcinomas (PCa). After isolation and culture of fibroblasts by biopsy specimens, RNA was isolated and genomic studies performed.
RESULTS: Finally, 5 BPH and 37 PCa specimens were selected: clinically localized (19), metastatic (5), CSCP (7) and CRPC (6). Interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17RB) was highly expressed in CAFs compared with fibroblasts from BPH. However, metalloproteinase-2 and chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14) were expressed at higher levels by fibroblasts from BPH. The fibroblastic growth factor-7 was highly expressed by CAFs from localized tumors, but metalloproteinase-11 in metastatic tumors. MMP-11, androgen receptor (AR) and heat-shock-70kda-protein-1A (HSPA1A) expressions were significantly higher in CAFs from CRPC.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate a CAFs heterogeneity among prostate carcinomas with regard to some molecular profile expressions that may be relevant in tumor development (IL-17RB), progression (MMP-11) and castration resistance (AR, MMP-11 and HSPA1A).

Niu J, Lin Y, Liu P, et al.
Microarray analysis on the lncRNA expression profile in male hepatocelluar carcinoma patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(46):76169-76180 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs are involved with development and progression of cancer, and the advance of microarray technology allows the researchers to investigate the complete expression profile of lncRNA in various kinds of sample. We enrolled 5 male primary HCC cases with chronic HBV infection and the HCC and normal tissues have been obtained during the resection surgery. After total RNA extraction, the lncRNA microarray analysis was conducted to determine the lncRNA and mRNA expression signals. 612 lncRNAs and 1,064 mRNAs were significantly up-regulated in HCC tissue while 656 lncRNAs and 1,532 mRNAs were down-regulated in HCC tissues. Compared with normal tissues, XLOC_007433 (fold change: 12.80) and AC144449.1 (fold change: 27.20) were the most over- and under-expressed lncRNAs in HCC tissues. As for the mRNA, THBS4 (fold change:41.13) and CXCL14 (fold change: 58.03) were the most over- and under-expressed mRNAs in HCC tissues when comparing with their normal counterparts. In total, 4,552 pairs of lncRNA-mRNA were identified and the co-expression network was constructed. Moreover, the gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that the significantly different transcript between HCC and normal tissues were mainly associated with response to wounding, inflammatory response, protein hetrodimerization activity, response to stress which involved with biological process and molecular function. The pathway analysis suggested that the most significant pathways consisted of alcoholism, regulatory RNA pathways and RNA polymerase transcription. Several novel differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs were identified in the present study.

Mays AC, Feng X, Browne JD, Sullivan CA
Chemokine and Chemokine Receptor Profiles in Metastatic Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):4013-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To characterize the chemokine pattern in metastatic salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to compare chemokine and chemokine receptor gene expression in two SACC cell lines: SACC-83 and SACC-LM (lung metastasis). Chemokines and receptor genes were then screened and their expression pattern characterized in human tissue samples of non-recurrent SACC and recurrent SACC with perineural invasion.
RESULTS: Expression of chemokine receptors C5AR1, CCR1, CCR3, CCR6, CCR7, CCR9, CCR10, CXCR4, CXCR6, CXCR7, CCRL1 and CCRL2 were higher in SACC-83 compared to SACC-LM. CCRL1, CCBP2, CMKLR1, XCR1 and CXCR2 and 6 chemokine genes (CCL13, CCL27, CXCL14, CMTM1, CMTM2, CKLF) were more highly expressed in tissues of patients without tumor recurrence/perineural invasion compared to those with tumor recurrence. CCRL1 (receptor), CCL27, CMTM1, CMTM2, and CKLF (chemokine) genes were more highly expressed in SACC-83 and human tissues of patients without tumor recurrence/perineural invasion.
CONCLUSION: CCRL1, CCL27, CMTM1, CMTM2 and CKLF may play important roles in the development of tumor metastases in SACC.

Knight JM, Kim E, Ivanov I, et al.
Comprehensive site-specific whole genome profiling of stromal and epithelial colonic gene signatures in human sigmoid colon and rectal tissue.
Physiol Genomics. 2016; 48(9):651-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The strength of associations between various exposures (e.g., diet, tobacco, chemopreventive agents) and colorectal cancer risk may partially depend on the complex interaction between epithelium and stroma across anatomic subsites. Currently, baseline data describing genome-wide coding and long noncoding gene expression profiles in the healthy colon specific to tissue type and location are lacking. Therefore, colonic mucosal biopsies from 10 healthy participants who were enrolled in a clinical study to evaluate effects of lignan supplementation on gut resiliency were used to characterize the site-specific global gene expression signatures associated with stromal vs. epithelial cells in the sigmoid colon and rectum. Using RNA-seq, we demonstrate that tissue type and location patterns of gene expression and upstream regulatory pathways are distinct. For example, consistent with a key role of stroma in the crypt niche, mRNAs associated with immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes (i.e., CXCL14, ANTXR1), smooth muscle contraction (CALD1), proliferation and apoptosis (GLP2R, IGFBP3), and modulation of extracellular matrix (MMP2, COL3A1, MFAP4) were all highly expressed in the stroma. In comparison, HOX genes (HOXA3, HOXD9, HOXD10, HOXD11, and HOXD-AS2, a HOXD cluster antisense RNA 2), and WNT5B expression were also significantly higher in sigmoid colon compared with the rectum. These findings provide strong impetus for considering colorectal tissue subtypes and location in future observational studies and clinical trials designed to evaluate the effects of exposures on colonic health.

Liang W, Yang C, Peng J, et al.
The Expression of HSPD1, SCUBE3, CXCL14 and Its Relations with the Prognosis in Osteosarcoma.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015; 73(3):763-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the study was to explore the expression of three genes, HSPD1, SCUBE3, and CXCL14, in osteosarcoma cells and tissue, as well as their association with the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma. The expression of HSPD1, SCUBE3, and CXCL14 in osteosarcoma cells was detected by using Western blotting method. siRNA was used to knockdown the expression of the three genes. CCK8 cell proliferation assay was used to observe the effect of siRNA interference on U2OS cell proliferation. The expression of the three genes in osteosarcoma tissue was detected employing immunohistochemical method. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare the relations between the expression of the three genes and prognosis. The Western blotting results showed that the expression of Hsp70, SCUBE3 protein, and CXCL14 chemotactic factor in osteosarcoma cells was significantly higher than that in normal osteocytes (p < 0.05). After the three genes were interfered by siRNA, the mRNA and protein expression levels of these genes in osteosarcoma cells were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The growth rate of U2OS cell after the siRNA interference was significantly lower than that before interference and that in the control group transfected with negative control siRNA (p < 0.05). The result of immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expression of Hsp70, SCUBE3 protein, and CXCL14 chemotactic factor in osteosarcoma tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent muscle tissue (p < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the survival rate of the patients with high expression of those three kinds of genes was obviously lower than that of other patients (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the survival rates of patients with high or low expression of two genes (p > 0.05). The expression of HSPD1, SCUBE3, and CXCL14 was all high in osteosarcoma tissues and cells; moreover, the three kinds of genes had close correlations with the prognosis of the patients. Targeted inhibition of these three genes could inhibit the proliferation of the tumor, which may become a new therapeutic target.

Cicchini L, Westrich JA, Xu T, et al.
Suppression of Antitumor Immune Responses by Human Papillomavirus through Epigenetic Downregulation of CXCL14.
MBio. 2016; 7(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causally associated with multiple human cancers. Previous studies have shown that the HPV oncoprotein E7 induces immune suppression; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To understand the mechanisms by which HPV deregulates host immune responses in the tumor microenvironment, we analyzed gene expression changes of all known chemokines and their receptors using our global gene expression data sets from human HPV-positive and -negative head/neck cancer and cervical tissue specimens in different disease stages. We report that, while many proinflammatory chemokines increase expression throughout cancer progression, CXCL14 is dramatically downregulated in HPV-positive cancers. HPV suppression of CXCL14 is dependent on E7 and associated with DNA hypermethylation in the CXCL14 promoter. Using in vivo mouse models, we revealed that restoration of Cxcl14 expression in HPV-positive mouse oropharyngeal carcinoma cells clears tumors in immunocompetent syngeneic mice, but not in Rag1-deficient mice. Further, Cxcl14 reexpression significantly increases natural killer (NK), CD4(+) T, and CD8(+) T cell infiltration into the tumor-draining lymph nodes in vivo In vitro transwell migration assays show that Cxcl14 reexpression induces chemotaxis of NK, CD4(+) T, and CD8(+) T cells. These results suggest that CXCL14 downregulation by HPV plays an important role in suppression of antitumor immune responses. Our findings provide a new mechanistic understanding of virus-induced immune evasion that contributes to cancer progression.
IMPORTANCE: Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causally associated with more than 5% of all human cancers. During decades of cancer progression, HPV persists, evading host surveillance. However, little is known about the immune evasion mechanisms driven by HPV. Here we report that the chemokine CXCL14 is significantly downregulated in HPV-positive head/neck and cervical cancers. Using patient tissue specimens and cultured keratinocytes, we found that CXCL14 downregulation is linked to CXCL14 promoter hypermethylation induced by the HPV oncoprotein E7. Restoration of Cxcl14 expression in HPV-positive cancer cells clears tumors in immunocompetent syngeneic mice, but not in immunodeficient mice. Mice with Cxcl14 reexpression show dramatically increased natural killer and T cells in the tumor-draining lymph nodes. These results suggest that epigenetic downregulation of CXCL14 by HPV plays an important role in suppressing antitumor immune responses. Our findings may offer novel insights to develop preventive and therapeutic tools for restoring antitumor immune responses in HPV-infected individuals.

Alexiadis M, Chu S, Leung D, et al.
Transcriptomic analysis of stage 1 versus advanced adult granulosa cell tumors.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(12):14207-19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are hormonally-active neoplasms characterized, in the adult-subtype, by a mutation in the FOXL2 gene (C134W). They exhibit an indolent course with an unexplained propensity for late recurrence; ~80% of patients with aggressive, advanced stage tumors die from their disease; aside from surgery, therapeutic options are limited. To identify the molecular basis of advanced stage disease we have used whole transcriptome analysis of FOXL2 C134W mutation positive adult (a)GCT to identify genes that are differentially expressed between early (stage 1) and advanced (stage 3) aGCT. Transcriptome profiles for early (n = 6) and stage 3 (n = 6) aGCT, and for the aGCT-derived KGN, cell line identified 24 genes whose expression significantly differs between the early and stage 3 aGCT. Of these, 16 were more abundantly expressed in the stage 3 aGCT and 8 were higher in the stage 1 tumors. These changes were further examined for the genes which showed the greatest fold change: the cytokine CXCL14, microfibrillar-associated protein 5, insulin-like 3 and desmin. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified overexpression of genes on chromosome 7p15 which includes the homeobox A gene locus. The analysis therefore identifies a small number of genes with clearly discriminate patterns of expression arguing that the clinicopathological-derived distinction of the tumor stage is robust, whilst confirming the relative homogeneity of expression for many genes across the cohort and hence of aGCT. The expression profiles do however identify several overexpressed genes in both stage 1 and/or stage 3 aGCT which warrant further study as possible therapeutic targets.

Zakrzewski K, Jarząb M, Pfeifer A, et al.
Transcriptional profiles of pilocytic astrocytoma are related to their three different locations, but not to radiological tumor features.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:778 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common type of brain tumor in the pediatric population, with a generally favorable prognosis, although recurrences or leptomeningeal dissemination are sometimes also observed. For tumors originating in the supra-or infratentorial location, a different molecular background was suggested, but plausible correlations between the transcriptional profile and radiological features and/or clinical course are still undefined. The purpose of this study was to identify gene expression profiles related to the most frequent locations of this tumor, subtypes based on various radiological features, and the clinical pattern of the disease.
METHODS: Eighty six children (55 males and 31 females) with histologically verified pilocytic astrocytoma were included in this study. Their age at the time of diagnosis ranged from fourteen months to seventeen years, with a mean age of seven years. There were 40 cerebellar, 23 optic tract/hypothalamic, 21 cerebral hemispheric, and two brainstem tumors. According to the radiological features presented on MRI, all cases were divided into four subtypes: cystic tumor with a non-enhancing cyst wall; cystic tumor with an enhancing cyst wall; solid tumor with central necrosis; and solid or mainly solid tumor. In 81 cases primary surgical resection was the only and curative treatment, and in five cases progression of the disease was observed. In 47 cases the analysis was done by using high density oligonucleotide microarrays (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0) with subsequent bioinformatic analyses and confirmation of the results by independent RT-qPCR (on 39 samples).
RESULTS: Bioinformatic analyses showed that the gene expression profile of pilocytic astrocytoma is highly dependent on the tumor location. The most prominent differences were noted for IRX2, PAX3, CXCL14, LHX2, SIX6, CNTN1 and SIX1 genes expression even within different compartments of the supratentorial region. Analysis of the genes potentially associated with radiological features showed much weaker transcriptome differences. Single genes showed association with the tendency to progression.
CONCLUSIONS: Here we have shown that pilocytic astrocytomas of three different locations can be precisely differentiated on the basis of their gene expression level, but their transcriptional profiles does not strongly reflect the radiological appearance of the tumor or the course of the disease.

Sand LG, Scotlandi K, Berghuis D, et al.
CXCL14, CXCR7 expression and CXCR4 splice variant ratio associate with survival and metastases in Ewing sarcoma patients.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(17):2624-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is the second most common sarcoma of bone in children and young adults. Patients with disseminated disease at diagnosis or early relapse have a poor prognosis. Our goal was to identify novel predictive biomarkers for these patients, focusing on chemokines, specifically genes involved in the CXCR4-pathway because of their established role in metastasis and tumour growth.
METHODS: Total RNA isolated from therapy-naïve tumour samples (n=18; panel I) and cell lines (n=21) was used to study expression of CXCR4-pathway related genes and CXCR4 splice variants (CXCR4-2: Small and CXCR4-1: Large) by RT-Q-PCR. Expression levels were correlated to overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS). Study results were validated in an independent series of 26 tumour samples (panel II) from therapy-naïve tumour samples.
RESULTS: CXCL12, CXCR4, CXCR7 and CXCL14 were expressed and high CXCR7 and CXCL14 expression showed a positive correlation with EFS and OS and a negative correlation with metastasis development. Both splice variants CXCR4 were expressed in cell lines and tumour samples and CXCR4-1/CXCR4-2 ratio was significantly higher in tumour samples compared to cell lines and correlated with an improved EFS and OS. The results from the test panel were validated in an independent sample panel.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified a set of genes involved in CXCR4 signalling that may be used as a marker to predict survival and metastasis development in Ewing sarcoma.

den Boon JA, Pyeon D, Wang SS, et al.
Molecular transitions from papillomavirus infection to cervical precancer and cancer: Role of stromal estrogen receptor signaling.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(25):E3255-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To study the multistep process of cervical cancer development, we analyzed 128 frozen cervical samples spanning normalcy, increasingly severe cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN1- CIN3), and cervical cancer (CxCa) from multiple perspectives, revealing a cascade of progressive changes. Compared with normal tissue, expression of many DNA replication/repair and cell proliferation genes was increased in CIN1/CIN2 lesions and further sustained in CIN3, consistent with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced tumor suppressor inactivation. The CIN3-to-CxCa transition showed metabolic shifts, including decreased expression of mitochondrial electron transport complex components and ribosomal protein genes. Significantly, despite clinical, epidemiological, and animal model results linking estrogen and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) to CxCa, ERα expression declined >15-fold from normalcy to cancer, showing the strongest inverse correlation of any gene with the increasing expression of p16, a marker for HPV-linked cancers. This drop in ERα in CIN and tumor cells was confirmed at the protein level. However, ERα expression in stromal cells continued throughout CxCa development. Our further studies localized stromal ERα to FSP1+, CD34+, SMA- precursor fibrocytes adjacent to normal and precancerous CIN epithelium, and FSP1-, CD34-, SMA+ activated fibroblasts in CxCas. Moreover, rank correlations with ERα mRNA identified IL-8, CXCL12, CXCL14, their receptors, and other angiogenesis and immune cell infiltration and inflammatory factors as candidates for ERα-induced stroma-tumor signaling pathways. The results indicate that estrogen signaling in cervical cancer has dramatic differences from ERα+ breast cancers, and imply that estrogen signaling increasingly proceeds indirectly through ERα in tumor-associated stromal fibroblasts.

Lu J, Song G, Tang Q, et al.
IRX1 hypomethylation promotes osteosarcoma metastasis via induction of CXCL14/NF-κB signaling.
J Clin Invest. 2015; 125(5):1839-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor with a propensity to metastasize to the lungs. Epigenetic abnormalities have been demonstrated to underlie osteosarcoma development; however, the epigenetic mechanisms that are involved in metastasis are not yet clear. Here, we analyzed 2 syngeneic primary human osteosarcoma cell lines that exhibit disparate metastatic potential for differences in epigenetic modifications and expression. Using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) and microarray expression analysis to screen for metastasis-associated genes, we identified Iroquois homeobox 1 (IRX1). In both human osteosarcoma cell lines and clinical osteosarcoma tissues, IRX1 overexpression was strongly associated with hypomethylation of its own promoter. Furthermore, experimental modulation of IRX1 in osteosarcoma cell lines profoundly altered metastatic activity, including migration, invasion, and resistance to anoikis in vitro, and influenced lung metastasis in murine models. These prometastatic effects of IRX1 were mediated by upregulation of CXCL14/NF-κB signaling. In serum from osteosarcoma patients, the presence of IRX1 hypomethylation in circulating tumor DNA reduced lung metastasis-free survival. Together, these results identify IRX1 as a prometastatic gene, implicate IRX1 hypomethylation as a potential molecular marker for lung metastasis, and suggest that epigenetic reversion of IRX1 activation may be beneficial for controlling osteosarcoma metastasis.

Lyu XJ, Li HZ, Ma X, et al.
Elevated S100A6 (Calcyclin) enhances tumorigenesis and suppresses CXCL14-induced apoptosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(9):6656-69 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is often resistant to existing therapy. We found elevated S100A6 levels in ccRCC tissues, associated with higher grade pathological features and clinical stages in ccRCC patients. Knockdown of S100A6 inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Gene expression profiling suggests a novel function of S100A6 in suppressing apoptosis, as well as a relationship between S100A6 and CXCL14, a pro-inflammatory chemokine. We suggest that the S100A6/CXCL14 signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic target in ccRCC.

Kou Y, Zhao Y, Bao C, Wang Q
Comparison of Gene Expression Profile Between Tumor Tissue and Adjacent Non-tumor Tissue in Patients with Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST).
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015; 72(2):571-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are defined as spindle cell and/or epithelioid tumors originated from interstitial Cajal cells or precursors in the digestive tract. This study was conducted to identify genes differing in expression between the gastric tumors and the adjacent non-cancerous mucosas in patients with primary gastric GIST. The gene expression profile was determined by using oligonucleotide-based DNA microarrays and further validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis was performed to predict signaling pathways involved in gastric GIST. Our data showed that the expression levels of 957 genes (RAB39B, member RAS oncogene family; VCAN, versican; etc.) were higher and that of 526 genes (CXCL14, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 14; MTUS1, microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1; etc.) were lower in the gastric tumor tissues as compared with normal gastric tissues. Results from KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were enriched into 16 signaling transduction pathways, including Hedeghog and Wnt signaling pathways. Our study may provide basis for identification of novel biomarkers associated with primary gastric GIST pathogenesis and for exploration of underlying mechanisms involved in this gastric sarcoma.

Williams KA, Lee M, Hu Y, et al.
A systems genetics approach identifies CXCL14, ITGAX, and LPCAT2 as novel aggressive prostate cancer susceptibility genes.
PLoS Genet. 2014; 10(11):e1004809 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although prostate cancer typically runs an indolent course, a subset of men develop aggressive, fatal forms of this disease. We hypothesize that germline variation modulates susceptibility to aggressive prostate cancer. The goal of this work is to identify susceptibility genes using the C57BL/6-Tg(TRAMP)8247Ng/J (TRAMP) mouse model of neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed in transgene-positive (TRAMPxNOD/ShiLtJ) F2 intercross males (n = 228), which facilitated identification of 11 loci associated with aggressive disease development. Microarray data derived from 126 (TRAMPxNOD/ShiLtJ) F2 primary tumors were used to prioritize candidate genes within QTLs, with candidate genes deemed as being high priority when possessing both high levels of expression-trait correlation and a proximal expression QTL. This process enabled the identification of 35 aggressive prostate tumorigenesis candidate genes. The role of these genes in aggressive forms of human prostate cancer was investigated using two concurrent approaches. First, logistic regression analysis in two human prostate gene expression datasets revealed that expression levels of five genes (CXCL14, ITGAX, LPCAT2, RNASEH2A, and ZNF322) were positively correlated with aggressive prostate cancer and two genes (CCL19 and HIST1H1A) were protective for aggressive prostate cancer. Higher than average levels of expression of the five genes that were positively correlated with aggressive disease were consistently associated with patient outcome in both human prostate cancer tumor gene expression datasets. Second, three of these five genes (CXCL14, ITGAX, and LPCAT2) harbored polymorphisms associated with aggressive disease development in a human GWAS cohort consisting of 1,172 prostate cancer patients. This study is the first example of using a systems genetics approach to successfully identify novel susceptibility genes for aggressive prostate cancer. Such approaches will facilitate the identification of novel germline factors driving aggressive disease susceptibility and allow for new insights into these deadly forms of prostate cancer.

Hara T, Tanegashima K
CXCL14 antagonizes the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis.
Biomol Concepts. 2014; 5(2):167-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
CXCL12 and CXCL14 are evolutionarily conserved members of the CXC-type chemokine family. CXCL12 binds specifically to the G-protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 to induce the migration of primordial germ cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and inflammation-associated immune cells. In addition, CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling is often enhanced in malignant tumor cells and facilitates increased proliferation as well as metastasis. Although macrophage migration inhibitory factor and extracellular ubiquitin interact with CXCR4 as agonistic factors, CXCL12 was believed to be the sole chemokine ligand for CXCR4. However, a very recent report revealed that CXCL14 binds to CXCR4 with high affinity and efficiently inhibits CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis of hematopoietic progenitor and leukemia-derived cells. CXCL14 does not directly cross-compete with CXCL12 for the CXCR4 binding but instead inactivates CXCR4 via receptor internalization. Because both CXCL12 and CXCL14 are expressed during embryogenesis and brain development in mice, these two chemokines could function in an interactive fashion. We propose that the CXCL14 gene has been conserved from fish to man due to its role in fine-tuning the strength of CXCL12-mediated signal transduction. In addition to its biological implications, the above finding will be important for designing anti-cancer compounds targeting the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis. In fact, a stabilized dimeric peptide containing the C-terminal 51-77 amino acid residues of CXCL14 has been shown to have stronger CXCL12 antagonistic activity than full-length CXCL14.

Lin K, Zou R, Lin F, et al.
Expression and effect of CXCL14 in colorectal carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 10(3):1561-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemokines are important in the proliferation and metastasis of tumors. CXCL14 is a member of the CXCL chemokine family and exhibits various expression patterns in different types of tumor, even those tumors that occur in the same type of tissue. The expression of CXCL14 and its clinical significance in colorectal carcinoma are unclear. In the present study, the expression levels of CXCL14 in colorectal carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Kaplan‑Meier survival curves and the Cox regression model were applied to evaluate the clinical significance of the expression levels of CXCL14 in colorectal carcinoma compared with those in normal tissues. To investigate the effects at a cellular level, a replication‑defective lentivirus overexpressing CXCL14 was constructed and transfected into HT29 colorectal carcinoma cells. The effect of CXCL14 on the proliferation of colorectal carcinoma cells and the change in cell cycle distributions were investigated using a cell counting kit‑8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Results of the current study indicated that the expression levels of CXCL14 mRNA and protein in colorectal carcinoma were markedly reduced compared with levels in normal tissues (P<0.05). The clinical correlation analysis suggested that downregulation of CXCL14 expression in tumors was associated with lymph metastasis, tumor location, and clinicopathological stage (P<0.05). Kaplan‑Meier survival analysis revealed that downregulation of CXCL14 expression was correlated with a poor prognosis (P<0.01). Overexpression of CXCL14 by lentiviral transfection produced an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle in the G1 stage. The data of the current study suggest that CXCL14 may be involved in the development and progression of colorectal carcinoma, and may act directly as a potential cancer suppressor gene. The level of CXCL14 expression may be a valuable adjuvant parameter in predicting the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma and may be a potential therapeutic target.

Wikman H, Westphal L, Schmid F, et al.
Loss of CADM1 expression is associated with poor prognosis and brain metastasis in breast cancer patients.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(10):3076-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) are detected with increasing incidence. In order to detect potential genes involved in BCBM, we first screened for genes down-regulated by methylation in cell lines with site-specific metastatic ability. The expression of five genes, CADM1, SPARC, RECK, TNFAIP3 and CXCL14, which were also found down-regulated in gene expression profiling analyses of BCBM tissue samples, was verified by qRT-PCR in a larger patient cohort. CADM1 was chosen for further down-stream analyses. A higher incidence of CADM1 methylation, correlating with lower expression levels, was found in BCBM as compared to primary BC. Loss of CADM1 protein expression was detected most commonly among BCBM samples as well as among primary tumors with subsequent brain relapse. The prognostic role of CADM1 expression was finally verified in four large independent breast cancer cohorts (n=2136). Loss of CADM1 protein expression was associated with disease stage, lymph node status, and tumor size in primary BC. Furthermore, all analyses revealed a significant association between loss of CADM1 and shorter survival. In multivariate analyses, survival was significantly shorter among patients with CADM1-negative tumors. Loss of CADM1 expression is an independent prognostic factor especially associated with the development of brain metastases in breast cancer patients.

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