CXCL14

Gene Summary

Gene:CXCL14; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 14
Aliases: KEC, KS1, BMAC, BRAK, NJAC, MIP2G, MIP-2g, SCYB14
Location:5q31.1
Summary:This antimicrobial gene belongs to the cytokine gene family which encode secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The protein encoded by this gene is structurally related to the CXC (Cys-X-Cys) subfamily of cytokines. Members of this subfamily are characterized by two cysteines separated by a single amino acid. This cytokine displays chemotactic activity for monocytes but not for lymphocytes, dendritic cells, neutrophils or macrophages. It has been implicated that this cytokine is involved in the homeostasis of monocyte-derived macrophages rather than in inflammation. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-X-C motif chemokine 14
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 5
  • Liver Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • DNA Methylation
  • Promoter Regions
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Signal Transduction
  • Chemokines, CXC
  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Silencing
  • Transcription Factor AP-1
  • Angiogenesis
  • Gene Expression
  • RTPCR
  • Down-Regulation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Lung Cancer
  • Base Sequence
  • Chemokine CXCL12
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Ribonuclease H
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cell Movement
  • Survival Rate
  • Transcription
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Disease Progression
  • VEGFA
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Prostate Cancer
  • rab GTP-Binding Proteins
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CXCL14 (cancer-related)

Eiro N, Fernandez-Gomez J, Sacristán R, et al.
Stromal factors involved in human prostate cancer development, progression and castration resistance.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(2):351-359 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To detect new predictive markers from the prostate cancer tissue, to study the expression by cultured cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of stromal factors implicated in prostate carcinogenesis, and to compare their expressions in localized, metastatic, castration-sensitive (CSCP), castration-resistant prostate tumors (CRCP) as well as in fibroblasts from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genomic expression of 20 stroma-derived factors, including the androgen receptor (AR), growth factors (FGF2, FGF7, FGF10, HGF, TGFβ, PDGFB), protein implicated in invasion (MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-11), inflammation (IL-6, IL-17, STAT-3 and NFκB), stroma/epithelium interaction (CDH11, FAP, CXCL12 and CXCL14) and chaperones (HPA1A and HSF1), was evaluated in cultured fibroblasts both from BHP and prostate carcinomas (PCa). After isolation and culture of fibroblasts by biopsy specimens, RNA was isolated and genomic studies performed.
RESULTS: Finally, 5 BPH and 37 PCa specimens were selected: clinically localized (19), metastatic (5), CSCP (7) and CRPC (6). Interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17RB) was highly expressed in CAFs compared with fibroblasts from BPH. However, metalloproteinase-2 and chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14) were expressed at higher levels by fibroblasts from BPH. The fibroblastic growth factor-7 was highly expressed by CAFs from localized tumors, but metalloproteinase-11 in metastatic tumors. MMP-11, androgen receptor (AR) and heat-shock-70kda-protein-1A (HSPA1A) expressions were significantly higher in CAFs from CRPC.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate a CAFs heterogeneity among prostate carcinomas with regard to some molecular profile expressions that may be relevant in tumor development (IL-17RB), progression (MMP-11) and castration resistance (AR, MMP-11 and HSPA1A).

Mays AC, Feng X, Browne JD, Sullivan CA
Chemokine and Chemokine Receptor Profiles in Metastatic Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):4013-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To characterize the chemokine pattern in metastatic salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to compare chemokine and chemokine receptor gene expression in two SACC cell lines: SACC-83 and SACC-LM (lung metastasis). Chemokines and receptor genes were then screened and their expression pattern characterized in human tissue samples of non-recurrent SACC and recurrent SACC with perineural invasion.
RESULTS: Expression of chemokine receptors C5AR1, CCR1, CCR3, CCR6, CCR7, CCR9, CCR10, CXCR4, CXCR6, CXCR7, CCRL1 and CCRL2 were higher in SACC-83 compared to SACC-LM. CCRL1, CCBP2, CMKLR1, XCR1 and CXCR2 and 6 chemokine genes (CCL13, CCL27, CXCL14, CMTM1, CMTM2, CKLF) were more highly expressed in tissues of patients without tumor recurrence/perineural invasion compared to those with tumor recurrence. CCRL1 (receptor), CCL27, CMTM1, CMTM2, and CKLF (chemokine) genes were more highly expressed in SACC-83 and human tissues of patients without tumor recurrence/perineural invasion.
CONCLUSION: CCRL1, CCL27, CMTM1, CMTM2 and CKLF may play important roles in the development of tumor metastases in SACC.

Liang W, Yang C, Peng J, et al.
The Expression of HSPD1, SCUBE3, CXCL14 and Its Relations with the Prognosis in Osteosarcoma.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015; 73(3):763-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the study was to explore the expression of three genes, HSPD1, SCUBE3, and CXCL14, in osteosarcoma cells and tissue, as well as their association with the prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma. The expression of HSPD1, SCUBE3, and CXCL14 in osteosarcoma cells was detected by using Western blotting method. siRNA was used to knockdown the expression of the three genes. CCK8 cell proliferation assay was used to observe the effect of siRNA interference on U2OS cell proliferation. The expression of the three genes in osteosarcoma tissue was detected employing immunohistochemical method. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare the relations between the expression of the three genes and prognosis. The Western blotting results showed that the expression of Hsp70, SCUBE3 protein, and CXCL14 chemotactic factor in osteosarcoma cells was significantly higher than that in normal osteocytes (p < 0.05). After the three genes were interfered by siRNA, the mRNA and protein expression levels of these genes in osteosarcoma cells were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The growth rate of U2OS cell after the siRNA interference was significantly lower than that before interference and that in the control group transfected with negative control siRNA (p < 0.05). The result of immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expression of Hsp70, SCUBE3 protein, and CXCL14 chemotactic factor in osteosarcoma tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent muscle tissue (p < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the survival rate of the patients with high expression of those three kinds of genes was obviously lower than that of other patients (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the survival rates of patients with high or low expression of two genes (p > 0.05). The expression of HSPD1, SCUBE3, and CXCL14 was all high in osteosarcoma tissues and cells; moreover, the three kinds of genes had close correlations with the prognosis of the patients. Targeted inhibition of these three genes could inhibit the proliferation of the tumor, which may become a new therapeutic target.

Zakrzewski K, Jarząb M, Pfeifer A, et al.
Transcriptional profiles of pilocytic astrocytoma are related to their three different locations, but not to radiological tumor features.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:778 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common type of brain tumor in the pediatric population, with a generally favorable prognosis, although recurrences or leptomeningeal dissemination are sometimes also observed. For tumors originating in the supra-or infratentorial location, a different molecular background was suggested, but plausible correlations between the transcriptional profile and radiological features and/or clinical course are still undefined. The purpose of this study was to identify gene expression profiles related to the most frequent locations of this tumor, subtypes based on various radiological features, and the clinical pattern of the disease.
METHODS: Eighty six children (55 males and 31 females) with histologically verified pilocytic astrocytoma were included in this study. Their age at the time of diagnosis ranged from fourteen months to seventeen years, with a mean age of seven years. There were 40 cerebellar, 23 optic tract/hypothalamic, 21 cerebral hemispheric, and two brainstem tumors. According to the radiological features presented on MRI, all cases were divided into four subtypes: cystic tumor with a non-enhancing cyst wall; cystic tumor with an enhancing cyst wall; solid tumor with central necrosis; and solid or mainly solid tumor. In 81 cases primary surgical resection was the only and curative treatment, and in five cases progression of the disease was observed. In 47 cases the analysis was done by using high density oligonucleotide microarrays (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0) with subsequent bioinformatic analyses and confirmation of the results by independent RT-qPCR (on 39 samples).
RESULTS: Bioinformatic analyses showed that the gene expression profile of pilocytic astrocytoma is highly dependent on the tumor location. The most prominent differences were noted for IRX2, PAX3, CXCL14, LHX2, SIX6, CNTN1 and SIX1 genes expression even within different compartments of the supratentorial region. Analysis of the genes potentially associated with radiological features showed much weaker transcriptome differences. Single genes showed association with the tendency to progression.
CONCLUSIONS: Here we have shown that pilocytic astrocytomas of three different locations can be precisely differentiated on the basis of their gene expression level, but their transcriptional profiles does not strongly reflect the radiological appearance of the tumor or the course of the disease.

Sand LG, Scotlandi K, Berghuis D, et al.
CXCL14, CXCR7 expression and CXCR4 splice variant ratio associate with survival and metastases in Ewing sarcoma patients.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(17):2624-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is the second most common sarcoma of bone in children and young adults. Patients with disseminated disease at diagnosis or early relapse have a poor prognosis. Our goal was to identify novel predictive biomarkers for these patients, focusing on chemokines, specifically genes involved in the CXCR4-pathway because of their established role in metastasis and tumour growth.
METHODS: Total RNA isolated from therapy-naïve tumour samples (n=18; panel I) and cell lines (n=21) was used to study expression of CXCR4-pathway related genes and CXCR4 splice variants (CXCR4-2: Small and CXCR4-1: Large) by RT-Q-PCR. Expression levels were correlated to overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS). Study results were validated in an independent series of 26 tumour samples (panel II) from therapy-naïve tumour samples.
RESULTS: CXCL12, CXCR4, CXCR7 and CXCL14 were expressed and high CXCR7 and CXCL14 expression showed a positive correlation with EFS and OS and a negative correlation with metastasis development. Both splice variants CXCR4 were expressed in cell lines and tumour samples and CXCR4-1/CXCR4-2 ratio was significantly higher in tumour samples compared to cell lines and correlated with an improved EFS and OS. The results from the test panel were validated in an independent sample panel.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified a set of genes involved in CXCR4 signalling that may be used as a marker to predict survival and metastasis development in Ewing sarcoma.

den Boon JA, Pyeon D, Wang SS, et al.
Molecular transitions from papillomavirus infection to cervical precancer and cancer: Role of stromal estrogen receptor signaling.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(25):E3255-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To study the multistep process of cervical cancer development, we analyzed 128 frozen cervical samples spanning normalcy, increasingly severe cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN1- CIN3), and cervical cancer (CxCa) from multiple perspectives, revealing a cascade of progressive changes. Compared with normal tissue, expression of many DNA replication/repair and cell proliferation genes was increased in CIN1/CIN2 lesions and further sustained in CIN3, consistent with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced tumor suppressor inactivation. The CIN3-to-CxCa transition showed metabolic shifts, including decreased expression of mitochondrial electron transport complex components and ribosomal protein genes. Significantly, despite clinical, epidemiological, and animal model results linking estrogen and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) to CxCa, ERα expression declined >15-fold from normalcy to cancer, showing the strongest inverse correlation of any gene with the increasing expression of p16, a marker for HPV-linked cancers. This drop in ERα in CIN and tumor cells was confirmed at the protein level. However, ERα expression in stromal cells continued throughout CxCa development. Our further studies localized stromal ERα to FSP1+, CD34+, SMA- precursor fibrocytes adjacent to normal and precancerous CIN epithelium, and FSP1-, CD34-, SMA+ activated fibroblasts in CxCas. Moreover, rank correlations with ERα mRNA identified IL-8, CXCL12, CXCL14, their receptors, and other angiogenesis and immune cell infiltration and inflammatory factors as candidates for ERα-induced stroma-tumor signaling pathways. The results indicate that estrogen signaling in cervical cancer has dramatic differences from ERα+ breast cancers, and imply that estrogen signaling increasingly proceeds indirectly through ERα in tumor-associated stromal fibroblasts.

Lu J, Song G, Tang Q, et al.
IRX1 hypomethylation promotes osteosarcoma metastasis via induction of CXCL14/NF-κB signaling.
J Clin Invest. 2015; 125(5):1839-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor with a propensity to metastasize to the lungs. Epigenetic abnormalities have been demonstrated to underlie osteosarcoma development; however, the epigenetic mechanisms that are involved in metastasis are not yet clear. Here, we analyzed 2 syngeneic primary human osteosarcoma cell lines that exhibit disparate metastatic potential for differences in epigenetic modifications and expression. Using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) and microarray expression analysis to screen for metastasis-associated genes, we identified Iroquois homeobox 1 (IRX1). In both human osteosarcoma cell lines and clinical osteosarcoma tissues, IRX1 overexpression was strongly associated with hypomethylation of its own promoter. Furthermore, experimental modulation of IRX1 in osteosarcoma cell lines profoundly altered metastatic activity, including migration, invasion, and resistance to anoikis in vitro, and influenced lung metastasis in murine models. These prometastatic effects of IRX1 were mediated by upregulation of CXCL14/NF-κB signaling. In serum from osteosarcoma patients, the presence of IRX1 hypomethylation in circulating tumor DNA reduced lung metastasis-free survival. Together, these results identify IRX1 as a prometastatic gene, implicate IRX1 hypomethylation as a potential molecular marker for lung metastasis, and suggest that epigenetic reversion of IRX1 activation may be beneficial for controlling osteosarcoma metastasis.

Lyu XJ, Li HZ, Ma X, et al.
Elevated S100A6 (Calcyclin) enhances tumorigenesis and suppresses CXCL14-induced apoptosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(9):6656-69 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is often resistant to existing therapy. We found elevated S100A6 levels in ccRCC tissues, associated with higher grade pathological features and clinical stages in ccRCC patients. Knockdown of S100A6 inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Gene expression profiling suggests a novel function of S100A6 in suppressing apoptosis, as well as a relationship between S100A6 and CXCL14, a pro-inflammatory chemokine. We suggest that the S100A6/CXCL14 signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic target in ccRCC.

Kou Y, Zhao Y, Bao C, Wang Q
Comparison of Gene Expression Profile Between Tumor Tissue and Adjacent Non-tumor Tissue in Patients with Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST).
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015; 72(2):571-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are defined as spindle cell and/or epithelioid tumors originated from interstitial Cajal cells or precursors in the digestive tract. This study was conducted to identify genes differing in expression between the gastric tumors and the adjacent non-cancerous mucosas in patients with primary gastric GIST. The gene expression profile was determined by using oligonucleotide-based DNA microarrays and further validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis was performed to predict signaling pathways involved in gastric GIST. Our data showed that the expression levels of 957 genes (RAB39B, member RAS oncogene family; VCAN, versican; etc.) were higher and that of 526 genes (CXCL14, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 14; MTUS1, microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1; etc.) were lower in the gastric tumor tissues as compared with normal gastric tissues. Results from KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were enriched into 16 signaling transduction pathways, including Hedeghog and Wnt signaling pathways. Our study may provide basis for identification of novel biomarkers associated with primary gastric GIST pathogenesis and for exploration of underlying mechanisms involved in this gastric sarcoma.

Williams KA, Lee M, Hu Y, et al.
A systems genetics approach identifies CXCL14, ITGAX, and LPCAT2 as novel aggressive prostate cancer susceptibility genes.
PLoS Genet. 2014; 10(11):e1004809 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although prostate cancer typically runs an indolent course, a subset of men develop aggressive, fatal forms of this disease. We hypothesize that germline variation modulates susceptibility to aggressive prostate cancer. The goal of this work is to identify susceptibility genes using the C57BL/6-Tg(TRAMP)8247Ng/J (TRAMP) mouse model of neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed in transgene-positive (TRAMPxNOD/ShiLtJ) F2 intercross males (n = 228), which facilitated identification of 11 loci associated with aggressive disease development. Microarray data derived from 126 (TRAMPxNOD/ShiLtJ) F2 primary tumors were used to prioritize candidate genes within QTLs, with candidate genes deemed as being high priority when possessing both high levels of expression-trait correlation and a proximal expression QTL. This process enabled the identification of 35 aggressive prostate tumorigenesis candidate genes. The role of these genes in aggressive forms of human prostate cancer was investigated using two concurrent approaches. First, logistic regression analysis in two human prostate gene expression datasets revealed that expression levels of five genes (CXCL14, ITGAX, LPCAT2, RNASEH2A, and ZNF322) were positively correlated with aggressive prostate cancer and two genes (CCL19 and HIST1H1A) were protective for aggressive prostate cancer. Higher than average levels of expression of the five genes that were positively correlated with aggressive disease were consistently associated with patient outcome in both human prostate cancer tumor gene expression datasets. Second, three of these five genes (CXCL14, ITGAX, and LPCAT2) harbored polymorphisms associated with aggressive disease development in a human GWAS cohort consisting of 1,172 prostate cancer patients. This study is the first example of using a systems genetics approach to successfully identify novel susceptibility genes for aggressive prostate cancer. Such approaches will facilitate the identification of novel germline factors driving aggressive disease susceptibility and allow for new insights into these deadly forms of prostate cancer.

Hara T, Tanegashima K
CXCL14 antagonizes the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis.
Biomol Concepts. 2014; 5(2):167-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
CXCL12 and CXCL14 are evolutionarily conserved members of the CXC-type chemokine family. CXCL12 binds specifically to the G-protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 to induce the migration of primordial germ cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and inflammation-associated immune cells. In addition, CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling is often enhanced in malignant tumor cells and facilitates increased proliferation as well as metastasis. Although macrophage migration inhibitory factor and extracellular ubiquitin interact with CXCR4 as agonistic factors, CXCL12 was believed to be the sole chemokine ligand for CXCR4. However, a very recent report revealed that CXCL14 binds to CXCR4 with high affinity and efficiently inhibits CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis of hematopoietic progenitor and leukemia-derived cells. CXCL14 does not directly cross-compete with CXCL12 for the CXCR4 binding but instead inactivates CXCR4 via receptor internalization. Because both CXCL12 and CXCL14 are expressed during embryogenesis and brain development in mice, these two chemokines could function in an interactive fashion. We propose that the CXCL14 gene has been conserved from fish to man due to its role in fine-tuning the strength of CXCL12-mediated signal transduction. In addition to its biological implications, the above finding will be important for designing anti-cancer compounds targeting the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis. In fact, a stabilized dimeric peptide containing the C-terminal 51-77 amino acid residues of CXCL14 has been shown to have stronger CXCL12 antagonistic activity than full-length CXCL14.

Lin K, Zou R, Lin F, et al.
Expression and effect of CXCL14 in colorectal carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 10(3):1561-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemokines are important in the proliferation and metastasis of tumors. CXCL14 is a member of the CXCL chemokine family and exhibits various expression patterns in different types of tumor, even those tumors that occur in the same type of tissue. The expression of CXCL14 and its clinical significance in colorectal carcinoma are unclear. In the present study, the expression levels of CXCL14 in colorectal carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Kaplan‑Meier survival curves and the Cox regression model were applied to evaluate the clinical significance of the expression levels of CXCL14 in colorectal carcinoma compared with those in normal tissues. To investigate the effects at a cellular level, a replication‑defective lentivirus overexpressing CXCL14 was constructed and transfected into HT29 colorectal carcinoma cells. The effect of CXCL14 on the proliferation of colorectal carcinoma cells and the change in cell cycle distributions were investigated using a cell counting kit‑8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Results of the current study indicated that the expression levels of CXCL14 mRNA and protein in colorectal carcinoma were markedly reduced compared with levels in normal tissues (P<0.05). The clinical correlation analysis suggested that downregulation of CXCL14 expression in tumors was associated with lymph metastasis, tumor location, and clinicopathological stage (P<0.05). Kaplan‑Meier survival analysis revealed that downregulation of CXCL14 expression was correlated with a poor prognosis (P<0.01). Overexpression of CXCL14 by lentiviral transfection produced an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle in the G1 stage. The data of the current study suggest that CXCL14 may be involved in the development and progression of colorectal carcinoma, and may act directly as a potential cancer suppressor gene. The level of CXCL14 expression may be a valuable adjuvant parameter in predicting the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma and may be a potential therapeutic target.

Wikman H, Westphal L, Schmid F, et al.
Loss of CADM1 expression is associated with poor prognosis and brain metastasis in breast cancer patients.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(10):3076-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) are detected with increasing incidence. In order to detect potential genes involved in BCBM, we first screened for genes down-regulated by methylation in cell lines with site-specific metastatic ability. The expression of five genes, CADM1, SPARC, RECK, TNFAIP3 and CXCL14, which were also found down-regulated in gene expression profiling analyses of BCBM tissue samples, was verified by qRT-PCR in a larger patient cohort. CADM1 was chosen for further down-stream analyses. A higher incidence of CADM1 methylation, correlating with lower expression levels, was found in BCBM as compared to primary BC. Loss of CADM1 protein expression was detected most commonly among BCBM samples as well as among primary tumors with subsequent brain relapse. The prognostic role of CADM1 expression was finally verified in four large independent breast cancer cohorts (n=2136). Loss of CADM1 protein expression was associated with disease stage, lymph node status, and tumor size in primary BC. Furthermore, all analyses revealed a significant association between loss of CADM1 and shorter survival. In multivariate analyses, survival was significantly shorter among patients with CADM1-negative tumors. Loss of CADM1 expression is an independent prognostic factor especially associated with the development of brain metastases in breast cancer patients.

Fotouhi O, Adel Fahmideh M, Kjellman M, et al.
Global hypomethylation and promoter methylation in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors: an in vivo and in vitro study.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(7):987-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant DNA methylation is a feature of human cancer affecting gene expression and tumor phenotype. Here, we quantified promoter methylation of candidate genes and global methylation in 44 small intestinal-neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) from 33 patients by pyrosequencing. Findings were compared with gene expression, patient outcome and known tumor copy number alterations. Promoter methylation was observed for WIF1, RASSF1A, CTNNB1, CXCL14, NKX2-3, P16, LAMA1, and CDH1. By contrast APC, CDH3, HIC1, P14, SMAD2, and SMAD4 only had low levels of methylation. WIF1 methylation was significantly increased (P = 0.001) and WIF1 expression was reduced in SI-NETs vs. normal references (P = 0.003). WIF1, NKX2-3, and CXCL14 expression was reduced in metastases vs. primary tumors (P<0.02). Low expression of RASSF1A and P16 were associated with poor overall survival (P = 0.045 and P = 0.011, respectively). Global methylation determined by pyrosequencing of LINE1 repeats was reduced in tumors vs. normal references, and was associated with loss in chromosome 18. The tumors fell into three clusters with enrichment of WIF1 methylation and LINE1 hypomethylation in Cluster I and RASSF1A and CTNNB1 methylation and loss in 16q in Cluster II. In Cluster III, these alterations were low-abundant and NKX2-3 methylation was low. Similar analyses in the SI-NET cell lines HC45 and CNDT2 showed methylation for CDH1 and WIF1 and/or P16, CXCL14, NKX2-3, LAMA1, and CTNNB1. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine reduced DNA methylation and increased expression of these genes in vitro. In conclusion, promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes is associated with suppressed gene expression and DNA copy number alterations in SI-NETs, and may be restored in vitro.

Riester M, Wei W, Waldron L, et al.
Risk prediction for late-stage ovarian cancer by meta-analysis of 1525 patient samples.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer causes more than 15000 deaths per year in the United States. The survival of patients is quite heterogeneous, and accurate prognostic tools would help with the clinical management of these patients.
METHODS: We developed and validated two gene expression signatures, the first for predicting survival in advanced-stage, serous ovarian cancer and the second for predicting debulking status. We integrated 13 publicly available datasets totaling 1525 subjects. We trained prediction models using a meta-analysis variation on the compound covariable method, tested models by a "leave-one-dataset-out" procedure, and validated models in additional independent datasets. Selected genes from the debulking signature were validated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in two further independent cohorts of 179 and 78 patients, respectively. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: The survival signature stratified patients into high- and low-risk groups (hazard ratio = 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.84 to 2.61) statistically significantly better than the TCGA signature (P = .04). POSTN, CXCL14, FAP, NUAK1, PTCH1, and TGFBR2 were validated by qRT-PCR (P < .05) and POSTN, CXCL14, and phosphorylated Smad2/3 were validated by immunohistochemistry (P < .001) as independent predictors of debulking status. The sum of immunohistochemistry intensities for these three proteins provided a tool that classified 92.8% of samples correctly in high- and low-risk groups for suboptimal debulking (area under the curve = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.84 to 0.93).
CONCLUSIONS: Our survival signature provides the most accurate and validated prognostic model for early- and advanced-stage high-grade, serous ovarian cancer. The debulking signature accurately predicts the outcome of cytoreductive surgery, potentially allowing for stratification of patients for primary vs secondary cytoreduction.

Takiguchi S, Korenaga N, Inoue K, et al.
Involvement of CXCL14 in osteolytic bone metastasis from lung cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(4):1316-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the molecular mechanisms of lung cancer-induced bone metastasis, we established a bone-seeking subclone (HARA-B4) from a human squamous lung cancer cell line (HARA) using an in vivo selection method. We compared comprehensive gene expression profiles between HARA and HARA-B4, and identified the critical factors for the formation of bone metastasis using in vitro and in vivo assays. The number of bone metastatic colonies in the hind legs was significantly higher in HARA-B4-inoculated mice than in HARA-inoculated mice at 4 weeks after inoculation. In addition, visceral (adrenal) metastases were not found in HARA-B4-inoculated mice at autopsy, suggesting an increase in cancer cell tropism to bone in HARA-B4. Based on a comprehensive gene expression analysis, the expression level of CXC chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14) was 5-fold greater in HARA-B4 than in HARA. Results of a soft agar colony formation assay showed that anchorage-independent growth ability was 4.5-fold higher with HARA-B4 than with HARA. The murine pre-osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 and the pre-osteoclast/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 migrated faster toward cultured HARA-B4 cells than toward HARA cells in a transwell cell migration assay. Interestingly, CXCL14 was shown to be involved in all events (enhancement of cancer cell tropism to the bone, anchorage-independent growth and/or recruitment of bone marrow cells) based on siRNA experiments in HARA-B4 cells. Furthermore, in clinical specimens of lung cancer-induced bone metastasis, expression of CXCL14 was observed in the tumor cells infiltrated in bone marrow in all specimens examined. CXCL14 was able to promote bone metastasis through enhancement of cancer cell tropism to the bone and/or recruitment of bone marrow cells around metastatic cancer cells.

Miyamoto C, Maehata Y, Motohashi K, et al.
Fasudil, a Rho kinase inhibitor, suppresses tumor growth by inducing CXCL14/BRAK in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Biomed Res. 2014; 35(6):381-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
CXCL14/BRAK (BRAK) is a secreted chemokine with anti-tumor activity, and its expression is suppressed in tumor cells. We previously reported the anti-tumor activity of BRAK in cell lines of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and the suppression of BRAK secretion in these cells. BRAK secretion in fibrosarcoma cells is restored by Fasudil, which is a Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. In this study, we examined the anti-tumor effect of BRAK by evaluating its gene expression and protein secretion in HNSCC cell lines. We found that BRAK mediated the suppressive effect of Fasudil against HNSCC cells. Tumor development in female BALB/cAJclnu/nu mice was suppressed by Fasudil. Also secretion of BRAK protein by tumor cell lines in vitro was significantly stimulated by Fasudil treatment. Similarly, the production of BRAK protein was significantly increased by the addition of Fasudil to cultured tumor cells. Furthermore Fasudil significantly increased BRAK gene expression at the mRNA level in HNSCC cell line. Inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway by siRNAs significantly stimulated BRAK gene expression. These results show that the tumor-suppressive effect of Fasudil was mediated by BRAK, suggesting that Fasudil may therefore be useful for the treatment of HNSCC.

Smallridge RC, Chindris AM, Asmann YW, et al.
RNA sequencing identifies multiple fusion transcripts, differentially expressed genes, and reduced expression of immune function genes in BRAF (V600E) mutant vs BRAF wild-type papillary thyroid carcinoma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(2):E338-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CONTEXT: The BRAF V600E mutation (BRAF-MUT) confers an aggressive phenotype in papillary thyroid carcinoma, but unidentified additional genomic abnormalities may be required for full phenotypic expression.
OBJECTIVE: RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to identify genes differentially expressed between BRAF-MUT and BRAF wild-type (BRAF-WT) tumors and to correlate changes to patient clinical status.
DESIGN: BRAF-MUT and BRAF-WT tumors were identified in patients with T1N0 and T2-3N1 tumors evaluated in a referral medical center. Gene expression levels were determined (RNA-Seq) and fusion transcripts were detected. Multiplexed capture/detection and digital counting of mRNA transcripts (nCounter, NanoString Technologies) validated RNA-Seq data for immune system-related genes.
PATIENTS: BRAF-MUT patients included nine women, three men; nine were TNM stage I and three were stage III. Three (25%) had tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. BRAF-WT included five women, three men; all were stage I, and five (62.5%) had tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.
RESULTS: RNA-Seq identified 560 of 13 085 genes differentially expressed between BRAF-MUT and BRAF-WT tumors. Approximately 10% of these genes were related to MetaCore immune function pathways; 51 were underexpressed in BRAF-MUT tumors, whereas 4 (HLAG, CXCL14, TIMP1, IL1RAP) were overexpressed. The four most differentially overexpressed immune genes in BRAF-WT tumors (IL1B; CCL19; CCL21; CXCR4) correlated with lymphocyte infiltration. nCounter confirmed the RNA-Seq expression level data. Eleven different high-confidence fusion transcripts were detected (four interchromosomal; seven intrachromosomal) in 13 of 20 tumors. All in-frame fusions were validated by RT-PCR.
CONCLUSION: BRAF-MUT papillary thyroid cancers have reduced expression of immune/inflammatory response genes compared with BRAF-WT tumors and correlate with lymphocyte infiltration. In contrast, HLA-G and CXCL14 are overexpressed in BRAF-MUT tumors. Sixty-five percent of tumors had between one and three fusion transcripts. Functional studies will be required to determine the potential role of these newly identified genomic abnormalities in contributing to the aggressiveness of BRAF-MUT and BRAF-WT tumors.

Cao B, Yang Y, Pan Y, et al.
Epigenetic silencing of CXCL14 induced colorectal cancer migration and invasion.
Discov Med. 2013; 16(88):137-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To explore epigenetic regulation and the impact of chemokine CXCL14 on colorectal cancer, 7 colorectal cancer cell lines, 107 cases of primary colorectal cancer, and 10 cases of normal colorectal mucosa were evaluated in this study. Methylation specific PCR (MSP), semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), cell proliferation assay, colony formation, and transwell assay were performed for the evaluation. Complete methylation and loss of CXCL14 expression were found in 5 colorectal cancer cell lines. Partial methylation and weak expression were found in two cell lines. CXCL14 was methylated in 79.4% (85/107) of primary human colorectal cancer. No methylation was found in 10 cases of normal colorectal mucosa. Restoration of CXCL14 expression was induced by the 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) treatment. The cell viability was reduced and colony formation was inhibited by restoration of CXCL14 expression in HCT116 cells, a colorectal cancer cell line. The number of invasive and migration cells was reduced by CXCL14. The expression of MMP-2, Vimentin, and NF-κB was suppressed, and the expression of E-cadherin and IκB-α was induced by CXCL14. In conclusion, CXCL14 is frequently methylated in human colorectal cancer and promoter region hypermethylation silenced CXCL14 expression in colorectal cancer cells. Restoration of CXCL14 expression suppressed colorectal cancer proliferation. CXCL14 inhibits colorectal cancer migration, invasion, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by suppressing NF-κB signaling.

Bu D, Lewis CM, Sarode V, et al.
Identification of breast cancer DNA methylation markers optimized for fine-needle aspiration samples.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013; 22(12):2212-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Random periareolar fine-needle aspiration (RP-FNA) is increasingly used in trials of breast cancer prevention for biomarker assessments. DNA methylation markers may have value as surrogate endpoint biomarkers, but this requires identification of biologically relevant markers suitable for paucicellular, lymphocyte-contaminated clinical samples.
METHODS: Unbiased whole-genome 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5AZA)-induced gene expression assays, followed by several phases of qualitative and quantitative methylation-specific PCR (MSP) testing, were used to identify novel breast cancer DNA methylation markers optimized for clinical FNA samples.
RESULTS: The initial 5AZA experiment identified 453 genes whose expression was potentially regulated by promoter region methylation. Informatics filters excluded 273 genes unlikely to yield useful DNA methylation markers. MSP assays were designed for 271 of the remaining genes and, ultimately, 33 genes were identified that were differentially methylated in clinical breast cancer samples, as compared with benign RP-FNA samples, and never methylated in lymphocytes. A subset of these markers was validated by quantitative multiplex MSP in extended clinical sample sets. Using a novel permutation method for analysis of quantitative methylation data, PSAT1, GNE, CPNE8, and CXCL14 were found to correlate strongly with specific clinical and pathologic features of breast cancer. In general, our approach identified markers methylated in a smaller subpopulation of tumor cells than those identified in published methylation array studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinically relevant DNA methylation markers were identified using a 5AZA-induced gene expression approach.
IMPACT: These breast cancer-relevant, FNA-optimized DNA methylation markers may have value as surrogate endpoint biomarkers in RP-FNA studies.

Wang W, Huang P, Zhang L, et al.
Antitumor efficacy of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 14 in hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Cancer Sci. 2013; 104(11):1523-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14) is a novel gene that is expressed in many normal cells but is absent from or expressed at very low levels in cancerous tissues such as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancer. However, the relationship between CXCL14 and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Therefore, the exact function of CXCL14, which may modulate antitumor immune responses in certain cancers, was evaluated. CXCL14 was downregulated in HCC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, overexpression of CXCL14 had an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and inhibited the invasion of HCC cells in vitro. Upregulation of CXCL14 by lentivirus also significantly suppressed the growth of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice in vivo. We further demonstrated that the loss of CXCL14 expression was regulated by promoter hypermethylation. CXCL14 induced tumor cell apoptosis through both the mitochondrial and nuclear apoptosis pathways. CXCL14 suppressed tumor cell proliferation through regulation of the cell cycle by downregulation of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. In conclusion, CXCL14 plays a pivotal role as a potential tumor suppressor in HCC. The re-expression or upregulation of this gene may provide a novel strategy in HCC therapy in the future.

Hu C, Lin F, Zhu G, et al.
Abnormal hypermethylation of promoter region downregulates chemokine CXC ligand 14 expression in gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(5):1487-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
CXCL14, a new member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines, is differentially expressed in several types of tumors. The expression of CXCL14 and its clinical significance in gastric cancer are unclear to date. In this study, the expression of CXCL14 was detected by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry assay. DNA methylation was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing PCR. Student's t-test and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to evaluate the differences of the CXCL14 expression between the groups. Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox regression model were used to evaluate the clinical significance of CXCL14 expression in gastric cancer. Data indicated that the levels of CXCL14 mRNA declined (P<0.001) in gastric carcinoma tissues compared to the paired normal tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed the decrease of CXCL14 protein in the tumor tissue (P<0.001). Analysis of CpG islands methylation in CXCL14 promoter region and first exon area indicated that the abnormal hypermethylation of promoter region in tumor tissue is one of the mechanisms causing the reduction. When gastric cancer cells were demethylated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, CXCL14 expression was restored. Downregulation of CXCL14 was associated with the depth of penetration (P<0.001) and positively correlated with prognosis in stage III/IV (P=0.046). In conclusion, it is possible that CXCL14 is involved in the development and progression of gastric cancer. Hypermethylation in the promoter is one of the reasons that CXCL14 has lower expression in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues. The level of CXCL14 expression may be a valuable adjuvant parameter in predicting the prognosis of gastric cancer patients and, thus, a potential therapeutic target.

Shaykhiev R, Sackrowitz R, Fukui T, et al.
Smoking-induced CXCL14 expression in the human airway epithelium links chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to lung cancer.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013; 49(3):418-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CXCL14, a recently described epithelial cytokine, plays putative multiple roles in inflammation and carcinogenesis. In the context that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are both smoking-related disorders associated with airway epithelial disorder and inflammation, we hypothesized that the airway epithelium responds to cigarette smoking with altered CXCL14 gene expression, contributing to the disease-relevant phenotype. Using genome-wide microarrays with subsequent immunohistochemical analysis, the data demonstrate that the expression of CXCL14 is up-regulated in the airway epithelium of healthy smokers and further increased in COPD smokers, especially within hyperplastic/metaplastic lesions, in association with multiple genes relevant to epithelial structural integrity and cancer. In vitro experiments revealed that the expression of CXCL14 is induced in the differentiated airway epithelium by cigarette smoke extract, and that epidermal growth factor mediates CXCL14 up-regulation in the airway epithelium through its effects on the basal stem/progenitor cell population. Analyses of two independent lung cancer cohorts revealed a dramatic up-regulation of CXCL14 expression in adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma. High expression of the COPD-associated CXCL14-correlating cluster of genes was linked in lung adenocarcinoma with poor survival. These data suggest that the smoking-induced expression of CXCL14 in the airway epithelium represents a novel potential molecular link between smoking-associated airway epithelial injury, COPD, and lung cancer.

Park CR, You DJ, Kim DK, et al.
CXCL14 enhances proliferation and migration of NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells overexpressing the glycoproteins containing heparan sulfate or sialic acid.
J Cell Biochem. 2013; 114(5):1084-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
CXCL14 is a chemokine family member that is involved in various cellular responses in addition to immune cell activation. Although constitutive CXCL14 expression in normal epithelial cells may help protect against infection by activating immune systems, its expression in cancer cells has raised controversy regarding its possible role in tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms for this disparity remain unknown. Investigation of cellular CXCL14 binding properties might increase our understanding of the peptide's roles in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we found that CXCL14 binds to various cell types. Interestingly, binding to NCI-H460 cells was prevented by heparan sulfate and N-acetyl neuraminic acid. Next, we examined effect of CXCL14 binding in NCI-H460 and NCI-H23. CXCL14 enhanced proliferation and migration in NCI-H460 but had no effect on NCI-H23. A reporter gene assay with various transcription factor response elements revealed that only nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling was activated by CXCL14 in NCI-H460 cells, which was blocked by BAPTA-AM, TPCA-1, and brefeldin A. Exogenous expression of some glycoproteins such as syndecan-4, podoplanin, and CD43 in these cells enhanced CXCL14 binding and NF-κB activity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that CXCL14 binding to glycoproteins harboring heparan sulfate proteoglycans and sialic acids leads proliferation and migration of some cancer cells.

Wang Y, Alam GN, Ning Y, et al.
The unfolded protein response induces the angiogenic switch in human tumor cells through the PERK/ATF4 pathway.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(20):5396-406 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neovascularization is a limiting factor in tumor growth and progression. It is well known that changes in the tumor microenvironment, such as hypoxia and glucose deprivation (GD), can induce VEGF production. However, the mechanism linking GD to tumor growth and angiogenesis is unclear. We hypothesize that GD induces the angiogenic switch in tumors through activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We report that UPR activation in human tumors results in elevated expression of proangiogenic mediators and a concomitant decrease in angiogenesis inhibitors. cDNA microarray results showed that GD-induced UPR activation promoted upregulation of a number of proangiogenic mediators (VEGF, FGF-2, IL-6, etc.) and downregulation of several angiogenic inhibitors (THBS1, CXCL14, and CXCL10). In vitro studies revealed that partially blocking UPR signaling by silencing protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) or activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) significantly reduced the production of angiogenesis mediators induced by GD. However, suppressing the alpha subunit of hypoxia-inducible factors had no effect on this process. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) confirmed binding of ATF4 to a regulatory site in the VEGF gene. In vivo results confirmed that knockdown of PERK in tumor cells slows down tumor growth and decreases tumor blood vessel density. Collectively, these results show that the PERK/ATF4 arm of UPR mediates the angiogenic switch and is a potential target for antiangiogenic cancer therapy.

Gu XL, Ou ZL, Lin FJ, et al.
Expression of CXCL14 and its anticancer role in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 135(3):725-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
CXCL14, also known as breast and kidney-expressed chemokine, was initially identified as a chemokine highly expressed in the kidney and breast. The exact function of CXCL14 in human breast cancer is still unclear, although it has been testified to play an anti-tumor role in other tumors, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and so on. In this study, we tried to demonstrate the relationship between CXCL14 and breast cancer. CXCL14 expressions were detected by reverse transcription-PCR and western blot in 2 normal breast epithelial cell lines and 6 breast cancer cell lines. The effects of CXCL14 on the proliferation and invasion in vitro were tested using the CXCL14-overexpressing cells (MDA-MB-231HM-CXCL14) which were established by stable transfection. We established an orthotropic xenograft tumor model in SCID mice using the MDA-MB-231HM-CXCL14 cells and explored the influence of CXCL14 overexpression on tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, we detected the protein level of CXCL14 in 208 breast cancer patients by immunohistochemistry and discussed the correlation between CXCL14 and the prognosis of breast cancer. CXCL14 mRNA expression is lower in breast cancer cell lines, and MDA-MB-231HM express the lowest levels of CXCL14 mRNA. Overexpression of CXCL14 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and attenuated xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. CXCL14 protein level is positively correlated to the overall survival of all patients as well as the patients with lymph node metastasis, and it has a negative correlation with the lymph node metastasis. Our study showed for the first time that CXCL14 is a negative regulator of growth and metastasis in breast cancer. The re-expression or up-regulation of this gene may provide a novel strategy in breast cancer therapy in the future.

Stieler K, Schumacher U, Horst AK, Fischer N
XMRV induces cell migration, cytokine expression and tumor angiogenesis: are 22Rv1 cells a suitable prostate cancer model?
PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e42321 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
22Rv1 is a common prostate cancer cell line used in xenograft mouse experiments as well as in vitro cell culture assays to study aspects of prostate cancer tumorigenesis. Recently, this cell line was shown to harbor multiple copies of a gammaretrovirus, called XMRV, integrated in its genome. While the original prostate cancer xenograft CWR22 is free of any retrovirus, subsequently generated cell lines 22Rv1 and CWR-R1, carry this virus and additionally shed infectious gammaretroviral particles in their supernatant. Although XMRV most likely was generated by recombination events in cell culture this virus has been demonstrated to infect human cells in vitro and 22Rv1 as well as CWR-R1 cells are now considered biosafety 2 reagents. Here, we demonstrate that 22Rv1 cells with reduced retroviral transcription show reduced tumor angiogenesis and increased necrosis of the primary tumor derived from xenografted cells in scid mice when compared to the parental cell line. The presence of XMRV transcripts significantly increases secretion of osteopontin (OPN), CXCL14, IL13 and TIMP2 in 22Rv1 cells. Furthermore, these data are supported by in vitro cell invasion and differentiation assays. Collectively, our data suggest that the presence of XMRV transcripts at least partially contributes to 22Rv1 characteristics observed in vitro and in vivo with regard to migration, invasion and tumor angiogenesis. We propose that data received with 22Rv1 cells or equivalent cells carrying xenotropic gammaretroviruses should be carefully controlled including other prostate cancer cell lines tested for viral sequences.

van der Horst PH, Wang Y, Vandenput I, et al.
Progesterone inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e30840 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Every year approximately 74,000 women die of endometrial cancer, mainly due to recurrent or metastatic disease. The presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) as well as progesterone receptor (PR) positivity has been correlated with improved prognosis. This study describes two mechanisms by which progesterone inhibits metastatic spread of endometrial cancer: by stimulating T-cell infiltration and by inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT).
METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Paraffin sections from patients with (n = 9) or without (n = 9) progressive endometrial cancer (recurrent or metastatic disease) were assessed for the presence of CD4+ (helper), CD8+ (cytotoxic) and Foxp3+ (regulatory) T-lymphocytes and PR expression. Progressive disease was observed to be associated with significant loss of TILs and loss of PR expression. Frozen tumor samples, used for genome-wide expression analysis, showed significant regulation of pathways involved in immunesurveillance, EMT and metastasis. For a number of genes, such as CXCL14, DKK1, DKK4, PEG10 and WIF1, quantitive RT-PCR was performed to verify up- or downregulation in progressive disease. To corroborate the role of progesterone in regulating invasion, Ishikawa (IK) endometrial cancer cell lines stably transfected with PRA (IKPRA), PRB (IKPRB) and PRA+PRB (IKPRAB) were cultured in presence/absence of progesterone (MPA) and used for genome-wide expression analysis, Boyden- and wound healing migration assays, and IHC for known EMT markers. IKPRB and IKPRAB cell lines showed MPA induced inhibition of migration and loss of the mesenchymal marker vimentin at the invasive front of the wound healing assay. Furthermore, pathway analysis of significantly MPA regulated genes showed significant down regulation of important pathways involved in EMT, immunesuppression and metastasis: such as IL6-, TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
CONCLUSION: Intact progesterone signaling in non-progressive endometrial cancer seems to be an important factor stimulating immunosurveilance and inhibiting transition from an epithelial to a more mesenchymal, more invasive phenotype.

Sung CO, Lee KW, Han S, Kim SH
Twist1 is up-regulated in gastric cancer-associated fibroblasts with poor clinical outcomes.
Am J Pathol. 2011; 179(4):1827-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Stromal fibroblasts perform important roles in cancer development and progression. Overexpression of Twist1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is often associated with aggressive behavior in many tumors. In this study, we investigated Twist1 expression patterns in gastric stromal fibroblasts and cancer cells using a monoclonal Twist1 antibody after validating the effectiveness of four commercial Twist1-specific antibodies. Twist1 expression was more frequently observed in gastric cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) than in other cancer cells but was otherwise rarely expressed in noncancerous tissue. In laser capture microdissection of stromal fibroblasts, Twist1 immunopositive fibroblasts exhibited significantly increased Twist1, fibroblast-specific protein 1, and CXCL14 mRNA expression. Furthermore, Twist1 mRNA expression showed a significant linear correlation with that of platelet-derived growth factor receptors β and α. We found that conditioned media from Twist1-expressing skin and lung fibroblasts significantly promote invasion of gastric cancer cells in vitro. In 195 gastric cancer samples, CAF Twist1 expression was associated with tumor size, invasion depth, and lymph node metastasis. Twist1 was also associated with poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer, particularly in those with the diffuse type. In conclusion, CAFs in gastric cancer frequently have altered Twist1 expression, and increased Twist1 expression in fibroblasts contributes to the progression of cancer cells and poor patient survival.

Gu X, Wang H, Wang A, et al.
An intronic polymorphism rs2237062 in the CXCL14 gene influences HBV-related HCC progression in Chinese population.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(2):797-803 [PubMed] Related Publications
CXCL14 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 14) is a conserved member of chemokine family and functions as a chemoattractant for multiplicate immunocytes. CXCL14 expression is constitutive in normal tissues, but absent in wide range of epithelial tumors. Many reports have claimed its important role in tumorigenesis and vascularization. An association between rs2237062 polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptibility was found in patients with chronic HCV infection in Japanese population. Here we analyzed, by using a polymerase chain reaction-ligation detection reaction (PCR-LDR), the polymorphism in 202 non-HCC patients with HBV infection, 361 HBV-related HCC patients and 407 healthy controls. The aim was to detect the possible association of this single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with HBV-related HCC susceptibility and progression. However, no association was found between rs2237062 polymorphism and susceptibility to HBV infection or HBV-related HCC. Intriguingly, our stratification analysis revealed that HBV-related HCC patients in advanced phase (TNM-II-IV stage) had significantly higher C allele frequency at this polymorphism than patients at early stage (TNM-I stage) (33.5% vs. 25.7%), and its odds ratio reached 1.47 (95% CI 1.06-2.04, P = 0.021). These results suggest that the rs2237062 polymorphism in the CXCL14 gene might influence HBV-related HCC progression in Chinese population.

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