Gene Summary

Gene:GADD45B; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible beta
Aliases: MYD118, GADD45BETA
Summary:This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. The genes in this group respond to environmental stresses by mediating activation of the p38/JNK pathway. This activation is mediated via their proteins binding and activating MTK1/MEKK4 kinase, which is an upstream activator of both p38 and JNK MAPKs. The function of these genes or their protein products is involved in the regulation of growth and apoptosis. These genes are regulated by different mechanisms, but they are often coordinately expressed and can function cooperatively in inhibiting cell growth. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 beta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: GADD45B (cancer-related)

Yan L, Zhan C, Wang S, et al.
Genetic analysis of radiation-specific biomarkers in sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12001-12009 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the gene expression profiles of radiation-sensitive (RS) and radiation-resistant (RR) sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) and to identify prognostic markers for the radiation reaction of SNSCC. We first examined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in RS and RR SNSCC tissues by analyzing clinical samples with GeneChip Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 (HTA 2.0).To understand the functional significance of the molecular changes, we examined the DEGs with Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analyses to identify the core genes. The expression of several core genes (CCND2, COL5A2, GADD45B, and THBS2) was confirmed with reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in a larger series of tissues. We identified 208 DEGs, of which 76 were upregulated and 132 downregulated in the RS tissues relative to the RR tissues. The DEGs were mainly involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, the NF-kappaB signaling pathway, the cell adhesion molecule signaling pathway, and the extracellular matrix-receptor interaction signaling pathway. RT-qPCR confirmed that the CCND2, COL5A2, GADD45B, and THBS2 genes were significantly differentially expressed in the RS and RR tissues, consistent with the GeneChip data. These results extend our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the sensitivity of SNSCC to radiation. The DEGs are involved in the differential response to radiation therapy and the dysregulated core genes identified in this study can be used to predict radiation sensitivity in SNSCC.

Sajadian SO, Tripura C, Samani FS, et al.
Vitamin C enhances epigenetic modifications induced by 5-azacytidine and cell cycle arrest in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HLE and Huh7.
Clin Epigenetics. 2016; 8:46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: 5-Azacytidine (5-AZA), a DNA methyl transferase inhibitor, is a clinically used epigenetic drug for cancer therapy. Recently, we have shown that 5-AZA upregulates ten-eleven translocation (TET) protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, which induce active demethylation. Vitamin C facilitates TET activity and enhances active demethylation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether vitamin C is able to enhance the effect of 5-AZA on active demethylation and to evaluate its consequence in HCC cell lines.
METHODS: HCC cell lines (Huh7 and HLE) were treated with 5-AZA and vitamin C. After 48 h of treatment, viability (resazurin conversion), toxicity (lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) release), and proliferation ((proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)) of single- and combined-treated cells were assessed. The effect of the treatment on 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) intensity (immunofluorescence (IF) staining), TET, Snail, GADD45B, and P21 mRNA (real-time PCR) and protein expression (Western blot) were investigated.
RESULTS: Our results indicated that vitamin C enhances the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effect of 5-AZA in HCC cell lines. By further analyzing the events leading to cell cycle arrest, we have shown for the first time in HCC that the combination of 5-AZA and vitamin C leads to an enhanced downregulation of Snail expression, a key transcription factor governing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, and cell cycle arrest.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that when combined with 5-AZA, vitamin C enhances TET activity in HCC cells, leading to induction of active demethylation. An increase in P21 expression as a consequence of downregulation of Snail accompanied by the induction of GADD45B expression is the main mechanism leading to cell cycle arrest in HCCs.

Bjarnadottir O, Kimbung S, Johansson I, et al.
Global Transcriptional Changes Following Statin Treatment in Breast Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(15):3402-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Statins purportedly exert antitumoral effects, but the underlying mechanisms are currently not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore potential statin-induced effects on global gene expression profiles in primary breast cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This window-of-opportunity phase II trial enrolled 50 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients prescribed atorvastatin (80 mg/day) for 2 weeks presurgically. Pre- and posttreatment tumor samples were analyzed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) to identify differentially expressed genes. Similarly, SAM and gene ontology analyses were applied to gene expression data derived from atorvastatin-treated breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, BT474, SKBR3, and MDAMB231) comparing treated and untreated cells. The Systematic Motif Analysis Retrieval Tool (SMART) was used to identify enriched transcription factor-binding sites. Literature Vector Analysis (LitVAn) identified gene module functionality, and pathway analysis was performed using GeneGo Pathways Software (MetaCore;
RESULTS: Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles in paired clinical samples revealed 407 significantly differentially expressed genes (FDR = 0); 32 upregulated and 375 downregulated genes. Restricted filtration (fold change ≥1.49) resulted in 21 upregulated and 46 downregulated genes. Significantly upregulated genes included DUSP1, RHOB1, GADD45B, and RGS1. Pooled results from gene ontology, LitVAn and SMART analyses identified statin-induced effects on the apoptotic and MAPK pathways among others. Comparative analyses of gene expression profiles in breast cancer cell lines showed significant upregulation of the mevalonate and proapoptotic pathways following atorvastatin treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: We report potential statin-induced changes in global tumor gene expression profiles, indicating MAPK pathway inhibition and proapoptotic events.

Yamada T, Okuda Y, Kushida M, et al.
Human hepatocytes support the hypertrophic but not the hyperplastic response to the murine nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogen sodium phenobarbital in an in vivo study using a chimeric mouse with humanized liver.
Toxicol Sci. 2014; 142(1):137-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
High doses of sodium phenobarbital (NaPB), a constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator, have been shown to produce hepatocellular tumors in rodents by a mitogenic mode of action (MOA) involving CAR activation. The effect of 1-week dietary treatment with NaPB on liver weight and histopathology, hepatic CYP2B enzyme activity and CYP2B/3A mRNA expression, replicative DNA synthesis and selected genes related to cell proliferation, and functional transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses was studied in male CD-1 mice, Wistar Hannover (WH) rats, and chimeric mice with human hepatocytes. The treatment of chimeric mice with 1000-1500-ppm NaPB resulted in plasma levels around 3-5-fold higher than those observed in human subjects given therapeutic doses of NaPB. NaPB produced dose-dependent increases in hepatic CYP2B activity and CYP2B/3A mRNA levels in all animal models. Integrated functional metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses demonstrated that the responses to NaPB in the human liver were clearly different from those in rodents. Although NaPB produced a dose-dependent increase in hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis in CD-1 mice and WH rats, no increase in replicative DNA synthesis was observed in human hepatocyte-originated areas of chimeric mice. In addition, treatment with NaPB had no effect on Ki-67, PCNA, GADD45β, and MDM2 mRNA expression in chimeric mice, whereas significant increases were observed in CD-1 mice and/or WH rats. However, increases in hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis were observed in chimeric mice both in vivo and in vitro after treatment epidermal growth factor. Thus, although NaPB could activate CAR in both rodent and human hepatocytes, NaPB did not increase replicative DNA synthesis in human hepatocytes of chimeric mice, whereas it was mitogenic to rat and mouse hepatocytes. As human hepatocytes are refractory to the mitogenic effects of NaPB, the MOA for NaPB-induced rodent liver tumor formation is thus not relevant for humans.

Wu SH, Hsiao YT, Chen JC, et al.
Bufalin alters gene expressions associated DNA damage, cell cycle, and apoptosis in human lung cancer NCI-H460 cells in vitro.
Molecules. 2014; 19(5):6047-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death and there is no effective treatment to date. Bufalin has been shown effective in inducing apoptosis and DNA damage in lung cancer cells. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying these actions have not been elucidated yet. Cultured NCI-H460 cells were treated with or without 2 μM of bufalin for 24 h. The total RNA was extracted from each treatment for cDNA synthesis and labeling, microarray hybridization, and then followed by flour-labeled cDNA hybridized on chip. The localized concentrations of fluorescent molecules were detected and quantitated and analyzed by Expression Console software (Affymetrix) with default RMA parameters. The key genes involved and their possible interaction pathways were mapped by GeneGo software. About 165 apoptosis-related genes were affected. CASP9 was up-regulated by 5.51 fold and THAP1 by 2.75-fold while CCAR1 was down-regulated by 2.24 fold. 107 genes related to DNA damage/repair were affected. MDC1 was down-regulated by 2.22-fold, DDIT4 by 2.52 fold while GADD45B up-regulated by 3.72 fold. 201 genes related to cell cycles were affected. CCPG1 was down-regulated by 2.11 fold and CDCA7L by 2.71 fold. Many genes about apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and DNA repair are changed significantly following bufalin treatment in NCI-H460 cells. These changes provide an in depth understanding of cytotoxic mechanism of bufalin in genetic level and also offer many potentially useful biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer in future.

Hsu YC, Chen MJ, Huang TY
Inducement of mitosis delay by cucurbitacin E, a novel tetracyclic triterpene from climbing stem of Cucumis melo L., through GADD45γ in human brain malignant glioma (GBM) 8401 cells.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1087 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is a natural compound previously shown to have anti-feedant, antioxidant and antitumor activities as well as a potent chemo-preventive action against cancer. The present study investigates its anti-proliferative property using MTT assay; CuE demonstrated cytotoxic activity against malignant glioma GBM 8401 cells and induced cell cycle G2/M arrest in these cells. CuE-treated cells accumulated in metaphase (CuE 2.5-10 μM) as determined using MPM-2 by flow cytometry. We attempted to characterize the molecular pathways responsible for cytotoxic effects of CuE in GBM 8401 cells. We studied the genome-wide gene expression profile on microarrays and molecular networks by using pathway analysis tools of bioinformatics. The CuE reduced the expression of 558 genes and elevated the levels of 1354 genes, suggesting an existence of the common pathways involved in induction of G2/M arrest. We identified the RB (GADD45β and GADD45γ) and the p53 (GADD45α) signaling pathways as the common pathways, serving as key molecules that regulate cell cycle. Results indicate that CuE produced G2/M arrest as well as the upregulation of GADD45 γ and binding with CDC2. Both effects increased proportionally with the dose of CuE, suggesting that the CuE-induced mitosis delay is regulated by GADD45γ overexpression. Our findings suggest that, in addition to the known effects on cancer prevention, CuE may have antitumor activity in glioma therapy.

Ma L, Liu J, Liu L, et al.
Overexpression of the transcription factor MEF2D in hepatocellular carcinoma sustains malignant character by suppressing G2-M transition genes.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(5):1452-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
The underlying molecular pathogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma remains poorly understood. The transcription factor MEF2D promotes survival in various cell types and it seems to function as an oncogene in leukemia. However, its potential contributions to solid cancers have not been explored. In this study, we investigated MEF2D expression and function in hepatocellular carcinoma, finding that MEF2D elevation in hepatocellular carcinoma clinical specimens was associated with poor prognosis. MEF2D-positive primary hepatocellular carcinoma cells displayed a faster proliferation rate compared with MEF2D-negative cells, and silencing or promoting MEF2D expression in these settings limited or accelerated cell proliferation, respectively. Notably, MEF2D-silencing abolished hepatocellular carcinoma tumorigenicity in mouse xenograft models. Mechanistic investigations revealed that MEF2D-silencing triggered G2-M arrest in a manner associated with direct downregulation of the cell-cycle regulatory genes RPRM, GADD45A, GADD45B, and CDKN1A. Furthermore, we identified MEF2D as an authentic target of miR-122, the reduced expression of which in hepatocellular carcinoma may be responsible for MEF2D upregulation. Together, our results identify MEF2D as a candidate oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma and a potential target for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

Wang SS, Hsiao R, Limpar MM, et al.
Destabilization of MYC/MYCN by the mitochondrial inhibitors, metaiodobenzylguanidine, metformin and phenformin.
Int J Mol Med. 2014; 33(1):35-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effects of the mitochondrial inhibitors, metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), metformin and phenformin. 131I-MIBG has been used for scintigraphic detection and the targeted radiotherapy of neuroblastoma (NB), a pediatric malignancy. Non-radiolabeled MIBG has been reported to be cytotoxic to NB cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanisms behind its growth suppressive effects have not yet been fully elucidated. Metformin and phenformin are diabetes medications that are being considered in anticancer therapeutics. We investigated the anticancer mechanisms of action of MIBG and metformin in NB. Our data revealed that both drugs suppressed NB cell growth and that the combination drug treatment was more potent. MIBG reduced MYCN and MYC expression in MYCN-amplified and non-MYCN-amplified NB cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Metformin was less effective than MIBG in destabilizing MYC/MYCN. The treatment of NB cells with metformin or MIBG resulted in an increased expression of genes encoding biomarkers for favorable outcome in NB [(ephrin (EFN)B2, EFNB3, EPH receptor B6 (EPHB6), neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 1 (NTRK1), CD44 and Myc-interacting zinc finger protein (MIZ-1)] and tumor suppressor genes [(early growth response 1 (EGR1), EPH receptor A2 (EPHA2), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, beta (GADD45B), neuregulin 1 (NRG1), TP53 apoptosis effector (PERP) and sel-1 suppressor of lin-12-like (C. elegans) (SEL1L)]. Accordingly, metformin and MIBG augmented histone H3 acetylation in these cells. Phenformin also exhibited histone modification and was more effective than metformin in destabilizing MYC/MYCN in NB cells. Our data suggest that the destabilization of MYC/MYCN by MIBG, metformin and phenformin and their effects on histone modification are important mechanisms underlying their anticancer effects.

Tian J, Locker J
Gadd45 in the liver: signal transduction and transcriptional mechanisms.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013; 793:69-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Injury and growth stimulation both remarkably increase the hepatic expression of Gadd45β. In liver cancer, promoter methylation frequently silences Gadd45β, demonstrating due to a suppressive function that is often proapoptotic. This contrasts with normal hepatocytes, where Gadd45β facilitates cell survival, growth, and proliferation. Gadd45β binds MKK7-downstream of TNFα and its receptors-to prevent this kinase from activating JNK2. Hence, the Gadd45b-/- genotype increases cell injury and decreases cell proliferation during liver regeneration (i.e., compensatory growth and proliferation). Liver hyperplasia (i.e., de novo growth and proliferation) is an alternate form of growth, caused by drugs that activate the nuclear receptor, CAR. As in regeneration, the Gadd45b-/- genotype considerably slows growth during hyperplasia. However, there is no injury and the slowing occurs because Gadd45β normally binds to CAR and activates its transcriptional stimulation. Thus, Gadd45β protects the liver through two entirely different processes: binding MKK7 to block damaging signal transduction or binding CAR to coactivate anabolic transcription.

Hoffman B, Liebermann DA
Gadd45 in modulation of solid tumors and leukemia.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013; 793:21-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
The stress response gadd45 gene family participates in cell cycle control, cell survival, apoptosis, maintenance of genomic stability, DNA repair, and active DNA demethylation, in response to environmental and physiological stress including oncogenic stress. Given these diverse functions, it is anticipated that gadd45 genes can influence the initiation and progression of malignancy and the response to different treatments. This chapter will provide an overview of how the different members of the gadd45 gene family are expressed in different tumors and leukemia, how this may impact on progression of disease, and what happens when expression is manipulated. Studies from human tumor/leukemia samples, cell lines, and animal models are included in this review. An overriding theme is that each of the gadd45 genes has both tumor suppressor and tumor promoter functions, dependent on the tissue/cell type and transforming event.

Salvador JM, Brown-Clay JD, Fornace AJ
Gadd45 in stress signaling, cell cycle control, and apoptosis.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013; 793:1-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
The first identified Gadd45 gene, Gadd45a, encodes a ubiquitously expressed protein that is often induced by DNA damage and other stress signals associated with growth arrest and apoptosis. This protein and the other two members of this small gene family, Gadd45b and Gadd45g, have been implicated in a variety of the responses to cell injury including cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis, and DNA repair. In vivo, many of the prominent roles for the Gadd45 proteins are associated with signaling mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Gadd45 proteins can contribute to p38 activation either by activation of upstream kinase(s) or by direct interaction. In vivo, there are important tissue and cell-type-specific differences in the roles for Gadd45 in MAPK signaling. In addition to being p53-regulated, Gadd45a has been found to contribute to p53 activation via p38. Like other stress and signaling proteins, Gadd45 proteins show complex regulation and numerous effectors.

Zhou Y, Zhang X, Klibanski A
Genetic and epigenetic mutations of tumor suppressive genes in sporadic pituitary adenoma.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014; 386(1-2):16-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human pituitary adenomas are the most common intracranial neoplasms. Approximately 5% of them are familial adenomas. Patients with familial tumors carry germline mutations in predisposition genes, including AIP, MEN1 and PRKAR1A. These mutations are extremely rare in sporadic pituitary adenomas, which therefore are caused by different mechanisms. Multiple tumor suppressive genes linked to sporadic tumors have been identified. Their inactivation is caused by epigenetic mechanisms, mainly promoter hypermethylation, and can be placed into two groups based on their functional interaction with tumor suppressors RB or p53. The RB group includes CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, RB1, BMP4, CDH1, CDH13, GADD45B and GADD45G; AIP and MEN1 genes also belong to this group. The p53 group includes MEG3, MGMT, PLAGL1, RASSF1, RASSF3 and SOCS1. We propose that the tumor suppression function of these genes is mainly mediated by the RB and p53 pathways. We also discuss possible tumor suppression mechanisms for individual genes.

Rongrui L, Na H, Zongfang L, et al.
Epigenetic mechanism involved in the HBV/HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma tumorigenesis.
Curr Pharm Des. 2014; 20(11):1715-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were known to be risk factors for HCC, they were suspected to promote its development by eliciting epigenetic changes. However, the precise gene targets and underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression has emerged as a fundamental aspect of cancer development and progression. The molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma involve a complex interplay of both genetic and epigenetic factors. DNA methylation, post-translational modifications of histone proteins, chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs are four major types of mechanistic layers in the field of epigenetics. HBV infection could affect methylation on p16(INK4A), GSTP1, CDH1(E-cadherin), RASSF1A, p21(WAF1/CIP1) genes, which may play important roles in the development of HCC. HCV infection was related to aberrant methylation on SOCS-1, Gadd45β, MGMT, STAT1 and APC. Other epigenetic alterations included histone proteins, chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs were described in literature. Uncovering the epigenetic alterations of HBV/HCV-induced HCC carcinogenesis could highlight a new strategy for deciphering the mechanism of HCC tumorigenesis and development, as well as a potential diagnostic advantage.

Guo W, Zhu T, Dong Z, et al.
Decreased expression and aberrant methylation of Gadd45G is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2013; 30(8):977-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
The growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene (Gadd45) family, which is composed of Gadd45A, Gadd45B, and Gadd45G, is involved in DNA damage response and cell growth arrest. The present study was to detect the role of Gadd45 gene family in esophageal cancer and the relationship of Gadd45G methylation to a series of pathological parameters in a large esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) sample, in order to elucidate more information on the role of Gadd45 gene family with regard to the pathogenesis of ESCC. Frequent silencing of Gadd45G but not Gadd45A and Gadd45B were found in esophageal cancer cell lines and the silencing of Gadd45G may be reversed by 5-Aza-dC or TSA treatment in Eca109 cell line. The aberrant proximal promoter methylation of Gadd45G induces silencing of Gadd45G expression in Eca109 cell line. Gadd45A mRNA and protein expression in ESCC tumor tissues was significantly different compared to corresponding normal tissues. Decreased mRNA and protein expression of Gadd45G was observed in ESCC tumor tissues and was associated with Gadd45G proximal promoter methylation. Gadd45A or Gadd45B expression was not correlated with ESCC patients survival, while Gadd45G methylation status and protein expression were independently associated with ESCC patients' survival. These data indicated that Gadd45G may be a functional tumor suppressor and its inactivation through proximal promoter methylation may play an important role in ESCC carcinogenesis and reactivation of Gadd45G gene may has therapeutic potential and may be used as a prognostic marker for ESCC patients.

Liu Y, Lou G, Wu W, et al.
Interferon-α sensitizes HBx-expressing hepatocarcinoma cells to chemotherapeutic drugs through inhibition of HBx-mediated NF-κB activation.
Virol J. 2013; 10:168 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high chemotherapy resistance; however, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. In addition, HBx protein has been reported to play a key role in virus-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the role of HBx in the drug-resistance of HBV-related HCC and examine whether such drug-resistance can be reversed by IFN-α treatment.
METHODS: We established HBx-expressing cells by liposome-mediated transfection of HBx into the Huh7 cell line. MTT, Annexin V/PI, and cell cycle assay were used for determining the cellular growth inhibition, apoptosis, and growth arrest, respectively, after treatment with chemical drug. We further used tumor-bearing mice model to compare the tumor growth inhibition efficacy of ADM and 5-FU between the Huh7-HBx group and the control group, as well as the ADM + IFN-α or ADM + IMD treated group and the ADM treated group. SQ-Real time-PCR was performed to analyze the expression of MDR-associated genes and anti-apoptotic genes. Moreover, immunofluorescence and Western blotting were used to determine the subcellular localization of p65 and the phosphorylation of IκBα.
RESULTS: The IC₅₀ values of Huh7-HBx cells against ADM and Amn were 2.317 and 1.828-folds higher than those of Huh7-3.1 cells, respectively. The apoptosis ratio and growth arrest was significantly lower in Huh7-HBx cells after treatment with ADM. The in vivo experiment also confirmed that the Huh7-HBx group was much more resistant to ADM or 5-FU than the control. Furthermore, the expression of MDR-associated genes, such as MDR1, MRP1, LRP1, and ABCG2, were significantly up-regulated in Huh7-HBx cells, and the NF-κB pathway was activated after HBx gene transfection in Huh7 cells. However, combined with IFN-α in ADM treatment, the HBx induced drug-resistance in Huh7-HBx cells can be partly abolished in in vitro and in vivo models. Moreover, we found that the NF-κB canonical pathway was affected by IFN-α treatment, and the expression of anti-apoptotic genes, such as Gadd45β, Survivin, and c-IAP-1 was down-regulated by IFN-α treatment in a dose-dependent manner.
CONCLUSIONS: HBx protein can induce MDR of HBV-related HCC by activating the NF-κB pathway, which can be partly abolished by IFN-α treatment.

Keniry M, Pires MM, Mense S, et al.
Survival factor NFIL3 restricts FOXO-induced gene expression in cancer.
Genes Dev. 2013; 27(8):916-27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Depending on the circumstance, FOXO (Forkhead O) (FOXO1, FOXO3, and FOXO4) transcription factors activate the expression of markedly different sets of genes to produce different phenotypic effects. For example, distinct FOXO-regulated transcriptional programs stimulate cell death or enhance organism life span. To gain insight into how FOXOs select specific genes for regulation, we performed a screen for genes that modify FOXO activation of TRAIL, a death receptor ligand capable of inducing extrinsic apoptosis. We discovered that the bZIP transcriptional repressor NFIL3 (nuclear factor interleukin 3-regulated) hindered FOXO transcription factor access to chromatin at the TRAIL promoter by binding to nearby DNA and recruiting histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) to reduce histone acetylation. In the same manner, NFIL3 repressed expression of certain FOXO targets--e.g., FAS, GADD45α (growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible, α), and GADD45β--but not others. NFIL3, which we found to be overexpressed in different cancers, supported tumor cell survival largely through repression of TRAIL and antagonized hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. Moreover, its expression in cancer was associated with lower patient survival. Therefore, NFIL3 alters cancer cell behavior and FOXO function by acting on chromatin to restrict the menu of FOXO target genes. Targeting of NFIL3 could be of therapeutic benefit for cancer patients.

Guo W, Dong Z, Guo Y, et al.
Methylation-mediated repression of GADD45A and GADD45G expression in gastric cardia adenocarcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(9):2043-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
The growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene (GADD45) family, which is composed of GADD45A, GADD45B, and GADD45G, may play similar but not identical roles in tumorigenesis. Genetic changes associated with or responsible for their dysregulation are in general uncommon. This study was to detect the role of GADD45 gene family in gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and the relationship of GADD45A and GADD45G methylation to a series of pathological parameters in a large GCA sample, in order to elucidate more information on the role of GADD45 gene family with regard to the pathogenesis of GCA. Decreased mRNA and protein expression of GADD45A and GADD45G but not GADD45B were found in 138 GCA tumor tissues. The methylation frequency of 5' 4 CpG region located in distal promoter of GADD45A and proximal promoter of GADD45G in GCA tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in corresponding normal tissues. The expression levels of GADD45A and GADD45G were inversely correlated with methylation levels. GADD45B expression was not correlated with GCA patients survival, while GADD45A and GADD45G methylation status and protein expression were independently associated with GCA patients' survival. These results suggest that GADD45A and GADD45G gene may act as functional tumor suppressor but being frequently inactivated epigenetically in patients with GCA. Silencing of GADD45A and GADD45G, negative regulator of cell growth, is most likely responsible for conferring a selective growth advantage during GCA evolution and outgrowth.

Han SS, Son DJ, Yun H, et al.
Piperlongumine inhibits proliferation and survival of Burkitt lymphoma in vitro.
Leuk Res. 2013; 37(2):146-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Piperlongumine (PL), a pepper plant alkaloid from Piper longum, kills solid tumor cells in a highly selective, potent fashion. To evaluate whether PL may have similar effects on malignant blood cells, we determined the efficacy with which PL inhibits the B-lymphocyte derived neoplasm, Burkitt lymphoma (BL). Low micromolar concentrations of PL (IC(50) = 2.8 μM × 8.5 μM) curbed growth and survival of two EBV(+) BL cell lines (Daudi, Raji) and two EBV BL cell lines (Ramos, DG-75), but left normal peripheral blood B-lymphocytes unharmed. PL-dependent cytotoxicity was effected in part by reduced NF-κB and MYC activity, with the former being caused by inhibition of IκBα degradation, nuclear translocation of p65, and binding of NF-κB dimers to cognate DNA sequences in gene promoters. In 4 of 4 BL cell lines, the NF-κB/MYC-regulated cellular target genes, E2F1 and MYB, were down regulated, while the stress sensor gene, GADD45B, was up regulated. The EBV-encoded oncogene, LMP-1, was suppressed in Daudi and Raji cells. Considering that NF-κB, MYC and LMP-1 play a crucial role in the biology of many blood cancers including BL, our results provide a strong preclinical rationale for considering PL in new intervention approaches for patients with hematologic malignancies.

Yang WL, Lee YE, Chen MH, et al.
In-silico drug screening and potential target identification for hepatocellular carcinoma using Support Vector Machines based on drug screening result.
Gene. 2013; 518(1):201-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a severe liver malignancy with few drug treatment options. In finding an effective treatment for HCC, screening drugs that are already FDA-approved will fast track the clinical trial and drug approval process. Connectivity Map (CMap), a large repository of chemical-induced gene expression profiles, provides the opportunity to analyze drug properties on the basis of gene expression. Support Vector Machines (SVM) were utilized to classify the effectiveness of drugs against HCC using gene expression profiles in CMap. The results of this classification will help us (1) identify genes that are chemically sensitive, and (2) predict the effectiveness of remaining chemicals in CMap in the treatment of HCC and provide a prioritized list of possible HCC drugs for biological verification. Four HCC cell lines were treated with 146 distinct chemicals, and cell viability was examined. SVM successfully classified the effectiveness of the chemicals with an average Area Under ROC Curve (AUROC) of 0.9. Using reported HCC patient samples, we identified chemically sensitive genes that may be possible HCC therapeutic targets, including MT1E, MYC, and GADD45B. Using SVM, several known HCC inhibitors, such as geldanamycin, alvespimycin (HSP90 inhibitors), and doxorubicin (chemotherapy drug), were predicted. Seven out of the 23 predicted drugs were cardiac glycosides, suggesting a link between this drug category and HCC inhibition. The study demonstrates a strategy of in silico drug screening with SVM using a large repository of microarrays based on initial in vitro drug screening. Verifying these results biologically would help develop a more accurate chemical sensitivity model.

Wu X, Zang W, Cui S, Wang M
Bioinformatics analysis of two microarray gene-expression data sets to select lung adenocarcinoma marker genes.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2012; 16(11):1582-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is the most frequent histologic type of lung cancer and rates of adenocarcinoma are increasing in most countries. Recently, several molecular markers have been identified to predict LAC. However, more prognostic makers and the underlying role of those makers are still imperative.
AIM: In this study, our objective was to identify a set of discriminating genes that can be used for characterization and prediction of response to LAC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the bioinformatics analysis method, we merged two LAC datasets-GSE2514 and GSE7670 to find novel target genes and pathways to explain the pathogenicity.
RESULTS: The results showed that EDNRB (endothelin receptor type B), ADRB2 (beta-adrenergic receptor), S1PR1 (sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1), P2RY14 (PsY purinoceptor 14), LEPR (leptin-receptor), GHR (growth hormone receptor), PPM1D (protein phosphatase-1D), and GADD45B (growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, beta) have high degrees in response to LAC. Additionally, EDNRB, ADRB2, S1PR1, P2RY14, LEPR, and GHR may be involved in LAC through Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, but PPM1D and GADD45B may be through p53 signaling pathway. Some of our prediction had been demonstrated by previous reports, such as ADRB2, S1PR1, GHR, PPM1D, and GADD45B. Therefore, we hope our study could lay a basis for further study of other target genes, such as EDNRB, P2RY14, and LEPR.
CONCLUSIONS: It is effective to identify potential molecular marker for LAC and predict their underlying functions by bioinformatics analysis and graph clustering method. However, further experiments are still indispensable to confirm our conclusion.

Wang L, Xiao X, Li D, et al.
Abnormal expression of GADD45B in human colorectal carcinoma.
J Transl Med. 2012; 10:215 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: GADD45B is a member of the growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene family associated with cell growth control, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair response. The aim of this study is to detect the role of GADD45B in colorectal carcinoma (CRC); the area not studied in depth to date.
METHODS: The mRNA and protein levels of GADD45B were examined by Real-Time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in CRC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues (ANCT). Over-expression plasmids and SiRNA were used to regulate GADD45B expression in CRC cell lines in vitro and flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to detect apoptotic changes.
RESULTS: The mRNA and protein levels of GADD45B were significantly higher in CRC tissues than those in ANCT (P<0.05). Up-regulation of GADD45B was also correlated with relapse and death of CRC patients (P<0.05). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly worse in CRC patients who showed GADD45B overexpression. A Cox multivariate analysis revealed that GADD45B overexpression and TNM stage were significant factors affecting patients' survival. On the other hand, as a tumor suppressor gene, GADD45B amplified from normal colorectal tissues could induce apoptosis in CRC cell lines and may be associated with the p53-mediated apoptotic pathways.
CONCLUSION: GADD45B, a tumor suppressor gene potentially through the p53-mediated apoptotic pathways, is paradoxically overexpressed in CRC and as such may play an unappreciated role in tumorigenesis. The exact mechanism of GADD45B inactivation and overexpression requires further investigation. GADD45B could be a potential therapeutic target for CRC treatment in future.

Seewoo V, Yang W, Du H, et al.
The different induction mechanisms of growth arrest DNA damage inducible gene 45 β in human hepatoma cell lines.
Chemotherapy. 2012; 58(2):165-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Downregulation of the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 45 β (GADD45β) has been verified to be specific to HCC and consistent with the degree of malignancy. The differences in induction mechanisms of GADD45β were investigated based on transcriptional regulation.
METHODS: Following our published data from S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), oxaliplatin and sorafenib were further used to stimulate GADD45β expression in cultured HepG2 (p53 wild type) and Hep3B (p53 null) hepatoma cells in vitro. The different effects on cell viability, DNA synthesis and caspase activities were also measured.
RESULTS: Oxaliplatin and sorafenib could induce GADD45β in both HepG2 and Hep3B in a dose-dependent manner with rapid and direct cytotoxic effect. Transcriptional activity of NF-ĸB and E2F-1 were both enhanced by oxaliplatin and sorafenib. However, SAMe could only induce GADD45β in HepG2 through the NF-ĸB pathway, resulting in a slow and indirect cytotoxic effect. Although all three inducers could lead to a pronounced rise in caspase activities, only high concentration of SAMe could inhibit DNA synthesis as significantly as the chemo drugs. No apparent changes in GADD45β induction, promoter activity or cytotoxic effects were observed in Hep3B(+p53) when treated with oxaliplatin and sorafenib, while relatively significant changes occurred with SAMe.
CONCLUSION: GADD45β induction is a novel mechanism of SAMe-mediated hepatoprotection with p53 involvement.

Khamas A, Ishikawa T, Mogushi K, et al.
Genome-wide screening for methylation-silenced genes in colorectal cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2012; 41(2):490-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identification of methylation-silenced genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) is of great importance. We employed oligonucleotide microarrays to identify differences in global gene expression of five CRC cell lines (HCT116, RKO, Colo320, SW480 and HT29) that were analyzed before and after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine. Selected candidates were subjected to methylation-specific PCR and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR using 15 CRC cell lines and 23 paired tumor and normal samples from CRC patients. After 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine treatment, 139 genes were re-expressed in all 5 CRC cell lines collectively with a fold change of more than 1.5 in at least one cell line. These genes include known methylated and silenced genes in CRC. After applying study selection criteria we identified 20 candidates. The GADD45B and THSD1 genes were selected for further analysis. Among 15 colon cancer cell lines, methylation was only identified in THSD1 (27%). THSD1 methylation was subsequently investigated in 23 colorectal tumors and methylation was detected in 9% of the analyzed samples; the observed promoter hypermethylation was cancer-specific. THSD1 mRNA down-regulation was observed in tumor tissues. This genome-wide screening led to the identification of genes putatively affected by methylation in CRC. The THSD1 gene may play a role in the tumorigenesis of CRC.

Lin HY, Kuo YC, Weng YI, et al.
Activation of silenced tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer cells by a novel energy restriction-mimetic agent.
Prostate. 2012; 72(16):1767-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Targeting tumor metabolism by energy restriction-mimetic agents (ERMAs) has emerged as a strategy for cancer therapy/prevention. Evidence suggests a mechanistic link between ERMA-mediated antitumor effects and epigenetic gene regulation.
METHODS: Microarray analysis showed that a novel thiazolidinedione-derived ERMA, CG-12, and glucose deprivation could suppress DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1 expression and reactivate DNA methylation-silenced tumor suppressor genes in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Thus, we investigated the effects of a potent CG-12 derivative, CG-5, vis-à-vis 2-deoxyglucose, glucose deprivation and/or 5-aza-deoxycytidine, on DNMT isoform expression (Western blotting, RT-PCR), DNMT1 transcriptional activation (luciferase reporter assay), and expression of genes frequently hypermethylated in prostate cancer (quantitative real-time PCR). Promoter methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing analysis. SiRNA-mediated knockdown and ectopic expression of DNMT1 were used to validate DNMT1 as a target of CG-5.
RESULTS: CG-5 and glucose deprivation upregulated the expression of DNA methylation-silenced tumor suppressor genes, including GADD45a, GADD45b, IGFBP3, LAMB3, BASP1, GPX3, and GSTP1, but also downregulated methylated tumor/invasion-promoting genes, including CD44, S100A4, and TACSTD2. In contrast, 5-aza-deoxycytidine induced global reactivation of these genes. CG-5 mediated these epigenetic effects by transcriptional repression of DNMT1, which was associated with reduced expression of Sp1 and E2F1. SiRNA-mediated knockdown and ectopic expression of DNMT1 corroborated DNMT1's role in the modulation of gene expression by CG-5. Pyrosequencing revealed differential effects of CG-5 versus 5-aza-deoxycytidine on promoter methylation in these genes.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal a previously uncharacterized epigenetic effect of ERMAs on DNA methylation-silenced tumor suppressor genes, which may foster novel strategies for prostate cancer therapy.

Gibson TM, Wang SS, Cerhan JR, et al.
Inherited genetic variation and overall survival following follicular lymphoma.
Am J Hematol. 2012; 87(7):724-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma (FL) has variable progression and survival, and improved identification of patients at high risk for progression would aid in identifying patients most likely to benefit from alternative therapy.In a sample of 244 FL cases identified during a population-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we examined 6,679 tag SNPs in 488 gene regions for associations with overall FL survival. Over a median follow-up of 89 months with 65 deaths in this preliminary study, we identified 5 gene regions (BMP7, GALNT12,DUSP2, GADD45B, and ADAM17) that were associated with overall survival from FL. Results did not meet the criteria for statistical significance after adjustment for multiple hypothesis testing. These results,which support a role for host factors in determining the variable progression of FL, serve as an initial examination that can inform future studies of genetic variation and FL survival. However, they require replication in independent populations, as well as assessment in rituximab-treated patients.

Speisky D, Duces A, Bièche I, et al.
Molecular profiling of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in sporadic and Von Hippel-Lindau patients.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(10):2838-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an inherited syndrome caused by germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene, predisposing to a variety of neoplasms including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET). In VHL disease, PanNET probably progress according to a specific pathway of carcinogenesis. Our aim was to characterize by molecular quantitative analysis a panel of molecules implicated in the VHL pathway and in tumor progression in the PanNET of patients with VHL.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The expression of 52 genes was studied by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR in 18 patients with VHL operated on for PanNET and compared with 16 non-VHL PanNET. The VHL and non-VHL tumors were matched according to their size and cell proliferation. For some genes, we looked for differences in the protein expression in VHL PanNET (n = 31), microadenomas (n = 22), and non-VHL PanNET (n = 16), included in tissue microarray blocks.
RESULTS: Nineteen (36%) genes were significantly upregulated and three (6%) downregulated in VHL PanNET. The upregulated genes were related to (i) hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) molecules (CA9, HIF2A, and GLUT1), (ii) angiogenesis (CDH5, VEGFR1, EDNRA, ANGPT2, CD34, VEGFR2, VEGFA, and ANGPT1), (iii) the processes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (VIM) and/or metastasis (LAMA4 and CXCR4), (iv) growth factors and receptors (PDGFB, IRS1, and ERBB1), or (v) cell cycle (CCND1 and CDKN2A). The downregulated genes were related to (i) EMT (OCLN) and (ii) signaling pathways (RPS6KB1 and GADD45B).
CONCLUSION: This study shows that the progression of PanNET in patients with VHL tumors follows a specific pathway and supports that targeting molecules specifically involved may be of therapeutic importance.

Borgan E, Navon R, Vollan HK, et al.
Ischemia caused by time to freezing induces systematic microRNA and mRNA responses in cancer tissue.
Mol Oncol. 2011; 5(6):564-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Time to freezing tumor tissue for RNA expression analysis will always vary to some extent. To evaluate the effect of ischemia time, tumor tissue from ten breast cancer patients was collected and aliquots of tissue were snap frozen at different time points after surgery (0, 0.5, 1, 3 and 6 h). Using miRNA and mRNA expression microarrays and statistical analysis, 56 miRNAs and 1788 mRNAs were found to be significantly altered with ischemia time up to six hours. Several of the 56 miRNAs have been reported to play a role in cancer, such as hsa-miR-663 and hsa-miR-125a-3p. Known stress response genes such as GADD45B, JUND and FOSB were among the mRNAs most significantly affected by time to freezing. A novel statistical method for identification of consistently correlated miRNA-mRNA pairs and miRNA-associated biological processes in time course data is presented. Application of this method revealed that several miRNAs, including hsa-miR-1228, hsa-miR-1225-5p and hsa-miR-574-5p, were associated through their correlation to mRNAs to biological processes such as "response to stimulus" and "stress response". These miRNAs also showed enrichment of predicted targets among either their positively or negatively correlated mRNAs. The induced miRNAs may play both direct and indirect roles in biological responses. Caution should be taken when the miRNAs and mRNAs reported to be affected by ischemia time are included in a prognostic or predictive signature.

Shibata-Minoshima F, Oki T, Doki N, et al.
Identification of RHOXF2 (PEPP2) as a cancer-promoting gene by expression cloning.
Int J Oncol. 2012; 40(1):93-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple mutations contribute to establish cancers. We have searched for potential oncogenes by screening cDNA libraries derived from gastric cancer cell lines, pancreatic cancer cell lines and glioma cell lines, using retrovirus-mediated expression cloning. Two types of interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent cell lines, Ba/F3 and HF6, were transduced with the cDNA libraries and several genes that render these cells factor-independent were identified including PIM-1, PIM-2, PIM-3, GADD45B and reproductive homeobox genes on the X chromosome gene F2 (RHOXF2). Although no mutation in these genes was found, these molecules were highly expressed in cancer cell lines and they may play important roles in cell transformation. Among them, we focused on a transcriptional repressor RHOXF2. Transduction of RHOXF2 rendered HF6 cells factor-independent, while knockdown of RHOXF2 inhibited growth of the HGC27 gastric cancer cell line which highly expresses RHOXF2. In addition, RHOXF2-transduced HF6 cells quickly induced leukemia when transplanted into sublethally irradiated mice. Moreover, RHOXF2 is highly expressed in some leukemia cell lines and a variety of human cancer samples including colon and lung cancers. Thus, these results indicate that RHOXF2 is involved in carcinogenesis.

Michaelis KA, Knox AJ, Xu M, et al.
Identification of growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible gene beta (GADD45beta) as a novel tumor suppressor in pituitary gonadotrope tumors.
Endocrinology. 2011; 152(10):3603-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gonadotrope and null cell pituitary tumors cause significant morbidity, often presenting with signs of hypogonadism together with visual disturbances due to mass effects. Surgery and radiation are the only therapeutic options to date. To identify dysregulated genes and pathways that may play a role in tumorigenesis and/or progression, molecular profiling was performed on 14 gonadotrope tumors, with nine normal human pituitaries obtained at autopsy serving as controls. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative downstream effectors of tumor protein 53 (p53) that were consistently repressed in gonadotrope pituitary tumors, including RPRM, P21, and PMAIP1, with concomitant inhibition of the upstream p53 regulator, PLAGL1(Zac1). Further analysis of the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible (GADD45) family revealed no change in the p53 target, GADD45α, but identified repression of GADD45β in pituitary tumors in addition to the previously reported inhibition of GADD45γ. Overexpression of GADD45β in LβT2 mouse gonadotrope cells blocked tumor cell proliferation and increased rates of apoptosis in response to growth factor withdrawal. Stable gonadotrope cell transfectants expressing increased GADD45β showed decreased colony formation in soft agar, confirming its normal role as a tumor suppressor. Unlike previous studies of GADD45γ in pituitary tumors and α and β in other tumors, bisulfite sequencing showed no evidence of hypermethylation of the GADD45β promoter in human pituitary tumor samples to explain the repression of its expression. Thus, GADD45β is a novel pituitary tumor suppressor whose reexpression blocks proliferation, survival, and tumorigenesis. Together these studies identify new targets and mechanisms to explore in pituitary tumor initiation and progression.

Yang ZY, Qu Y, Zhang Q, et al.
Knockdown of metallopanstimulin-1 inhibits NF-κB signaling at different levels: the role of apoptosis induction of gastric cancer cells.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 130(12):2761-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ribosomal protein S27 (metallopanstimulin-1, MPS-1) has been reported to be a multifunctional protein, with increased expression in a number of cancers. We reported previously that MPS-1 was highly expressed in human gastric cancer. Knockdown of MPS-1 led to spontaneous apoptosis and repressed proliferation of human gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. However, how does MPS-1 regulate these processes is unclear. Here we performed microarray and pathway analyses to investigate possible pathways involved in MPS-1 knockdown-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Our results showed that knockdown of MPS-1 inhibited NF-κB activity by reducing phosphorylation of p65 at Ser536 and IκBα at Ser32, inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation, and down-regulating its DNA binding activity. Furthermore, data-mining the Gene-Regulatory-Network revealed that growth arrest DNA damage inducible gene 45β (Gadd45β), a direct NF-κB target gene, played a critical role in MPS-1 knockdown-induced apoptosis. Over-expression of Gadd45β inhibited MPS-1 knockdown-induced apoptosis via inhibition of JNK phosphorylation. Taken together, these data revealed a novel pathway, the MPS-1/NF-κB/Gadd45β signal pathway, played an important role in MPS-1 knockdown-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. This study sheds new light on the role of MPS-1/NF-κB in apoptosis and the possible use of MPS-1 targeting strategy in the treatment of gastric cancer.

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