Gene Summary

Gene:IL17C; interleukin 17C
Aliases: CX2, IL-17C
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a T cell-derived cytokine that shares the sequence similarity with IL17. This cytokine was reported to stimulate the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta from a monocytic cell line. The expression of this cytokine was found to be restricted to activated T cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Disease Progression
  • Smoking
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tamoxifen
  • Messenger RNA
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Polymorphism
  • Vocal Cords
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Vesiculovirus
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Pleural Effusion, Malignant
  • Interleukin-17
  • Inflammation
  • Tunisia
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Signal Transduction
  • Lung Cancer
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Ultrasonics
  • Interleukins
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 7
  • Transcriptome
  • NF-kappa B
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Promoter Regions
  • Young Adult
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer
  • Genotype
  • Chromosome 16
  • Receptors, Interleukin-17
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Risk Factors
  • Breast Cancer
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IL17C (cancer-related)

Tian CH, Dai J, Zhang W, et al.
Expression of IL-17 and its gene promoter methylation status are associated with the progression of chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(23):e15924 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To explore interleukin-17 (IL-17) and its epigenetic regulation during the progression of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.A total of 162 patients with chronic HBV infection, including 75 with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 54 with hepatitis B-associated liver cirrhosis and 33 with hepatitis B-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC), were enrolled in this study. Thirty healthy adults of the same ethnicity were enrolled in the control group. Whole venous blood was obtained from the patients and normal controls (n = 30). Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed, and we performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative real-time PCR to measure the serum levels and relative mRNA expression of IL-17, respectively. IL-17 promoter methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was assessed by methylation-specific PCR. We analyzed the serum and mRNA levels of IL-17 and IL-17 promoter methylation in the 4 groups as well as the effect of methylation on serum IL-17 levels. Correlations between the IL-17 promoter methylation status and clinical parameters were analyzed by Spearman correlation analysis.Compared to the normal control group, the patient groups exhibited significantly higher serum and relative mRNA levels of IL-17. The methylation distribution among the patients was significantly lower than that among the normal controls (P < .05), with the HBV-HCC group showing the lowest IL-17 gene methylation frequency. The average IL-17 promoter CG methylation level was negatively correlated with IL-17 mRNA expression (r = -0.39, P = .03), and negative correlations between IL-17 promoter methylation and prothrombin time activity (r = -0.585, P = .035), alanine aminotransferase (r = -0.522, P < .01), aspartate aminotransferase (r = -0.315, P < .05), and the model for end-stage liver disease score (r = -0.461, P < .05) were observed. IL-17 serum levels in the methylated-promoter groups were significantly lower than those in the unmethylated-promoter groups.IL-17 expression and promoter methylation were associated with chronic HBV infection progression, especially in the HBV-HCC group. The IL-17 promoter status may help clinicians initiate the correct treatment strategy at the CHB stage.

Barilla RM, Diskin B, Caso RC, et al.
Specialized dendritic cells induce tumor-promoting IL-10
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1424 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The drivers and the specification of CD4

Mohammadipour K, Mansouri R, Salmanpour R, et al.
Investigation of Interleukin-17 Gene Polymorphisms and Serum Levels in Patients with Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin.
Iran J Immunol. 2019; 16(1):53-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in cancer pathogenesis.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of two IL-17 gene polymorphisms (rs2275913 and rs763780), as well as IL-17 serum levels with susceptibility to Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) of skin.
METHODS: Two hundred subjects with BCC and 200 healthy controls were recruited. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and genotypes were determined using PCR-RFLP methods. Serum levels were assessed by ELISA.
RESULTS: At position rs2275913 in IL-17A, the frequencies of GG, AG and AA genotypes were 99 (49.5%), 76 (38%) and 25 (12.5%) in patients and 97 (48.5%), 84 (42%) and 19 (9.5%) in the control group. The distribution of AA, GA and GG genotypes at position rs763780 in IL-17F were 166 (83%), 34 (17%) and 0 (0%) in patients and 158 (79%), 40 (20%) and 2 (1%) in the control group. Haplotype analysis by Arlequin software package revealed that GA haplotype was the most frequent haplotype in both groups. No significant differences were found in alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes frequencies between study groups at both positions (P>0.05). While no difference in IL-17 serum levels was observed between individuals with different genotypes, statistical analysis showed higher IL-17A serum levels, but not IL-17F, in patients compared to controls (0.65 ± 0.11 and 0.03 ± 0.02 pg/ml), respectively, (P<0.001).
CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support the association of rs763780 and rs2275913 gene polymorphisms in IL-17gene with susceptibility of Iranians with BCC. Increased IL-17A serum levels may still play a role in pathogenesis of BCC.

Zheng X, Dong L, Wang K, et al.
MiR-21 Participates in the PD-1/PD-L1 Pathway-Mediated Imbalance of Th17/Treg Cells in Patients After Gastric Cancer Resection.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2019; 26(3):884-893 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway has been shown to be involved in trauma-induced immunosuppression and to influence CD4
METHODS: In the present study, we analyzed the percentages of T-helper (Th)-17/regulatory T (Treg) cells and PD-1/PD-L1 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during the perioperative period. We also detected the secretion of interleukin (IL)-17 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Furthermore, PBMCs isolated from patients were transfected with or without adenovirus-short hairpin-PD-1 (Ad-sh-PD1), pre-miR-21 or adenovirus-green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP), and the percentages of Th17/Treg cells and related transcription factors were measured.
RESULTS: In patients who underwent gastric cancer resection, the number of Th17 cells decreased, whereas the number of Treg cells increased, accompanied by an increased expression of PD-1/PD-L1. In addition, the expression of RORγt and IL-17 decreased, whereas the expression of Foxp3 and TGF-β1 increased. In vitro, silencing PD-1 via Ad-sh-PD1 promoted the expression of miR-21 and increased the percentage of Th17 cells, but decreased the percentage of Treg cells. The overexpression of miR-21 increased the percentage of Th17 cells but decreased the percentage of Treg cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that gastric cancer resection altered the balance of Th17/Treg cells and increased PD-1/PD-L1 expression. In the in vitro experiments, the transfection of Ad-sh-PD1 ameliorated Th17/Treg cell imbalance partially by increasing the expression of miR-21.

Li N, Wang J, Yu W, et al.
MicroRNA‑146a inhibits the inflammatory responses induced by interleukin‑17A during the infection of Helicobacter pylori.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(2):1388-1395 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the major cause of chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Upregulation of IL‑17A is associated with H. pylori infection in the gastric mucosa; however, the factors involved in the regulation of interleukin (IL)‑17A‑induced inflammatory responses in H. pylori‑associated gastritis remain unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) serve as key post‑transcriptional regulators of gene expression and are associated with the H. pylori infection. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of IL‑17A on the expression of miR‑146a upon infection with H. pylori, as well as to identify the possible impact of miR‑146a dysregulation on the inflammatory response in vivo and in vitro. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to determine the expression levels of miR‑146a in gastric epithelial cells upon IL‑17A stimulation. The effects of miR‑146a mimics on IL‑17A‑induced inflammatory responses in SGC‑7901 cells were evaluated. The effects of miR‑146a mimics on the expression levels of IL‑1 receptor‑associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor‑associated factor 6 (TRAF6) upon IL‑17A treatment were analyzed, and the IL‑17A‑stimulated inflammation following the silencing of IRAK1 and TRAF6 was observed. In addition, the correlation between miR‑146a and IL‑17A in human gastric mucosa with H. pylori was examined. The results indicated that IL‑17A‑induced miR‑146a may regulate the inflammatory response during the infection of H. pylori in a nuclear factor‑κB‑dependent manner. Furthermore, the expression of miR‑146a and IL‑17A are positively correlated in human gastric mucosa infected with H. pylori. These data suggested that miR‑146a may serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target in gastritis therapy.

Zeng C, Chen L, Chen B, et al.
Th17 cells were recruited and accumulated in the cerebrospinal fluid and correlated with the poor prognosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2018; 50(12):1266-1273 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by memory deficits, psychiatric symptoms, and autonomic instability. The lack of suitable biomarkers targeting anti-NMDAR encephalitis makes the immunotherapy and prognosis challenging. In this study, we found that the Th17 cells were significantly accumulated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients than that of control individuals. The concentration of the cytokines and chemokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-17, IL-6, and CXCL-13 were significantly increased in the CSF of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients. IL-6 and IL-17 were found to promote the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into Th17 lineage. The chemotaxis assay showed that CCL20 and CCL22 play essential roles in the migration of Th17 cells. Notably, the correlation between the expression of IL-17 and the outcome of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients was analyzed. The data showed that high level of IL-17 was significantly correlated with the limited response to the treatment and relapse of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients. Our results suggested the potential important involvement of IL-17 in anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

Hao S, Chen X, Wang F, et al.
Breast cancer cell-derived IL-35 promotes tumor progression via induction of IL-35-producing induced regulatory T cells.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(12):1488-1496 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is a potent immunosuppressive cytokine, consisting of an Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) subunit and a p35 subunit. IL-35 is mainly produced by regulatory T and regulatory B cells, and plays a crucial role in the development and prevention of infectious and autoimmune diseases. However, the effect of IL-35 in malignant disease is not well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that breast cancer cells (BCCs) also expressed and secreted IL-35 and higher level of IL-35 in BCCs was closely associated with poor prognosis of patients and was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for breast cancer. Subsequent study revealed that BCC-derived IL-35 inhibited conventional T (Tconv) cell proliferation and further induced suppressed Tconv cells into IL-35-producing induced regulatory T (iTr35) cells. Furthermore, BCC-derived IL-35 promoted the secretion of inhibitory cytokine IL-10 and obviously decreased the secretion of Th1-type cytokine IFN-γ and Th17-type cytokine IL-17 in Tconv cells. Meanwhile, the expression of inhibitory receptor CD73 was also elevated on the surface of Tconv cells following the BCCs' supernatant treatment. Mechanistically, BCC-derived IL-35 exhausted Tconv cells and induced iTr35 by activating transcription factor STAT1/STAT3. Hence, our results indicate functions of BCC-derived IL-35 in promoting tumor progression through proliferation inhibition of tumor-infiltrating Tconv cells and induction of iTr35 cells in tumor microenvironment. This study highlights that IL-35 produced by BCCs are a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer.

Subramanian K, Dierckx T, Khouri R, et al.
Decreased RORC expression and downstream signaling in HTLV-1-associated adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia uncovers an antiproliferative IL17 link: A potential target for immunotherapy?
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(7):1664-1675 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Retinoic acid-related drugs have shown promising pre-clinical activity in Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma, but RORC signaling has not been explored. Therefore, we investigated transcriptome-wide interactions of the RORC pathway in HTLV-1 and ATL, using our own and publicly available gene expression data for ATL and other leukemias. Gene expression data from ATL patients were analyzed using WGCNA to determine gene modules and their correlation to clinical and molecular data. Both PBMCs and CD4

Ye F, Song J, Wang Y, et al.
Proliferation Potential-Related Protein Promotes the Esophageal Cancer Cell Proliferation, Migration and Suppresses Apoptosis by Mediating the Expression of p53 and Interleukin-17.
Pathobiology. 2018; 85(5-6):322-331 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the mechanism of proliferation potential-related protein (PP-RP) in influencing the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to analyze the expression of PP-RP gene, p53, and interleukin (IL)-17 in human normal tissues and tumor tissues, as well as the expression of p53 and IL-17 in Eca109 and TE3 cells. The esophageal cancer cell proliferation was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, and cell migration was detected by transwell migration.
RESULTS: PP-RP expressed highly in tumor tissue and Eca109 and TE3 cells, PP-RP overexpression inhibited the expression of p53 and promoted the expression of IL-17 in Eca109 and TE3 cells. PP-RP overexpression increased the expression of F-actin, promoted cell proliferation, and migration and suppressed cell apoptosis. Cell proliferation ability and cell migration ability were significantly strengthened while apoptosis was suppressed by PP-RP + pyruvate carboxylase deoxyribonucleic acid (PCDNA)-p53 group and PP-RP + IL-17 siRNA group in TE3 cells.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that PP-RP promotes esophageal cancer cell proliferation and migration, and suppresses apoptosis by mediating the expression of p53 and IL-17.

Murakami I, Wada N, Nakashima J, et al.
Merkel cell polyomavirus and Langerhans cell neoplasm.
Cell Commun Signal. 2018; 16(1):49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The relationship between various external agents such as pollen, food, and infectious agents and human sensitivity exists and is variable depending upon individual's health conditions. For example, we believe that the pathogenetic potential of the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), the resident virus in skin, is variable and depends from the degree of individual's reactivity. MCPyV as well as Epstein-Barr virus, which are normally connected with humans under the form of subclinical infection, are thought to be involved at various degrees in several neoplastic and inflammatory diseases. In this review, we cover two types of Langerhans cell neoplasms, the Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS) and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), represented as either neoplastic or inflammatory diseases caused by MCPyV.
METHODS: We meta-analyzed both our previous analyses, composed of quantitative PCR for MCPyV-DNA, proteomics, immunohistochemistry which construct IL-17 endocrine model and interleukin-1 (IL-1) activation loop model, and other groups' data.
RESULTS: We have shown that there were subgroups associated with the MCPyV as a causal agent in these two different neoplasms. Comparatively, LCS, distinct from the LCH, is a neoplastic lesion (or sarcoma) without presence of inflammatory granuloma frequently observed in the elderly. LCH is a proliferative disease of Langerhans-like abnormal cells which carry mutations of genes involved in the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. We found that MCPyV may be involved in the development of LCH.
CONCLUSION: We hypothesized that a subgroup of LCS developed according the same mechanism involved in Merkel cell carcinoma pathogenesis. We proposed LCH developed from an inflammatory process that was sustained due to gene mutations. We hypothesized that MCPyV infection triggered an IL-1 activation loop that lies beneath the pathogenesis of LCH and propose a new triple-factor model.

Lv Q, Wu K, Liu F, et al.
Interleukin‑17A and heparanase promote angiogenesis and cell proliferation and invasion in cervical cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(4):1809-1817 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin‑17A (IL‑17A) is a CD4 T-cell-derived pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in human cervical tumorigenesis. Heparanase (HPSE) is an endo-glycosidase expressed in mammals, which has been confirmed to be associated with cervical cancer invasion. In the present study, it was hypothesized that IL‑17A and HPSE are key proteins promoting tumor angiogenesis and cell proliferation and invasion in cervical cancer. The expression of IL‑17A and HPSE in cervical cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemical staining. In addition, the expression of IL‑17A and HPSE was down- and upregulated via RNAi and human recombinant proteins, and MTT and Transwell assays were performed to examine cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis was also performed to detect cell cycle distribution, and the levels of target mRNA and protein were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. IL‑17A and HPSE were highly expressed in cervical cancer tissues, and microvessel density was notably higher in the IL‑17A-positive group. IL‑17A and/or HPSE recombinant protein promoted the proliferation and invasion of cervical cancer cells, increased the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase, and enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of human papillomavirus E6, P53, vascular endothelial growth factor and CD31, whereas downregulation of IL‑17A and/or HPSE exerted the opposite effects. Furthermore, downregulation of IL‑17A and/or HPSE was found to inhibit the expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB P65. In summary, IL‑17A and HPSE may promote tumor angiogenesis and cell proliferation and invasion in cervical cancer, possibly via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings may lead to the identification of new diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.

Guan X, Liu Z, Zhang J, Jin X
Myeloid-derived suppressor cell accumulation in renal cell carcinoma is correlated with CCL2, IL-17 and IL-18 expression in blood and tumors.
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2018; 27(7):947-953 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) play an important role in tumor-mediated immune evasion. Levels of MDSC in peripheral blood are increased in patients with cancer, correlating with cancer stage and outcome. Studies have confirmed the associations between MDSC and various cytokines in the peripheral blood of murine and human cancer hosts. However, little is known about the association between parenchymal MDSC subsets and cytokines, or the mechanism drawing MDSC into tumor parenchyma.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between MDSC subsets and tumor grade as well as stage in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. The expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interleukin 18 (IL-18) in the peripheral blood and parenchyma of RCC patients was also detected to explore its correlation with MDSC accumulation.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total MDSC, granulocytic MDSC (G-MDSC), monocytic MDSC (M-MDSC), and immature MDSC (I-MDSC) from the blood and parenchyma were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokines were detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot in blood and tumors.
RESULTS: Parenchymal levels of MDSC had a positive correlation with levels of CCL2, IL-17, and IL-18, suggesting these cytokines may attract MDSC into the parenchyma. Moreover, peripheral total MDSC, G-MDSC and I-MDSC were shown to correlate with tumor grade and stage. Gene and protein expression of CCL2, IL-17, and IL-18 was significantly increased in blood and tumors of RCC patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study has provided potential new targets for the risk stratification of patients with limited stages of renal carcinoma, in addition to elucidating a possible association between MDSC subsets and cytokine-induced migration into the tumor tissue.

Elshazli RM, Salman DO, Kamel MM, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of IL-17A rs2275913, rs3748067 and IL-17F rs763780 in gastric cancer risk: evidence from 8124 cases and 9873 controls.
Mol Biol Rep. 2018; 45(5):1421-1444 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a critical cytokine involved in inflammation-associated cancers. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) might promote carcinogenesis. In this current meta-analysis, we investigated the association of IL-17A and IL-17F gene polymorphisms with gastric cancer (GC) risk. Eligible genetic association studies were retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus database sources. Two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data from eligible articles. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Quantitative data synthesis was conducted using comprehensive meta-analysis v2. Subgroup analysis and heterogeneity analysis were performed. Begg's funnel plot and Egger's regression tests were used to judge publication bias. In silico data analysis was executed to analyze the functional and structural impact of the SNPs. A total of 21 case-control studies for rs2275913 c.-197G > A (7660 patients and 9409 controls), 9 studies for rs3748067 c.*1249C > T (3378 patients and 4120 controls), and 14 studies for rs763780 c.482A > G (4481 patients and 5354 controls) were included. The pooled estimate revealed an association between IL-17A rs2275913 polymorphism and the risk of GC under all genetic models (A vs. G, OR 1.187, 95% CI 1.086-1.297, P < 0.001; GA vs. GG, OR 1.108, 95% CI 1.008-1.218, P = 0.033; AA vs. GG, OR 1.484, 95% CI 1.236-1.781, P < 0.001), while no evidence of association was found with IL-17A rs3748067 or IL-17F rs763780 polymorphisms. Our results showed that IL-17A promoter rs2275913 variant might represent a potential risk factor for gastric cancer susceptibility.

Wang LX, Kang ZP, Yang ZC, et al.
MicroRNA-135a Inhibits Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Proliferation Through Targeting Interleukin-17.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 46(6):2232-2238 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of IL-17 in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and to screen microRNAs (miRNAs) that potentially target IL-17 in NPC cells.
METHODS: Blood was collected from NPC patients and normal subjects, and plasma IL-17 concentration was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An immortalized normal human nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line, NP69, was treated with or without human IL-17 (15 ng/mL) for various times, and expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α mRNA was assessed by real-time reverse transcription PCR. The candidate miRNAs that potentially target IL-17 were predicted by a bioinformatics strategy. The selected miR-135a mimic was transfected into primary NPC cells, and cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay.
RESULTS: The concentration of plasma IL-17 was significantly higher in the NPC patients (92.5 ± 7.3 pg/mL) than in the control subjects (56.8 ± 2.9 pg/mL). In response to IL-17 treatment, the mRNA expression of IL-1ß and IL-6 was significantly upregulated and reached a peak at 12 h, followed by a slight decrease at 24 h, while the mRNA expression of IL-12 and TNF-α was significantly upregulated at 12 h and remained high even at 48 h after exposure to IL-17. Moreover, miR-135a specifically targets IL-17 and was dramatically downregulated in NPC cells compared with NP69 cells. Transfection of exogenous miR-135a mimic resulted in significant suppression of IL-17 secretion and subsequent inhibition of NPC cell proliferation.
CONCLUSIONS: Blood IL-17 was significantly higher in NPC patients compared with normal subjects. Expression of miR-135a in the cancer cells isolated from nasopharyngeal tumors was significantly lower than that in NP69 cells, and suppression of IL-17 by miR-135a mimic resulted in significant inhibition of NPC cell proliferation. These findings suggested that downregulation of miR-135a may contribute to the development of NPC via the mechanism of IL-17 stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression.

Zhang Y, Zoltan M, Riquelme E, et al.
Immune Cell Production of Interleukin 17 Induces Stem Cell Features of Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia Cells.
Gastroenterology. 2018; 155(1):210-223.e3 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about how the immune system affects stem cell features of pancreatic cancer cells. Immune cells that produce interleukin 17A (IL17A) in the chronically inflamed pancreas (chronic pancreatitis) contribute to pancreatic interepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) initiation and progression. We investigated the effects that IL17A signaling exerts on pancreatic cancer progenitor cells and the clinical relevance of this phenomena.
METHODS: We performed studies with Mist1Cre;LSLKras;Rosa26mTmG (KC
RESULTS: PanIN cells from KC
CONCLUSIONS: In studies of mouse and human pancreatic tumors and precursors, we found that immune cell-derived IL17 regulated development of tuft cells and stem cell features of pancreatic cancer cells via increased expression of DCLK1, POU2F3, ALDH1A1, and IL17RC. Strategies to disrupt this pathway might be developed to prevent pancreatic tumor growth and progression.

Zhao L, Wang W, Huang S, et al.
The RNA binding protein SORBS2 suppresses metastatic colonization of ovarian cancer by stabilizing tumor-suppressive immunomodulatory transcripts.
Genome Biol. 2018; 19(1):35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer constitutes one of the most lethal gynecologic malignancies for females. Currently, early detection strategies and therapeutic options for ovarian cancer are far from satisfactory, leading to high diagnosis rates at late stages and disease relapses. New avenues of therapy are needed that target key processes in ovarian cancer progression. While a variety of non-coding RNAs have been proven to regulate ovarian cancer metastatic progression, the functional roles of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in this process are less well defined.
RESULTS: In this study, we identify that the RBP sorbin and SH3 domain containing 2 (SORBS2) is a potent suppressor of ovarian cancer metastatic colonization. Mechanistic studies show that SORBS2 binds the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of WFDC1 (WAP four-disulfide core domain 1) and IL-17D (Interleukin-17D), two secreted molecules that are shown to act as metastasis suppressors. Enhanced expression of either WFDC1 or IL-17D potently represses SORBS2 depletion-mediated cancer metastasis promotion. By enhancing the stability of these gene transcripts, SORBS2 suppresses ovarian cancer invasiveness and affects monocyte to myeloid-derived suppressor cell and M2-like macrophage polarization, eliciting a tumor-suppressive immune microenvironment.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data illustrate a novel post-transcriptional network that links cancer progression and immunomodulation within the tumor microenvironment through SORBS2-mediated transcript stabilization.

Yang YF, Lee YC, Lo S, et al.
A positive feedback loop of IL-17B-IL-17RB activates ERK/β-catenin to promote lung cancer metastasis.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 422:44-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammation contributes to the development and progression of cancer. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is an inflammatory cytokine that functions in inflammation and cancer, as well as several other cellular processes. In this study, we investigated the roles and the prognostic value of IL-17 and the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) in lung cancer. Gene expression microarray analysis followed by Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that IL-17B was associated with poor patient survival, and IL-17B receptor (IL-17RB) was up-regulated in lung cancer tissue compared with normal tissue. Expression of IL-17RB was associated with lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis, as well as poor patient survival. IL-17RB overexpression significantly increased cancer cell invasion/migration and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. IL-17RB induced ERK phosphorylation, resulting in GSK3β inactivation and leading to β-catenin up-regulation. IL-17RB also participated in IL-17B synthesis via the ERK pathway. IL-17RB activation is required for IL-17B-mediated ERK phosphorylation. Taken together, IL-17B-IL-17RB signaling and ERK participate in a positive feedback loop that enhances invasion/migration ability in lung cancer cell lines. IL-17RB may therefore serve as an independent prognostic factor and a therapeutic target for lung cancer.

Alves LF, da Silva RF, Cagnon VHA
Nintedanib effects on delaying cancer progression and decreasing COX-2 and IL-17 in the prostate anterior lobe in TRAMP mice.
Tissue Cell. 2018; 50:96-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in men around the world. Due to its high incidence, new therapies have been evaluated, including drugs capable of inhibiting the FGF/VEGF pathways, as Nintedanib. The aim herein was to evaluate the Nintedanib therapeutic effects on morphology and COX-2 and IL-17 levels in the prostate anterior lobe in different grades of the tumor progression in TRAMP mice. Animals were treated with Nintedanib at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day in initial and intermediate grades of tumor development. At the end of treatment, the prostate anterior lobe was collected and submitted to morphological, immunohistochemical and Western Blotting analyses. The results showed that Nintedanib delayed the prostate carcinogenesis progression, with over 20% of reduction in frequency of tissue injuries, particularly in the group treated from 12 to 16 weeks of age. Also, decreased COX-2 and IL-17 levels were observed in both groups treated with Nintedanib in the prostate anterior lobe. Thus, we concluded that Nintedanib was effective in delaying tumor progression and, despite not directly acting on inflammation, Nintedanib may adversely affect inflammatory pathways, favoring prostate cancer delay.

Dejea CM, Fathi P, Craig JM, et al.
Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis harbor colonic biofilms containing tumorigenic bacteria.
Science. 2018; 359(6375):592-597 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Individuals with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) frequently harbor abnormalities in the composition of the gut microbiome; however, the microbiota associated with precancerous lesions in hereditary CRC remains largely unknown. We studied colonic mucosa of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), who develop benign precursor lesions (polyps) early in life. We identified patchy bacterial biofilms composed predominately of

Hill DG, Yu L, Gao H, et al.
Hyperactive gp130/STAT3-driven gastric tumourigenesis promotes submucosal tertiary lymphoid structure development.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(1):167-178 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) display phenotypic and functional characteristics of secondary lymphoid organs, and often develop in tissues affected by chronic inflammation, as well as in certain inflammation-associated cancers where they are prognostic of improved patient survival. However, the mechanisms that govern the development of tumour-associated TLSs remain ill-defined. Here, we observed tumour-associated TLSs in a preclinical mouse model (gp130

Chung L, Thiele Orberg E, Geis AL, et al.
Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Coordinates a Pro-carcinogenic Inflammatory Cascade via Targeting of Colonic Epithelial Cells.
Cell Host Microbe. 2018; 23(2):203-214.e5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pro-carcinogenic bacteria have the potential to initiate and/or promote colon cancer, in part via immune mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Using Apc

Melsted WN, Matzen SH, Andersen MH, Hviid TVF
The choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3 upregulates regulatory T cell phenotypes and modulates pro-inflammatory cytokines through HLA-G.
Cell Immunol. 2018; 324:14-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
An understanding of the interactions between immune cells and trophoblast cells, as well as choriocarcinoma cells, are of extreme importance in reproductive immunology and cancer immunology. In this study, we found that the human HLA-G-positive choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3 upregulates CD4

Hakam MS, Miranda-Sayago JM, Hayrabedyan S, et al.
Preimplantation Factor (PIF) Promotes HLA-G, -E, -F, -C Expression in JEG-3 Choriocarcinoma Cells and Endogenous Progesterone Activity.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017; 43(6):2277-2296 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pregnancy success requires mandatory maternal tolerance of the semi/ allogeneic embryo involving embryo-derived signals. Expression levels of PreImplantation Factor (PIF), a novel peptide secreted by viable embryos, correlate with embryo development, and its early detection in circulation correlates with a favourable pregnancy outcome. PIF enhances endometrial receptivity to promote embryo implantation. Via the p53 pathway, it increases trophoblast invasion, improving cell survival / immune privilege. PIF also reduces spontaneous and LPS-induced foetal death in immune naïve murine model. We examined PIF effect on gene expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-G, -E -F and -C) and the influence of PIF on local progesterone activity in JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells.
METHODS: PIF and progesterone (P4) effects on JEG-3 cells surface and intracellular HLA molecules was tested using monoclonal antibodies, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. PIF and IL17 effects on P4 and cytokines secretion was determined by ELISA. PIF and P4 effects on JEG-3 cells proteome was examined using 2D gel staining followed by spot analysis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analysis.
RESULTS: In cytotrophoblastic JEG-3 cells PIF increased intracellular expression of HLA-G, HLA-F, HLA-E and HLA-C and surface expression of HLA-G, HLA-E and HLA-C in dose and time dependent manner. In case of HLA-E, -F results were confirmed also by Western blot. Proteome analysis confirmed an increase in HLA-G, pro-tolerance FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), coagulation factors and complement regulator. In contrast, PIF reduced PRDX2 and HSP70s to negate oxidative stress and protein misfolding. PIF enhanced local progesterone activity, increasing steroid secretion and the receptor protein. It also promoted the secretion of the Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-1β, IL-8, GM-CSF and TGF-β1), resulting in improved maternal signalling.
CONCLUSION: PIF can generate a pro-tolerance milieu by enhancing the expression of HLA molecules and by amplifying endogenous progesterone activity. A Fast-Track clinical trial for autoimmune disease has been satisfactorily completed. The acquired data warrants PIF use for the treatment of early pregnancy disorders.

Ma Y, Chen Y, Petersen I
Expression and epigenetic regulation of cystatin B in lung cancer and colorectal cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2017; 213(12):1568-1574 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Dysregulated expression of cystatin B (CSTB) has been implicated in various cancers. The aims of this study were to analyze the CSTB expression and investigate the epigenetic regulation of CSTB in lung and colon cancer cell lines, and also evaluate the clinical outcome of CSTB in primary lung and colorectal tumors.
METHODS: CSTB expression in lung and colon cancer cell lines was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. Epigenetic regulation of CSTB was examined by demethylation, deacetylation tests and bisulfite sequencing (BS). In primary lung and colorectal tumors, the protein expression of CSTB was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray.
RESULTS: CSTB was downregulated in lung cancer cell lines on mRNA and protein levels compared to human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). In colon cancer cell lines, CSTB was weakly expressed in Caco2, CX2 and HCT-16 and highly expressed in HT-29, WiDr, SW480 and HRT-18 on mRNA level compared to normal colonic fibroblast cells CCD33Co. After treatment with demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, increased CSTB mRNA expression was found in 7 out of 11 lung cancer cell lines including H226, H157, H2170, H1299, COLO677, A549 and H1975, while no obvious alteration was found in colon cancer cell lines. No DNA methylation could be found in the selected CpG islands in two types of cancer cell lines by bisulfite sequencing. In primary tumors, CSTB expression was significantly and inversely correlated with lung tumor stage (pN) and tumor grade (p=0.022 and 0.047, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival curve revealed a tendency that lung tumors with high CSTB expression had a more favourable prognosis (p=0.062). In colorectal tumors, CSTB was not linked to any clinicopathological parameters including age, size of tumor, lymph node metastasis and tumor grading.
CONCLUSIONS: CSTB might be a potential prognostic marker for patients with primary lung cancer.

Wang XF, Zhu YT, Wang JJ, et al.
The prognostic value of interleukin-17 in lung cancer: A systematic review with meta-analysis based on Chinese patients.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(9):e0185168 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-17 (IL-17) plays an important role in cancer progression. Previous studies remained controversial regarding the correlation between IL-17 expression and lung cancer (LC) prognosis. To comprehensively and quantitatively summarize the prognostic value of IL-17 expression in LC patients, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed.
METHODS: We identified the relevant literatures by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, SinoMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang Data databases, up until April 1, 2017. Overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) and clinicopathological characteristics were collected from relevant studies. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to estimate the effective value of IL-17 expression on clinical outcomes.
RESULTS: Six studies containing 479 Chinese LC patients were involved in this meta-analysis. The results indicated high IL-17 expression was independently correlated with poorer OS (HR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.44-2.29, P < 0.00001) and shorter DFS (HR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.42-4.08, P = 0.001) in LC patients. Further, when stratified by LC histological type (non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer), tumor stage (Ⅰ-Ⅲ,Ⅰ-Ⅳ and Ⅳ), detection specimen (serum, intratumoral tissue and pleural effusion), test method (immunological histological chemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), and HR estimated method (reported and estimated), all of the results were statistically significant. These data indicated that elevated IL-17 expression is correlated with poor clinical outcomes in LC. The meta-analysis did not show heterogeneity or publication bias.
CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis revealed that high IL-17 expression was an indicator of poor prognosis for Chinese patients with LC. It could potentially help to assess patients' prognosis and estimate treatment efficacy in therapeutic interventions.

Xu LL, Li ZJ, Niu XL, Deng WM
The mechanisms of IL-17A on promoting tumor metastasis.
Int Rev Immunol. 2017; 36(6):360-369 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recent decades, extensive studies have indicated that IL-17A plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms are not immediately clear. In this review, we examined the literature from the recent years concerning the study of IL-17A in four kinds of tumor transfer paths, including hematogenous metastasis, lymphatic metastasis, local invasion and transcoelomic metastasis, to summarize the roles and underlying mechanisms of IL-17A on tumor metastasis.

Dowell AC, Cobby E, Wen K, et al.
Interleukin-17-positive mast cells influence outcomes from BCG for patients with CIS: Data from a comprehensive characterisation of the immune microenvironment of urothelial bladder cancer.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(9):e0184841 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tumour immune microenvironment is considered to influence cancer behaviour and outcome. Using a panel of markers for innate and adaptive immune cells we set out to characterise and understand the bladder tumour microenvironment of 114 patients from a prospective multicentre cohort of newly-diagnosed bladder cancer patients, followed-up for 4.33±1.71 years. We found IL-17-positive cells were significantly increased in primary and concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS), p<0.0001, a highly malignant lesion which is the most significant single risk factor for disease progression. Further characterisation of the tumour immunophenotype identified IL-17+ cells as predominantly mast cells rather than T-cells, in contrast to most other tumour types. Expression of the IL-17-receptor in bladder tumours, and functional effects and gene expression changes induced by IL-17 in bladder tumour cells in vitro suggest a role in tumour behaviour. Finally, we assessed the effects of IL-17 in the context of patient outcome, following intravesical BCG immunotherapy which is the standard of care; higher numbers of IL-17+ cells were associated with improved event-free survival (p = 0.0449, HR 0.2918, 95% CI 0.08762-0.9721) in patients with primary and concomitant CIS (n = 41), we propose a model of IL-17+ Mast cells mechanism of action. Thus, in the context of bladder CIS, IL-17+ mast cells predict favourable outcome following BCG immunotherapy indicative of a novel mechanism of BCG immunotherapy in UBC and could form the basis of a stratified approach to treatment.

Niu AQ, Cao YH, Wang H, et al.
Role of IL17A rs2275913 and rs3748067 polymorphisms in the risk cervical cancer.
Genet Mol Res. 2017; 16(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is a serious public health problem and is associated with high cancer-related mortality in females worldwide. The expression of IL17A can increase the migration and invasiveness of cervical cancer cells by activating the NF-κB signal pathway. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can alter gene function and protein expression. We examined the association between two IL17A SNPs (rs2275913 and rs3748067) and the risk of cervical cancer. We also investigated the interaction between IL17A -174G/C and -572C/G mutations and environmental factors. Our 1:2 matched case-control study included 185 cervical cancer patients and 370 healthy controls. The IL17A rs2275913 and rs3748067 SNPs were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that individuals harboring the TT genotype of IL17A rs3748067 had an increased risk of cervical cancer compared with those carrying the CC genotype, and the adjusted OR (95%CI) was 6.29 (2.30-19.81). Moreover, individuals carrying the T allele of IL17A rs3748067 were more susceptible to cervical cancer than those with the C allele, and the adjusted OR (95%CI) was 2.31 (1.53-3.50). No significant interaction was observed between the IL17A rs2275913 polymorphism and cervical cancer risk. In conclusion, our study suggests that the IL17A rs3748067 polymorphism is independently associated with the risk of cervical cancer, and has a relationship with human papillomavirus infection with regard to the risk of cervical cancer.

Nishio K, Ozawa Y, Ito H, et al.
Functional expression of BMP7 receptors in oral epithelial cells. Interleukin-17F production in response to BMP7.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2017; 37(5):515-521 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. Recently, BMP7 has been demonstrated to be produced by salivary glands and contribute to embryonic branching in mice. The BMP7 in saliva is thought to be delivered to the oral cavity and is expected to contact with stratified squamous epithelial cells which line the surface of oral mucosa. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of BMP7 on oral epithelial cells.
METHODS: The expression of BMP receptors was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). OSCCs were stimulated with human recombinant BMP7 (hrBMP7) and the phosphorylation status of Smad1/5/8 was examined by western blotting. For microarray analysis, Ca9-22 cells were stimulated with 100 ng/mL of hrBMP7 and total RNA was extracted and subjected to real-time PCR. The 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of IL-17 F gene was cloned to pGL4-basic vector and used for luciferase assay. Ca9-22 cells were pre-incubated with DM3189, a specific inhibitor of Smad1/5/8, for inhibition assay.
RESULTS: All isoforms of type I and type II BMP receptors were expressed in both Ca9-22 and HSC3 cells and BMP7 stimulation resulted in the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in both cell lines. The microarray analysis revealed the induction of interleukin-17 F (IL-17 F), netrin G2 (NTNG2) and hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1). Luciferase assay using the 5'-UTR of the IL-17 F gene revealed transcriptional regulation. Induced IL-17 F production was further confirmed at the protein level by ELISA. Smad1/5/8 inhibitor pretreatment decreased IL-17 F expression levels in the cells.

Kasamatsu T, Kimoto M, Takahashi N, et al.
IL17A and IL23R gene polymorphisms affect the clinical features and prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma.
Hematol Oncol. 2018; 36(1):196-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin 17 (IL17A) and IL-23 receptor (IL23R) are involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers and autoimmune diseases. We investigated the influence of IL17A and IL23R SNPs on the risk of developing multiple myeloma (MM) and its clinical features. We obtained genomic DNA from 120 patients with MM and 201 healthy controls and detected IL17A -197 G/A (rs2275913) and IL23R H3Q (rs1884444) genotypes using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. There were no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of IL17A -197 G/A and IL23R H3Q between the controls and patients with MM. Compared with the GG and GA genotypes, the IL17A AA genotype was significantly associated with lower hemoglobin levels. The IL23R HH genotype was significantly associated with higher frequency of bone lesions and plasmacytoma than the HQ and QQ genotypes. We observed significant differences in overall survival (OS) between patients treated with thalidomide and/or bortezomib and those treated conventionally. Therefore, we also examined the effect of IL17A and IL23R polymorphisms on the clinical variables and OS in patients treated with thalidomide and/or bortezomib. We observed that the IL23R HH genotype was significantly associated with poor survival compared with the QH and HH genotypes in these patients. Our findings indicate that IL17A -197 G/A and IL23R H3Q are not associated with susceptibility to MM. However, IL-17 and IL-23R polymorphisms may affect severity, bone lesions, and extra-medullary disease in patients with MM. Moreover, IL23R polymorphisms may contribute to poor prognosis in patients with MM treated with thalidomide and/or bortezomib.

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