Gene Summary

Gene:IL32; interleukin 32
Aliases: NK4, TAIF, TAIFa, TAIFb, TAIFc, TAIFd, IL-32beta, IL-32alpha, IL-32delta, IL-32gamma
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cytokine family. The protein contains a tyrosine sulfation site, 3 potential N-myristoylation sites, multiple putative phosphorylation sites, and an RGD cell-attachment sequence. Expression of this protein is increased after the activation of T-cells by mitogens or the activation of NK cells by IL-2. This protein induces the production of TNFalpha from macrophage cells. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
  • Risk Factors
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Interleukin-8
  • Skin Cancer
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Interleukins
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Mycosis Fungoides
  • Octamer Transcription Factor-3
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Staging
  • Promoter Regions
  • Transcription Initiation Site
  • Transfection
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cytokines
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor
  • Chromosome 16
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Breast Cancer
  • NF-kappa B
  • Cultured Cells
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cell Movement
  • Genotype
  • Apoptosis
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IL32 (cancer-related)

Wang Y, Yang Y, Zhu Y, et al.
Polymorphisms and expression of IL-32: impact on genetic susceptibility and clinical outcome of lung cancer.
Biomarkers. 2017; 22(2):165-170 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Polymorphisms of IL-32 related closely to tumoregenesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two IL-32 polymorphisms (rs12934561 and rs28372698) and mRNA expression were conducted by SNP genotype assay and real-time PCR in 423 lung cancer patients and 437 controls.
RESULTS: T allele of rs28372698 associated significantly with poor prognosis in moderate and well-differentiated lung cancer patients. TT genotype of rs12934561 related closely to poor survival status in squamous carcinoma. IL-32 mRNA expression decreased in lung cancer.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our study indicates the importance of IL-32 polymorphism and mRNA expression in susceptibility and influence of survival status in lung cancer.

Karam RA, Al Jiffry BO, Al Saeed M, et al.
DNA repair genes polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer in Saudi patients.
Arab J Gastroenterol. 2016; 17(3):117-120 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes may influence individual capacity to repair DNA damage, which may be associated with increased genetic instability and carcinogenesis. Our aim was to evaluate the relation of genetic polymorphisms in 2 DNA repair genes, XPD Lys751Gln and XRCC1 (A399G), with colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility. We further investigated the potential effect of these DNA repair variants on clinicopathological parameters of CRC patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Both XPD and XRCC1 polymorphisms were characterised in one hundred CRC patients and one hundred healthy controls who had no history of any malignancy by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and PCR with confronting two-pair primers (PCR-CTPP), using DNA from peripheral blood in a case control study.
RESULTS: Our results revealed that the frequencies of GG genotype of XRCC1 399 polymorphism were significantly higher in the CRC patients than in the normal individuals (p⩽0.03), and did not observe any association between the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and CRC risk. We found association between both XRCC1 A399G polymorphisms and histological grading of disease.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that, XRCC1 gene is an important candidate gene for susceptibility to colorectal carcinoma.

Bawazeer NA, Choudhry H, Zamzami MA, et al.
Role of hesperetin in LDL-receptor expression in hepatoma HepG2 cells.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016; 16:182 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High plasma concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) plays a significant role in the incidence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which the citrus flavonoid, hesperetin, regulates the LDL receptor (LDLr) gene in the human liver using the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2.
METHODS: Luciferase reporter gene assays were performed (in the absence of lipoprotein) to measure the activity of the LDLr promoter and the promoters of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors that control the LDLr promoter.
RESULTS: Only SREBP-1 promoter activity was significantly increased 4 h after exposure to 200 μM hesperetin. However, after 24 h incubation with 200 μM hesperetin, the activities of all the promoter-constructs, SREBP-1a, -1c, -2 and LDLr, were significantly increased. The effects of 200 μM hesperetin on elevating LDLr mRNA levels were possibly due to regulation of LDLr gene transcription by SREBP-la and SREBP-2.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 200 μM hesperetin was likely to have stimulated LDLr gene expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells via increased phosphorylation of PI3K andERK1/2, which increased SREBP-1a and SREBP-2 mRNA levels and enhanced the maturation of the encoded proteins. This may lead to lower plasma LDL cholesterol; therefore, diets supplemented with hesperidin might provide cardio-protective effects and reduce mortality and morbidity from coronary heart diseases.

Abdel-Moneim AS, El-Fol HA, Kamel MM, et al.
Screening of human bocavirus in surgically excised cancer specimens.
Arch Virol. 2016; 161(8):2095-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a prevalent virus worldwide and is mainly associated with respiratory disorders. Recently, it was detected in several disease conditions, including cancers. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third main cause of cancers worldwide. Risk factors that initiate cell transformation include nutritional, hereditary and infectious causes. The aim of the current study was to screen for the presence of HBoV in solid tumors of colorectal cancer and to determine the genotypes of the detected strains. Surgically excised and paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissue specimens from 101 male and female patients with and without metastasis were collected over the last four years. Pathological analysis and tumor stages were determined. The presence of HBoV was screened by polymerase chain reaction, and the genotype of the detected HBoV was determined by direct gene sequencing. Most of the examined specimens were adenocarcinoma with mucinous activity in many of them. Twenty-four out of 101 (23.8 %) CRC tissue specimens were found to contain HBoV-1. Low sequence diversity was recorded in the detected strains. The virus was detected in both male and female patients with an age range of 30-75 years. It is proposed that HBoV-1 could play a potential role in the induction of CRC.

Khawar MB, Abbasi MH, Sheikh N
IL-32: A Novel Pluripotent Inflammatory Interleukin, towards Gastric Inflammation, Gastric Cancer, and Chronic Rhino Sinusitis.
Mediators Inflamm. 2016; 2016:8413768 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A vast variety of nonstructural proteins have been studied for their key roles and involvement in a number of biological phenomenona. Interleukin-32 is a novel cytokine whose presence has been confirmed in most of the mammals except rodents. The IL-32 gene was identified on human chromosome 16 p13.3. The gene has eight exons and nine splice variants, namely, IL-32α, IL-32β, IL-32γ, IL-32δ, IL-32ε, IL-32ζ, IL-32η, IL-32θ, and IL-32s. It was found to induce the expression of various inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β as well as macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and has been reported previously to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of a number of inflammatory disorders, namely, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), gastric inflammation and cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the current review, we have highlighted the involvement of IL-32 in gastric cancer, gastric inflammation, and chronic rhinosinusitis. We have also tried to explore various mechanisms suspected to induce the expression of this extraordinary cytokine as well as various mechanisms of action employed by IL-32 during the mediation and progression of the above said problems.

Bak Y, Kwon T, Bak IS, et al.
IL-32θ inhibits stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer stem cells via the STAT3 pathway in colon cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(6):7307-17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interleukin (IL)-32 is a well-known cytokine associated with inflammation, virus infections and cancer. IL-32θ is a newly identified isoform of IL-32, whose function has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated IL-32θ function in colon cancer stem cells. Using samples from colon cancer patients, we found that the expression of IL-32θ mRNAs was significantly suppressed in tumor regions. We investigated the effects of IL-32θ on colon cancer. Ectopic expression of IL-32θ attenuated invasion, migration in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells. IL-32θ inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), resulting in the suppression of their migratory and invasive capabilities of HT29 colon cancer cells. In addition, IL-32θ altered various properties of CSCs, including sphere formation and expression of stemness related genes. IL-32θ directly bound to STAT3 and inhibited its nuclear translocation, leading to inhibited transcription of downstream factors, including Bmi1 and ZEB1. We showed that IL-32θ inhibited the STAT3-ZEB1 pathway and consequently inhibited key factors of stemness and EMT. Taken together, our findings reveal that IL-32θ can be a tumor suppressor, indicating that IL-32θ could possibly be used in therapies for colon cancer.

Wang L, Ni X, Covington KR, et al.
Genomic profiling of Sézary syndrome identifies alterations of key T cell signaling and differentiation genes.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(12):1426-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sézary syndrome is a rare leukemic form of cutaneous T cell lymphoma characterized by generalized redness, scaling, itching and increased numbers of circulating atypical T lymphocytes. It is rarely curable, with poor prognosis. Here we present a multiplatform genomic analysis of 37 patients with Sézary syndrome that implicates dysregulation of cell cycle checkpoint and T cell signaling. Frequent somatic alterations were identified in TP53, CARD11, CCR4, PLCG1, CDKN2A, ARID1A, RPS6KA1 and ZEB1. Activating CCR4 and CARD11 mutations were detected in nearly one-third of patients. ZEB1, encoding a transcription repressor essential for T cell differentiation, was deleted in over one-half of patients. IL32 and IL2RG were overexpressed in nearly all cases. Our results demonstrate profound disruption of key signaling pathways in Sézary syndrome and suggest potential targets for new therapies.

Kim MS, Kang JW, Jeon JS, et al.
IL-32θ gene expression in acute myeloid leukemia suppresses TNF-α production.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(38):40747-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α is highly expressed in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and has been demonstrated to induce rapid proliferation of leukemic blasts. Thus suppressing the production of TNF-α is important because TNF-α can auto-regulate own expression through activation of NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In this study, we focused on the inhibitory effect of IL-32θ on TNF-α production in acute myeloid leukemia. Approximately 38% of patients with AML express endogenous IL-32θ, which is not expressed in healthy individuals. Furthermore, plasma samples were classified into groups with or without IL-32θ; then, we measured proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels. TNF-α production was not increased in patients with IL-32θ expression than that in the no-IL-32θ group. Using an IL-32θ stable expression system in leukemia cell lines, we found that IL-32θ attenuated phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced TNF-α production. IL-32θ inhibited phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, inhibitor of κB (IκB), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which are key positive regulators of TNF-α expression, and inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Moreover, the presence of IL-32θ attenuated TNF-α promoter activity and the binding of NF-κB with the TNF-α promoter. In addition, IL-32γ-induced TNF-α production has no correlation with inhibition of TNF-α via IL-32θ expression. Thus, IL-32θ may serve as a potent inhibitor of TNF-α in patients with AML.

Wang J, Li Y, Liu Y, et al.
Overexpression of truncated AIF regulated by Egr1 promoter radiation-induced apoptosis on MCF-7 cells.
Radiat Environ Biophys. 2015; 54(4):413-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been demonstrated that gene-radiotherapy can improve the radiotherapy by selectively increasing cells' response to ionizing radiation. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a mitochondrial flavoprotein, and its C-terminal domain is responsible for the proapoptotic activity. In the present study, we overexpressed truncated AIF on MCF-7 cells by transfection of pcDNA3.1-tAIF (pc-tAIF) and pcDNA3.1-Egr1-tAIF (pc-Egr1-tAIF) plasmids. After MCF-7-tAIF cells were exposed to X-rays, the AIF and tAIF expressions, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle invasion, cytochrome c (Cyt c) release and activation of caspase-9 were measured by using Western blot, MTT assay, flow cytometry and Matrigel transwell assay, respectively. Our results showed that tAIF expression increased on time- and dose-dependent manners. Both tAIF and radiation can synergistically enhance the apoptosis, cell proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest and cell-invasive inhibition. In addition, tAIF overexpression and irradiation increased Cyt c release. However, only irradiation increased caspase-9 activation. Our studies indicated that tAIF overexpression might enhance apoptosis induced by radiation in MCF-7 cells.

Aguilo F, Di Cecilia S, Walsh MJ
Long Non-coding RNA ANRIL and Polycomb in Human Cancers and Cardiovascular Disease.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2016; 394:29-39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The long non-coding RNA CDKN2B-AS1, commonly referred to as the A ntisense N on-coding R NA in the I NK4 L ocus (ANRIL), is a 3.8-kb-long RNA transcribed from the short arm of human chromosome 9 on p21.3 that overlaps a critical region encompassing three major tumor suppressor loci juxtaposed to the INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene cluster and the methyl-thioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) gene. Genome-wide association studies have identified this region with a remarkable and growing number of disease-associated DNA alterations and single nucleotide polymorphisms, which corresponds to increased susceptibility to human disease. Recent attention has been devoted on whether these alterations in the ANRIL sequence affect its expression levels and/or its splicing transcript variation, and in consequence, global cellular homeostasis. Moreover, recent evidence postulates that ANRIL not only can regulate their immediate genomic neighbors in cis, but also has the capacity to regulate additional loci in trans. This action would further increase the complexity for mechanisms imposed through ANRIL and furthering the scope of this lncRNA in disease pathogenesis. In this chapter, we summarize the most recent findings on the investigation of ANRIL and provide a perspective on the biological and clinical significance of ANRIL as a putative biomarker, specifically, its potential role in directing cellular fates leading to cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Erturk K, Tastekin D, Serilmez M, et al.
Clinical significance of serum interleukin-29, interleukin-32, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in patients with gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(1):405-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many studies suggested that cytokines interleukin (IL)-29, IL-32, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are implicated in the pathogenesis of malignancies. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum levels of IL-29, IL-32, and TNF-α in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Fifty-eight GC patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled into this study. The median age at diagnosis was 59.5 years (range 32-82 years). Tumor localization of the majority of the patients was antrum (n = 42, 72.4 %), and tumor histopathology of the majority of the patients was diffuse (n = 43, 74.1 %). The majority of the patients had stage IV disease (n = 41, 70.7 %). Thirty-six (62.1 %) patients had lymph node involvement. The median follow-up time was 66 months (range 1 to 97.2 months). The baseline serum IL-29 concentrations were not different between patients and controls (p = 0.627). The baseline serum IL-32 and TNF-α concentrations of the GC patients were significantly higher (for IL-32, p = 0.014; for TNF-α, p = 0.001). Gender, localization, histopathology, tumor, and lymph node involvement were not found to be correlated with serum IL-29, IL-32, and TNF-α concentrations (p > 0.05). Patients without metastasis (p = 0.01) and patients who responded to chemotherapy (p = 0.04) had higher serum IL-29 concentrations. Patients older than 60 years had higher serum IL-32 (p = 0.002). Serum IL-29, IL-32, and TNF-α levels were not associated with outcome (p = 0.30, p = 0.51, and p = 0.41, respectively). In conclusion, serum levels of IL-32 and TNF-α may be diagnostic markers, and serum IL-29 levels may be associated with good prognosis in patients with GC.

Nabeki B, Ishigami S, Uchikado Y, et al.
Interleukin-32 expression and Treg infiltration in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(5):2941-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Interleukin-32 (IL32) has been newly-identified as a proinflammatory cytokine. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the clinical role of IL32-positive cells in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and regulatory T-cell (Treg) infiltration in the stroma. A total of 179 patients with ESCC who underwent surgical resection from 1990 to 2004 were eligible for this study. The expression of IL32 and the degree of stromal infiltration by Tregs were examined simultaneously. The association between each factor and the clinicopathological features was analyzed. Sixty and 74 out of 179 patients with ESCC were regarded as having IL32-positive tumors and many Tregs (high-Treg group), respectively. The IL32-positive and high-Treg groups had significantly deeper tumor invasion than did the IL32-negative and low-Treg groups (p<0.05, for both groups). The multivariate analysis indicated that a combination of IL32 expression and presence of Tregs was one of the poor independent factors (p<0.05). IL32 expression and Treg infiltration in ESCC play an important synergistic role in tumor growth and invasion. The combination of IL32 positivity and degree of infiltration of Treg is a useful prognostic marker in ESCC.

Taube JM, Young GD, McMiller TL, et al.
Differential Expression of Immune-Regulatory Genes Associated with PD-L1 Display in Melanoma: Implications for PD-1 Pathway Blockade.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(17):3969-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Blocking the immunosuppressive PD-1/PD-L1 pathway has antitumor activity in multiple cancer types, and PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and infiltrating myeloid cells correlates with the likelihood of response. We previously found that IFNG (interferon-gamma) was overexpressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in PD-L1(+) versus PD-L1(-) melanomas, creating adaptive immune resistance by promoting PD-L1 display. This study was undertaken to identify additional factors in the PD-L1(+) melanoma microenvironment coordinately contributing to immunosuppression.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Archived, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanoma specimens were assessed for PD-L1 protein expression at the tumor cell surface with IHC. Whole-genome expression analysis, quantitative (q)RT-PCR, IHC, and functional in vitro validation studies were used to assess factors differentially expressed in PD-L1(+) versus PD-L1(-) melanomas.
RESULTS: Functional annotation clustering based on whole-genome expression profiling revealed pathways upregulated in PD-L1(+) melanomas, involving immune cell activation, inflammation, and antigen processing and presentation. Analysis by qRT-PCR demonstrated overexpression of functionally related genes in PD-L1(+) melanomas, involved in CD8(+) T-cell activation (CD8A, IFNG, PRF1, and CCL5), antigen presentation (CD163, TLR3, CXCL1, and LYZ), and immunosuppression [PDCD1 (PD-1), CD274 (PD-L1), and LAG3, IL10]. Functional studies demonstrated that some factors, including IL10 and IL32-gamma, induced PD-L1 expression on monocytes but not tumor cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These studies elucidate the complexity of immune checkpoint regulation in the tumor microenvironment, identifying multiple factors likely contributing to coordinated immunosuppression. These factors may provide tumor escape mechanisms from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, and should be considered for cotargeting in combinatorial immunomodulation treatment strategies.

Zhou Y, Hu Z, Li N, Jiang R
Interleukin-32 stimulates osteosarcoma cell invasion and motility via AKT pathway-mediated MMP-13 expression.
Int J Mol Med. 2015; 35(6):1729-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-32 (IL-32) is reported to play an important role in tumor development and progression. However, its effects on the invasion and motility of osteosarcoma cells remain elusive. The aim of the present study was to determine the molecular mechanisms of IL-32 in osteosarcoma cells using RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The results showed that IL-32 stimulation dose-dependently promoted the invasion and motility of osteosarcoma cells. Knockdown of endogenous IL-32 by siRNA inhibited osteosarcoma cell invasion and motility. Moreover, IL-32 induced the activation of AKT in a time-dependent manner. IL-32 stimulation was also capable of increasing the expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, which is involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. In addition, blockade of AKT activation suppressed IL-32-mediated invasion, motility and MMP-13 upregulation in osteosarcoma cells. Taken together, our results suggest that IL-32 stimulation promotes the invasion and motility of osteosarcoma cells, possibly via the activation of AKT and the upregulation of MMP-13 expression. Thus, IL-32 may serve as a marker for diagnosis, as well as for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Saber T, Ghonaim MM, Yousef AR, et al.
Association of Helicobacter pylori cagA Gene with Gastric Cancer and Peptic Ulcer in Saudi Patients.
J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015; 25(7):1146-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was conducted to assess the relationship between occurrence of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer, and the presence of H. pylori cagA gene and anti-CagA IgG, and to estimate the value of these antibodies in detecting infection by cagA gene-positive H. pylori strains in Saudi patients. The study included 180 patients who were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Taif province and Western region of Saudi Arabia (60 gastric cancer, 60 peptic ulcer, and 60 with non-ulcer dyspepsia). Gastric biopsy specimens were obtained and tested for H. pylori infection by rapid urease test and culture. PCR was performed on the isolated strains and biopsy specimens for detection of the cagA gene. Blood samples were collected and tested for CagA IgG by ELISA. H. pylori infection was detected among 72.8% of patients. The cagA gene and anti-CagA IgG were found in 63.4% and 61.8% of H. pylori-infected patients, respectively. They were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in patients with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer compared with those with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Detection of the CagA IgG was 91.6% sensitive, 89.6% specific, and 90.8% accurate compared with detection of the cagA gene. Its positive and negative predictive values were 93.8% and 86%, respectively. The study showed a significant association between the presence of the cagA gene and gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease, and between anti-CagA IgG and the cagA gene in Saudi patients. However, a further larger study is required to confirm this finding.

Kim MS, Kang JW, Park YS, et al.
IL-32θ inhibits monocytic differentiation of leukemia cells by attenuating expression of transcription factor PU.1.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(6):4394-405 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PU.1 is a key transcription factor regulating the myeloid differentiation. PU.1-induced monocytic differentiation into macrophage is also important for blood cancer development. Therefore, we chose THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells to investigate the function of a recently discovered IL-32θ. Genetic analyses identified differences in the sequences of IL-32θ and IL-32β. Using previously established cell lines that stably express IL-32θ and IL-32β and cell lines transiently expressing IL-32θ, we observed that expression of IL-32θ inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced monocytic differentiation in both THP-1 and HL-60 cells. IL-32θ also suppressed expression of the macrophage cell surface markers, CD11b, CD18, and CD36. Interestingly, expression of IL-32β or IL-32θ had no effect on the expression levels of cell cycle related factors. As a result, we concluded that these isoforms did not contribute to PMA-induced cell cycle arrest. IL-32θ was found to modulate expression of PU.1, a transcription factor necessary for myeloid lineage commitment. Transient expression of PU.1 in THP-1/IL-32θ cells rescued the observed differentiation defect. Additionally, transient expression of both CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and PU.1 in THP-1/IL-32θ cells exhibited synergistic effects in rescuing the differentiation defect. These observations indicate that intracellular IL-32θ inhibits the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages by attenuating PU.1 expression.

Yu X, Zhou B, Zhang Z, et al.
Significant association between IL-32 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to endometrial cancer in Chinese Han women.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(7):5265-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-32 (IL-32), a pro-inflammatory chemokine, has been reported to be involved in inflammatory, infectious diseases and even cancers. This study aimed to investigate whether two genetic variants (rs28372698 and rs12934561) of IL-32 were associated with susceptibility to endometrial cancer (EC) in Chinese Han women by a hospital-based study with 272 EC patients and 337 healthy controls. Our results showed that the frequencies of TT genotype (P = 0.012, OR = 2.37, 95 % CI = 1.32-4.28) and T allele (P = 0.026, OR = 1.320, 95 % CI = 1.036-1.681) of rs28372698 in EC patients were significantly higher than controls. Clinical analyses indicated the TT genotype frequency was relevant to high clinical stage and cervical invasion. Furthermore, the frequencies of CC genotype (P = 0.0077, OR = 1.62, 95 % CI = 1.05-2.50) and C allele (P = 0.043, OR = 1.269, 95 % CI = 1.011-1.592) of rs12934561 were also significantly higher in EC patients than controls. Stratification analyses revealed that CC genotype was more frequent in endometrioid adenocarcinoma or EC without parametrial invasion. This study demonstrates that IL-32 gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with increased EC susceptibility in Chinese Han women.

Nemenqani DM, Karam RA, Amer MG, Abd El Rahman TM
Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and steroid receptor status among Saudi women with breast cancer.
Gene. 2015; 558(2):215-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a mediator for the cellular effects of vitamin D and interacts with other cell signaling pathways that influence cancer development. We evaluated the associations of the FOK1 and Taq1 VDR polymorphisms and breast cancer risk and possible effect modification by steroid receptor status of the tumor. This case-control study includes 95 breast cancer patients and 100 age-matched controls. Genotyping for VDR FOK1 and Taq1 polymorphisms was performed using polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Level of 25(OH)D in serum was determined using ELISA. Immunohistochemical studies were performed for estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR). The frequencies of ff genotype were significantly increased in the breast cancer group compared to the control group. Carriers of the f allele were significantly more likely to develop BC. We observed a statistically significant interaction for the Fok1 polymorphism and ER status. Our results demonstrated that FOK1 f. genotype and f allele have an important role in breast cancer risk in Saudi patients.

Zhu Y, Cheng M, Yang Z, et al.
Mesenchymal stem cell-based NK4 gene therapy in nude mice bearing gastric cancer xenografts.
Drug Des Devel Ther. 2014; 8:2449-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been recognized as promising delivery vehicles for gene therapy of tumors. Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of worldwide cancer mortality, and novel treatment modalities are urgently needed. NK4 is an antagonist of hepatocyte growth factor receptors (Met) which are often aberrantly activated in gastric cancer and thus represent a useful candidate for targeted therapies. This study investigated MSC-delivered NK4 gene therapy in nude mice bearing gastric cancer xenografts. MSCs were transduced with lentiviral vectors carrying NK4 complementary DNA or enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP). Such transduction did not change the phenotype of MSCs. Gastric cancer xenografts were established in BALB/C nude mice, and the mice were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), MSCs-GFP, Lenti-NK4, or MSCs-NK4. The tropism of MSCs toward gastric cancer cells was determined by an in vitro migration assay using MKN45 cells, GES-1 cells and human fibroblasts and their presence in tumor xenografts. Tumor growth, tumor cell apoptosis and intratumoral microvessel density of tumor tissue were measured in nude mice bearing gastric cancer xenografts treated with PBS, MSCs-GFP, Lenti-NK4, or MSCs-NK4 via tail vein injection. The results showed that MSCs migrated preferably to gastric cancer cells in vitro. Systemic MSCs-NK4 injection significantly suppressed the growth of gastric cancer xenografts. MSCs-NK4 migrated and accumulated in tumor tissues after systemic injection. The microvessel density of tumor xenografts was decreased, and tumor cellular apoptosis was significantly induced in the mice treated with MSCs-NK4 compared to control mice. These findings demonstrate that MSC-based NK4 gene therapy can obviously inhibit the growth of gastric cancer xenografts, and MSCs are a better vehicle for NK4 gene therapy than lentiviral vectors. Further studies are warranted to explore the efficacy and safety of the MSC-based NK4 gene therapy in animals and cancer patients.

Deng XB, Xiao L, Wu Y, et al.
Inhibition of mesothelioma cancer stem-like cells with adenovirus-mediated NK4 gene therapy.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(2):481-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly invasive and chemoresistant malignancy induced by asbestos fibers. NK4, a hepatocyte growth factor antagonist and angiogenesis inhibitor, consists of the N-terminal hairpin domain and four kringle domains of the α-chain of hepatocyte growth factor. The therapeutic potential of NK4 has been demonstrated in a variety of tumor types. However, the mechanisms by which NK4 inhibits tumor growth have not been well delineated. In this study, it is shown that the NK4 adenovirus (Ad-NK4) potently inhibits cell viability, invasiveness and tumorigenicity of human MM cells. Significantly, this study demonstrates for the first time that Ad-NK4 inhibits cancer stem-like cell (CSC) properties as assessed by spheroid formation assay, side population analysis and flow cytometric sorting of CD24 cells. In addition to inhibiting phosphorylation of Met and AKT, Ad-NK4 markedly suppressed the active form of β-catenin, a key mediator of both Wnt and AKT pathways. It is further demonstrated that expression of NK4 suppresses β-catenin nuclear localization and transcriptional activity. Intriguingly, the expression levels of Oct4 and Myc, two critical stem cell factors and downstream targets of β-catenin, were also diminished by Ad-NK4. Furthermore, the strong antitumor effect of NK4 was found to be linked to its ability to inhibit CSCs as revealed by immunohistochemical examination of tumor specimens from a mouse xenograft model of human MM. These findings suggest that NK4 acts as a CSC inhibitor by impeding Met/AKT/β-catenin signaling and holds promise for achieving durable therapeutic responses in MM by constraining the CSC component of these aggressive tumors.

Park YS, Kang JW, Lee DH, et al.
Interleukin-32α downregulates the activity of the B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 protein by inhibiting protein kinase Cε-dependent SUMO-2 modification.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(18):8765-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A proinflammatory cytokine IL-32 acts as an intracellular mediator. IL-32α interacts with many intracellular molecules, but there are no reports of interaction with a transcriptional repressor BCL6. In this study, we showed that PMA induces an interaction between IL-32α, PKCε, and BCL6, forming a trimer. To identify the mechanism of the interaction, we treated cells with various inhibitors. In HEK293 and THP-1 cell lines, treatment with a pan-PKC inhibitor, PKCε inhibitor, and PKCδ inhibitor decreased BCL6 and IL-32α protein expression. MAPK inhibitors and classical PKC inhibitor did not decrease PMA-induced BCL6 and IL-32α protein expression. Further, the pan-PKC inhibitor and PKCε inhibitor disrupted PMA-induced interaction between IL-32α and BCL6. These data demonstrate that the intracellular interaction between IL-32α and BCL6 is induced by PMA-activated PKCε. PMA induces post-translational modification of BCL6 by conjugation to SUMO-2, while IL-32α inhibits. PKCε inhibition eliminated PMA-induced SUMOylation of BCL6. Inhibition of BCL6 SUMOylation by IL-32α affected the cellular function and activity of the transcriptional repressor BCL6 in THP-1 cells. Thus, we showed that IL-32α is a negative regulator of the transcriptional repressor BCL6. IL-32α inhibits BCL6 SUMOylation by activating PKCε, resulting in the modulation of BCL6 target genes and cellular functions of BCL6.

Player A, Oguamanam T, Okanmelu J, et al.
Preliminary characterization of IL32 in basal-like/triple negative compared to other types of breast cell lines and tissues.
BMC Res Notes. 2014; 7:501 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and often basal-like cancers are defined as negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her2 gene expression. Over the past few years an incredible amount of data has been generated defining the molecular characteristics of both cancers. The aim of these studies is to better understand the cancers and identify genes and molecular pathways that might be useful as targeted therapies. In an attempt to contribute to the understanding of basal-like/TNBC, we examined the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) public datasets in search of genes that might define basal-like/TNBC. The Il32 gene was identified as a candidate.
FINDINGS: Analysis of several GEO datasets showed differential expression of IL32 in patient samples previously designated as basal and/or TNBC compared to normal and luminal breast samples. As validation of the GEO results, RNA and protein expression levels were examined using MCF7 and MDA MB231 cell lines and tissue microarrays (TMAs). IL32 gene expression levels were higher in MDA MB231 compared to MCF7. Analysis of TMAs showed 42% of TNBC tissues and 25% of the non-TNBC were positive for IL32, while non-malignant patient samples and all but one hyperplastic tissue sample demonstrated lower levels of IL32 protein expression.
CONCLUSION: Data obtained from several publically available GEO datasets showed overexpression of IL32 gene in basal-like/TNBC samples compared to normal and luminal samples. In support of these data, analysis of TMA clinical samples demonstrated a particular pattern of IL32 differential expression. Considered together, these data suggest IL32 is a candidate suitable for further study.

Gonzalez-Hormazabal P, Musleh M, Bustamante M, et al.
Role of cytokine gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer risk in Chile.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(7):3523-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To assess the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory polymorphisms in gastric cancer susceptibility.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We genotyped 12 polymorphisms in eight cytokine genes (Interleukin-1β -IL1B-, IL8, IL17A, IL17F, IL32, tumor necrosis factor-α -TNF-, IL1RN, IL10) in a case-control study of 147 patients with gastric cancer and 172 controls.
RESULTS: Single polymorphism analysis revealed an association between the IL10 -592C>A single nucleotide polymorphism and cases with moderately- or well-differentiated tumors [AA vs. GG, odds ratio (OR)=3.01; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-8.50]. We further analyzed gene-gene interactions using a combined attribute network implemented in multifactor dimensionality reduction software. The analysis revealed an interaction between IL8 -251A>T and IL32 rs28372698 SNPs among cases with moderately- or well-differentiated tumors. Homozygosity for both IL8 -251T and IL32 T alleles increases the odds for developing gastric cancer up to 2.63-fold (OR=2.63; 95% CI=1.15-6.03). This association was higher compared to the homozygosity for the IL8-251 T allele alone (OR=1.11; 95% CI=0.51-2.43) or the IL32 T allele alone (OR=1.21; 95% CI=0.54-2.72).
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that IL10 -592C>A increases the odds for developing gastric cancer. An interaction between IL8 -251A>T and IL32 rs28372698 SNPs is also proposed.

Ohmatsu H, Humme D, Gulati N, et al.
IL32 is progressively expressed in mycosis fungoides independent of helper T-cell 2 and helper T-cell 9 polarization.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2014; 2(9):890-900 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mycosis fungoides, the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), is characterized by a helper T-cell 2 (Th2) skewing with a mature CD4(+) memory T-cell phenotype. Using skin samples from patients with mycosis fungoides (n = 21), healthy volunteers (n = 17), and individuals with atopic dermatitis (n = 17) and psoriasis (n = 9), we found IL32 mRNA expression significantly higher in mycosis fungoides samples than in samples from benign inflammatory skin diseases, and its expression increases with disease progression. By IHC and immunofluorescence, we confirmed IL32 protein expression in many CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells and some epidermotropic T cells in mycosis fungoides lesions. MyLa cells (a mycosis fungoides cell line) express IL32, which, in turn, could promote cellular proliferation and viability in a dose-dependent fashion. IL32-treated MyLa and CTCL HH cells upregulated cell proliferation and survival genes. Of the major "polarizing" T-cell cytokines, only IFNγ mRNA increases with mycosis fungoides progression and positively correlates with IL32 mRNA expression. Th2 cytokines do not positively correlate with IL32 mRNA expression or mycosis fungoides progression. Furthermore, by flow cytometry, IL32 production by circulating activated T cells in healthy individuals was found in both IFNγ(+) and IFNγ(-) cells but not in IL4(+) or IL13(+) cells. In conclusion, we have identified IL32(+) cells as the likely tumor cells in mycosis fungoides, and demonstrated that IL32 mRNA expression increases with mycosis fungoides progression and is significantly higher than mRNA expression in other skin diseases, and that some IL32(+) T cells are independent from the defined Th subsets. Thus, IL32 may play a unique role in mycosis fungoides progression as an autocrine cytokine.

López-Guerra M, Xargay-Torrent S, Rosich L, et al.
The γ-secretase inhibitor PF-03084014 combined with fludarabine antagonizes migration, invasion and angiogenesis in NOTCH1-mutated CLL cells.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(1):96-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
Targeting Notch signaling has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), especially for the poor prognostic subgroup of NOTCH1-mutated patients. Here, we report that the γ-secretase inhibitor PF-03084014 inhibits the constitutive Notch activation and induces selective apoptosis in CLL cells carrying NOTCH1 mutations. Combination of PF-03084014 with fludarabine has a synergistic antileukemic effect in primary NOTCH1-mutated CLL cells, even in the presence of the protective stroma. At transcriptional level, PF-03084014 plus fludarabine treatment induces the upregulation of the proapoptotic gene HRK and the downmodulation of MMP9, IL32 and RAC2 genes that are related to invasion and chemotaxis. PF-03084014 also overcomes fludarabine-mediated activation of nuclear factor-κB signaling. Moreover, this combination impairs angiogenesis and CXCL12-induced responses in NOTCH1-mutated CLL cells, in particular those related to tumoral migration and invasion. Importantly, all these collaborative effects are specific for NOTCH1 mutation and do not occur in unmutated cases. In conclusion, we provide evidence that Notch is a therapeutic target in CLL cases with NOTCH1-activating mutations, supporting the use of Notch pathway inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy as a promising approach for the treatment of these high-risk CLL patients.

Gharib AF, Karam RA, Abd El Rahman TM, Elsawy WH
COX-2 polymorphisms -765G→C and -1195A→G and hepatocellular carcinoma risk.
Gene. 2014; 543(2):234-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and considered to play a role in hepatic carcinogenesis. Our aim was to examine the associations between polymorphisms in COX-2 -765G→C and -1195A→G and risk of HCC. We conducted a case-control study including 120 patients with HCC and 130 age- and gender-matched controls. Genotypes of the COX-2 polymorphisms -765G→C and -1195A→G were determined by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. No significant difference was observed in the genotype distribution of the -765G→C polymorphism between patients and controls. The -1195AA genotype was associated with an increased risk of developing HCC (OR, 2.5; 95%CI, 1.18-5.37). The A allele was present significantly more often in HCC patients (OR 1.5; 95%CI, 1.05-2.14). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the -1195AA genotype and A allele have an important role in HCC risk in Egyptian patients.

Tsai CY, Wang CS, Tsai MM, et al.
Interleukin-32 increases human gastric cancer cell invasion associated with tumor progression and metastasis.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(9):2276-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a novel tumor marker highly expressed in various human carcinomas, including gastric cancer. However, its effects on prognosis of patients with gastric cancer and cancer metastasis are virtually unknown at present. The main aim of this study was to explore the clinical significance of IL-32 in gastric cancer and further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-32-mediated migration and invasion.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Gastric cancer cells with ectopic expression or silencing of IL-32 were examined to identify downstream molecules and establish their effects on cell motility, invasion, and lung metastasis in vivo.
RESULTS: IL-32 was significantly upregulated in gastric cancer and positively correlated with aggressiveness of cancer and poor prognosis. Ectopic expression of IL-32 induced elongated morphology and increased cell migration and invasion via induction of IL-8, VEGF, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), and MMP9 expression via phosphor-AKT/phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3β/active β-catenin as well as hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) signaling pathways. Conversely, depletion of IL-32 in gastric cancer cells reversed these effects and decreased lung colonization in vivo. Examination of gene expression datasets in oncomine and staining of gastric cancer specimens demonstrated the clinical significance of IL-32 and its downstream molecules by providing information on their coexpression patterns.
CONCLUSIONS: IL-32 contributes to gastric cancer progression by increasing the metastatic potential resulting from AKT, β-catenin, and HIF-1α activation. Our results clearly suggest that IL-32 is an important mediator for gastric cancer metastasis and independent prognostic predictor of gastric cancer.

Sun YP, Zhang BL, Duan JW, et al.
Effect of NK4 transduction in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on biological characteristics of pancreatic cancer cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(3):3729-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer usually has a poor prognosis, and no gene therapy has yet been developed that is effective to treat it. Since a unique characteristic of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is that they migrate to tumor tissues, we wanted to determine whether MSCs could serve as a vehicle of gene therapy for targeting pancreatic cancer. First, we successfully extracted MSCs from SD rats. Next, MSCs were efficiently transduced with NK4, an antagonist of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) which comprising the N-terminal and the subsequent four kringle domains of HGF, by an adenoviral vector. Then, we confirmed that rat MSCs preferentially migrate to pancreatic cancer cells. Last, MSCs expressing NK4 (NK4-MSCs) strongly inhibited proliferation and migration of the pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 after co-culture. These results indicate that MSCs can serve as a vehicle of gene therapy for targeting pancreatic cancer.

Elesawy BH, Abd El hafez A, Shawky Ael-A, Arafa M
Immunohistochemistry-based subtyping of breast carcinoma in Egyptian women: a clinicopathologic study on 125 patients.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2014; 18(1):21-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast carcinoma is a heterogeneous disease affected by patients' ethnicity. Gene expression analysis identified several molecular subtypes, and similar subtyping has now been found to be feasible using immunohistochemistry. This study estimated the distribution of intrinsic breast cancer subtypes using estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2/neu), and cytokeratin 5/6 immunostaining in a cohort of 125 Egyptian women diagnosed as having invasive breast carcinoma. Associations with clinicopathologic variables and the prognostic markers Bcl-2 and Cyclin D1 were investigated and statistically analyzed. Population difference in breast cancer subtypes was detected, suggesting etiologic and genetic heterogeneity among demographic groups. As reported worldwide, most tumors were luminal A (39.2%), but basal-like and unclassified subtypes had higher proportions among our cohort (16.8% and 16%, respectively), particularly in premenopausal patients (P = .0001), in contrast to postmenopausal African Americans, premenopausal European Americans, and other populations. Her2-overexpressing subtype was the least common subtype (13.65%) among our patients, although it is more common in Asians. Basal-like and unclassified carcinomas were more frequently grade 3 neoplasms (P = .035). Lobular histology was distributed among luminal A, B and unclassified subtypes (P = .006). The highest frequency of nodal positivity was associated with Her2 overexpressing carcinomas (94.1%, P = .0001). Luminal and unclassified carcinomas more likely expressed Bcl-2 (P = .011) and Cyclin D1 (P = .0001), whereas basal and Her2 subtypes had the lowest expression levels. Immunohistochemistry-based subtyping can be helpful in separating breast carcinoma into subtypes that vary in distribution among different populations. These subtypes have distinct clinicopathologic features and diverse prognostication, which may imply different therapeutic options for each subtype.

Park JS, Choi SY, Lee JH, et al.
Interleukin-32β stimulates migration of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7cells via the VEGF-STAT3 signaling pathway.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2013; 36(6):493-503 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: IL-32 is known to play an important role in inflammatory and autoimmune disease responses. In addition to its role in these responses, IL-32 and its different isoforms have in recent years been implicated in the development of various cancers. As of yet, the role of IL-32 in breast cancer has remained largely unknown.
RESULTS: By performing immunohistochemical assays on primary breast cancer samples, we found that the level of IL-32β expression was positively correlated with tumor size, number of lymph node metastases and tumor stage. In addition, we found that breast cancer-derived MDA-MB-231 cells exogenously expressing IL-32β exhibited increased migration and invasion capacities. These increased capacities were found to be associated with an increased expression of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers vimentin and Slug, the latter of which is responsible for the increase in vimentin transcription. To next investigate whether IL-32β enhances migration and invasion through a soluble factor, we determined the levels of several migration-stimulating ligands, and found that the production of VEGF was increased by IL-32β. In addition, we found that IL-32β-induced VEGF increased migration and invasion through STAT3 activation.
CONCLUSION: The IL-32β-VEGF-STAT3 pathway represents an additional pathway that mediates the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells under the conditions of normoxia and hypoxia.

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