Gene Summary

Gene:ITGAL; integrin subunit alpha L
Aliases: CD11A, LFA-1, LFA1A
Summary:ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:integrin alpha-L
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (23)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (14)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Reproducibility of Results
  • TGFB1
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • DNA Copy Number Variations
  • Mutation
  • Extracellular Matrix
  • ADAM Proteins
  • Genome
  • laminin gamma 1
  • DNA Methylation
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Genetic Variation
  • Computational Biology
  • Leukaemia
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • FN1 protein, human
  • Vincristine
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Chromosome 16
  • Molecular Sequence Annotation
  • Prednisone
  • Data Mining
  • Epigenetics
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Melphalan
  • Gene Ontology
  • Transcription
  • RT-PCR
  • Whole Exome Sequencing
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Polyamines
  • Survival Rate
  • Metabolic Networks and Pathways
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Laminin
  • Integrins
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ITGAL (cancer-related)

Zhao X, Lei Y, Li G, et al.
Integrative analysis of cancer driver genes in prostate adenocarcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(4):2707-2715 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Large‑scale genomics studies have identified recurrently mutated genes in the ETS gene family, including fusions and copy number variations (CNVs), which are involved in the development of prostate adenocarcinoma (PRAD). However, the aetiology of PRAD remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, 333 driver genes were identified using four computational tools: OncodriveFM, OncodriveCLUST, iCAGES and DrGaP. In addition, 32 driver pathways were identified using DrGaP. SPOP, TP53, SPTA1, AHNAK, HMCN1, ATM, FOXA1, CSMD3, LRP1B and FREM2 were the 10 most recurrently mutated genes in PRAD. ITGAL, TAGAP, SIGLEC10, RAC2 and ITGA4 were the five hub genes in the yellow module that were associated with the number of positive lymph nodes. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the 20 driver genes with the most frequent CNVs revealed three clusters of patients with PRAD. Cluster 3 tumours exhibited significantly higher numbers of positive lymph nodes, higher Gleason scores, more advanced cancer stages and poorer prognosis than cluster 1 and 2 tumours. A total of 48 genes were significantly associated with the number of positive lymph nodes, Gleason scores and pathologic stage in patients with PRAD. The identified set of cancer genes and pathways sheds light on the tumorigenesis of PRAD and creates avenues for the development of prognostic biomarkers and driver gene‑targeted therapies in PRAD.

Soda K
Polyamine Metabolism and Gene Methylation in Conjunction with One-Carbon Metabolism.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent investigations have revealed that changes in DNA methylation status play an important role in aging-associated pathologies and lifespan. The methylation of DNA is regulated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b) in the presence of

Xie W, Stopsack KH, Drouin SJ, et al.
Association of genetic variation of the six gene prognostic model for castration-resistant prostate cancer with survival.
Prostate. 2019; 79(1):73-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We previously identified a blood RNA transcript-based model consisting of six immune or inflammatory response genes (ABL2, SEMA4D, ITGAL, C1QA, TIMP1, and CDKN1A) that was prognostic for survival in cohorts of men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We investigated whether inherited variation in these six genes was associated with overall survival (OS) in men with CRPC.
METHODS: The test cohort comprised 600 patients diagnosed with CRPC between 1996 and 2011 at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Genotyping of 66 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the six genes was performed on blood derived DNAs. For the top four SNPs (P < 0.05), validation was conducted in an independent cohort of 223 men diagnosed with CRPC between 2000 and 2014. Multivariable Cox regression adjusting for known prognostic factors estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the association of genetic variants with OS.
RESULTS: Two thirds of patients in both cohorts had metastases at CRPC diagnosis. Median OS from CRPC diagnosis was 3.6 (95%CI 3.3-4.0) years in the test cohort and 4.6 (95%CI 3.8-5.2) years in the validation cohort. Fifty-nine SNPs in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were analyzed. The major alleles of rs1318056 and rs1490311 in ABL2, and the minor alleles of rs2073917 and rs3764322 in ITGAL were associated with increased risk of death in the test cohort (adjusted-HRs 1.27-1.39; adjusted-p <0.05; false discovery rate <0.35). In the validation cohort, a similar association with OS was observed for rs1318056 in ABL2 (adjusted-HR 1.44; 95%CI 0.89-2.34) and rs2073917 in ITGAL (adjusted-HR 1.41; 95%CI 0.82-2.42). The associations did not reach statistical significance most likely due to the small sample size of the validation cohort (adjusted-p = 0.142 and 0.209, respectively). Additional eQTL analysis indicated that minor alleles of rs1318056 and rs1490311 in ABL2 are associated with a lower ABL2 expression in blood.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings corroborate our initial work on the RNA expression of genes involved in immunity and inflammation from blood and clinical outcome and suggest that germline polymorphisms in ABL2 and ITGAL may be associated with the risk of death in men with CRPC. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and to explore their functional mechanisms.

Durgeau A, Virk Y, Corgnac S, Mami-Chouaib F
Recent Advances in Targeting CD8 T-Cell Immunity for More Effective Cancer Immunotherapy.
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Recent advances in cancer treatment have emerged from new immunotherapies targeting T-cell inhibitory receptors, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen (CTLA)-4 and programmed cell death (PD)-1. In this context, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated survival benefits in numerous cancers, including melanoma and non-small-cell lung carcinoma. PD-1-expressing CD8

Feist PE, Loughran EA, Stack MS, Hummon AB
Quantitative proteomic analysis of murine white adipose tissue for peritoneal cancer metastasis.
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2018; 410(5):1583-1594 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Cancer metastasis risk increases in older individuals, but the mechanisms for this risk increase are unclear. Many peritoneal cancers, including ovarian cancer, preferentially metastasize to peritoneal fat depots. However, there is a dearth of studies exploring aged peritoneal adipose tissue in the context of cancer. Because adipose tissue produces signals which influence several diseases including cancer, proteomics of adipose tissue in aged and young mice may provide insight into metastatic mechanisms. We analyzed mesenteric, omental, and uterine adipose tissue groups from the peritoneal cavities of young and aged C57BL/6J mouse cohorts with a low-fraction SDS-PAGE gelLC-MS/MS method. We identified 2308 protein groups and quantified 2167 groups, among which several protein groups showed twofold or greater abundance differences between the aged and young cohorts. Cancer-related gene products previously identified as significant in another age-related study were found altered in this study. Several gene products known to suppress proliferation and cellular invasion were found downregulated in the aged cohort, including R-Ras, Arid1a, and heat shock protein β1. In addition, multiple protein groups were identified within single cohorts, including the proteins Cd11a, Stat3, and Ptk2b. These data suggest that adipose tissue is a strong candidate for analysis to identify possible contributors to cancer metastasis in older subjects. The results of this study, the first of its kind using uterine adipose tissue, contribute to the understanding of the role of adipose tissue in age-related alteration of oncogenic pathways, which may help elucidate the mechanisms of increased metastatic tumor burden in the aged. Graphical abstract We analyzed mesenteric, omental, and uterine adipose tissue groups from the peritoneal cavities of young and aged C57BL/6J mouse cohorts with a low-fraction SDS-PAGE gelLC-MS/MS method. These fat depots are preferential sites for many peritoneal cancers. The results of this study, the first of its kind using uterine adipose tissue, contribute to the understanding of the role of adipose tissue in age-related alteration of oncogenic pathways, which may help elucidate the mechanisms of increased metastatic tumor burden in the aged.

Li S, Nishikawa T, Kaneda Y
Inactivated Sendai virus particle upregulates cancer cell expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and enhances natural killer cell sensitivity on cancer cells.
Cancer Sci. 2017; 108(12):2333-2341 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
We have already reported that the inactivated Sendai virus (hemagglutinating virus of Japan; HVJ) envelope (HVJ-E) has multiple anticancer effects, including induction of cancer-selective cell death and activation of anticancer immunity. The HVJ-E stimulates dendritic cells to produce cytokines and chemokines such as β-interferon, interleukin-6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10, which activate both CD8

Shaashua L, Shabat-Simon M, Haldar R, et al.
Perioperative COX-2 and β-Adrenergic Blockade Improves Metastatic Biomarkers in Breast Cancer Patients in a Phase-II Randomized Trial.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(16):4651-4661 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications

Vazquez Rodriguez G, Abrahamsson A, Jensen LD, Dabrosin C
Estradiol Promotes Breast Cancer Cell Migration via Recruitment and Activation of Neutrophils.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2017; 5(3):234-247 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estradiol (E

Frick M, Mouchacca P, Verdeil G, et al.
Distinct patterns of cytolytic T-cell activation by different tumour cells revealed by Ca
Immunology. 2017; 150(2):199-212 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Cancer-germline genes in both humans and mice have been shown to encode antigens susceptible to targeting by cytotoxic CD8 T effector cells (CTL). We analysed the ability of CTL to kill different tumour cell lines expressing the same cancer-germline gene P1A (Trap1a). We previously demonstrated that CTL expressing a T-cell receptor specific for the P1A

Kang H, Tan M, Bishop JA, et al.
Whole-Exome Sequencing of Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(1):283-288 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common salivary gland malignancy. To explore the genetic origins of MEC, we performed systematic genomic analyses of these tumors.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Whole-exome sequencing and gene copy-number analyses were performed for 18 primary cancers with matched normal tissue. FISH was used to determine the presence or absence of the MECT1-MAML2 translocation in 17 tumors.
RESULTS: TP53 was the most commonly mutated gene in MEC (28%), and mutations were found only in intermediate- and high-grade tumors. Tumors with TP53 mutations had more mutations overall than tumors without TP53 mutations (P = 0.006). POU6F2 was the second most frequently mutated gene, found in three low-grade MECs with the same in-frame deletion. Somatic alterations in IRAK1, MAP3K9, ITGAL, ERBB4, OTOGL, KMT2C, and OBSCN were identified in at least two of the 18 tumors sequenced. FISH analysis confirmed the presence of the MECT1-MAML2 translocation in 15 of 17 tumors (88%).
CONCLUSIONS: Through these integrated genomic analyses, MECT1-MAML2 translocation and somatic TP53 and POU6F2 mutations appear to be the main drivers of MEC. Clin Cancer Res; 23(1); 283-8. ©2016 AACR.

Robles EF, Mena-Varas M, Barrio L, et al.
Homeobox NKX2-3 promotes marginal-zone lymphomagenesis by activating B-cell receptor signalling and shaping lymphocyte dynamics.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:11889 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
NKX2 homeobox family proteins have a role in cancer development. Here we show that NKX2-3 is overexpressed in tumour cells from a subset of patients with marginal-zone lymphomas, but not with other B-cell malignancies. While Nkx2-3-deficient mice exhibit the absence of marginal-zone B cells, transgenic mice with expression of NKX2-3 in B cells show marginal-zone expansion that leads to the development of tumours, faithfully recapitulating the principal clinical and biological features of human marginal-zone lymphomas. NKX2-3 induces B-cell receptor signalling by phosphorylating Lyn/Syk kinases, which in turn activate multiple integrins (LFA-1, VLA-4), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, MadCAM-1) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4. These molecules enhance migration, polarization and homing of B cells to splenic and extranodal tissues, eventually driving malignant transformation through triggering NF-κB and PI3K-AKT pathways. This study implicates oncogenic NKX2-3 in lymphomagenesis, and provides a valid experimental mouse model for studying the biology and therapy of human marginal-zone B-cell lymphomas.

Gagnon A, Lochnan HA, Tran CS, Sorisky A
Thyroid-stimulating hormone acutely increases monocyte gene expression in vivo.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2016; 37(2):121-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) acts in an extra-thyroidal fashion and induces a pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant state. Blood monocytes can be activated by vascular stress, but it is not known if this occurs upon TSH administration. Our aim was to determine if recombinant human (rh) TSH, administered acutely to patients being screened for thyroid cancer recurrence, alters blood monocyte gene expression.
DESIGN AND SETTING: Patients (14 women, 1 man) had a mean (±SD) age of 48±10 years, a body mass index of 26±6 kg/m2, a history of total thyroidectomy and radioablation for thyroid cancer, and were on L-thyroxine therapy at a university teaching hospital. They received 2 intramuscular doses of rhTSH (0.9 mg), administered on days 1 and 2. Blood samples were obtained at baseline on day1, and on days 3 and 5.
RESULTS: Monocyte MCP-1 mRNA (mean±SE) increased significantly by 1.7±0.3 fold on day 5 following rhTSH stimulation (p=0.03, n=15). IL-1β and CD36 mRNA expression also increased on day 5 (1.9±0.4 fold, p=0.07, n=14) and 2.5±0.4 fold, p=0.1, n=10), respectively, although did not quite reach statistical significance. Significant correlations were detected between the BMI of patients and their TSH-stimulated monocyte mRNA responses at day 5 for CD11a, (r=0.66, n=14, p=0.01); CD14 (r=0.638, n=13, p=0.019), and CD16, r=0.84, n=13, p=0.0003).
CONCLUSION: TSH administration increases pro-atherogenic monocyte gene expression.

Kamel AM, El-Sharkawy NM, Osman RA, et al.
Adhesion molecules expression in CLL: Potential impact on clinical and hematological parameters.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2016; 28(1):31-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is marked by the accumulation of CD5+ B lymphocytes within the blood, bone marrow (BM), and secondary lymphoid tissues. Abnormalities in the expression and function of cell adhesion molecules may account for the patterns of intra-nodal growth and hematogenous spread of the malignant cells. Chemokines and integrin-mediated adhesion and trans-endothelial migration (TEM) are central aspects in trafficking and retention of hematopoietic cells in the BM and lymphoid organs.
AIM OF THE WORK: This work was conducted to study adhesion molecules status in CLL and its potential impact on both hematological and clinical parameters.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 78 newly diagnosed CLL patients. Immunophenotyping was performed on peripheral blood using the chronic lymphoid panel. Adhesion molecules (CD11a, CD11b, CD49d, CD49C, CD29 and CD38) were tested using monoclonal antibodies and analyzed by Flow Cytometry.
RESULTS: Positive correlation was encountered between adhesion molecules: CD38 with CD49d (r=0.25, p=0.028), CD11a with CD11b, CD49d and CD29 (r=0.394, p=0.001; r=0.441, p=<0.01 and r=0.446, p<0.01 respectively) and CD29 with CD49c and CD49d (r=0.437, p<0.01; r=0.674, p<0.01 respectively). CD49c showed negative correlation with Rai staging (r=-0.269, p=0.033). CD11a and CD29 showed a significant relation with splenomegaly (p=0.04 and 0.03 respectively) and CD49d showed a significant relation with lymphadenopathy (p=0.02).
CONCLUSION: The level of different adhesion molecules expression in CLL is apparently reflected on the potential migratory behavior of the leukemic cells to different organs.

Paiva B, Corchete LA, Vidriales MB, et al.
Phenotypic and genomic analysis of multiple myeloma minimal residual disease tumor cells: a new model to understand chemoresistance.
Blood. 2016; 127(15):1896-906 [PubMed] Related Publications
Persistence of chemoresistant minimal residual disease (MRD) plasma cells (PCs) is associated with inferior survival in multiple myeloma (MM). Thus, characterization of the minor MRD subclone may represent a unique model to understand chemoresistance, but to our knowledge, the phenotypic and genetic features of the MRD subclone have never been investigated. Here, we compared the antigenic profile of MRD vs diagnostic clonal PCs in 40 elderly MM patients enrolled in the GEM2010MAS65 study and showed that the MRD subclone is enriched in cells overexpressing integrins (CD11a/CD11c/CD29/CD49d/CD49e), chemokine receptors (CXCR4), and adhesion molecules (CD44/CD54). Genetic profiling of MRD vs diagnostic PCs was performed in 12 patients; 3 of them showed identical copy number alterations (CNAs), in another 3 cases, MRD clonal PCs displayed all genetic alterations detected at diagnosis plus additional CNAs that emerged at the MRD stage, whereas in the remaining 6 patients, there were CNAs present at diagnosis that were undetectable in MRD clonal PCs, but also a selected number of genetic alterations that became apparent only at the MRD stage. The MRD subclone showed significant downregulation of genes related to protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, as well as novel deregulated genes such as ALCAM that is prognostically relevant in MM and may identify chemoresistant PCs in vitro. Altogether, our results suggest that therapy-induced clonal selection could be already present at the MRD stage, where chemoresistant PCs show a singular phenotypic signature that may result from the persistence of clones with different genetic and gene expression profiles. This trial was registered as #NCT01237249.

Boguslawska J, Kedzierska H, Poplawski P, et al.
Expression of Genes Involved in Cellular Adhesion and Extracellular Matrix Remodeling Correlates with Poor Survival of Patients with Renal Cancer.
J Urol. 2016; 195(6):1892-902 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Renal cell carcinoma is the most common highly metastatic kidney malignancy. Adhesion has a crucial role in the metastatic process. TGF (transforming growth factor)-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine that influences cancerous transformation. We hypothesized that 1) changes in the expression of adhesion related genes may influence survival rate of patients with renal cell carcinoma and 2) TGF-β1 may contribute to changed expression of adhesion related genes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-step quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction arrays were used to analyze the expression of adhesion related genes in 77 tumors and matched pair controls. The prognostic significance of genes was evaluated in TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) data on 468 patients with renal cell carcinoma. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were applied for TGF-β1 analysis. TGF-β1 mediated regulation of gene expression was analyzed by TGF-β1 supplementation of Caki-2 cells and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: The expression of 19 genes related to adhesion and extracellular matrix remodeling was statistically significantly disturbed in renal cell carcinoma compared with controls. The 10-gene expression signature (COL1A1, COL5A1, COL11A1, FN1, ICAM1, ITGAL, ITGAM, ITGB2, THBS2 and TIMP1) correlated with poor survival (HR 2.85, p = 5.7e-10). TGF-β1 expression was 22 times higher in renal cell carcinoma than in controls (p <0.0001). TGF-β1 induced expression of TGFBI, COL1A1, COL5A1, COL8A1, FN1, ITGA5, ITGAM and TIMP1 in a renal cell carcinoma derived cell line.
CONCLUSIONS: Disturbed expression of genes involved in adhesion and extracellular matrix remodeling develops early during renal cell carcinoma carcinogenesis and correlates with poor survival. TGF-β1 contributes to changed expression of extracellular matrix and adhesion related genes. Bioinformatic analysis performed on a broad panel of cancers of nonkidney origin suggests that disturbed expression of genes related to extracellular matrix and adhesion may be a universal feature of cancerous progression.

Kuramitsu S, Ohno M, Ohka F, et al.
Lenalidomide enhances the function of chimeric antigen receptor T cells against the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III by enhancing immune synapses.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2015; 22(10):487-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
The epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is exclusively expressed on the cell surface in ~50% of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This variant strongly and persistently activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway in a ligand-independent manner resulting in enhanced tumorigenicity, cellular motility and resistance to chemoradiotherapy. Our group generated a recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody specific to the EGFRvIII, referred to as 3C10-scFv. In the current study, we constructed a lentiviral vector transducing the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that consisted of 3C10-scFv, CD3ζ, CD28 and 4-1BB (3C10-CAR). The 3C10-CAR-transduced peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and CD3(+) T cells specifically lysed the glioma cells that express EGFRvIII. Moreover, we demonstrated that CAR CD3(+) T cells migrated to the intracranial xenograft of GBM in the mice treated with 3C10-CAR PBMCs. An important and novel finding of our study was that a thalidomide derivative lenalidomide induced 3C10-CAR PBMC proliferation and enhanced the persistent antitumor effect of the cells in vivo. Lenalidomide also exhibited enhanced immunological synapses between the effector cells and the target cells as determined by CD11a and F-actin polymerization. Collectively, lentiviral-mediated transduction of CAR effectors targeting the EGFRvIII showed specific efficacy, and lenalidomide even intensified CAR cell therapy by enhanced formation of immunological synapses.

Gatault S, Delbeke M, Driss V, et al.
IL-18 Is Involved in Eosinophil-Mediated Tumoricidal Activity against a Colon Carcinoma Cell Line by Upregulating LFA-1 and ICAM-1.
J Immunol. 2015; 195(5):2483-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that are involved in innate and adaptive immune responses through the expression of various receptors and mediators. Previously, we showed that human eosinophils and T cells shared cytotoxic activities against tumor cells that involved the γ-δ TCR and cell-cell contact. In this study, we investigated the molecules involved in eosinophil-tumor cell interactions. Given the role of IL-18 in cell adhesion and in protecting against colon cancer, we evaluated its role in eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity against Colo-205, a human colon carcinoma cell line. We found that human eosinophils exerted dose- and time-dependent tumoricidal activity against Colo-205 cells. Neutralization of IL-18 significantly reduced eosinophil-mediated Colo-205 apoptosis and inhibited cell-cell adhesion. Moreover, addition of rIL-18 led to upregulation of CD11a and ICAM-1 adhesion molecules, which were involved in the contact between eosinophils and Colo-205 cells. Our results indicated that IL-18 was involved in the eosinophil-mediated death of Colo-205 by facilitating contact between effector and target cells. These data underscored the involvement of an additional mediator in eosinophil-mediated antitumor cytotoxicity. Our findings support existing evidence that eosinophils could play a beneficial role in the context of colon cancer.

Jóźwik M, Okungbowa OE, Lipska A, et al.
Surface antigen expression on peripheral blood monocytes in women with gynecologic malignancies.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:129 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Of many specialized blood cells, monocytes are gaining increasing attention for their role in neoplastic disorders. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the expression of selected peripheral blood monocyte surface antigens in cases of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. In addition, our aim was to validate the diagnostic value of two artificial coefficients recently proposed for the diagnosis of gynecologic malignancies: Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), and Multiplication of Neutrophil and Monocyte Counts (MNM).
METHODS: We studied 69 white Caucasian women with histopathologic confirmation of endometrial (N = 42), cervical (N = 13), and ovarian (N = 14) cancers. Reference Group I were women suspected of cancer but histologically nullified (N = 20), and Group II were healthy blood donors (N = 23). Expression of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD16, CD54 (ICAM-1), CD62 L (L-selectin), CD64, and HLA-DR was measured with immunofluorescence in a flow cytometer.
RESULTS: CD54 expression increased by ≥35.6% (p < 0.001) whilst HLA-DR decreased by ≥10.8% (p < 0.001) in all cancer subgroups and Group I as compared to blood donors. A correlation (p < 0.05) between CD54 and CD62 L was stronger in all cancers studied than in healthy subjects. There was no difference in the NLR values between any of these subgroups. Moreover, we observed an increase in MNM parameter in cases of cervical and endometrial cancer and in the Reference Group I.
CONCLUSIONS: In the studied gynecologic malignancies, CD54 expression on peripheral blood monocytes is enhanced, indicating a higher transmigrational potential present in such patients, and HLA-DR expression diminished, indicating a decreased readiness of the immune system to recognize foreign antigens. The more pronounced correlation for the expression of CD54 and CD62 L in cancer suggests that monocytes uptake from the bloodstream and their local adhesion increase the pool of tumor-associated macrophages. This study challenged the suggested credibility and usefulness of the artificial parameters of MNM and NLR for the differential diagnosis of gynecologic malignancies.

Park SS, Dong H, Liu X, et al.
PD-1 Restrains Radiotherapy-Induced Abscopal Effect.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2015; 3(6):610-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
We investigated the influence of PD-1 expression on the systemic antitumor response (abscopal effect) induced by stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) in preclinical melanoma and renal cell carcinoma models. We compared the SABR-induced antitumor response in PD-1-expressing wild-type (WT) and PD-1-deficient knockout (KO) mice and found that PD-1 expression compromises the survival of tumor-bearing mice treated with SABR. None of the PD-1 WT mice survived beyond 25 days, whereas 20% of the PD-1 KO mice survived beyond 40 days. Similarly, PD-1-blocking antibody in WT mice was able to recapitulate SABR-induced antitumor responses observed in PD-1 KO mice and led to increased survival. The combination of SABR plus PD-1 blockade induced near complete regression of the irradiated primary tumor (synergistic effect), as opposed to SABR alone or SABR plus control antibody. The combination of SABR plus PD-1 blockade therapy elicited a 66% reduction in size of nonirradiated, secondary tumors outside the SABR radiation field (abscopal effect). The observed abscopal effect was tumor specific and was not dependent on tumor histology or host genetic background. The CD11a(high) CD8(+) T-cell phenotype identifies a tumor-reactive population, which was associated in frequency and function with a SABR-induced antitumor immune response in PD-1 KO mice. We conclude that SABR induces an abscopal tumor-specific immune response in both the irradiated and nonirradiated tumors, which is potentiated by PD-1 blockade. The combination of SABR and PD-1 blockade has the potential to translate into a potent immunotherapy strategy in the management of patients with metastatic cancer.

Pojero F, Casuccio A, Parrino MF, et al.
Old and new immunophenotypic markers in multiple myeloma for discrimination of responding and relapsing patients: The importance of "normal" residual plasma cell analysis.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2015 May-Jun; 88(3):165-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is an incurable disease characterized by proliferation of clonal malignant plasma cells (CPCs), which can be immunophenotypically distinguished from polyclonal plasma cells (PPCs) by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC). The utility of PPCs analysis in detecting prognostic and predictive information is still a matter of debate.
METHODS: we tested the ability of 11 MFC markers in detecting differences in the immunophenotype of CPCs and PPCs among patients in various disease stages; we verified if these markers could be associated with disease stage/response to therapy despite the role of clinical parameters.
RESULTS: significant changes in the expression of markers occurred both in CPCs and PPCs. CD58 on PPCs of responding patients was downregulated compared with PPC of relapsing group. Fraction of CD200 expressing PCs was lower in control subjects than in PPCs from MGUS and myeloma groups. CD11a levels of expression on both CPCs and PPCs showed an upregulation in newly diagnosed and relapsing patients versus PCs of controls; CD20 was less expressed on control PCs than on MGUS CPCs and PPCs. CD49d revealed to be advantageous in discrimination of PPCs from CPCs. In our multiple regression model, CD19 and CD49d on CPCs, and CD45, CD58 and CD56 on PPCs maintained their association with groups of patients independently of other prognostic variables.
CONCLUSIONS: we provide a feasible start point to put in order ranges of expression on PPCs in healthy and myeloma subjects; we propose a new approach based on PPC analysis to monitor the stages of the disease.

Vasconcelos Dde M, Beitler B, Martinez GA, et al.
CD18 deficiency evolving to megakaryocytic (M7) acute myeloid leukemia: case report.
Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2014; 53(4):180-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD 1 - CD18 deficiency) is a rare disease characterized by disturbance of phagocyte function associated with less severe cellular and humoral dysfunction. The main features are bacterial and fungal infections predominantly in the skin and mucosal surfaces, impaired wound healing and delayed umbilical cord separation. The infections are indolent, necrotic and recurrent. In contrast to the striking difficulties in defense against bacterial and fungal microorganisms, LAD 1 patients do not exhibit susceptibility to viral infections and neoplasias. The severity of clinical manifestations is directly related to the degree of CD18 deficiency. Here, a 20 year-old female presenting a partial CD18 deficiency that developed a megakaryocytic (M7) acute myeloid leukemia is described for the first time. The clinical features of the patient included relapsing oral thrush due to Candida, cutaneous infections and upper and lower respiratory tract infections, followed by a locally severe necrotic genital herpetic lesion. The patient's clinical features improved for a period of approximately two years, followed by severe bacterial infections. At that time, the investigation showed a megakaryocytic acute myeloid leukemia, treated with MEC without clinical improvement. The highly aggressive evolution of the leukemia in this patient suggests that adhesion molecules could be involved in the protection against the spread of neoplastic cells.

Klahan S, Wu MS, Hsi E, et al.
Computational analysis of mRNA expression profiles identifies the ITG family and PIK3R3 as crucial genes for regulating triple negative breast cancer cell migration.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:536591 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2/neu). TNBC has worse clinical outcomes than other breast cancer subtypes. However, the key molecules and mechanisms of TNBC migration remain unclear. In this study, we compared two normalized microarray datasets from GEO database between Asian (GSE33926) and non-Asian populations (GSE46581) to determine the molecules and common pathways in TNBC migration. We demonstrated that 16 genes in non-Asian samples and 9 genes in Asian samples are related to TNBC migration. In addition, our analytic results showed that 4 genes, PIK3R3, ITGB1, ITGAL, and ITGA6, were involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Our results indicated potential genes that link to TNBC migration. This study may help identify novel therapeutic targets for drug development in cancer therapy.

Quandt D, Jasinski-Bergner S, Müller U, et al.
Synergistic effects of IL-4 and TNFα on the induction of B7-H1 in renal cell carcinoma cells inhibiting allogeneic T cell proliferation.
J Transl Med. 2014; 12:151 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The importance of B7-H molecules for the T cell/tumor communication and its impact on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression and prognosis has been recently described. Cytokine treatment of RCC has earlier been shown to be beneficial in preclinical settings, but its clinical implementation has not proven to be as effective. This might be partially explained by the yet incomplete picture of cellular alterations in tumor cells upon cytokine treatment investigated in detail in this study.
METHODS: RCC tumor cell lines were treated with different cytokines alone or in combination. The constitutive and/or cytokine-induced expression of cytokine receptors signaling components and B7-H molecules in RCC cells were analysed by qPCR and flow cytometry. A mcherry reporter gene construct containing B7-H1 promoter was cloned and its activity was determined upon transfection in cytokine-stimulated cells. Cytokine pretreated tumor cells were co-cultured with allogeneic CD8+ T cells from healthy donors and T cell proliferation as well as cytokine secretion was determined.
RESULTS: A heterogeneous, but constitutive B7-H1,-H2,-H3 and H4 expression was found on human RCC cell lines. IL-4 and TNFα treatment led to strong synergistic induction of B7-H1 in RCC cells, whereas B7-H2 was only increased by TNFα. In contrast, B7-H3 and B7-H4 expression were not altered by these cytokines. Treatment of RCC cells with TNFα and IL-4 was accompanied by an activation of signaling molecules like NF-κB, IκB and STAT6. The cytokine-mediated up-regulation of B7-H1 was due to transcriptional control as determined by an increased B7-H1 promoter activity in the presence of IL-4 and TNFα. Despite HLA class I and LFA-1 were also increased, the cytokine-mediated up-regulation of B7-H1 was more pronounced and caused an inhibition of allospecifc CD8+ T cell proliferation.
CONCLUSION: Thus, IL-4 and TNFα, which could be released by immune cells of the tumor microenvironment, are able to control the B7-H1 expression in RCC thereby altering T cell responses. These data are of importance for understanding the complex interplay of tumor cells with immune cells orchestrated by a number of different soluble and membrane bound mediators and for the implementation of check point antibodies directed against B7-H1.

Riches JC, O'Donovan CJ, Kingdon SJ, et al.
Trisomy 12 chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells exhibit upregulation of integrin signaling that is modulated by NOTCH1 mutations.
Blood. 2014; 123(26):4101-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
The leukocyte adhesion cascade is important in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), as it controls migration of malignant cells into the pro-survival lymph node microenvironment. Circulating trisomy 12 CLL cells have increased expression of the integrins CD11a and CD49d, as well as CD38, but the tissue expression of these and other molecules, and the functional and clinical sequelae of these changes have not been described. Here, we demonstrate that circulating trisomy 12 CLL cells also have increased expression of the integrins CD11b, CD18, CD29, and ITGB7, and the adhesion molecule CD323. Notably, there was reduced expression of CD11a, CD11b, and CD18 in trisomy 12 cases with NOTCH1 mutations compared with wild type. Trisomy 12 cells also exhibit upregulation of intracellular integrin signaling molecules CALDAG-GEFI, RAP1B, and Ras-related protein ligand, resulting in enhanced very late antigen-4 [VLA-4] directed adhesion and motility. CD38 expression in CLL has prognostic significance, but the increased CD38 expression in trisomy 12 CLL cells must be taken into account in this subgroup, and the threshold of CD38 positivity should be raised to 40% for this marker to retain its prognostic value. In conclusion, trisomy 12 CLL cells exhibit functional upregulation of integrin signaling, with β2-integrin expression being modulated by NOTCH1 mutation status.

Huang PY, Best OG, Almazi JG, et al.
Cell surface phenotype profiles distinguish stable and progressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2014; 55(9):2085-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is clinically heterogeneous. While some patients have indolent disease for many years, 20-30% will progress and ultimately die of their disease. CLL may be classified by the Rai or Binet staging system, mutational status of the immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain gene (IGVH), ZAP-70 overexpression, cytogenetic abnormalities (13q-, + 12, 11q-, 17p-) and expression of several cell surface antigens (CD38, CD49d) that correlate with risk of disease progression. However, none of these markers identify all cases of CLL at risk. In a recent review, we summarized those CD antigens known to correlate with the prognosis of CLL. The present study has identified surface profiles of CD antigens that distinguish clinically progressive CLL from slow-progressive and stable CLL. Using an extended DotScan(™) CLL antibody microarray (Version 3; 182 CD antibodies), and with refined analysis of purified CD19 + B-cells, the following 27 CD antigens were differentially abundant for progressive CLL: CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD19, CD20 (two epitopes), CD21, CD22, CD23, CD24, CD25, CD38, CD40, CD43, CD45, CD45RA, CD52, CD69, CD81, CD84, CD98, CD102, CD148, CD180, CD196 and CD270. The extensive surface profiles obtained provide disease signatures with an accuracy of 79.2%, a sensitivity of 83.9% and a specificity of 72.5% that could provide the basis for a rapid test to triage patients with CLL according to probability of clinical progression and potential earlier requirement for treatment.

Trivanović D, Nikolić S, Krstić J, et al.
Characteristics of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells isolated from healthy and cancer affected people and their interactions with human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in vitro.
Cell Biol Int. 2014; 38(2):254-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adipose tissue is an attractive source of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) with potential applications in reconstructive plastic surgery and regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to characterise human adipose tissue MSCs (ASCs) derived from healthy individuals and cancer patients and to compare their interactions with tumour cells. ASCs were isolated from adipose tissue of healthy donors, breast cancer-adjacent adipose tissue of breast cancer patients and tumour-adjacent adipose tissue of non-breast cancer patients. Their proliferation, differentiation, immunophenotype and gene expression were assessed and effects on the proliferation of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 compared. ASCs from all sources exhibited similar morphology, proliferative and differentiation potential, showing the characteristic pattern of mesenchymal surface markers expression (CD90, CD105, CD44H, CD73) and the lack of HLA-DR and hematopoietic markers (CD11a, CD33, CD45, Glycophorin-CD235a), but uneven expression of CD34. ASCs also shared a common positive gene expression of HLA-DR, HLA-A, IL-6, TGF-β and HIF-1, but were negative for HLA-G, while the expression levels of Cox-2 and IDO-1 varied. All ASCs significantly stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 tumour cells in direct mixed co-cultures and transwell system, although their conditioned media displayed antiproliferative activity. Data obtained showed that ASCs with similar characteristics are easily isolated from various donors and sites of origin, although ASCs could both suppress and favour tumour cells growth, emphasising the importance of cellular context within the microenvironment and pointing to the significance of safety studies to exclude any potential clinical risk of their application in regenerative medicine.

Donmez A, Tombuloglu M, Gulbahar O, et al.
CD31 expression on peripheral blood stem cells predicts both early neutrophil and platelet engraftments.
Transfus Apher Sci. 2013; 49(2):307-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
No detailed information currently exists about the immune phenotypic profiles of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) obtained by different mobilization regimens. The effects of these profiles on the outcome of transplantation are largely unknown. In this prospective study, the surface immune phenotypic features (CD11a, CD18, CD31, CD38, CD44, CD62e, CD62L, CD90, CD117, CD135 and CD184 expression) of sorted PBSCs that had been mobilized by growth factor with (group I and group II) or without (group III) disease-specific chemotherapies were investigated. The immune phenotypic features on mobilized PBSCs in groups I, II and III were not significantly different. The CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1) positivity ratio on PBSCs inversely correlated with both the duration of neutrophil (r=-0.32, p=0.03) and platelet (r=-0.36, p=0.02) engraftment. No relationship was found between the engraftment (neutrophil and platelet) durations and CD184 (chemokine receptor CXC motif receptor 4 [CXCR4]) expression on PBSCs. We demonstrated that the surface immune phenotypic profiles on PBSCs obtained by several mobilization regimens were not different. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that CD31 expression on human PBSCs may positively affect both neutrophil and platelet engraftment. Contrary to our expectations, CD184 (CXCR4) expression on PBSCs has no effect on neutrophil or platelet engraftment. Considered together, our results suggest that additional surface antigens (such as CD31) may be more effective in the homing process.

Li W, Fan D, Yang M, et al.
Cytosine arabinoside promotes cytotoxic effect of T cells on leukemia cells mediated by bispecific antibody.
Hum Gene Ther. 2013; 24(8):751-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Chemotherapeutic drugs can enhance an immune response of the host against the tumor in addition to killing cancer cells by direct cytotoxicity. Therefore, the combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy is a promising approach for eliminating tumors, particularly in advanced stages. A strategic medication is to use a bispecific antibody format that is capable of recruiting polyclonal T cells around antibody-target-expressing tumor cells. Recently, we have constructed a bispecific antibody, anti-CD3×anti-CD19, in a diabody configuration. In this study, we measured B7 family members B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86) expressed on a CD19(+) human leukemia cell line, Nalm-6, stimulated by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C). We found that a low concentration of Ara-C could upregulate CD80 expressed on CD19(+) Nalm-6 cells. The cytotoxicity of T lymphocytes against Nalm-6 cells in vitro and in vivo mediated by the anti-CD3×anti-CD19 diabody with or without a low dose of Ara-C was compared. The combination of the anti-CD3×anti-CD19 diabody and Ara-C showed the greatest effectiveness in enhancing the cytotoxicity of T cells against the tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Activated T cells expressed higher levels of CD25 and CD69 and released more interleukin 2. Both perforin/granzyme B system and Fas/FasL pathway were involved in the diabody-induced T-cell cytotoxicity. Moreover, the activated T cells could upregulate ICAM-3 expression on Nalm-6 cells, and inhibition of LFA-1-ICAM-3 interaction impaired cytotoxicity of T cells. It was noted that Ara-C could upregulate CD80 expressed on two of five specimens of acute B lymphoblastic leukemia patient-derived cells. Cytotoxicity of T cells against these two patient-derived cells was enhanced in the presence of the anti-CD3×anti-CD19 diabody. These findings indicate that treatment strategy using both cytotoxic lymphocyte-based immunotherapy and chemotherapy may have synergistic effects.

Ascierto ML, Idowu MO, Zhao Y, et al.
Molecular signatures mostly associated with NK cells are predictive of relapse free survival in breast cancer patients.
J Transl Med. 2013; 11:145 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent observations suggest that immune-mediated tissue destruction is dependent upon coordinate activation of immune genes expressed by cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems.
METHODS: Here, we performed a retrospective pilot study to investigate whether the coordinate expression of molecular signature mostly associated with NK cells could be used to segregate breast cancer patients into relapse and relapse-free outcomes.
RESULTS: By analyzing primary breast cancer specimens derived from patients who experienced either 58-116 months (~5-9 years) relapse-free survival or developed tumor relapse within 9-76 months (~1-6 years) we found that the expression of molecules involved in activating signaling of NK cells and in NK cells: target interaction is increased in patients with favorable prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: The parameters identified in this study, together with the prognostic signature previously reported by our group, highlight the cooperation between the innate and adaptive immune components within the tumor microenvironment.

Yurtsever A, Haydaroglu A, Biray Avci C, et al.
Assessment of genetic markers and glioblastoma stem-like cells in activation of dendritic cells.
Hum Cell. 2013; 26(3):105-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive intraparenchymal primary brain tumor in adults. The principal reasons for the poor outcomes of GBM are the high rates of recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the role of tailored cellular therapy for GBM with a poor prognosis and compare the activity of dendritic cells (DCs) that have encountered GBM cells. Detecting the correlations between methylation and expression of MGMT and PTEN genes and GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs) markers after co-cultures with a mononuclear cell cocktail are also aims for this study. Allogenic umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived DCs were labeled with the CD11a and CD123 for immature DCs, and CD80 and CD11c for mature DCs. CD34, CD45, and CD56 cells were isolated from allogenic UCB for using in DCs maturation. GBM CSCs were detected with CD133/1 and CD111 antibodies after co-culture studies. DC activation was carried out via GBM cells including CD133 and CD111 cells and a mononuclear cells cocktail including CD34, CD45, and CD56 natural killer cells. Real-time PCR was performed to detect the expression and promoter methylation status of PTEN and MGMT genes. The expression of CSCs markers was found in all GBM cases, and a statistically significant correlation was found among them after co-culture studies. The most pronounced affinity of DCs to GBM cells was observed at dilutions between 1/4 and 1/256 in co-cultures. There was a statistically significant correlation between cellularity and granularity ratios for CD123 and CD11c. PTEN and MGMT gene expression and methylation values were evaluated with respect to CSCs expression and no statistical significance was found. Activation of DCs might associate with CSCs and the mononuclear cells cocktail including CD34, CD45, and CD56 cells which were obtained from allogenic UCB.

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