Gene Summary

Gene:ITGAL; integrin subunit alpha L
Aliases: CD11A, LFA-1, LFA1A
Summary:ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:integrin alpha-L
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (23)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (14)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • laminin gamma 1
  • Fibronectins
  • Computational Biology
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Vincristine
  • Laminin
  • Multiple Drug Resistance
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Transcription
  • Demography
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • ADAM17 Protein
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Data Mining
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Up-Regulation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Leukaemia
  • Genome, Human
  • ADAM17 protein, human
  • Integrins
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Extracellular Matrix
  • Cell Movement
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Down-Regulation
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Proteome
  • Drug Resistance
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Software
  • Melphalan
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • ADAM Proteins
  • Prednisone
  • Chromosome 16
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ITGAL (cancer-related)

Kamel AM, El-Sharkawy NM, Osman RA, et al.
Adhesion molecules expression in CLL: Potential impact on clinical and hematological parameters.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2016; 28(1):31-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is marked by the accumulation of CD5+ B lymphocytes within the blood, bone marrow (BM), and secondary lymphoid tissues. Abnormalities in the expression and function of cell adhesion molecules may account for the patterns of intra-nodal growth and hematogenous spread of the malignant cells. Chemokines and integrin-mediated adhesion and trans-endothelial migration (TEM) are central aspects in trafficking and retention of hematopoietic cells in the BM and lymphoid organs.
AIM OF THE WORK: This work was conducted to study adhesion molecules status in CLL and its potential impact on both hematological and clinical parameters.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 78 newly diagnosed CLL patients. Immunophenotyping was performed on peripheral blood using the chronic lymphoid panel. Adhesion molecules (CD11a, CD11b, CD49d, CD49C, CD29 and CD38) were tested using monoclonal antibodies and analyzed by Flow Cytometry.
RESULTS: Positive correlation was encountered between adhesion molecules: CD38 with CD49d (r=0.25, p=0.028), CD11a with CD11b, CD49d and CD29 (r=0.394, p=0.001; r=0.441, p=<0.01 and r=0.446, p<0.01 respectively) and CD29 with CD49c and CD49d (r=0.437, p<0.01; r=0.674, p<0.01 respectively). CD49c showed negative correlation with Rai staging (r=-0.269, p=0.033). CD11a and CD29 showed a significant relation with splenomegaly (p=0.04 and 0.03 respectively) and CD49d showed a significant relation with lymphadenopathy (p=0.02).
CONCLUSION: The level of different adhesion molecules expression in CLL is apparently reflected on the potential migratory behavior of the leukemic cells to different organs.

Paiva B, Corchete LA, Vidriales MB, et al.
Phenotypic and genomic analysis of multiple myeloma minimal residual disease tumor cells: a new model to understand chemoresistance.
Blood. 2016; 127(15):1896-906 [PubMed] Related Publications
Persistence of chemoresistant minimal residual disease (MRD) plasma cells (PCs) is associated with inferior survival in multiple myeloma (MM). Thus, characterization of the minor MRD subclone may represent a unique model to understand chemoresistance, but to our knowledge, the phenotypic and genetic features of the MRD subclone have never been investigated. Here, we compared the antigenic profile of MRD vs diagnostic clonal PCs in 40 elderly MM patients enrolled in the GEM2010MAS65 study and showed that the MRD subclone is enriched in cells overexpressing integrins (CD11a/CD11c/CD29/CD49d/CD49e), chemokine receptors (CXCR4), and adhesion molecules (CD44/CD54). Genetic profiling of MRD vs diagnostic PCs was performed in 12 patients; 3 of them showed identical copy number alterations (CNAs), in another 3 cases, MRD clonal PCs displayed all genetic alterations detected at diagnosis plus additional CNAs that emerged at the MRD stage, whereas in the remaining 6 patients, there were CNAs present at diagnosis that were undetectable in MRD clonal PCs, but also a selected number of genetic alterations that became apparent only at the MRD stage. The MRD subclone showed significant downregulation of genes related to protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, as well as novel deregulated genes such as ALCAM that is prognostically relevant in MM and may identify chemoresistant PCs in vitro. Altogether, our results suggest that therapy-induced clonal selection could be already present at the MRD stage, where chemoresistant PCs show a singular phenotypic signature that may result from the persistence of clones with different genetic and gene expression profiles. This trial was registered as #NCT01237249.

Kuramitsu S, Ohno M, Ohka F, et al.
Lenalidomide enhances the function of chimeric antigen receptor T cells against the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III by enhancing immune synapses.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2015; 22(10):487-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
The epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is exclusively expressed on the cell surface in ~50% of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This variant strongly and persistently activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway in a ligand-independent manner resulting in enhanced tumorigenicity, cellular motility and resistance to chemoradiotherapy. Our group generated a recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody specific to the EGFRvIII, referred to as 3C10-scFv. In the current study, we constructed a lentiviral vector transducing the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that consisted of 3C10-scFv, CD3ζ, CD28 and 4-1BB (3C10-CAR). The 3C10-CAR-transduced peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and CD3(+) T cells specifically lysed the glioma cells that express EGFRvIII. Moreover, we demonstrated that CAR CD3(+) T cells migrated to the intracranial xenograft of GBM in the mice treated with 3C10-CAR PBMCs. An important and novel finding of our study was that a thalidomide derivative lenalidomide induced 3C10-CAR PBMC proliferation and enhanced the persistent antitumor effect of the cells in vivo. Lenalidomide also exhibited enhanced immunological synapses between the effector cells and the target cells as determined by CD11a and F-actin polymerization. Collectively, lentiviral-mediated transduction of CAR effectors targeting the EGFRvIII showed specific efficacy, and lenalidomide even intensified CAR cell therapy by enhanced formation of immunological synapses.

Gatault S, Delbeke M, Driss V, et al.
IL-18 Is Involved in Eosinophil-Mediated Tumoricidal Activity against a Colon Carcinoma Cell Line by Upregulating LFA-1 and ICAM-1.
J Immunol. 2015; 195(5):2483-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that are involved in innate and adaptive immune responses through the expression of various receptors and mediators. Previously, we showed that human eosinophils and T cells shared cytotoxic activities against tumor cells that involved the γ-δ TCR and cell-cell contact. In this study, we investigated the molecules involved in eosinophil-tumor cell interactions. Given the role of IL-18 in cell adhesion and in protecting against colon cancer, we evaluated its role in eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity against Colo-205, a human colon carcinoma cell line. We found that human eosinophils exerted dose- and time-dependent tumoricidal activity against Colo-205 cells. Neutralization of IL-18 significantly reduced eosinophil-mediated Colo-205 apoptosis and inhibited cell-cell adhesion. Moreover, addition of rIL-18 led to upregulation of CD11a and ICAM-1 adhesion molecules, which were involved in the contact between eosinophils and Colo-205 cells. Our results indicated that IL-18 was involved in the eosinophil-mediated death of Colo-205 by facilitating contact between effector and target cells. These data underscored the involvement of an additional mediator in eosinophil-mediated antitumor cytotoxicity. Our findings support existing evidence that eosinophils could play a beneficial role in the context of colon cancer.

Jóźwik M, Okungbowa OE, Lipska A, et al.
Surface antigen expression on peripheral blood monocytes in women with gynecologic malignancies.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:129 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Of many specialized blood cells, monocytes are gaining increasing attention for their role in neoplastic disorders. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the expression of selected peripheral blood monocyte surface antigens in cases of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. In addition, our aim was to validate the diagnostic value of two artificial coefficients recently proposed for the diagnosis of gynecologic malignancies: Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), and Multiplication of Neutrophil and Monocyte Counts (MNM).
METHODS: We studied 69 white Caucasian women with histopathologic confirmation of endometrial (N = 42), cervical (N = 13), and ovarian (N = 14) cancers. Reference Group I were women suspected of cancer but histologically nullified (N = 20), and Group II were healthy blood donors (N = 23). Expression of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD16, CD54 (ICAM-1), CD62 L (L-selectin), CD64, and HLA-DR was measured with immunofluorescence in a flow cytometer.
RESULTS: CD54 expression increased by ≥35.6% (p < 0.001) whilst HLA-DR decreased by ≥10.8% (p < 0.001) in all cancer subgroups and Group I as compared to blood donors. A correlation (p < 0.05) between CD54 and CD62 L was stronger in all cancers studied than in healthy subjects. There was no difference in the NLR values between any of these subgroups. Moreover, we observed an increase in MNM parameter in cases of cervical and endometrial cancer and in the Reference Group I.
CONCLUSIONS: In the studied gynecologic malignancies, CD54 expression on peripheral blood monocytes is enhanced, indicating a higher transmigrational potential present in such patients, and HLA-DR expression diminished, indicating a decreased readiness of the immune system to recognize foreign antigens. The more pronounced correlation for the expression of CD54 and CD62 L in cancer suggests that monocytes uptake from the bloodstream and their local adhesion increase the pool of tumor-associated macrophages. This study challenged the suggested credibility and usefulness of the artificial parameters of MNM and NLR for the differential diagnosis of gynecologic malignancies.

Park SS, Dong H, Liu X, et al.
PD-1 Restrains Radiotherapy-Induced Abscopal Effect.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2015; 3(6):610-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We investigated the influence of PD-1 expression on the systemic antitumor response (abscopal effect) induced by stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) in preclinical melanoma and renal cell carcinoma models. We compared the SABR-induced antitumor response in PD-1-expressing wild-type (WT) and PD-1-deficient knockout (KO) mice and found that PD-1 expression compromises the survival of tumor-bearing mice treated with SABR. None of the PD-1 WT mice survived beyond 25 days, whereas 20% of the PD-1 KO mice survived beyond 40 days. Similarly, PD-1-blocking antibody in WT mice was able to recapitulate SABR-induced antitumor responses observed in PD-1 KO mice and led to increased survival. The combination of SABR plus PD-1 blockade induced near complete regression of the irradiated primary tumor (synergistic effect), as opposed to SABR alone or SABR plus control antibody. The combination of SABR plus PD-1 blockade therapy elicited a 66% reduction in size of nonirradiated, secondary tumors outside the SABR radiation field (abscopal effect). The observed abscopal effect was tumor specific and was not dependent on tumor histology or host genetic background. The CD11a(high) CD8(+) T-cell phenotype identifies a tumor-reactive population, which was associated in frequency and function with a SABR-induced antitumor immune response in PD-1 KO mice. We conclude that SABR induces an abscopal tumor-specific immune response in both the irradiated and nonirradiated tumors, which is potentiated by PD-1 blockade. The combination of SABR and PD-1 blockade has the potential to translate into a potent immunotherapy strategy in the management of patients with metastatic cancer.

Pojero F, Casuccio A, Parrino MF, et al.
Old and new immunophenotypic markers in multiple myeloma for discrimination of responding and relapsing patients: The importance of "normal" residual plasma cell analysis.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2015 May-Jun; 88(3):165-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is an incurable disease characterized by proliferation of clonal malignant plasma cells (CPCs), which can be immunophenotypically distinguished from polyclonal plasma cells (PPCs) by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC). The utility of PPCs analysis in detecting prognostic and predictive information is still a matter of debate.
METHODS: we tested the ability of 11 MFC markers in detecting differences in the immunophenotype of CPCs and PPCs among patients in various disease stages; we verified if these markers could be associated with disease stage/response to therapy despite the role of clinical parameters.
RESULTS: significant changes in the expression of markers occurred both in CPCs and PPCs. CD58 on PPCs of responding patients was downregulated compared with PPC of relapsing group. Fraction of CD200 expressing PCs was lower in control subjects than in PPCs from MGUS and myeloma groups. CD11a levels of expression on both CPCs and PPCs showed an upregulation in newly diagnosed and relapsing patients versus PCs of controls; CD20 was less expressed on control PCs than on MGUS CPCs and PPCs. CD49d revealed to be advantageous in discrimination of PPCs from CPCs. In our multiple regression model, CD19 and CD49d on CPCs, and CD45, CD58 and CD56 on PPCs maintained their association with groups of patients independently of other prognostic variables.
CONCLUSIONS: we provide a feasible start point to put in order ranges of expression on PPCs in healthy and myeloma subjects; we propose a new approach based on PPC analysis to monitor the stages of the disease.

Vasconcelos Dde M, Beitler B, Martinez GA, et al.
CD18 deficiency evolving to megakaryocytic (M7) acute myeloid leukemia: case report.
Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2014; 53(4):180-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD 1 - CD18 deficiency) is a rare disease characterized by disturbance of phagocyte function associated with less severe cellular and humoral dysfunction. The main features are bacterial and fungal infections predominantly in the skin and mucosal surfaces, impaired wound healing and delayed umbilical cord separation. The infections are indolent, necrotic and recurrent. In contrast to the striking difficulties in defense against bacterial and fungal microorganisms, LAD 1 patients do not exhibit susceptibility to viral infections and neoplasias. The severity of clinical manifestations is directly related to the degree of CD18 deficiency. Here, a 20 year-old female presenting a partial CD18 deficiency that developed a megakaryocytic (M7) acute myeloid leukemia is described for the first time. The clinical features of the patient included relapsing oral thrush due to Candida, cutaneous infections and upper and lower respiratory tract infections, followed by a locally severe necrotic genital herpetic lesion. The patient's clinical features improved for a period of approximately two years, followed by severe bacterial infections. At that time, the investigation showed a megakaryocytic acute myeloid leukemia, treated with MEC without clinical improvement. The highly aggressive evolution of the leukemia in this patient suggests that adhesion molecules could be involved in the protection against the spread of neoplastic cells.

Klahan S, Wu MS, Hsi E, et al.
Computational analysis of mRNA expression profiles identifies the ITG family and PIK3R3 as crucial genes for regulating triple negative breast cancer cell migration.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:536591 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2/neu). TNBC has worse clinical outcomes than other breast cancer subtypes. However, the key molecules and mechanisms of TNBC migration remain unclear. In this study, we compared two normalized microarray datasets from GEO database between Asian (GSE33926) and non-Asian populations (GSE46581) to determine the molecules and common pathways in TNBC migration. We demonstrated that 16 genes in non-Asian samples and 9 genes in Asian samples are related to TNBC migration. In addition, our analytic results showed that 4 genes, PIK3R3, ITGB1, ITGAL, and ITGA6, were involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Our results indicated potential genes that link to TNBC migration. This study may help identify novel therapeutic targets for drug development in cancer therapy.

Quandt D, Jasinski-Bergner S, Müller U, et al.
Synergistic effects of IL-4 and TNFα on the induction of B7-H1 in renal cell carcinoma cells inhibiting allogeneic T cell proliferation.
J Transl Med. 2014; 12:151 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The importance of B7-H molecules for the T cell/tumor communication and its impact on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression and prognosis has been recently described. Cytokine treatment of RCC has earlier been shown to be beneficial in preclinical settings, but its clinical implementation has not proven to be as effective. This might be partially explained by the yet incomplete picture of cellular alterations in tumor cells upon cytokine treatment investigated in detail in this study.
METHODS: RCC tumor cell lines were treated with different cytokines alone or in combination. The constitutive and/or cytokine-induced expression of cytokine receptors signaling components and B7-H molecules in RCC cells were analysed by qPCR and flow cytometry. A mcherry reporter gene construct containing B7-H1 promoter was cloned and its activity was determined upon transfection in cytokine-stimulated cells. Cytokine pretreated tumor cells were co-cultured with allogeneic CD8+ T cells from healthy donors and T cell proliferation as well as cytokine secretion was determined.
RESULTS: A heterogeneous, but constitutive B7-H1,-H2,-H3 and H4 expression was found on human RCC cell lines. IL-4 and TNFα treatment led to strong synergistic induction of B7-H1 in RCC cells, whereas B7-H2 was only increased by TNFα. In contrast, B7-H3 and B7-H4 expression were not altered by these cytokines. Treatment of RCC cells with TNFα and IL-4 was accompanied by an activation of signaling molecules like NF-κB, IκB and STAT6. The cytokine-mediated up-regulation of B7-H1 was due to transcriptional control as determined by an increased B7-H1 promoter activity in the presence of IL-4 and TNFα. Despite HLA class I and LFA-1 were also increased, the cytokine-mediated up-regulation of B7-H1 was more pronounced and caused an inhibition of allospecifc CD8+ T cell proliferation.
CONCLUSION: Thus, IL-4 and TNFα, which could be released by immune cells of the tumor microenvironment, are able to control the B7-H1 expression in RCC thereby altering T cell responses. These data are of importance for understanding the complex interplay of tumor cells with immune cells orchestrated by a number of different soluble and membrane bound mediators and for the implementation of check point antibodies directed against B7-H1.

Riches JC, O'Donovan CJ, Kingdon SJ, et al.
Trisomy 12 chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells exhibit upregulation of integrin signaling that is modulated by NOTCH1 mutations.
Blood. 2014; 123(26):4101-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The leukocyte adhesion cascade is important in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), as it controls migration of malignant cells into the pro-survival lymph node microenvironment. Circulating trisomy 12 CLL cells have increased expression of the integrins CD11a and CD49d, as well as CD38, but the tissue expression of these and other molecules, and the functional and clinical sequelae of these changes have not been described. Here, we demonstrate that circulating trisomy 12 CLL cells also have increased expression of the integrins CD11b, CD18, CD29, and ITGB7, and the adhesion molecule CD323. Notably, there was reduced expression of CD11a, CD11b, and CD18 in trisomy 12 cases with NOTCH1 mutations compared with wild type. Trisomy 12 cells also exhibit upregulation of intracellular integrin signaling molecules CALDAG-GEFI, RAP1B, and Ras-related protein ligand, resulting in enhanced very late antigen-4 [VLA-4] directed adhesion and motility. CD38 expression in CLL has prognostic significance, but the increased CD38 expression in trisomy 12 CLL cells must be taken into account in this subgroup, and the threshold of CD38 positivity should be raised to 40% for this marker to retain its prognostic value. In conclusion, trisomy 12 CLL cells exhibit functional upregulation of integrin signaling, with β2-integrin expression being modulated by NOTCH1 mutation status.

Huang PY, Best OG, Almazi JG, et al.
Cell surface phenotype profiles distinguish stable and progressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2014; 55(9):2085-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is clinically heterogeneous. While some patients have indolent disease for many years, 20-30% will progress and ultimately die of their disease. CLL may be classified by the Rai or Binet staging system, mutational status of the immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain gene (IGVH), ZAP-70 overexpression, cytogenetic abnormalities (13q-, + 12, 11q-, 17p-) and expression of several cell surface antigens (CD38, CD49d) that correlate with risk of disease progression. However, none of these markers identify all cases of CLL at risk. In a recent review, we summarized those CD antigens known to correlate with the prognosis of CLL. The present study has identified surface profiles of CD antigens that distinguish clinically progressive CLL from slow-progressive and stable CLL. Using an extended DotScan(™) CLL antibody microarray (Version 3; 182 CD antibodies), and with refined analysis of purified CD19 + B-cells, the following 27 CD antigens were differentially abundant for progressive CLL: CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD19, CD20 (two epitopes), CD21, CD22, CD23, CD24, CD25, CD38, CD40, CD43, CD45, CD45RA, CD52, CD69, CD81, CD84, CD98, CD102, CD148, CD180, CD196 and CD270. The extensive surface profiles obtained provide disease signatures with an accuracy of 79.2%, a sensitivity of 83.9% and a specificity of 72.5% that could provide the basis for a rapid test to triage patients with CLL according to probability of clinical progression and potential earlier requirement for treatment.

Trivanović D, Nikolić S, Krstić J, et al.
Characteristics of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells isolated from healthy and cancer affected people and their interactions with human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in vitro.
Cell Biol Int. 2014; 38(2):254-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adipose tissue is an attractive source of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) with potential applications in reconstructive plastic surgery and regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to characterise human adipose tissue MSCs (ASCs) derived from healthy individuals and cancer patients and to compare their interactions with tumour cells. ASCs were isolated from adipose tissue of healthy donors, breast cancer-adjacent adipose tissue of breast cancer patients and tumour-adjacent adipose tissue of non-breast cancer patients. Their proliferation, differentiation, immunophenotype and gene expression were assessed and effects on the proliferation of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 compared. ASCs from all sources exhibited similar morphology, proliferative and differentiation potential, showing the characteristic pattern of mesenchymal surface markers expression (CD90, CD105, CD44H, CD73) and the lack of HLA-DR and hematopoietic markers (CD11a, CD33, CD45, Glycophorin-CD235a), but uneven expression of CD34. ASCs also shared a common positive gene expression of HLA-DR, HLA-A, IL-6, TGF-β and HIF-1, but were negative for HLA-G, while the expression levels of Cox-2 and IDO-1 varied. All ASCs significantly stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 tumour cells in direct mixed co-cultures and transwell system, although their conditioned media displayed antiproliferative activity. Data obtained showed that ASCs with similar characteristics are easily isolated from various donors and sites of origin, although ASCs could both suppress and favour tumour cells growth, emphasising the importance of cellular context within the microenvironment and pointing to the significance of safety studies to exclude any potential clinical risk of their application in regenerative medicine.

Donmez A, Tombuloglu M, Gulbahar O, et al.
CD31 expression on peripheral blood stem cells predicts both early neutrophil and platelet engraftments.
Transfus Apher Sci. 2013; 49(2):307-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
No detailed information currently exists about the immune phenotypic profiles of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) obtained by different mobilization regimens. The effects of these profiles on the outcome of transplantation are largely unknown. In this prospective study, the surface immune phenotypic features (CD11a, CD18, CD31, CD38, CD44, CD62e, CD62L, CD90, CD117, CD135 and CD184 expression) of sorted PBSCs that had been mobilized by growth factor with (group I and group II) or without (group III) disease-specific chemotherapies were investigated. The immune phenotypic features on mobilized PBSCs in groups I, II and III were not significantly different. The CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1) positivity ratio on PBSCs inversely correlated with both the duration of neutrophil (r=-0.32, p=0.03) and platelet (r=-0.36, p=0.02) engraftment. No relationship was found between the engraftment (neutrophil and platelet) durations and CD184 (chemokine receptor CXC motif receptor 4 [CXCR4]) expression on PBSCs. We demonstrated that the surface immune phenotypic profiles on PBSCs obtained by several mobilization regimens were not different. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that CD31 expression on human PBSCs may positively affect both neutrophil and platelet engraftment. Contrary to our expectations, CD184 (CXCR4) expression on PBSCs has no effect on neutrophil or platelet engraftment. Considered together, our results suggest that additional surface antigens (such as CD31) may be more effective in the homing process.

Li W, Fan D, Yang M, et al.
Cytosine arabinoside promotes cytotoxic effect of T cells on leukemia cells mediated by bispecific antibody.
Hum Gene Ther. 2013; 24(8):751-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chemotherapeutic drugs can enhance an immune response of the host against the tumor in addition to killing cancer cells by direct cytotoxicity. Therefore, the combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy is a promising approach for eliminating tumors, particularly in advanced stages. A strategic medication is to use a bispecific antibody format that is capable of recruiting polyclonal T cells around antibody-target-expressing tumor cells. Recently, we have constructed a bispecific antibody, anti-CD3×anti-CD19, in a diabody configuration. In this study, we measured B7 family members B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86) expressed on a CD19(+) human leukemia cell line, Nalm-6, stimulated by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C). We found that a low concentration of Ara-C could upregulate CD80 expressed on CD19(+) Nalm-6 cells. The cytotoxicity of T lymphocytes against Nalm-6 cells in vitro and in vivo mediated by the anti-CD3×anti-CD19 diabody with or without a low dose of Ara-C was compared. The combination of the anti-CD3×anti-CD19 diabody and Ara-C showed the greatest effectiveness in enhancing the cytotoxicity of T cells against the tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Activated T cells expressed higher levels of CD25 and CD69 and released more interleukin 2. Both perforin/granzyme B system and Fas/FasL pathway were involved in the diabody-induced T-cell cytotoxicity. Moreover, the activated T cells could upregulate ICAM-3 expression on Nalm-6 cells, and inhibition of LFA-1-ICAM-3 interaction impaired cytotoxicity of T cells. It was noted that Ara-C could upregulate CD80 expressed on two of five specimens of acute B lymphoblastic leukemia patient-derived cells. Cytotoxicity of T cells against these two patient-derived cells was enhanced in the presence of the anti-CD3×anti-CD19 diabody. These findings indicate that treatment strategy using both cytotoxic lymphocyte-based immunotherapy and chemotherapy may have synergistic effects.

Ascierto ML, Idowu MO, Zhao Y, et al.
Molecular signatures mostly associated with NK cells are predictive of relapse free survival in breast cancer patients.
J Transl Med. 2013; 11:145 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent observations suggest that immune-mediated tissue destruction is dependent upon coordinate activation of immune genes expressed by cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems.
METHODS: Here, we performed a retrospective pilot study to investigate whether the coordinate expression of molecular signature mostly associated with NK cells could be used to segregate breast cancer patients into relapse and relapse-free outcomes.
RESULTS: By analyzing primary breast cancer specimens derived from patients who experienced either 58-116 months (~5-9 years) relapse-free survival or developed tumor relapse within 9-76 months (~1-6 years) we found that the expression of molecules involved in activating signaling of NK cells and in NK cells: target interaction is increased in patients with favorable prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: The parameters identified in this study, together with the prognostic signature previously reported by our group, highlight the cooperation between the innate and adaptive immune components within the tumor microenvironment.

Yurtsever A, Haydaroglu A, Biray Avci C, et al.
Assessment of genetic markers and glioblastoma stem-like cells in activation of dendritic cells.
Hum Cell. 2013; 26(3):105-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive intraparenchymal primary brain tumor in adults. The principal reasons for the poor outcomes of GBM are the high rates of recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the role of tailored cellular therapy for GBM with a poor prognosis and compare the activity of dendritic cells (DCs) that have encountered GBM cells. Detecting the correlations between methylation and expression of MGMT and PTEN genes and GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs) markers after co-cultures with a mononuclear cell cocktail are also aims for this study. Allogenic umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived DCs were labeled with the CD11a and CD123 for immature DCs, and CD80 and CD11c for mature DCs. CD34, CD45, and CD56 cells were isolated from allogenic UCB for using in DCs maturation. GBM CSCs were detected with CD133/1 and CD111 antibodies after co-culture studies. DC activation was carried out via GBM cells including CD133 and CD111 cells and a mononuclear cells cocktail including CD34, CD45, and CD56 natural killer cells. Real-time PCR was performed to detect the expression and promoter methylation status of PTEN and MGMT genes. The expression of CSCs markers was found in all GBM cases, and a statistically significant correlation was found among them after co-culture studies. The most pronounced affinity of DCs to GBM cells was observed at dilutions between 1/4 and 1/256 in co-cultures. There was a statistically significant correlation between cellularity and granularity ratios for CD123 and CD11c. PTEN and MGMT gene expression and methylation values were evaluated with respect to CSCs expression and no statistical significance was found. Activation of DCs might associate with CSCs and the mononuclear cells cocktail including CD34, CD45, and CD56 cells which were obtained from allogenic UCB.

Bu S, Xie Q, Chang W, et al.
LukS-PV induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in human acute myeloid leukemia THP-1 cells.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013; 45(8):1531-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The S component (LukS-PV) is one of the two components of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), which is a pore-forming cytotoxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, with the ability to lyse leukocytes. In this study, LukS-PV had the ability to induce apoptosis in the human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line THP-1. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms of LukS-PV-induced apoptosis in THP-1 cells. THP-1 cells treated with LukS-PV, resulted in a significant inhibition of proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and induced G0/G1 arrest associated with an inhibition of cell cycle arrest regulatory protein (cyclin D1) in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as measured by flow cytometry (FCM). After 12h exposure to LukS-PV (1.00 μM), annexin V-EGFP/propidium iodide (PI) FCM revealed that 19.5±3.6% of THP-1 cells were apoptotic, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining also revealed THP-1 cells were apoptotic. Chip analysis of 84 apoptosis-related genes demonstrated that 9 genes were up-regulated at least 2-fold and that 5 genes were down-regulated at least 2-fold in the treatment group when compared with levels in the control group. Western blotting reveled that the expression of caspase-8 increased significantly (approximately 4-fold). The levels of caspase-9, -3 and Bax increased significantly, and levels of Bcl-2 decreased rapidly with LukS-PV treatment. These data suggest that LukS-PV acts as an anti-leukemia agent and activates AML cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, LukS-PV may be a multi-targeting drug candidate for the prevention and therapy of AML.

Goto H, Kojima Y, Nagai H, Okada S
Establishment of a CD4-positive cell line from an AIDS-related primary effusion lymphoma.
Int J Hematol. 2013; 97(5):624-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) presents as a serous lymphomatous effusion without tumor masses exclusively in body cavities and mainly occurs in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. We established a new PEL cell line, designated GTO, from the pericardial effusion of a 39-year-old Japanese patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related PEL. This cell line was infected with human herpesvirus-8, but not with Epstein-Barr virus. Southern blot hybridization demonstrated that GTO cells display monoclonal rearrangement of the IgH gene, suggesting clonal B cell proliferation. GTO cells weakly express or lack T cell-associated markers (CD3, CD5, CD8), the majority of B cell-associated markers (CD19, CD20, CD21, CD79a), the α chains of β 2 integrins (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c), HLA-DR, CD30, and surface immunoglobulin (sIgM, sIgG sIgκ, sIgλ), TCR (α/β, γδ), but express CD45, and post-germinal center B cell/plasma cell-associated antigens (CD38, CD138). They also express a high level of cell-surface CD4 and can be infected by HIV-1. Immunodeficient mice intraperitoneally xenografted with GTO cells developed ascites containing lymphoma cells. The establishment of GTO and a GTO xenograft mouse model may help to provide insights toward a better understanding of the pathogenesis of PEL and the relationship between HIV-1 and HHV-8.

Lim SA, Kim TJ, Lee JE, et al.
Ex vivo expansion of highly cytotoxic human NK cells by cocultivation with irradiated tumor cells for adoptive immunotherapy.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(8):2598-607 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adoptive natural killer (NK) cell therapy may offer an effective treatment regimen for cancer patients whose disease is refractory to conventional therapy. NK cells can kill a wide range of tumor cells by patterned recognition of target ligands. We hypothesized that tumor targets sensitive to NK lysis would drive vigorous expansion of NK cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Here, we provide the basis for developing a novel ex vivo expansion process. By screening class I-negative or -mismatched tumor cell lines we identified a Jurkat T-lymphoblast subline termed KL-1, which was highly effective in specifically expanding NK cells. KL-1 addition to PBMC cultures achieved approximately 100-fold expansion of NK cells with nearly 90% purity, accompanied by reciprocal inhibition of T-cell growth. Marked elevations in expression of activation receptors, natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKp30, NKp44), and adhesion molecules (CD11a, ICAM-1) were associated with high tumor-lytic capacity, in both in vitro and in vivo models. KL-1-mediated expansion of NK cells was contact dependent and required interactions with CD16, the Fcγ receptor on NK cells, with ligands that are expressed on B cells. Indeed, B-cell depletion during culture abrogated selective NK cell expansion, while addition of EBV-transformed B cells further augmented NK expansion to approximately 740-fold. Together, our studies define a novel method for efficient activation of human NK cells that employs KL-1-lysed tumor cells and cocultured B cells, which drive a robust expansion of potent antitumor effector cells that will be useful for clinical evaluation.

Boztug H, Schumich A, Pötschger U, et al.
Blast cell deficiency of CD11a as a marker of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and transient myeloproliferative disease in children with and without Down syndrome.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2013 Nov-Dec; 84(6):370-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The classification of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) FAB subtype M7 relies on immunophenotypic assessment. CD41 is expressed throughout all stages of maturation of megakaryocytes and has therefore been described as a specific blast cell marker in AML M7 as well as in transient myeloproliferative disease (TMD) of patients with Down syndrome (DS). However, technical difficulties underlie the need for new markers for these entities.
METHODS: We evaluated the expression of human lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (CD11a) in a large cohort of pediatric AML and TMD patients (n = 91) of the Austrian AML-BFM 98 and 2004 studies.
RESULTS: We found a consistent deficiency of CD11a as assessed by mean fluorescence intensity in all patients with non-DS AML M7 (n = 8) and M6 (n = 1), all cases of classical DS-AML (n = 12) as well as TMD (n = 15) that was statistically significant in comparison to non-DS AML M0-M5 patients (n = 55; P < 0.001, sensitivity 100%). Only three of 55 Non-DS M0-5 patients were CD11a deficient (specificity 95%). Monocytic leukemias (M4/5) and normal monocytes typically showed a high CD11a expression, FAB types M1/2 and normal neutrophils an intermediate expression level, while all M3 leukemias were rather low in CD11a expression.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude, that deficiency of CD11a expression should be added to the diagnostic criteria of AML-M7, classical DS-AML and TMD.

Bae J, Munshi A, Li C, et al.
Heat shock protein 90 is critical for regulation of phenotype and functional activity of human T lymphocytes and NK cells.
J Immunol. 2013; 190(3):1360-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) has become an important therapeutic target with ongoing evaluation in a number of malignancies. Although Hsp90 inhibitors have a high therapeutic index with limited effects on normal cells, they have been described to inhibit dendritic cell function. However, its effect on human immune effector cells may have significant clinical implications, but remains unexplored. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of Hsp90 inhibition on human T lymphocyte and NK cells, including their Ag expression, activation, proliferation, and functional activities. These studies demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibition irreversibly downregulates cell surface expression of critical Ags (CD3, CD4, CD8), the costimulatory molecule (CD28, CD40L), and αβ receptors on T lymphocytes, as well as activating receptors (CD2, CD11a, CD94, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, KARp50.3) on NK cells. Hsp90 inhibition significantly reduced CD4 protein expression on T lymphocytes at both the cell surface and intracellular level, which was shown to be associated with aberrant regulation of Src-kinase p56(Lck). Downregulation of the Ags triggered by Hsp90 inhibition on CD3(+) T lymphocytes, both in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets, was associated with a disruption in their cellular activation, proliferation, and/or IFN-γ production, when the inhibition occurred either in activated or inactivated cells. In addition, downregulation of key activating receptors on NK cells following Hsp90 inhibition resulted in decreased cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Therefore, these observations demonstrate the need to closely monitor immune function in patients being treated with a Hsp90 inhibitor and may provide a potential therapeutic application in autoimmune diseases.

Ross RW, Galsky MD, Scher HI, et al.
A whole-blood RNA transcript-based prognostic model in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: a prospective study.
Lancet Oncol. 2012; 13(11):1105-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Survival for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer is highly variable. We assessed the effectiveness of a whole-blood RNA transcript-based model as a prognostic biomarker in castration-resistant prostate cancer.
METHODS: Peripheral blood was prospectively collected from 62 men with castration-resistant prostate cancer on various treatment regimens who were enrolled in a training set at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, MA, USA) from August, 2006, to June, 2008, and from 140 patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer in a validation set from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY, USA) from August, 2006, to February, 2009. A panel of 168 inflammation-related and prostate cancer-related genes was assessed with optimised quantitative PCR to assess biomarkers predictive of survival.
FINDINGS: A six-gene model (consisting of ABL2, SEMA4D, ITGAL, and C1QA, TIMP1, CDKN1A) separated patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer into two risk groups: a low-risk group with a median survival of more than 34·9 months (median survival was not reached) and a high-risk group with a median survival of 7·8 months (95% CI 1·8-13·9; p<0·0001). The prognostic utility of the six-gene model was validated in an independent cohort. This model was associated with a significantly higher area under the curve compared with a clinicopathological model (0·90 [95% CI 0·78-0·96] vs 0·65 [0·52-0·78]; p=0·0067).
INTERPRETATION: Transcriptional profiling of whole blood yields crucial prognostic information about men with castration-resistant prostate cancer. The six-gene model suggests possible dysregulation of the immune system, a finding that warrants further study.

Mutlu P, Ural AU, Gündüz U
Differential gene expression analysis related to extracellular matrix components in drug-resistant RPMI-8226 cell line.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2012; 66(3):228-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Drug resistance remains a major obstacle to the successful use of chemotherapeutic drugs for many types of cancers including multiple myeloma. It is becoming increasingly apparent that tumor microenvironment could provide a shelter to malignant plasma cells that allow their survival after initial drug exposure. This study demonstrates alterations in gene expression levels of several extracellular matrix (ECM) components in prednisone, vincristine and melphalan-resistant RPMI-8226 myeloma cells. Resistant RPMI-8226 cells were developed through stepwise selection of cells by increasing concentrations of drugs. Microarray analysis was carried out and genes up- or downregulated more than two-folds were considered as significant. Different types of ECM components were altered in different drug resistant RPMI-8226 sublines. ITGAL and ITGB2 were both overexpressed in vincristine resistant cell line whereas they were both downregulated in prednisone resistant subline. On the other hand, LAMC1 gene was drastically overexpressed in prednisone resistant subline whereas it was downregulated in its melphalan resistant variant. FN1 gene was only upregulated in vincristine resistant cells. However, COL21A1 which is an ECM component of the blood vessel walls, was drastically downregulated in all of the drug resistant RPMI-8226 sublines. ADAM17 gene was upregulated in melphalan resistant subline. This report provides a preliminary in vitro study to the relationship between drug resistance and ECM components in multiple myeloma. Since in vitro developed drug-resistant multiple myeloma sublines do not have similar microenvironment of tumor cells, correlation of ECM proteins with drug resistance requires further analysis.

Castro FV, McGinn OJ, Krishnan S, et al.
5T4 oncofetal antigen is expressed in high risk of relapse childhood pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia and is associated with a more invasive and chemotactic phenotype.
Leukemia. 2012; 26(7):1487-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although the overall prognosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is good, outcome after relapse is poor. Recurrence is frequently characterized by the occurrence of disease at extramedullary sites, such as the central nervous system and testes. Subpopulations of blasts able to migrate to such areas may have a survival advantage and give rise to disease recurrence. Gene expression profiling of 85 diagnostic pre-B-ALL bone marrow samples revealed higher 5T4 oncofetal antigen transcript levels in cytogenetic high-risk subgroups of patients (P<0.001). Flow cytometric analysis determined that bone marrow from relapse patients have a significantly higher percentage of 5T4-positive leukemic blasts than healthy donors (P=0.005). The high-risk Sup-B15 pre-B-ALL line showed heterogeneity in 5T4 expression, and the derived, 5T4(+) (Sup5T4) and 5T4(-) (Sup) subline cells, displayed differential spread to the omentum and ovaries following intraperitoneal inoculation of immunocompromised mice. Consistent with this, Sup5T4 compared with Sup cells show increased invasion in vitro concordant with increased LFA-1 and VLA-4 integrin expression, adhesion to extracellular matrix and secretion of matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2/-9). We also show that 5T4-positive Sup-B15 cells are susceptible to 5T4-specific superantigen antibody-dependent cellular toxicity providing support for targeted immunotherapy in high-risk pre-B-ALL.

Solano ME, Sander VA, Ho H, et al.
Systemic inflammation, cellular influx and up-regulation of ovarian VCAM-1 expression in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
J Reprod Immunol. 2011; 92(1-2):33-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
PCOS, a major cause of anovulatory sterility, is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation. New evidence suggests that the immune system aggravates the clinical features of PCOS. Our aim was to study the immune, metabolic and endocrine features of a mouse model of PCOS elicited by androgenisation using dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). We observed a significant weight gain and insulin resistance in DHEA-androgenised mice, coupled with the formation of ovarian follicular cysts. DHEA up-regulated the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in the granulosa cell layer of the majority of cysts, and VCAM-1 expression in the theca cell layer of all follicles and cysts. The expression of these markers was low in control tissue. Peritoneal cells from PCOS-mice showed enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines, suggesting an association between chronic inflammation and PCOS. In addition, DHEA-androgenisation induced the activation of CD4(+) cells both in vivo and in vitro, and their expression of the respective ligands for VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, VLA-4 and LFA-1, as assessed in vitro. CD4(+) cells were present in androgenised ovaries, especially in the granulosa cell layer of cysts with high VCAM-1 expression. Herein, we present novel evidence that the immune system is activated systemically and locally in a mouse model for PCOS. We propose that VCAM-1 is involved in aggravating PCOS symptoms by promoting leukocyte recruitment to the ovaries and perpetuating local inflammation. These findings offer novel therapeutic opportunities for PCOS, such as blockage of VCAM-1 expression.

Lee ES, Choi JS, Kim MS, et al.
Ginsenoside metabolite compound K differentially antagonizing tumor necrosis factor-α-induced monocyte-endothelial trafficking.
Chem Biol Interact. 2011; 194(1):13-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human leukocyte endothelial adhesion and transmigration occur in the early stage of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vascular endothelial cells are targeted by pro-inflammatory cytokines modulating many gene proteins responsible for cell adhesion, thrombosis and inflammatory responses. This study examined the potential of compound K to inhibit the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α induction of monocyte adhesion onto TNF-α-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC were cultured with 10ng/ml TNF-α with individual ginsenosides of Rb1, Rc, Re, Rh1 and compound K (CK). Ginsenosides at doses of ⩽50μM did not show any cytotoxicity. TNF-α induced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVEC, and such induction was attenuated by Rh1 and CK. Consistently, CK suppressed TNF-α-induced expression of HUVEC adhesion molecules of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin, and also Rh1 showed a substantial inhibition. Rh1 and CK dampened induction of counter-receptors, α4/β1 integrin VLA-4 and αL/β2 integrin LFA-1 in TNF-α-treated THP-1 cells. Additionally, CK diminished THP-1 secretion of MMP-9 required during transmigration, inhibiting transendothelial migration of THP-1 cells. CK blunted TNF-α-promoted IL-8 secretion of HUVEC and CXCR1 expression of THP-1 monocytes. Furthermore, TNF-α-activated endothelial IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation were disturbed by CK, and TNF-α induction of α4/β1 integrin was abrogated by the NF-κB inhibitor SN50. These results demonstrate that CK exerts anti-atherogenic activity with blocking leukocyte endothelial interaction and transmigration through negatively mediating NF-κB signaling.

Kaczmarek M, Nowicka A, Kozłowska M, et al.
Evaluation of the phenotype pattern of macrophages isolated from malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions.
Tumour Biol. 2011; 32(6):1123-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Macrophages are among the infiltrate components of most malignant tumors. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) may secrete a variety of humoral factors, which promote or inhibit tumor growth. In general, depending on their activation pathway, macrophages exhibit two different patterns of phenotype, M1 or M2. It is assumed that TAMs comprise pattern M2. In the malignant pleural effusion, macrophages are a frequent component of cytological evaluation. In this microenvironment, TAMs could be involved in the development of immunity. The phenotype of macrophages represented in malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions is unknown. In this study, macrophages were isolated from 38 pleural effusions (15 malignant and 23 non-malignant) and the expression of a variety of immune mediators and their receptors was assessed to determine the type of activation (M1 vs. M2). The expression of mRNA was analyzed for IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-11, IL-18, TNFα, TGFβ1, IL1R1, IL1RAP, TLR2, TLR4, VLA4, CD62L, MMP2, MMP9, VEGFA, PDGFA, and PDGFB. In immunohistochemical evaluation, the expressions of CD68, mesothelin, MAC387, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNFα, and CD105 were assessed. The cytoplasmic expression of IFNγ, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-10 and the surface expression of CD11a, CD14, CD15, CD16, CD23, CD25, CD45, CD54, CD62L, CD69, VLA2, VLA3, VLA4, VLA6, TLR2, TLR4, and CCR7 were tested using flow cytometry. In supernatants from macrophages cultures, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, MCP1, and VEGF were investigated by cytometric beads array method (CBA flex sets) and TGFβ1 by ELISA. Our results indicate that macrophages from malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions differ from each other and suggest that macrophages isolated from non-malignant effusions show a pattern comparable to M1 while those isolated from malignant effusions express similarity to M2 phenotype, but they have not shown a classical M2 pattern.

Holland M, Castro FV, Alexander S, et al.
RAC2, AEP, and ICAM1 expression are associated with CNS disease in a mouse model of pre-B childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood. 2011; 118(3):638-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
We developed a murine model of CNS disease to obtain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of CNS involvement in pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Semiquantitative proteomic discovery-based approaches identified unique expression of asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), and ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2), among others, in an invasive pre-B-cell line that produced CNS leukemia in NOD-SCID mice. Targeting RAC2 significantly inhibited in vitro invasion and delayed disease onset in mice. Induced expression of RAC2 in cell lines with low/absent expression of AEP and ICAM1 did not result in an invasive phenotype or murine CNS disease. Flow cytometric analysis identified an enriched population of blast cells expressing ICAM1/lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1)/CD70 in the CD10(+)/CD19(+) fraction of bone marrow aspirates obtained from relapsed compared with normal controls and those with primary disease. CD10(+)/CD19(+) fractions obtained from relapsed patients also express RAC2 and give rise to CNS disease in mice. Our data suggest that combinations of processes are involved in the pathogenesis of CNS disease in pre-B-cell ALL, support a model in which CNS disease occurs as a result of external invasion, and suggest that targeting the processes of adhesion and invasion unique to pre-B cells may prevent recurrences within the CNS.

Fu Z, Jiao M, Zhang M, et al.
LFA-1 gene polymorphisms are associated with the sporadic infiltrative duct breast carcinoma in Chinese Han women of Heilongjiang Province.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 127(1):265-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
The infiltrative duct carcinoma (IDC) is the most common malignant breast cancer in females and genetic factors appear to play a significant role in the susceptibility of IDC. The LFA-1 is a crucial co-stimulatory molecule in immune system and may affect the development of breast IDC. In order to clarify the association of LFA-1 polymorphisms with IDC, a case-control study was conducted in women from Heilongjiang Province, Northeast of China. We scrutinized four genetic polymorphisms in LFA-1 gene, which may influence the activity and function of LFA-1. Our research subjects consist of 537 cases with IDC and 577 age-matched healthy controls. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test by SPSS 13.0 and Haploview 4.1 softwares. The association between LFA-1 polymorphisms and the clinical features of IDC was analyzed. In rs2230433, the frequency of GG genotype and G allele was lower in cases than in controls (P = 0.0316 and 0.0480). And rs2230433, CG genotype was higher in cases (P = 0.0397). In rs8058823, the frequency of AA genotype and A allele was lower in cases than in controls (P = 0.00000418 and 0.00000267). And rs8058823, AG genotype was higher in cases (P = 0.00000747). The frequency of haplotype CCGA was lower in patients. Significant association was shown between the four SNPs of LFA-1 gene and estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), C-erbB-2, and P53 statuses. In addition, no association was found between LFA-1 gene polymorphisms and tumor size, and neither was it between LFA-1 gene polymorphisms and lymph node metastasis. Our results primarily suggested that LFA-1 gene polymorphisms may predict the sporadic breast IDC risk and prognosis factors in Chinese Han women in Heilongjiang Province.

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