Research IndicatorsGraph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (14)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: KIT (cancer-related)
Razmkhah F, Soleimani M, Mehrabani D, et al.Leukemia microvesicles affect healthy hematopoietic stem cells.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(2):1010428317692234 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Microvesicles are released by different cell types and shuttle mRNAs and microRNAs which have the possibility to transfer genetic information to a target cell and alter its function. Acute myeloid leukemia is a malignant disorder, and leukemic cells occupy all the bone marrow microenvironment. In this study, we investigate the effect of leukemia microvesicles on healthy umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells to find evidence of cell information transferring. Leukemia microvesicles were isolated from acute myeloid leukemia patients and were co-incubated with healthy hematopoietic stem cells. After 7 days, cell count, hematopoietic stem cell-specific cluster of differentiation (CD) markers, colony-forming unit assay, and some microRNA gene expressions were assessed. Data showed a higher number of hematopoietic stem cells after being treated with leukemia microvesicles compared with control (treated with no microvesicles) and normal (treated with normal microvesicles) groups. Also, increased levels of microRNA-21 and microRNA-29a genes were observed in this group, while colony-forming ability was still maintained and high ranges of CD34(+), CD34(+)CD38(-), CD90(+), and CD117(+) phenotypes were observed as stemness signs. Our results suggest that leukemia microvesicles are able to induce some effects on healthy hematopoietic stem cells such as promoting cell survival and some microRNAs deregulation, while stemness is maintained.
Pan JQ, Zhang YQ, Wang JH, et al.lncRNA co-expression network model for the prognostic analysis of acute myeloid leukemia.
Int J Mol Med. 2017; 39(3):663-671 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly heterogeneous hematologic malignancy with great variability of prognostic behaviors. Previous studies have reported that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in AML and may thus be used as potential prognostic biomarkers. However, thus use of lncRNAs as prognostic biomarkers in AML and their detailed mechanisms of action in this disease have not yet been well characterized. For this purpose, in the present study, the expression levels of lncRNAs and mRNAs were calculated using the RNA-seq V2 data for AML, following which a lncRNA‑lncRNA co-expression network (LLCN) was constructed. This revealed a total of 8 AML prognosis‑related lncRNA modules were identified, which displayed a significant correlation with patient survival (p≤0.05). Subsequently, a prognosis-related lncRNA module pathway network was constructed to interpret the functional mechanism of the prognostic modules in AML. The results indicated that these prognostic modules were involved in the AML pathway, chemokine signaling pathway and WNT signaling pathway, all of which play important roles in AML. Furthermore, the investigation of lncRNAs in these prognostic modules suggested that an lncRNA (ZNF571-AS1) may be involved in AML via the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway by regulating KIT and STAT5. The results of the present study not only provide potential lncRNA modules as prognostic biomarkers, but also provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of lncRNAs.
Ghanbari R, Rezasoltani S, Hashemi J, et al.Expression Analysis of Previously Verified Fecal and Plasma Dow-regulated MicroRNAs (miR-4478, 1295-3p, 142-3p and 26a-5p), in FFPE Tissue Samples of CRC Patients.
Arch Iran Med. 2017; 20(2):92-95 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early diagnosis of this neoplasm is critical and may reduce patients' mortality. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules whose expression pattern can be altered in various diseases such as CRC.
METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the expression levels of miR-142-3p, miR-26a-5p (their reduced expression in plasma samples of CRC patients was previously confirmed), miR-4478 and miR-1295-3p (their reduced expression in stool samples of CRC patients was previously confirmed) in tissue samples of CRC patients in comparison to healthy subjects. To achieve this purpose, total RNA including small RNA was extracted from 53 CRC and 35 normal subjects' Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples using the miRNeasy FFPE Mini Kit. The expression levels of these four selected miRNAs were measured using quantitative Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR).
RESULTS: We found that the expression levels of miR-4478 and miR-1295b-3p (two previously down-regulated fecal miRNAs) were significantly decreased in FFPE samples of CRC patients compared to healthy controls. On the other hand, no significant differences were seen in expression levels of miR-142-3p and miR-26a-5p (two previously down-regulated circulating miRNAs) in FFPE samples between these two groups.
CONCLUSION: Regarding current findings, it may be concluded that to diagnose CRC patients based on the miRNAs approach, stool samples are more likely preferable to plasma samples; nevertheless, additional studies with more samples are needed to confirm the results.
Xia S, Ji R, Zhan WLong noncoding RNA papillary thyroid carcinoma susceptibility candidate 3 (PTCSC3) inhibits proliferation and invasion of glioma cells by suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
BMC Neurol. 2017; 17(1):30 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been identified in a variety of cancers. An increasing number of studies have found the critical role of lncRNAs in the regulation of cellular processes, such as proliferation, invasion and differentiation. Long noncoding RNA papillary thyroid carcinoma susceptibility candidate 3 (PTCSC3) is a novel lncRNA that was primarily detected in papillary thyroid carcinoma. However, the biological function and molecular mechanism of lncRNA PTCSC3 in glioma are still unknown.
METHODS: The expression level of lncRNA PTCSC3 in human microglia and glioma cell lines was examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The influence of lncRNA PTCSC3 on cell proliferation were studied using the cell counting kit-8, and cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry assays. The migration and invasion abilities were investigated by transwell and wound healing assays. The target genes of lncRNA PTCSC3 were explored by qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and western blot.
RESULTS: LncRNA PTCSC3 was significantly downregulated in glioma cell lines. The overexpression of lncRNA PTCSC3 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in U87 and U251 cells. Additionally, the overexpression of lncRNA PTCSC3 inhibited the migration and invasion of U87 and U251 cells. Moreover, lncRNA PTCSC3 inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of U87 cells. The study also demonstrated that LRP6, as a receptor of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, was a target of lncRNA PTCSC3. By evaluating the expression levels of Axin1, active β-catenin, c-myc, and cyclin D1, the study indicated that lncRNA PTCSC3 inhibited the activation of the Wnt/β-cateninpathway through targeting LRP6.
CONCLUSIONS: LncRNA PTCSC3 inhibits the proliferation and migration of glioma cells and suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by targeting LRP6. LncRNA PTCSC3 is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of glioma.
Zhang Q, Wu S, Zhu J, et al.Down-regulation of ASIC1 suppressed gastric cancer via inhibiting autophagy.
Gene. 2017; 608:79-85 [PubMed
] Related Publications
As autophagy has anti-apoptosis effect and accelerates cell survival, many studies start to target autophagy as a therapeutic strategy for cancer. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) was reported to activate autophagy. However, whether ASICs can regulate gastric cancer through autophagy is unknown. The differentially expressed genes in normal gastric tissue and gastric cancer tissue in patients were investigated by RNA-seq. Expression of ASIC1 and autophagy related 5 (ATG5) was further confirmed by real-time PCR. Effects of knockdown expression of ASIC1 and ATG5 on the growth of gastric SGC-7901 cells were assayed by CCK-8 kit. The animal survival rate and tumor volume in murine heterotopic xenograft model was assayed. The expression of autophagy related genes was enriched in gastric cancer tissue in patients, including ASIC1 and ATG5. Knockdown expression of ASIC1 and ATG5 inhibits the growth of SGC-7901 cells, respectively. ASIC1 regulates ATG5 gene expression in SGC-7901 cells. ASIC1 knockdown extended the survival rate of animals and inhibited the tumor volume in the murine heterotopic xenograft model. This study showed that downregulation of ASIC1 inhibits gastric cancer growth via decreasing autophagy, therefore strongly suggests a therapeutic role for ASIC1 in gastric cancer.
Mucosal melanomas represent a rare entity with different risk factors and molecular features compared to cutaneous melanomas. They arise most commonly from mucosal surfaces in the head/neck region, the female genital tract (FGT) and the anorectal region. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinics, prognosis, and treatment options of patients with mucosal melanoma, in particular with regard to different primary sites.We retrospectively analyzed 75 patients with mucosal melanomas diagnosed in the years 1993 to 2015 in our department. The primary melanomas were located in the head/neck region (n = 32), the FGT (n = 24), and the anorectal region (n = 19).The median age of the patients was 66 years. At initial diagnosis the primary melanoma was not completely resectable in 11 (15%) patients, 18 (24%) patients had regional lymph node metastases, and 7 (9%) patients distant metastases. During follow-up, 22 (29%) patients suffered from a local recurrence, in particular patients with primary melanoma in the head/neck region without postoperative radiotherapy. By multivariate analysis location of the primary melanoma in the head/neck area or anorectal region and presence of metastases at time of diagnosis represented poor prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival. In 62 tested individuals 7 KIT mutations were found, 2 BRAF mutations in 57 tested patients. Four patients received targeted therapies, 14 checkpoint inhibitors, 4 (1/1 on vemurafenib, 1/7 on ipilimumab, and 2/7 on PD-1 inhibitors) patients showed responses of more than 100 days duration.Mucosal melanomas are often locally advanced or metastatic at initial diagnosis, thus they require extensive staging procedures. The high rate of local recurrences in the head/neck region can be significantly reduced by postoperative radiotherapy. For the potential use of medical treatment a mutation analysis for KIT and BRAF genes should be performed. The use of new immunologic and targeted therapies has to be further evaluated.
Gai L, Liu H, Cui JH, et al.The allele combinations of three loci based on, liver, stomach cancers, hematencephalon, COPD and normal population: A preliminary study.
Gene. 2017; 605:123-130 [PubMed
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The purpose of this study was to examine the specific allele combinations of three loci connected with the liver cancers, stomach cancers, hematencephalon and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to explore the feasibility of the research methods. We explored different mathematical methods for statistical analyses to assess the association between the genotype and phenotype. At the same time we still analyses the statistical results of allele combinations of three loci by difference value method and ratio method. All the DNA blood samples were collected from patients with 50 liver cancers, 75 stomach cancers, 50 hematencephalon, 72 COPD and 200 normal populations. All the samples were from Chinese. Alleles from short tandem repeat (STR) loci were determined using the STR Profiler plus PCR amplification kit (15 STR loci). Previous research was based on combinations of single-locus alleles, and combinations of cross-loci (two loci) alleles. Allele combinations of three loci were obtained by computer counting and stronger genetic signal was obtained. The methods of allele combinations of three loci can help to identify the statistically significant differences of allele combinations between liver cancers, stomach cancers, patients with hematencephalon, COPD and the normal population. The probability of illness followed different rules and had apparent specificity. This method can be extended to other diseases and provide reference for early clinical diagnosis.
Merten L, Agaimy A, Moskalev EA, et al.Inactivating Mutations of RB1 and TP53 Correlate With Sarcomatous Histomorphology and Metastasis/Recurrence in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2016; 146(6):718-726 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Loss-of-function mutations in TP53 and CDKN2A have been found at varying frequencies in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), while no mutations of RB1 have been reported to date. The aim of the current study was to determine the mutation frequency of TP53, RB1, and CDKN2A in GISTs.
METHODS: A cohort of 83 primary untreated GISTs was analyzed for mutations in TP53, RB1, and CDKN2A by massive parallel sequencing. Tumors with mutations in TP53 and RB1 were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization for the corresponding gene loci.
RESULTS: Two GISTs harbored inactivating mutations in RB1, and two other GISTs displayed inactivating mutations in TP53 All four tumors were KIT mutant high-risk tumors with highly cellular sarcomatous histomorphology and variable combinations of plump spindle cells to epithelioid highly atypical cells and high mitotic activity. Three of these patients developed recurrent or metastatic disease, while the fourth patient showed tumor rupture intraoperatively. The combined overall frequency of TP53 and RB1 mutations was 13% considering high-risk or malignant GISTs.
CONCLUSIONS: TP53 and RB1 mutations seem to be restricted to high-risk/malignant GISTs and occur at an equal although relatively low frequency.
Amann VC, Ramelyte E, Thurneysen S, et al.Developments in targeted therapy in melanoma.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2017; 43(3):581-593 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Melanomas are disease entities driven in part by the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The TCGA network recently defined four genetic subtypes based on the most prevalent significantly mutated genes, including mutant BRAF, mutant RAS (N/H/K), mutant NF1, and Triple wild-type melanoma (harboring none of the aforementioned mutations, but instead includes KIT, GNA and GNAQ mutations). The successful development of kinase inhibitors marked a milestone in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Combination treatment with a BRAF- and MEK-inhibitor is the current standard of care for inoperable stage IIIC/IV BRAF-mutated melanoma. Recent data demonstrate excellent long-term outcome, especially in patients with normal baseline LDH levels, and confirm that there is a subset of BRAF inhibitor-naive patients who experience durable responses without progression on combination treatment. In the future, adding a third compound based on individual genetic alterations might further improve the outcome of targeted therapy.
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery is a prospective method in gene therapy, but it has application limitations such as negative charge, water solubility and high molecular weight. In this study, a safe and efficient nano-vector, CRS, was designed and synthesized to facilitate siRNA delivery. Physical and chemical properties of VEGF-siRNA/CRS were characterized by methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential (ζ) measurement, drug-releasing rate measurement, gel electrophoresis and confocal microscopy. The biological activities were evaluated using cell viability assay, gene-silencing efficacy assay in vitro, real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and antitumor tests in vivo. The mean nanoparticle size of VEGF-siRNA/CRS was 121.4±0.3 nm with positive ζ potential of 7.69±4.47 mV. The release rate of VEGF-siRNA from VEGF-siRNA/CRS was 82.50% sustained for 48 h in Tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer (pH 8.0). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the efficiency of the transfection, and the result showed that VEGF mRNA expression had been knocked down by 82.36%. The expression of VEGF protein was also recorded to be downregulated to 14.83% using ELISA. The results of cytotoxicity measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that VEGF-siRNA/CRS had significant inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. The results of antitumor assays indicated that VEGF-siRNA/CRS exhibited tumor cell growth inhibition in vivo. The results demonstrated that VEGF-siRNA could be delivered and transported by the designed carrier, while siRNA could be released constantly and led to an increasing gene-silencing effect against VEGF gene. In conclusion, VEGF-siRNA/CRS is a promising carrier for siRNA delivery, and further studies are warranted.
Dong Y, Wang MKnockdown of TKTL1 additively complements cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by regulating the levels of NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 85:672-678 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) plays an important role in pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) branch, the main pathway generating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and nucleotides for DNA synthesis. TKTL1 is closely related to DNA damage and has a close relationship with incidence and progression of cancers. Cisplatin is the main chemotherapeutic drug by inducing DNA damage. Whether TKTL1 knockdown additively complements cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, however, remains largely undefined.
METHODS: Lipofectamine 2000 was used to transfect si-TKTL1s with different sequences into the CNE2 and HONE1 cells. The mRNA and protein levels of TKTL1 were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to access the viability and apoptosis of CNE2 and HONE1 cells. The NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate levels in both CNE2 and HONE1 cells were determined by NADPH examination kit and HPCE analysis, respectively. The effect of TKTL1 knockdown and NADPH/ribose-5-phosphate supplement on DNA damage was assessed by using Comet assay.
RESULTS: TKTL1 knockdown significantly decreased TKTL1 level in CNE2 and HONE1 cells. A significant decrease in cell viability and an obvious increase in cell apoptosis rate were found in si-TKTL1+cisplatin group compared with si-TKTL1 group or si-control+cisplatin group. The levels of NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate in CNE1 and HONE1 cells were dramatically decreased in si-TKTL1 group compared with si-control group. TKTL1 knockdown additively complemented cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity, which was partly reversed by the supplements of NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate, including the increased survival rate, decreased apoptosis and DNA damage.
CONCLUSIONS: Knockdown of TKTL1 additively complements cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by inhibiting the levels of NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate, indicating that TKTL1 may be a promising target to improve the therapeutic effect combining with cisplatin for the patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are short, endogenous non-coding RNA molecules, demonstrating abnormal expression in cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we profiled 18 differentially regulated miRNAs, including miRNA‑31, using miRNA array. Kruppel (or Krüppel)-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a transcription factor and putative tumor suppressor. Both were found to be significantly downregulated in liver cancer tissues and cells. However, little is known about the correlation between Klf4 and miRNA‑31 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mRNA expression of Klf4 was decreased and inversely associated with the clinical stage, T classification and hepatitis B in patients with HCC, while the expression of miR‑31 was lower (r=0.326, P=0.018). Using cell counting kit 8 (CCK8) and Transwell migration assays, we found that Klf4 and miR‑31 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of liver cancer cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that Klf4 directly binds to the promoter of miR‑31 and activates its transcription. In vitro experiments confirmed that Klf4 regulated miR‑31 and thereby inhibited HCC cell growth and metastasis. Taken together, our findings indicate that Klf4 directly regulates miR‑31 in HCC. Thus, miR-31 may serve as a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in HCC.
Pazzaglia L, Novello C, Conti A, et al.miR-152 down-regulation is associated with MET up-regulation in leiomyosarcoma and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2017; 40(1):77-88 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Highly aggressive adult soft tissue sarcomas (STS), i.e., leiomyosarcomas (LMS) and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPS), present complex genomic anomalies and overall 5-year survival rates of 20 to 40%. Here, we aimed to identify new biomarkers that may be employed to improve the treatment of non-translocation STS patients. We validated 12 miRNAs implicated in tumor development using primary STS samples and selected miR-152 for further analysis in STS-derived cell lines.
METHODS: 59 primary STS samples (27 LMS and 32 UPS) and 10 matched normal control tissues were included in the study, as well as 3 STS-derived cell lines (HT1080, SW872 and SKLMS1) and a normal control mesenchymal cell line (hMSC). miRNA expression analyses were performed using a TaqMan microRNA Array platform and qRT-PCR (miR-152), respectively. The expression levels of the putative miR-152 targets MET and KIT were assessed using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, respectively. In addition, various functional analyses were performed before and after miR-152 transfection into SKLMS1 cells.
RESULTS: We found that 12 pre-selected miRNAs were down-regulated in primary STS tumor samples compared to its normal control samples. A statistically significant miR-152 down-regulation was found to be accompanied by high MET and KIT mRNA levels in both the primary samples and the STS-derived cell lines tested. miR-152 transfection in SKLMS1 cells led to a reduction in KIT and MET mRNA and protein levels which, in turn, was associated with a transient down-regulation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, a transient decrease in cell growth, and a transient increase in both apoptotic and S-phase cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that over-expression of MET and KIT in primary STS samples and its derived cell lines is associated with miR-152 down-regulation. This shift may play a role in STS development and, thus, may be used to identify patients at risk. The effect of MET down-regulation on downstream signaling pathways, such as the PI3K/AKT pathway, may provide a basis for the future design of novel STS treatment strategies.
Jasek K, Buzalkova V, Minarik G, et al.Detection of mutations in the BRAF gene in patients with KIT and PDGFRA wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Virchows Arch. 2017; 470(1):29-36 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are characterized by mutations in exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 of KIT or exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA gene. However, approximately 10 to 15 % of GISTs lack the mutations in KIT and PDGFRA, and these are referred to as wild-type GISTs which are less sensitive to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. The aim of this study was to detect BRAF mutations in patients with wild-type GISTs. We applied a sensitive allele-specific PCR, which was optimized using the V600E mutation-harboring cell line RKO, followed by verification of the results by dideoxy sequencing. We selected 149 GIST patients without detectable mutations in KIT and PDGFRA genes from the Slovak national GIST register and analyzed biopsy specimens for the presence of BRAF mutations in exon 15. We identified nine patients with the V600E mutation. The BRAF-driven GISTs were primary gastric (n = 3), small intestinal (n = 3), colon (n = 1), and of uncertain origin (n = 1). We also included a liver metastasis of a patient with a simultaneous KIT exon 11-mutated intra-abdominal metastasis. We conclude that genome analysis of wild-type GISTs for mutations should include the BRAF gene, as its mutation status contributes to understanding of pathogenesis and might be important for decisions on therapy.
BACKGROUND: Combinations of adjuvant sensitizers with anticancer drugs is a promising new strategy to reverse chemoresistance. Ursolic acid (UA) is one of the natural pentacyclic triterpene compounds known to have many pharmacological characteristics such as anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. This study investigates whether UA can sensitize hepatocellular carcinoma cells to cisplatin.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were transfected with nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) small interfering RNA and Nrf2 complementary DNA by using Lipofectin 2000. The cytotoxicity of cells was investigated by Cell Counting Kit 8 assay. Cell apoptosis, cell cycle, reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by flow cytometry fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The protein level of Nrf2, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was detected by Western blot analysis.
RESULTS: The results showed that the reverse index was 2.9- and 9.69-fold by UA of 1.125 μg/mL and 2.25 μg/mL, respectively, for cisplatin to HepG2/DDP cells. UA-cisplatin combination induced cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species, blocked the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase, and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistically, UA-cisplatin dramatically decreased the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream genes. The sensibilization of UA-cisplatin combination was diminished in Nrf2 small interfering RNA-transfected HepG2/DDP cells, as well as in Nrf2 complementary DNA-transfected HepG2/DDP cells.
CONCLUSION: The results confirmed the sensibilization of UA on HepG2/DDP cells to cisplatin, which was possibly mediated via the Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway.
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a derivative of arachidonic acid, has been identified as a tumorigenic factor in many cancers in recent studies. Prostaglandin E synthase 2 (PTGES2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGES2 gene located on chromosome 9, and it synthesizes PGE2 in human cells. In our study, we selected 119 samples from endometrial cancer patients, with 50 normal endometrium tissue samples as controls, in which we examined the expression of PTGES2. Both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot analyses demonstrated that synthase PTGES2, which is required for PGE2 synthesis, was highly expressed in endometrium cancer tissues compared with normal endometrium. Stable PTGES2-shRNA transfectants were generated in Ishikawa and Hec-1B endometrial cancer cell lines, and transfection efficiencies were confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. We found that PGE2 promoted proliferation and invasion of cells in Ishikawa and Hec-1B cells by cell counting kit-8 tests (CCK8) and transwell assays, respectively. PGE2 stimulation enhanced the expression of SUMO-1, via PGE2 receptor subtype 4 (EP4). Further analysis implicated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway function as the major mediator of EP4 and SUMO-1. The increase in SUMO-1 activity prompted the SUMOlyation of target proteins which may be involved in proliferation and invasion. These findings suggest SUMO-1 and EP4 as two potential targets for new therapeutic or prevention strategies for endometrial cancers.
Wei H, Wang N, Zhang Y, et al.Wnt-11 overexpression promoting the invasion of cervical cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):11789-11798 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Wnt-11 is a positive regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, which plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis. However, Wnt-11 expression in cervical cancer has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Wnt-11 in cervical tumor proliferation and invasion. This study examined 24 normal cervical squamous epithelia, 29 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and 78 cervical cancer samples. The expression of Wnt-11 was investigated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression of the high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) E6 oncoprotein was also investigated by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the expression of Wnt-11, HR-HPV E6, JNK-1, phosphorylated JNK-1(P-JNK1), and β-catenin was examined by western blot analysis following Wnt-11 knockdown or overexpression in HeLa or SiHa cells, respectively. The promotion of cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion was investigated using the cell counting kit-8 and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively. Wnt-11 and HR-HPV E6 expression increased in a manner that corresponded with the progression of cervical cancer and was significantly correlated with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics cancer stage, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and HPV infection. Wnt-11 protein expression was positively associated with HR-HPV E6 protein expression in all 78 cervical cancer samples (P < 0.001). Furthermore, Wnt-11 was positively associated with P-JNK1 expression and promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion. These observations suggest that the increased Wnt-11 expression observed in cervical cancer cells may lead to the phosphorylation and activation of JNK-1 and significantly promote tumor cell proliferation and cell migration/invasion through activation of the Wnt/JNK pathway. Consequently, Wnt-11 may serve as a novel target for cervical cancer therapy.
Xu L, Yan Y, Xue X, et al.Angiogenin elevates the invasive potential of squamous cell lung carcinoma cells through epithelial‑mesenchymal transition.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2836-2842 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung is one of the most aggressive cancers, and its aggressiveness is in part due to its intrinsic high rate of metastasis. Moreover, the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) appears to be involved in these neoplastic processes. Furthermore, EMT-type cells share many biological characteristics with the function of angiogenin (ANG) in squamous cell lung carcinoma. We conducted immunohistochemical analysis to detect the expression of ANG, E-cadherin, vimentin, N-cadherin, β-catenin and TGF-β1 in 60 cases of squamous cell lung carcinoma tissues. Western blot analysis was adopted to detect the protein expression levels of ANG and EMT markers. The effects of ANG on proliferation, migration and invasion of squamous cell lung carcinoma cells was analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8, scratch assay and Transwell invasion chamber in order to reveal the role of ANG in the process of EMT in squamous cell lung carcinoma. The results revealed that ANG was aberrantly expressed in the squamous cell lung carcinoma specimens and was closely correlated with the differentiation of the cell lines. The expression of ANG was also significantly associated with metastasis and the stage of the squamous cell lung carcinoma cases. In addition, we validated that ANG influenced the expression of vimentin, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, β-catenin and TGF-β1 in SK-MES-1 cells. Most importantly, overexpression of ANG enhanced the migration and invasion of SK-MES-1 cells, while knockdown resulted in opposite effects. In the present study, we found that ANG plays an important role in EMT in squamous cell lung carcinoma and may be a valuable therapeutic target for squamous cell lung carcinoma.
Zhao H, Xue J, Liu J, et al.Effect of metastasis suppressor 1 on H1299 cells and its clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2814-2822 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1) on the proliferation, migration and invasion of human H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cells and its clinical significance in non‑small cell lung cancer. The target gene MTSS1-overexpressing lentivirus (LV-MTSS1) was transfected into H1299 cells and expression of MTSS1 was detected at the mRNA and protein levels. Cell Counting Kit-8, wound healing and Transwell assays revealed that the migration and invasion activities were significantly suppressed by MTSS1, but that it had no effect on cell proliferation. In addition, MTSS1 expression in tissue microarrays including samples from 223 cases of non-small cell lung cancer was tested by immunohistochemistry to explore the correlation between MTSS1 and clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis. MTSS1 suppressed H1299 cell migration and invasion, and its expression level can be used as a new independent factor for determining the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.
Gu ML, Wang YM, Zhou XX, et al.An inhibitor of the acetyltransferases CBP/p300 exerts antineoplastic effects on gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2763-2770 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm featured by activated mutations of KIT and PDGFRA. Although overall survival rates have greatly improved by the development of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, most patients ultimately acquire resistance due to secondary mutations of KIT or PDGFRA. Inhibition of the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) CREB‑binding protein (CBP) and p300 results in antineoplastic effects in various cancers. To determine whether CBP/p300 can serve as an antineoplastic target for GISTs, specific short interfering RNA sequences and the selective HAT inhibitor C646 were administered to GIST882 cells. Cell viability, apoptosis and the cell cycle were analysed using the Cell Counting Kit-8, a caspase-3/7 activity assay or Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) staining and PI staining. Gene and protein expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Transcriptional blockage of CBP, rather than p300, resulted in suppression of cell proliferation. Interestingly, both CBP and p300 depletion enhanced caspase-3/7 activity. A lack of CBP and p300 caused ETS translocation variant 1 (ETV1) downregulation and KIT inhibition in GIST cells. Nevertheless, the absence of CBP, not p300, leads to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 inactivation and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation, suggesting a more crucial role for CBP than p300 in cell proliferation and survival. Furthermore, proliferation of GIST cells was reduced by administration of C646, a selective HAT inhibitor for CBP/p300. Apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest were detected after exposure to C646, indicating that its antitumor activities were supported by its antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. Additionally, C646 treatment attenuated ETV1 protein expression and inactivated KIT-dependent pathways. Taken together, the present study suggests that CBP/p300 may serve as novel antineoplastic targets and that use of the selective HAT inhibitor C646 is a promising antitumor strategy for GISTs.
Zhu H, Qin H, Li DM, et al.Effect of PPM1H on malignant phenotype of human pancreatic cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2926-2934 [PubMed
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silencing gene protein phosphatase 1H (PPM1H) on malignant phenotype of human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3. In order to explore the function of PPM1H in pancreatic cancer cells, real-time PCR and western blotting were used to detect the expression of PPM1H in different pancreatic cancer cell lines. Human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 was treated with 10 ng/ml TGF-β1 and 200 ng/ml BMP2 for 72 h, respectively, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of PPM1H and EMT-related markers (E-cadherin, vimentin) were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Using exogenous RNA interference technology to silence the PPM1H gene, the expression of PPM1H and EMT-related markers at mRNA and protein levels were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting. The cell migration and invasion were measured using Transwell assays. Finally, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry were used to determine the effect of PPM1H on cell proliferation and apoptosis of BxPC-3 cells. The expression levels of PPM1H in all of the examined pancreatic cancer cell lines (BxPC-3, MIA-PACA2, PANC-1, SW1990, PANC-03.27) were lower than that of normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (HPDE6-C7) at both mRNA and protein levels. Both TGF-β1 and BMP2 treatment induced EMT and downregulation of PPM1H in BxPC-3 cells. By using RNA interference to transiently knock down PPM1H expression in BxPC-3 cells, we found that the expression of E-cadherin was downregulated while vimentin was up-regulated. The data suggested that silencing PPM1H gene can induce EMT in BxPC-3 cells. In addition, Transwell migration assays showed that silencing PPM1H gene can promote the invasion and metastasis of BxPC-3 cells. Cell proliferation and apotosis detection demonstrated that silencing PPM1H gene can promote the proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of BxPC-3 cells. In conclusion, PPM1H is aberrantly expressed in human pancreatic cancer cell lines and can be downregulated when EMT is induced by cytokine stimulation. Silencing PPM1H gene can induce EMT in BxPC-3 cells, and promote the invasion and metastasis of BxPC-3 cells. Moreover, silencing PPM1H gene can promote the proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of BxPC-3 cells. PPM1H may be a new tumor-suppressor factor for pancreatic cancer and provides new insight into molecular targets for gene therapy of pancreatic cancer.
Li L, Gao M, Song B, et al.Effects of RECQ1 helicase silencing on non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 83:1227-1232 [PubMed
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RECQ1, the most abundant one of the human RecQ helicases family, has been identified as a prometastasis gene in breast and cervical cancers. However, the effects of RECQ1 on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, RECQ1 expression (in three NSCLC cell lines and one bronchial epithelial cell line) was detected by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Expression of RECQ1 in A549 cells was knocked down by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference technique (RNAi). The effects of RECQ1 knockdown on cell proliferation, migration and invasion were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and transwell assays. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated proteins (E-cadherin, N-cadherin as well as vimentin) were detected by RT-qPCR and western blotting analyses. We found that RECQ1 expression was significantly higher in three NSCLC cell lines than that in a normal human bronchial epithelial cell line. Knocking down RECQ1 significantly suppressed A549 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The expressions of the epithelial marker, E-cadherin were elevated in both mRNA and protein levels, whereas the expressions of the mesenchymal markers, N-cadherin and vimentin were decreased. Taken together, our findings suggest that RECQ1 may act as an important mediator in promoting lung cancer progression via modulation of the EMT. RECQ1 might represent a potential therapeutic target in NSCLC.
Huang L, Wang SA, Konoplev S, et al.Well-differentiated systemic mastocytosis showed excellent clinical response to imatinib in the absence of known molecular genetic abnormalities: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(41):e4934 [PubMed
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INTRODUCTION: Well-differentiated systemic mastocytosis (WDSM) is a rare, recently recognized provisional subvariant of systemic mastocytosis (SM). We report a case of WDSM that showed excellent clinical and cutaneous response to imatinib in the absence of known molecular genetic abnormalities.
CLINICAL FINDINGS/DIAGNOSES: We present a 24-year-old woman with childhood onset of skin manifestations that progressed to mediator-related systemic events, and a gastrointestinal tract mastocytoma. A subsequent bone marrow examination showed WDSM. Treatment with imatinib resulted in complete resolution of cutaneous lesions and systemic symptoms, which relapsed with the discontinuation of the drug. Targeted next-generation sequencing-based mutation analysis did not demonstrate any mutations in the coding regions of KIT or other genes commonly associated with myeloid neoplasms.
CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of WDSM is challenging in the absence of spindle-shaped mast cells, CD2 or CD25 expression, and KIT D816 mutation. This case illustrated the need for recognizing this unique variant of SM for diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
Freitas VG, Focchi GR, Pereira ER, et al.HPV genotyping and p16 expression in Xingu Indigenous Park, Brazil.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(3) [PubMed
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The association between high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and p16 expression in indigenous women from the Xingu Indigenous Park, Brazil, was unknown. This study evaluated p16 expression in women with a histological diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 or higher and correlated this expression with HPV genotypes to determine possible discrepancies in the expression of this marker. We evaluated 37 previously collected samples with different HPV genotypes and high-grade lesions diagnosed based on cytology, histology, and colposcopy. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using paraffin-embedded tissue sections and the CINtec® Histology Kit. p16 protein expression was investigated by immunostaining with an anti-p16 antibody. HPV genotyping was performed by reverse hybridization. The age of the study population ranged from 22-75 years (43.81 ± 15.89 years) and parity ranged from 1-11 (5.92 ± 2.58). Thirteen different HPV genotypes were found using the INNO-LiPA kit. Single and multiple infections by HPV were found with prevalence of single infections (P = 0.029). Comparison between HPV genotype and simple or multiple infections was highly significant; it was observed more HPV 52 followed by HPV 16 in single infections (P < 0.001). p16 expression was predominantly diffuse, which was observed in 91.7% of lesions, whereas 8.3% were focal (P < 0.001). HPV 52, HPV 16 and 31 were the most prevalent HPV types in high-grade CIN in these indigenous women. Diffuse p16 expression in high-grade CIN was not influenced by the viral genotype; however, more studies are necessary to further our understanding of this restricted group.
Gardner JA, Peterson JD, Turner SA, et al.Detection of CALR Mutation in Clonal and Nonclonal Hematologic Diseases Using Fragment Analysis and Next-Generation Sequencing.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2016; 146(4):448-55 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVES: To describe three methods used to screen for frameshift mutations in exon 9 of the CALR gene.
METHODS: Genomic DNA from 47 patients was extracted from peripheral blood and bone marrow using the EZ1 DNA Blood Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) and quantified by the Quant-iT PicoGreen dsDNA Assay Kit (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA). After clinical history, cytogenetics, and molecular tests, patients were diagnosed with either clonal or nonclonal hematologic diseases. CALR screening was primarily performed using fragment analysis polymerase chain reaction, then next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing.
RESULTS: Among the 18 patients diagnosed with clonal diseases, one had acute myeloid leukemia (positive for trisomy 8), and 17 had myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), essential thrombocythemia (ET), primary myelofibrosis (PMF), and polycythemia vera (PV). Patients with CML were positive for the BCR-ABL1 fusion. Ten patients were positive for JAK2 (PMF, n = 1; ET, n = 2; PV, n = 7), and three were CALR positive (ET, n = 1; PMF, n = 2). Patients diagnosed with a nonclonal disease were negative for JAK2, BCR-ABL, and CALR mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: Screening for CALR mutations is essential in BCR-ABL-negative MPNs since it not only provides valuable diagnostic and prognostic information but also identifies potential treatment targets. Since this study describes the importance of screening for known and novel biomarkers, we described in detail three methods that could be easily integrated into a clinical laboratory.
Rodriquenz MG, Rossi S, Ricci R, et al.Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and second malignancies: A novel "sentinel tumor"? A monoinstitutional, STROBE-compliant observational analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(38):e4718 [PubMed
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Several evidences showed that patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) develop additional malignancies. However, thorough incidence of second tumors remains uncertain as the possibility of a common molecular pathogenesis.A retrospective series of 128 patients with histologically proven GIST treated at our institution was evaluated. Molecular analysis of KIT and PDGFR-α genes was performed in all patients. Following the involvement of KRAS mutation in many tumors' pathogenesis, analysis of KRAS was performed in patients with also second neoplasms.Forty-six out of 128 GIST patients (35.9%) had a second neoplasm. Most second tumors (52%) raised from gastrointestinal tract and 19.6% from genitourinary tract. Benign neoplasms were also included (21.7%). Molecular analysis was available for 29/46 patients with a second tumor: wild-type GISTs (n. 5), exon 11 (n. 16), exon 13 (n. 1), exon 9 (n. 1) KIT mutations, exon 14 PDGFR-α mutation (n. 2) and exon 18 PDGFR-α mutation (n. 4). KIT exon 11 mutations were more frequent between patients who developed a second tumor (P = 0.0003). Mutational analysis of KRAS showed a wild-type sequence in all cases. In metachronous cases, the median time interval between GIST and second tumor was 21.5 months.The high frequency of second tumors suggests that an unknown common molecular mechanism might play a role, but it is not likely that KRAS is involved in this common pathogenesis. The short interval between GIST diagnosis and the onset of second neoplasms asks for a careful follow-up, particularly in the first 3 years after diagnosis.
Gupta A, Ahmad MK, Mahndi AA, et al.Promoter Methylation and Relative mRNA Expression of the p16 Gene in Cervical Cancer in North Indians.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(8):4149-54 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Cervical carcinoma is one of the main causes of mortality in women worldwide as well as in India. It occurs as a result of various molecular events that develop from the combined influences of an individual's genetic predisposition and external agents such as smoking and menstrual hygiene, for example. However, infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the established major risk factor. The aim of the current study was to investigate p16 CpG island methylation and establish any correlation with mRNA expression in a north Indian population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 196 woman volunteers out of which 98 were cases and 98 healthy controls. For the analysis of methylation pattern, DNA extracted from blood samples was modified with a bisulfate kit and used as template for methylation specific PCR (MSP). Quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) was performed to check mRNA expression.
RESULTS: Correlation between methylation status of p16 gene and poor menstrual hygiene was significant (p=0.006), high parity cases showed methylation of p16 gene (p=0.031) with increased risk up to 1.86 times for cervical cancer and smoking was a strong risk factor associated with cervical cancer. We analyzed methylation pattern and found 60.3% methylation in cases with low mRNA expression level (0.014) as compared to controls (1.24). It was also observed that promoter methylation of p16 gene was significantly greater in FIGO stage III.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that p16 methylation plays an important role in cervical cancer in the north Indian population and its methylation decreases mRNA expression. It can be used as an important and consistent blood biomarker in cervical cancer patients.
This study investigated the significance of La-related protein 1 (LARP1) in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were carried out to determine the mRNA and protein expression of LARP1 in CRC tumor tissues and paired adjacent normal mucosa. The expression of LARP1 was upregulated in CRC. Immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarray was performed. A positive correlation between LARP1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the area of proliferation was observed using the Spearman's correlation coefficient test (r = 0.332, P < 0.01). The elevated expression of LARP1 significantly correlated with T stage (P = 0.02), N stage (P = 0.006), M stage (P < 0.001), American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage (P = 0.04), differentiation rank (P < 0.001), and PCNA level (P < 0.001). In addition, the inhibitory effect of LARP1 knockdown on CRC cell proliferation was demonstrated using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) and colony-forming cell (CFC) assays. Multivariate analysis showed that LARP1 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS; hazard rate (HR) = 0.244; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.078-0.769; P = 0.016) and disease-free survival (DFS; HR = 0.281; 95 % CI, 0.086-0.917; P = 0.035) in CRC patients. LARP1 plays an important role in the proliferation of colorectal cancer and represents a new prognostic indicator.
Metastasis and recurrence are the challenges of cancer therapy. Recently, mounting evidence has suggested that cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are critical factors in tumor metastasis and recurrence. The oncogene, Bmi-1, promotes the development of hematologic malignancies and many solid tumors. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms through which Bmi-1 promotes the invasion and migration of colon CSCs (CCSCs) using the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Sphere formation medium and magnetic‑activated cell sorting were used to enrich and screen the CCSCs. CD133 and CD44 were regarded as markers of CCSCs and they were found to be co-expressed in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Colony formation assay, cell proliferation assay and viability assay using the Cell Counting Kit-8, and transplantation assay using nude mice injected with CCSCs were used to examine the CCSCs. The CD133+CD44+ HCT116 cells exhibited greater cloning efficiency, an enhanced proliferative ability, increased cell viability and stronger tumorigenicity; these cells were used as the CCSCs for subsequent experiments. In addition, the invasive and migratory abilities of the CD133+CD44+ HCT116 cells were markedly decreased when Bmi-1 was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results of RT-qPCR and western blot analysis suggested that Bmi-1 had a negative effect on E-cadherin expression. On the whole, our findings suggest that Bmi-1 promotes the invasion and migration of CCSCs through the downregulation of E-cadherin, possibly by inducing EMT. Our findings thus indicate that Bmi-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of colon cancer.
Szucs Z, Thway K, Fisher C, et al.Molecular subtypes of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and their prognostic and therapeutic implications.
Future Oncol. 2017; 13(1):93-107 [PubMed
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are composed of various molecular subtypes, with differing prognostic and predictive relevance. Previously, tumors lacking mutations in the KIT and PDGFRA genes have been designated as 'wild-type' GISTs; however, they represent a heterogeneous group currently undergoing further subclassification. Primary and secondary resistance to imatinib poses a significant clinical challenge, therefore ongoing research is trying to evaluate mechanisms to overcome resistance. Thorough understanding of the prognostic and predictive relevance of different genetic subtypes of GIST can guide clinical decision-making both in the adjuvant and the metastatic setting. Further work is required to identify tailored therapies for specific subgroups of GISTs wild-type for KIT and PDGFRA mutations and to identify predictive factors of resistance to currently approved systemic therapies.