Research IndicatorsGraph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: MAD2L1 (cancer-related)
Introduction. Lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is the most frequent type of lung cancer and has a high metastatic rate at an early stage. This study is aimed at identifying LAC-associated genes. Materials and Methods. GSE62950 downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus included a DNA methylation dataset and an mRNA expression profiles dataset, both of which included 28 LAC tissue samples and 28 adjacent normal tissue samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by Limma package in R, and their functions were predicted by enrichment analysis using TargetMine online tool. Then, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using STRING and Cytoscape. Finally, LAC-associated methylation sites were identified by CpGassoc package in R and mapped to the DEGs to obtain LAC-associated DEGs. Results. Total 913 DEGs were identified in LAC tissues. In the PPI networks, MAD2L1, AURKB, CCNB2, CDC20, and WNT3A had higher degrees, and the first four genes might be involved in LAC through interaction. Total 8856 LAC-associated methylation sites were identified and mapped to the DEGs. And there were 29 LAC-associated methylation sites located in 27 DEGs (e.g., SH3GL2, BAI3, CDH13, JAM2, MT1A, LHX6, and IGFBP3). Conclusions. These key genes might play a role in pathogenesis of LAC.
Wang XG, Peng Y, Song XL, Lan JPIdentification potential biomarkers and therapeutic agents in multiple myeloma based on bioinformatics analysis.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016; 20(5):810-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify potential therapeutic biomarkers and agents in multiple myeloma (MM) based on bioinformatics analysis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The microarray data of GSE36474 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 4 MM and 3 normal bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) samples were used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The hierarchical clustering analysis and functional enrichment analysis of DEGs were performed. Furthermore, co-expression network was constructed by Cytoscape software. The potential small molecular agents were identified with Connectivity Map (cMap) database.
RESULTS: A total of 573 DEGs were identified in MM samples comparing with normal samples, including 322 down- and 251 up-regulated genes. The DEGs were separated into two clusters. Down-regulated genes were mainly enriched in cell cycle function, while up-regulated genes were related to immune response. Down-regulated genes such as checkpoint kinase 1 (CHEK1), MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (MAD2L1) and DBF4 zinc finger (DBF4) were identified in cell cycle-related co-expression network. Up-regulated gene of guanylate binding protein 1, interferon-inducible (GBP1) was a hub node in immune response-related co-expression network. Additionally, the small molecular agent vinblastine was identified in this study.
CONCLUSIONS: The genes such as CHEK1, MAD2L1, DBF4 and GBP1 may be potential therapeutic biomarkers in MM. Vinblastine may be a potential therapeutic agent in MM.
Mongan AM, Lynam-Lennon N, Casey R, et al.Visceral obesity stimulates anaphase bridge formation and spindle assembly checkpoint dysregulation in radioresistant oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2016; 18(6):632-40 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Oesophageal adenocarcinoma is an exemplar model of obesity-associated cancer. Locally advanced disease is treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and survival rates are highest in patients demonstrating a pathological response following neoadjuvant therapy. Given that 55 % of oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients are obese, uncovering the effect of adipose tissue on radioresponse is clinically relevant. This study investigates if adipose tissue activates genomic instability events in radioresponsive (OE33P) and radioresistant (OE33R) oesophageal cancer cell lines and tumour samples.
METHODS: OE33R and OE33P were cultured with adipose-conditioned media derived from oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients (n = 10). Anaphase bridges, a marker of genomic instability, were enumerated in both cell lines following treatment with adipose media, and normalised to cell number. Genomic instability is regulated by the spindle assembly complex. Expression of two spindle assembly complex genes (MAD2L2, BUB1B) was assessed using qPCR, and validated in patient tumour specimens from viscerally obese (n = 46) and nonobese patients (n = 41).
RESULTS: Adipose-conditioned media increased anaphase bridging in OE33R (p < 0.0001), with a threefold increase in OE33R compared to OE33P (p < 0.01). Levels of anaphase bridges in OE33R cells correlated with visceral obesity status as measured by waist circumference (R = 0.709, p = 0.03) and visceral fat area (R = 0.794, p = 0.006). Adipose tissue altered expression of MAD2L2 in vitro. In vivo, MAD2L2 expression was higher in viscerally obese oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients compared with nonobese patients (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Anaphase bridge levels are influenced by obesity and radiosensitivity status in oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, visceral adipose-conditioned media stimulates dysregulation of the spindle assembly complex in oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients.
Okina S, Yanagisawa N, Yokoyama M, et al.High expression of REV7 is an independent prognostic indicator in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab.
Int J Hematol. 2015; 102(6):662-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
REV7 is a multifunctional protein involved in DNA damage tolerance, cell-cycle regulation, gene expression, and carcinogenesis. Although its expression is reportedly associated with poor prognosis in human solid tissue cancers, the significance of REV7 expression in hematopoietic malignancies is unclear. This study evaluated the prognostic significance of REV7 expression in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with rituximab-combined chemotherapy. Using immunohistochemistry, we analyzed 83 specimens of de novo DLBCL [38 germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and 45 non-GCB DLBCLs] treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone for REV7 expression. Aberrant REV7 expression was detected in DLBCL cell nuclei. High REV7 expression was associated with significantly shorter overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) using Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank tests (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that REV7 expression is an independent prognostic factor for both OS and PFS. Additionally, when patients were divided into four groups using a combination of REV7 expression and international prognostic index (IPI) or Bcl-2 expression, REV7(High)/IPI(Poor) and REV7(High)/Bcl-2(High) patients showed the poorest outcome. These results indicate that REV7 may be a useful biomarker to predict the prognosis of patients with DLBCL treated with rituximab.
Zhou W, Yin M, Cui H, et al.Identification of potential therapeutic target genes and mechanisms in non-small-cell lung carcinoma in non-smoking women based on bioinformatics analysis.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 19(18):3375-84 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms and identify the potential target genes by bioinformatics analysis for non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) treatment in non-smoking women.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The microarray data of GSE19804 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Paired samples (from the same patient) of tumor and normal lung tissues from 60 non-smoking female NSCLC patients were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The functional enrichment analysis was performed. Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the DEGs was constructed by Cytoscape software. The module analysis was performed.
RESULTS: Totally, 817 DEGs including 273 up- and 544 down-regulated genes were identified. The up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, focal adhesion and cell cycle functions, while down-regulated genes were mainly enriched in the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway. DEGs including hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR), collagen, type I alpha 2 (COL1A2), cyclin A2 (CCNA2), MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (MAD2L1), interleukin 6 (IL6) and interleukin 1, beta (IL1B) were identified in these functions. These genes were hub nodes in PPI networks. Besides, there were 3 up-regulated modules and 1 down-regulated module. The significant pathways were ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion in up-regulated modules, while in down-regulated module, the significant pathway was mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: The ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, cell cycle and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction functions may be associated with NSCLC development. Genes such as HMMR, COL1A2, CCNA2, MAD2L1, IL6 and IL1B may be potential therapeutic target genes for NSCLC.
To investigate the biologic relevance and clinical implication of genes involved in multiple gene expression signatures for breast cancer prognosis, we identified 16 published gene expression signatures, and selected two genes, MAD2L1 and BUB1. These genes appeared in 5 signatures and were involved in cell-cycle regulation. We analyzed the expression of these genes in relation to tumor features and disease outcomes. In vitro experiments were also performed in two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, to assess cell proliferation, migration and invasion after knocking down the expression of these genes. High expression of these genes was found to be associated with aggressive tumors and poor disease-free survival of 203 breast cancer patients in our study, and the association with survival was confirmed in an online database consisting of 914 patients. In vitro experiments demonstrated that lowering the expression of these genes by siRNAs reduced tumor cell growth and inhibited cell migration and invasion. Our investigation suggests that MAD2L1 and BUB1 may play important roles in breast cancer progression, and measuring the expression of these genes may assist the prediction of breast cancer prognosis.
Gentles AJ, Bratman SV, Lee LJ, et al.Integrating Tumor and Stromal Gene Expression Signatures With Clinical Indices for Survival Stratification of Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(10) [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Accurate survival stratification in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) could inform the use of adjuvant therapy. We developed a clinically implementable mortality risk score incorporating distinct tumor microenvironmental gene expression signatures and clinical variables.
METHODS: Gene expression profiles from 1106 nonsquamous NSCLCs were used for generation and internal validation of a nine-gene molecular prognostic index (MPI). A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed and validated on an independent cohort of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues (n = 98). A prognostic score using clinical variables was generated using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data and combined with the MPI. All statistical tests for survival were two-sided.
RESULTS: The MPI stratified stage I patients into prognostic categories in three microarray and one FFPE qPCR validation cohorts (HR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.55 to 5.76, P < .001 in stage IA patients of the largest microarray validation cohort; HR = 3.95, 95% CI = 1.24 to 12.64, P = .01 in stage IA of the qPCR cohort). Prognostic genes were expressed in distinct tumor cell subpopulations, and genes implicated in proliferation and stem cells portended poor outcomes, while genes involved in normal lung differentiation and immune infiltration were associated with superior survival. Integrating the MPI with clinical variables conferred greatest prognostic power (HR = 3.43, 95% CI = 2.18 to 5.39, P < .001 in stage I patients of the largest microarray cohort; HR = 3.99, 95% CI = 1.67 to 9.56, P < .001 in stage I patients of the qPCR cohort). Finally, the MPI was prognostic irrespective of somatic alterations in EGFR, KRAS, TP53, and ALK.
CONCLUSION: The MPI incorporates genes expressed in the tumor and its microenvironment and can be implemented clinically using qPCR assays on FFPE tissues. A composite model integrating the MPI with clinical variables provides the most accurate risk stratification.
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) has been established as an important mechanism of driving aneuploidy, which occurs at a high frequency in the colorectal tumorigenesis. Two important components of SAC are MAD1L1 and MAD2L1, which function together in an interactive manner to initiate the checkpoint signal. We hypothesize that genetic variants in the binding domains of MAD1L1 and MAD2L1 may modulate protein structures and eventually contribute to CRC susceptibility. A case-control study including 710 CRC cases and 735 controls was performed to examine MAD1L1 Arg558His and MAD2L1 Leu84Met's conferring susceptibility to CRC. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assays were applied to assess the effect of two functional variants on chromosomal instability (CIN). Significant associations with CRC risk were observed for MAD1L1 Arg558His (OR = 1.38,95% CI: 1.09-1.75) and MAD2L1 Leu84Met in a dominant model (OR = 1.48,95% CI: 1.09-2.01). Moreover, significant multiplicative gene-smoking interactions were found in MAD1L1 Arg558His (P = 0.019) and MAD2L184 Leu/Met (P = 0.016) to enhance CRC risk. Additionally, the frequencies of lymphocytic micro-nucleated binucleated cells for MAD1L1 Arg558His polymorphism were significantly different in the exposed group (P = 0.013), but not in the control group. The study emphasized that MAD1L1 Arg558His and MAD2L1 Leu84Met can significantly interact with smoking to enhance CRC risk, and the genetic effects of MAD1L1Arg558His on CIN need to be further clarified in follow-up studies.
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of primary bone malignancy and has a poor prognosis. To investigate the mechanisms of osteosarcoma, the present analyzed the GSE28424 microarray. GSE28424 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and included a collective of 19 OS cell lines and four normal bone cell lines, which were used as controls. Subsequently, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using the Limma package in Bioconductor. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, interactions between the proteins encoded by the DEGs were identified using STRING, and the protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network was visualized using Cytoscape. In addition, modular analysis of the PPI network was performed using the Clique Percolation Method (CPM) in CFinder. A total of 1,170 DEGs were screened, including 530 upreguated and 640 downregulated genes. The enriched functions included organelle fission, immune response and response to wounding. In addition, RPL8 was observed to be involved with the ribosomal pathway in module A of the PPI network of the DEGs. PLCG1, SYK and PLCG2 were also involved in the B‑cell receptor signaling pathway in module B and the Fc‑epsilon RI signaling pathway in module C. In addition, AURKA (degree=39), MAD2L1 (degree=38), CDCA8 (degree=38), BUB1 (degree=37) and MELK (degree=37) exhibited higher degrees of connectivity in module F. The results of the present study suggested that the RPL8, PLCG1, PLCG2, SYK, MAD2L1, AURKA, CDCA8, BUB1 and MELK genes may be involved in OS.
The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is an essential control system of the cell cycle that contributes to mantain the genomic stability of eukaryotic cells. SAC genes expression is often deregulated in cancer cells, leading to checkpoint impairment and chromosome instability. The mechanisms responsible for the transcriptional regulation and deregulation of these genes are still largely unknown. Herein we identify the nonhistone architectural nuclear proteins High Mobility Group A1 (HMGA1), whose overexpression is a feature of several human malignancies and has a key role in cancer progression, as transcriptional regulators of SAC genes expression. In particular, we show that HMGA1 proteins are able to increase the expression of the SAC genes Ttk, Mad2l1, Bub1 and Bub1b, binding to their promoter regions. Consistently, HMGA1-depletion induces SAC genes downregulation associated to several mitotic defects. In particular, we observed a high number of unaligned chromosomes in metaphase, a reduction of prometaphase time, a delay of anaphase, a higher cytokinesis time and a higher percentage of cytokinesis failure by using live-cell microscopy. Finally, a significant direct correlation between HMGA1 and SAC genes expression was detected in human colon carcinomas indicating a novel mechanism by which HMGA1 contributes to cancer progression.
The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E2 protein, which inhibits the E6 and E7 viral oncogenes, is believed to have anti-oncogenic properties. Here, we challenge this view and show that HPV-18 E2 over-activates the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) and induces DNA breaks in mitosis followed by aneuploidy. This phenotype is associated with interaction of E2 with the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex (MCC) proteins Cdc20, MAD2 and BUBR1. While BUBR1 silencing rescues the mitotic phenotype induced by E2, p53 silencing or presence of E6/E7 (inactivating p53 and increasing BUBR1 levels respectively) both amplify it. This work pinpoints E2 as a key protein in the initiation of HPV-induced cervical cancer and identifies the SAC as a target for oncogenic pathogens. Moreover, our results suggest a role of p53 in regulating the mitotic process itself and highlight SAC over-activation in a p53-negative context as a highly pathogenic event.
Teixeira JH, Silva P, Faria J, et al.Clinicopathologic significance of BubR1 and Mad2 overexpression in oral cancer.
Oral Dis. 2015; 21(6):713-20 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: BubR1 and Mad2 are central components of the mitotic checkpoint complex that inhibits anaphase onset until all chromosomes are correctly aligned at the metaphase plate. We propose to analyse the combined expression of BubR1 and Mad2 and assess its significance to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) diagnosis and prognosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: BubR1 and Mad2 expression was assessed by real-time PCR in OSCC cell lines and in normal human oral keratinocytes, and by immunohistochemistry in 65 patients with OSCC. The results were compared regarding clinicopathological parameters, proliferative activity and survival.
RESULTS: BubR1 and Mad2 transcripts were overexpressed in OSCC cell lines which also exhibited attenuated spindle assembly checkpoint activity. BubR1 and Mad2 were also overexpressed in patients with OSCC. BubR1 expression was associated with advanced stages and larger tumour size in univariate analysis, and with shorter overall survival both in univariate and multivariate analysis. Mad2 overexpression was associated with that of BubR1 and, importantly, high expression of Mad2 and BubR1 was associated with increased cellular proliferation.
CONCLUSION: Our data propose a role for BubR1 and Mad2 in OSCC cellular proliferation, progression and prognosis.
Jin B, Wang W, Du G, et al.Identifying hub genes and dysregulated pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 19(4):592-601 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the hub genes and dysregulated pathways of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and explore the molecular mechanism of the biological process associated with HCC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microarray data were got from NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The most significant top 100 up-regulated gene signatures and top 100 down-regulated gene signatures were identified by integrated analysis of the multiple microarray datasets using a novel model genome-wide relative significance (GWRS) and genome-wide global significance (GWGS). Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and pathway analysis of those genes were performed based on Gene Ontology website and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using Cytoscape 2.1. In addition, we analysed the significantly dysregulated signaling pathways across the PPI network and KEGG pathway analysis.
RESULTS: We screened 2920 up-regulated and 2231 down-regulated gene signatures across multiple studies by GWRS and GWGS. The top 100 up-regulated and top 100 down-regulated gene signatures were selected for further research. GO enrichment analysis showed that these genes significantly enriched in terms of mitosis (p = 5.83×10-20), nuclear division (p = 5.83×10-20) and M phase of mitotic cell cycle (p = 9.39×10-20). The most significant terms of KEGG pathway included cell cycle (p = 1.33×10-8), oocyte meiosis (p = 1.41×10-4), drug metabolism (p = 2.15×10-4) and p53 signaling pathway (p = 3.57×10-4). PPI network suggested that BIRC5, CDC20, CCNB1, BUB1B, MAD2L1 and CDK1 were important significant genes which were considered as hub genes. Across the PPI and pathway, cell cycle, oocyte meiosis and p53 signaling pathway were the significantly dysregulated pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study displayed robust gene signatures in HCC. It showed that the dysregulations of cell cycle, oocyte meiosis, p53 signaling pathway and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway were closely associated to the development and progression of HCC. Besides, genes BIRC5, CDC20, CCNB1, BUB1B, MAD2L1 and CDK1 as the hub genes might play important roles for diagnosing and therapy of HCC.
Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN) are common features of gastric cancer (GC), but their contribution to carcinogenesis and antitumour therapy response is still poorly understood. Failures in the mitotic checkpoint induced by changes in expression levels of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) proteins cause the missegregation of chromosomes in mitosis as well as aneuploidy. To evaluate the possible contribution of SAC to GC, we analyzed the expression levels of proteins of the mitotic checkpoint complex in a cohort of GC cell lines. We found that the central SAC proteins, Mad2 and BubR1, were the more prominently expressed members in disseminated GC cell lines. Silencing of Mad2 and BubR1 in MKN45 and ST2957 cells decreased their cell proliferation, migration and invasion abilities, indicating that Mad2 and BubR1 could contribute to cellular transformation and tumor progression in GC. We next evaluated whether silencing of SAC proteins could affect the response to microtubule poisons. We discovered that paclitaxel treatment increased cell survival in MKN45 cells interfered for Mad2 or BubR1 expression. However, apoptosis (assessed by caspase-3 activation, PARP proteolysis and levels of antiapoptotic Bcl 2-family members), the DNA damage response (assessed by H2Ax phosphorylation) and exit from mitosis (assessed by Cyclin B degradation and Cdk1 regulation) were activated equally between cells, independently of Mad2 or BubR1-protein levels. In contrast, we observed that the silencing of Mad2 or BubR1 in MKN45 cells showed the induction of a senescence-like phenotype accompanied by cell enlargement, increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and increased IL-6 and IL-8 expression. In addition, the senescent phenotype is highly increased after treatment with PTX, indicating that senescence could prevent tumorigenesis in GC. In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that Mad2 and BubR1 could be used as prognostic markers of tumor progression and new pharmacological targets in the treatment for GC.
Exit from mitosis is controlled by silencing of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). It is important that preceding exit, all sister chromatid pairs are correctly bioriented, and that residual catenation is resolved, permitting complete sister chromatid separation in the ensuing anaphase. Here we determine that the metaphase response to catenation in mammalian cells operates through PKCε. The PKCε-controlled pathway regulates exit from the SAC only when mitotic cells are challenged by retained catenation and this delayed exit is characterized by BubR1-high and Mad2-low kinetochores. In addition, we show that this pathway is necessary to facilitate resolution of retained catenanes in mitosis. When delayed by catenation in mitosis, inhibition of PKCε results in premature entry into anaphase with PICH-positive strands and chromosome bridging. These findings demonstrate the importance of PKCε-mediated regulation in protection from loss of chromosome integrity in cells failing to resolve catenation in G2.
FAT10 (HLA-F-adjacent transcript 10) is a ubiquitin-like modifier that is commonly overexpressed in various tumors. It was found to play a role in mitotic regulation through its interaction with mitotic arrest-deficient 2 (MAD2). Overexpression of FAT10 promotes tumor growth and malignancy. Here, we identified the MAD2-binding interface of FAT10 to be located on its first ubiquitin-like domain whose NMR structure thus was determined. We further proceeded to demonstrate that disruption of the FAT10-MAD2 interaction through mutation of specific MAD2-binding residues did not interfere with the interaction of FAT10 with its other known interacting partners. Significantly, ablation of the FAT10-MAD2 interaction dramatically limited the promalignant capacity of FAT10, including promoting tumor growth in vivo and inducing aneuploidy, proliferation, migration, invasion, and resistance to apoptosis in vitro. Our results strongly suggest that the interaction of FAT10 with MAD2 is a key mechanism underlying the promalignant property of FAT10 and offer prospects for the development of anticancer strategies.
Avram S, Milac A, Mernea M, et al.Structure-biological function relationship extended to mitotic arrest-deficient 2-like protein Mad2 native and mutants-new opportunity for genetic disorder control.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(11):21381-400 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of mitotic arrest-deficient proteins Mad1 and Mad2, two components of spindle assembly checkpoint, is a risk factor for chromosomal instability (CIN) and a trigger of many genetic disorders. Mad2 transition from inactive open (O-Mad2) to active closed (C-Mad2) conformations or Mad2 binding to specific partners (cell-division cycle protein 20 (Cdc20) or Mad1) were targets of previous pharmacogenomics studies. Here, Mad2 binding to Cdc20 and the interconversion rate from open to closed Mad2 were predicted and the molecular features with a critical contribution to these processes were determined by extending the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method to large-size proteins such as Mad2. QSAR models were built based on available published data on 23 Mad2 mutants inducing CIN-related functional changes. The most relevant descriptors identified for predicting Mad2 native and mutants action mechanism and their involvement in genetic disorders are the steric (van der Waals area and solvent accessible area and their subdivided) and energetic van der Waals energy descriptors. The reliability of our QSAR models is indicated by significant values of statistical coefficients: Cross-validated correlation q2 (0.53-0.65) and fitted correlation r2 (0.82-0.90). Moreover, based on established QSAR equations, we rationally design and analyze nine de novo Mad2 mutants as possible promoters of CIN.
Ali I, Braun DPResveratrol enhances mitomycin C-mediated suppression of human colorectal cancer cell proliferation by up-regulation of p21WAF1/CIP1.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(10):5439-46 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Studies have shown that natural products could potentially be employed in combination therapies to decrease toxicity to healthy tissues by chemotherapy drugs. No studies however, have investigated the potential modulatory role of resveratrol (RV) on mitomycin C (MMC)-mediated effects on colorectal cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of RV on MMC-mediated inhibition of colorectal cancer cell proliferation and to assess the potential mechanisms for such effects.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary cell lines generated from resected colorectal tumor specimens were treated with RV, MMC or RV+MMC and cell proliferation and gene expression analyses were performed.
RESULTS: Suppression of cell proliferation by RV+MMC was significantly greater than individual treatments. RV+MMC synergistically modulated several genes but the up-regulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) was several-fold greater.
CONCLUSION: The up-regulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1), which inhibits the cell cycle at G0/G1 and G2/M phases, may represent the predominant mechanism for enhancement of MMC-mediated anti-cancer effects by resveratrol.
Nascimento AV, Singh A, Bousbaa H, et al.Mad2 checkpoint gene silencing using epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted chitosan nanoparticles in non-small cell lung cancer model.
Mol Pharm. 2014; 11(10):3515-27 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RNA interference has emerged as a powerful strategy in cancer therapy because it allows silencing of specific genes associated with tumor progression and resistance. Mad2 is an essential mitotic checkpoint component required for accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis, and its complete abolition leads to cell death. We have developed an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted chitosan system for silencing the Mad2 gene as a strategy to efficiently induce cell death in EGFR overexpressing human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. Control and EGFR-targeted chitosan nanoparticles loaded with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against Mad2 were formulated and characterized for size, charge, morphology, and encapsulation efficiency. Qualitative and quantitative intracellular uptake studies by confocal imaging and flow cytometry, respectively, showed time-dependent enhanced and selective intracellular internalization of EGFR-targeted nanoparticles compared to nontargeted system. Targeted nanoparticles showed nearly complete depletion of Mad2 expression in A549 cells contrasting with the partial depletion in the nontargeted system. Accordingly, Mad2-silencing-induced apoptotic cell death was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay and flow cytometry. Our results demonstrate that EGFR-targeted chitosan loaded with Mad2 siRNAs is a potent delivery system for selective killing of cancer cells.
AIM: To investigate the role of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) in the regulation of genes involved in cell cycle progression and the clinicopathological significance of its expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
METHODS: An immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 68 primary tumor samples obtained from ESCC patients that underwent esophagectomy. NKCC1 expression in human ESCC cell lines was analyzed by Western blotting. Knockdown experiments were conducted using NKCC1 small interfering RNA, and the effects on cell cycle progression were analyzed. The gene expression profiles of cells were analyzed by microarray analysis.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining showed that NKCC1 was primarily found in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells and that its expression was related to the histological degree of differentiation of SCC. NKCC1 was highly expressed in KYSE170 cells. Depletion of NKCC1 in these cells inhibited cell proliferation via G2/M phase arrest. Microarray analysis identified 2527 genes with altered expression levels in NKCC1depleted KYSE170. Pathway analysis showed that the top-ranked canonical pathway was the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation pathway, which involves MAD2L1, DTL, BLM, CDC20, BRCA1, and E2F5.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the expression of NKCC1 in ESCC may affect the G2/M checkpoint and may be related to the degree of histological differentiation of SCCs. We have provided a deeper understanding of the role of NKCC1 as a mediator and/or a biomarker in ESCC.
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), which originates from germinal center (GC) B cells and harbors translocations deregulating v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC). A comparative analysis of microRNAs expressed in normal and malignant GC B cells identified microRNA 28 (miR-28) as significantly down-regulated in BL, as well as in other GC-derived B-NHL. We show that reexpression of miR-28 impairs cell proliferation and clonogenic properties of BL cells by modulating several targets including MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1, MAD2L1, a component of the spindle checkpoint whose down-regulation is essential in mediating miR-28-induced proliferation arrest, and BCL2-associated athanogene, BAG1, an activator of the ERK pathway. We identify the oncogene MYC as a negative regulator of miR-28 expression, suggesting that its deregulation by chromosomal translocation in BL leads to miR-28 suppression. In addition, we show that miR-28 can inhibit MYC-induced transformation by directly targeting genes up-regulated by MYC. Overall, our data suggest that miR-28 acts as a tumor suppressor in BL and that its repression by MYC contributes to B-cell lymphomagenesis.
Wang P, Wang Y, Yan H, et al.Genetic variation in the major mitotic checkpoint genes and risk of breast cancer: a multigenic study on cancer susceptibility.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):6701-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The mitotic checkpoint system is a mechanism essential for maintaining genomic stability and defects which have been linked to cancer development. We conducted this hospital-based case-control study to investigate whether genetic variants in three major spindle checkpoint genes (BUB3, MAD2L1, and BUB1) had any bearing on an individual risk of breast cancer (BC). A total of 462 incident BC patients and 529 cancer-free controls were enrolled in this study. Results showed that neither variants in BUB3 nor variants in MAD2L1 caused any significant effect on the risk of BC. However, the variant rs12623473 in BUB1 was significantly associated with increased BC risk with the odds ratio (OR) of 1.30 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.64) under the allelic model. The estimated population attributable risk of one copy of the risk allele for developing BC was 10.3 %. The bioinformatics analysis suggested that this variant may regulate the transcriptional ability of BUB1.
Suraokar MB, Nunez MI, Diao L, et al.Expression profiling stratifies mesothelioma tumors and signifies deregulation of spindle checkpoint pathway and microtubule network with therapeutic implications.
Ann Oncol. 2014; 25(6):1184-92 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a lethal neoplasm exhibiting resistance to most treatment regimens and requires effective therapeutic options. Though an effective strategy in many cancer, targeted therapy is relatively unexplored in MPM because the therapeutically important oncogenic pathways and networks in MPM are largely unknown.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out gene expression microarray profiling of 53 surgically resected MPMs tumors along with paired normal tissue. We also carried out whole transcriptomic sequence (RNA-seq) analysis on eight tumor specimens. Taqman-based quantitative Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (MAD2L1) was carried out on tissue specimens. Cell viability assays of MPM cell lines were carried out to assess sensitivity to specific small molecule inhibitors.
RESULTS: Bioinformatics analysis of the microarray data followed by pathway analysis revealed that the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (MSAC) pathway was most significantly altered in MPM tumors with upregulation of 18 component genes, including MAD2L1 gene. We validated the microarray data for MAD2L1 expression using quantitative qRT-PCR and western blot analysis on tissue lysates. Additionally, we analyzed expression of the MAD2L1 protein by IHC using an independent tissue microarray set of 80 MPM tissue samples. Robust clustering of gene expression data revealed three novel subgroups of tumors, with unique expression profiles, and showed differential expression of MSAC pathway genes. Network analysis of the microarray data showed the cytoskeleton/spindle microtubules network was the second-most significantly affected network. We also demonstrate that a nontaxane small molecule inhibitor, epothilone B, targeting the microtubules have great efficacy in decreasing viability of 14 MPM cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings show that MPM tumors have significant deregulation of the MSAC pathway and the microtubule network, it can be classified into three novel molecular subgroups of potential therapeutic importance and epothilone B is a promising therapeutic agent for MPM.
Human REV7 (also known as MAD2L2 and MAD2B) is involved in DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, gene transcription, and carcinogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the expression of REV7 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and analyzed the association between its expression and chemosensitivity in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) cells. Expression of REV7 in human EOC tissues was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Expression was detected in the majority of EOCs (92.0%) with especially high levels of expression frequently observed in CCCs (73.5%) compared with that of non-CCCs (53.4%). Enhanced immunoreactivity to REV7 was associated with poor prognosis represented by reduced progression-free survival in advanced stage (stage II-IV) EOC as assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. The effects of REV7 knockdown on cell proliferation and chemosensitivity in CCC cells were also analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of REV7 in CCC cells decreased cell proliferation without affecting cell cycle distribution. Additionally, the number of apoptotic cells and DNA damaged cells were increased after cisplatin treatment. In a nude mouse tumor xenograft model, inoculated REV7-knockdown tumors showed significantly reduced tumor volumes after cisplatin treatment compared with those of the control group. These findings indicate that depletion of REV7 enhances sensitivity to cisplatin treatment in CCC, suggesting that REV7 is a candidate molecular target in CCC management.
Hell MP, Thoma CR, Fankhauser N, et al.miR-28-5p promotes chromosomal instability in VHL-associated cancers by inhibiting Mad2 translation.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(9):2432-43 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Chromosomal instability enables tumor development, enabled in part by aberrant expression of the mitotic checkpoint protein Mad2. Here we identify a novel regulatory mechanism for Mad2 expression involving miR-28-5p-mediated inhibition of Mad2 translation, and we demonstrate that this mechanism is triggered by inactivation of the tumor suppressor VHL, the most common event in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). In VHL-positive cancer cells, enhanced expression of miR-28-5p diminished Mad2 levels and promoted checkpoint weakness and chromosomal instability. Conversely, in checkpoint-deficient VHL-negative renal carcinoma cells, inhibition of miR-28-5p function restored Mad2 levels, mitotic checkpoint proficiency, and chromosomal stability. Notably, chromosome missegregation errors and aneuploidy that were produced in a mouse model of acute renal injury (as a result of kidney-specific ablation of pVHL function) were reverted in vivo also by genetic inhibition of miR-28-5p. Finally, bioinformatic analyses in human ccRCC associated loss of VHL with increased miR-28-5p expression and chromosomal instability. Together, our results defined miR-28-5p as a critical regulator of Mad2 translation and mitotic checkpoint function. By identifying a potential mediator of chromosomal instability in VHL-associated cancers, our work also suggests a novel microRNA-based therapeutic strategy to target aneuploid cells in VHL-associated cancers.
The spindle checkpoint is essential to ensure proper chromosome segregation and thereby maintain genomic stability. Mitotic arrest deficiency 2 (Mad2), a critical component of the spindle checkpoint, is overexpressed in many cancer cells. Thus, we hypothesized that Mad2 overexpression could specifically make cancer cells susceptible to death by inducing a synthetic dosage lethality defect. Because the spindle checkpoint pathway is highly conserved between yeast and humans, we performed a synthetic genetic array analysis in yeast, which revealed that Mad2 overexpression induced lethality in 13 gene deletions. Among the human homologs of candidate genes, knockdown of PPP2R1A, a gene encoding a constant regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2, significantly inhibited the growth of Mad2-overexpressing tumor cells. PPP2R1A inhibition induced Mad2 phosphorylation and suppressed Mad2 protein levels. Depletion of PPP2R1A inhibited colony formation of Mad2-overexpressing HeLa cells but not of unphosphorylated Mad2 mutant-overexpressing cells, suggesting that the lethality induced by PP2A depletion in Mad2-overexpressing cells is dependent on Mad2 phosphorylation. Also, the PP2A inhibitor cantharidin induced Mad2 phosphorylation and inhibited the growth of Mad2-overexpressing cancer cells. Aurora B knockdown inhibited Mad2 phosphorylation in mitosis, resulting in the blocking of PPP2R1A inhibition-induced cell death. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that PP2A is a good therapeutic target in Mad2-overexpressing tumors.
BACKGROUND: Kinesin family member 4A (KIF4A), a microtubule-based motor protein, was implicated in regulation of chromosomal structure and kinetochore microtubule dynamics. Considering the functions of KIF4A, we assumed that KIF4A is involved in progression of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) via activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). However, little is known about the relevance of KIF4A in the behavior of OSCC. We investigated the KIF4A expression status and its functional mechanisms in OSCC.
METHODS: The KIF4A expression levels in seven OSCC-derived cells were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. Using a KIF4A knockdown model, we assessed the expression of (SAC)-related molecules (BUB1, MAD2, CDC20, and cyclin B1), cell-cycle, and cellular proliferation. In addition to in vitro data, the clinical correlation between the KIF4A expression levels in primary OSCCs (n = 106 patients) and the clinicopathologic status by immunohistochemistry (IHC) also were evaluated.
RESULTS: KIF4A mRNA and protein were up-regulated significantly (P < 0.05) in seven OSCC-derived cells compared with human normal oral keratinocytes. In the KIF4A knockdown cells, SAC activation was observed via increased BUB1 expression on the kinetochores, appropriate kinetochore localization of MAD2, down-regulation of CDC20, up-regulation of cyclin B1, and cell-cycle arrested at G2/M phase. The results showed that cellular proliferation of KIF4A knockdown cells decreased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with control cells. IHC showed that KIF4A expression in primary OSCCs was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than in the normal oral counterparts and that KIF4A-positive OSCCs were correlated closely (P < 0.05) with tumoral size.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results proposed for the first time that KIF4A controls cellular proliferation via SAC activation. Therefore, KIF4A might be a key regulator for tumoral progression in OSCCs.
DNA aneuploidy is observed in various human tumors and is associated with the abnormal expression of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) proteins. Oxidative stress (OS) causes DNA damage and chromosome instability that may lead to carcinogenesis. OS is also suggested to contribute to an increase in aneuploid cells. However, it is not clear how OS is involved in the regulation of SAC and contributes to carcinogenesis associated with aneuploidy. Here we show that an oxidant (KBrO3) activated the p53 signaling pathway and suppressed the expression of SAC factors, BubR1, and Mad2, in human diploid fibroblast MRC5 cells. This suppression was dependent on functional p53 and reactive oxygen species. In p53 knockdown cells, KBrO3 did not suppress BubR1 and Mad2 expression and increased both binucleated cells and cells with >4N DNA content. BubR1 and not Mad2 downregulation suppressed KBrO3-induced binucleated cells and cells with >4N DNA content in p53 knockdown cells, suggesting that BubR1 contributes to enhanced polyploidization by a mechanism other than its SAC function. In analysis of 182 gastric cancer specimens, we found that BubR1 expression was significantly high when p53 was positively stained, which indicates loss of p53 function (P = 0.0019). Moreover, positive staining of p53 and high expression of BubR1 in tumors were significantly correlated with DNA aneuploidy (P = 0.0065). These observations suggest that p53 deficiency may lead to the failure of BubR1 downregulation by OS and that p53 deficiency and BubR1 accumulation could contribute to gastric carcinogenesis associated with aneuploidy.
p31(Comet) is a well-known interacting partner of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) effector molecule Mad2. At the molecular level it is well established that p31(Comet) promotes efficient mitotic exit, specifically the metaphase-anaphase transition, by antagonizing Mad2 function. However, there is little knowledge of how p31(Comet) is regulated or the physiological importance of controlling p31(Comet). Here, we show that the Rb-E2F pathway regulates p31(Comet) expression. In multiple tumor types (including breast and lung) p31(Comet) expression is increased along with Mad2. Expression of this antagonist-target pair is coordinated in cells and correlated in cancer. Moreover, a narrow range of p31(Comet):Mad2 ratios is compatible with cellular viability. Our data suggest that coordinate regulation is important for the outgrowth of oncogenic cell populations. Our findings suggest that altered p31(Comet):Mad2 expression ratios may provide new insight into altered SAC function and the generation of chromosomal instability in tumors.
Tang T, Song X, Liu YF, Wang WYPEITC reverse multi-drug resistance of human gastric cancer SGC7901/DDP cell line.
Cell Biol Int. 2014; 38(4):502-10 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world and nearly all patients who respond initially to cisplatin later develop drug resistance, indicating multi-drug resistance is an essential aspect of the failure of treatment. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) has been implicated in inhibiting metastasis of several types of human cancer. However, the effect and potential mechanism of PEITC reversed multi-drug resistance of human gastric cancer is not fully clear. We have identified the role of PEITC in multi-drug resistance reversal of human gastric cancer SGC7901/DDP cell line. PEITC inhibited cisplatin-resistant human SGC7901/DDP cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, causing increased apoptosis, ROS generation, glutathione depletion, accumulation of Rhodamine-123, decreased expression of P-glycoprotein and cell cycle arrest. mRNA and protein expression of the multi-drug resistance gene (MDR1), multi-drug resistance-associated protein (MRP1), excision repair cross-complementing gene 1 (ERCC1), survivin, and Mad2 was decreased, and phosphorylation of Akt and transcriptional activation of NF-κB were suppressed. PEITC may be useful as the therapeutic strategy for overcoming multi-drug resistance through suppressing the PI3K-Akt pathway in human gastric cancer.