|Gene:||NPRL2; nitrogen permease regulator-like 2 (S. cerevisiae)|
|Aliases: || NPR2, NPR2L, TUSC4 |
|Databases:||OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene|
|Protein:||nitrogen permease regulator 2-like protein|
|Updated:||14 December, 2014|
What does this gene/protein do?
NPRL2 is implicated in:
- negative regulation of kinase activity
- protein binding
- protein kinase activity
- protein phosphorylation
Data from Gene Ontology
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: NPRL2 (cancer-related)
Gao Y, Wang J, Fan GNPRL2 is an independent prognostic factor of osteosarcoma.
Cancer Biomark. 2012-2013; 12(1):31-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
NPRL2 is a tumor suppressor gene whose inactivation contributes to tumor development. However, NPRL2 expression in osteosarcoma remains unclear. This study aimed to assess NPRL2 expression in osteosarcoma and analyze its potential as a prognostic factor. NPRL2 expression in 48 cases of osteosarcoma and 40 cases of osteochondroma tumors was examined by immunohistochemistry. NPRL2 expression in 20 osteosarcoma and 20 osteochondroma specimens were detected by Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. We found that 18 cases (37.5%) of osteosarcoma and 27 cases (67.5%) of osteochondroma showed positive NPRL2 expression. Real-Time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that NRPL2 expression was lower in osteosarcoma than in osteochondroma (p< 0.05). The positive rate of NPRL2 expression was 71.4% (10/14), 25% (4/16) and 16.7% (3/18) in stage I, II and III of osteosarcoma, respectively. The positive rate of NPRL2 was 19% (4/21) and 48.1% (13/27) for low grade and high grade of osteosarcoma, respectively, with significant difference (p< 0.05). Cox multivariate analysis showed that the value of NPRL2 for predicting the overall survival of osteosarcoma patients. Despite the small size of the samples, our results suggest that NPRL2 expression is negatively related with the survival of osteosarcoma patients, indicating its value as a prognosis factor of osteosarcoma.Related: Bone Cancers Osteosarcoma
Yogurtcu B, Hatemi I, Aydin I, Buyru NNPRL2 gene expression in the progression of colon tumors.
Genet Mol Res. 2012; 11(4):4810-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Genetic and epigenetic factors affecting DNA methylation and gene expression are known to be involved in the development of colon cancer, but the full range of genetic alterations and many key genes involved in the pathogenesis of colon cancer remain to be identified. NPRL2 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene identified in the human chromosome 3p21.3 region. We evaluated the role of this gene in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer by investigating NPRL2 mRNA expression in 55 matched normal and tumor colon tissue samples using quantitative RT-PCR analysis. There was significantly decreased NPRL2 expression in 45% of the patients. Lower NPRL2 expression was observed significantly more frequently in poorly differentiated tumor samples than in highly or moderately differentiated tumors. We conclude that expression of NPRL2 contributes to progression of colon cancer.
Thompson IR, Chand AN, King PJ, et al.Expression of guanylyl cyclase-B (GC-B/NPR2) receptors in normal human fetal pituitaries and human pituitary adenomas implicates a role for C-type natriuretic peptide.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2012; 19(4):497-508 [PubMed
] Related Publications
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP/Nppc) is expressed at high levels in the anterior pituitary of rats and mice and activates guanylyl cyclase B receptors (GC-B/Npr2) to regulate hormone secretion. Mutations in NPR2/Npr2 can cause achondroplasia, GH deficiency, and female infertility, yet the normal expression profile within the anterior pituitary remains to be established in humans. The current study examined the expression profile and transcriptional regulation of NPR2 and GC-B protein in normal human fetal pituitaries, normal adult pituitaries, and human pituitary adenomas using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Transcriptional regulation of human NPR2 promoter constructs was characterized in anterior pituitary cell lines of gonadotroph, somatolactotroph, and corticotroph origin. NPR2 was detected in all human fetal and adult pituitary samples regardless of age or sex, as well as in all adenoma samples examined regardless of tumor origin. GC-B immunoreactivity was variable in normal pituitary, gonadotrophinomas, and somatotrophinomas. Maximal transcriptional regulation of the NPR2 promoter mapped to a region within -214 bp upstream of the start site in all anterior pituitary cell lines examined. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that this region contains Sp1/Sp3 response elements. These data are the first to show NPR2 expression in normal human fetal and adult pituitaries and adenomatous pituitary tissue and suggest a role for these receptors in both pituitary development and oncogenesis, introducing a new target to manipulate these processes in pituitary adenomas.Related: Pituitary Tumors
Epigenetic mechanisms are frequently deregulated in cancer cells and can lead to the silencing of genes with tumor suppressor activities. The isoform A of the Ras-association domain family member 1 (RASSF1A) gene is one of the most frequently silenced transcripts in human tumors, however, few studies have simultaneously investigated epigenetic abnormalities associated with the 3p21.3 tumor suppressor gene cluster flanking RASSF1 (i.e., SEMA3B, HYAL3, HYAL2, HYAL1, TUSC2, RASSF1, ZMYND10, NPRL2, TMEM115, and CACNA2D2). This study aimed to investigate the role of epigenetic changes to these genes in seventeen breast cancer cell lines and in three non-tumorigenic epithelial breast cell lines (184A1, 184B5, and MCF 10A) and to evaluate the effect on gene expression of treatment with the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor. We report that, although the RASSF1A isoform was determined to be epigenetically silenced in 15 of the 17 breast cancer cell lines, all the cell lines expressed the RASSF1C isoform. Five breast cancer cell lines overexpressed RASSF1C, when compared to the normal epithelial cell line 184A1. Furthermore, the genes HYAL1 and CACNA2D2 were significantly overexpressed after the treatments. After the combinated treatment, RASSF1A re-expression was accompanied by an increase in expression levels of the flanking genes. The Spearman's correlation coefficient indicated a positive co-regulation of the following gene pairs: RASSF1 and TUSC2 (r=0.64, p=0.002), RASSF1 and ZMYND10 (r=0.58, p=0.07), RASSF1 and NPRL2 (r=0.48, p=0.03), ZMYND10 and NPRL2 (r=0.71; p=0,0004), and NPRL2 and TMEM115 (r=0.66, p=0.001). Interestingly, the genes TUSC2, NPRL2 and TMEM115 were found to be unmethylated in each of the untreated cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation using antibodies against the acetylated and trimethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 demonstrated low levels of histone methylation in these genes, which are located closest to RASSF1. These results provide evidence that epigenetic repression is involved in the down-regulation of multiple genes at 3p21.3 in breast cancer cells.Related: Azacitidine Breast Cancer Chromosome 3 RASSF1
Dai Y, Wang J, Xia J, et al.Genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis of all trans retinoic acid-treated tongue carcinoma SCC-9 cells.
J Surg Oncol. 2011; 104(7):830-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: All trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is used as standard of care in promyelocytic leukemia. Not much is known about the gene expression profile in ATRA-treated tongue cancer cells. We performed a genome-wide transcriptional profiling of ATRA-treated tongue cancer cells to understand the pathways that mediate ATRA action in tongue cancer.
METHODS: We measured the effects of ATRA on the proliferation of SCC-9 human tongue carcinoma cells. The differential gene expression profile was measured by microarray analysis of untreated and ATRA-treated cells and expression of key genes was validated by real-time RT-PCR.
RESULTS: ATRA treatment (24 and 48 hr) significantly inhibited SCC-9 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. SCC-9 cells treated for 48 hr with ATRA showed upregulation of 276 genes, including ANGPTL4, GDF15, ICAM1 and TUSC4, and downregulation of 43 genes, including CXCL10. Validation by real-time PCR showed a significant upregulation of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and downregulation of CXCL10 and IL32.
CONCLUSIONS: ATRA had an anti-tumor effect in tongue cancer cells. This effect is likely mediated via upregulation of ICAM1 and downregulation of CXCL10 and IL32.
Jayachandran G, Ueda K, Wang B, et al.NPRL2 sensitizes human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to cisplatin treatment by regulating key components in the DNA repair pathway.
PLoS One. 2010; 5(8):e11994 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
NPRL2, one of the tumor suppressor genes residing in a 120-kb homozygous deletion region of human chromosome band 3p21.3, has a high degree of amino acid sequence homology with the nitrogen permease regulator 2 (NPR2) yeast gene, and mutations of NPRL2 in yeast cells are associated with resistance to cisplatin-mediated cell killing. Previously, we showed that restoration of NPRL2 in NPRL2-negative and cisplatin-resistant cells resensitize lung cancer cells to cisplatin treatment in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that sensitization of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to cisplatin by NPRL2 is accomplished through the regulation of key components in the DNA-damage checkpoint pathway. NPRL2 can phosphorylate ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase activated by cisplatin and promote downstream gamma-H2AX formation in vitro and in vivo, which occurs during apoptosis concurrently with the initial appearance of high-molecular-weight DNA fragments. Moreover, this combination treatment results in higher Chk1 and Chk2 kinase activity than does treatment with cisplatin alone and can activate Chk2 in pleural metastases tumor xenograft in mice. Activated Chk1 and Chk2 increase the expression of cell cycle checkpoint proteins, including Cdc25A and Cdc25C, leading to higher levels of G2/M arrest in tumor cells treated with NPRL2 and cisplatin than in tumor cells treated with cisplatin only. Our results therefore suggest that ectopic expression of NPRL2 activates the DNA damage checkpoint pathway in cisplatin-resistant and NPRL2-negative cells; hence, the combination of NPRL2 and cisplatin can resensitize cisplatin nonresponders to cisplatin treatment through the activation of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway, leading to cell arrest in the G2/M phase and induction of apoptosis. The direct implication of this study is that combination treatment with NPRL2 and cisplatin may overcome cisplatin resistance and enhance therapeutic efficacy.Related: Apoptosis Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer CHEK2 Cisplatin Lung Cancer Signal Transduction
The short arm of human chromosome 3 is involved in the development of many cancers including lung cancer. Three bona fide lung cancer tumor suppressor genes namely RBSP3 (AP20 region),NPRL2 and RASSF1A (LUCA region) were identified in the 3p21.3 region. We have shown previously that homozygous deletions in AP20 and LUCA sub-regions often occurred in the same tumor (P < 10-6).METHODS:
We estimated the quantity of RBSP3, NPRL2, RASSF1A, GAPDH, RPN1 mRNA and RBSP3 DNA copy number in 59 primary non-small cell lung cancers, including 41 squamous cell and 18 adenocarcinomas by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction based on TaqMan technology and relative quantification.RESULTS:
We evaluated the relationship between mRNA level and clinicopathologic characteristics in non-small cell lung cancer. A significant expression decrease (> or =2) was found for all three genes early in tumor development: in 85% of cases for RBSP3; 73% for NPRL2 and 67% for RASSF1A (P < 0.001), more strongly pronounced in squamous cell than in adenocarcinomas. Strong suppression of both, NPRL2 and RBSP3 was seen in 100% of cases already at Stage I of squamous cell carcinomas. Deregulation of RASSF1A correlated with tumor progression of squamous cell (P = 0.196) and adenocarcinomas (P < 0.05). Most likely, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms might be responsible for transcriptional inactivation of RBSP3 in non-small cell lung cancers as promoter methylation of RBSP3 according to NotI microarrays data was detected in 80% of squamous cell and in 38% of adenocarcinomas. With NotI microarrays we tested how often LUCA (NPRL2, RASSF1A) and AP20 (RBSP3) regions were deleted or methylated in the same tumor sample and found that this occured in 39% of all studied samples (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION:
Our data support the hypothesis that these TSG are involved in tumorigenesis of NSCLC. Both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms contribute to down-regulation of these three genes representing two tumor suppressor clusters in 3p21.3. Most importantly expression of RBSP3, NPRL2 and RASSF1A was simultaneously decreased in the same sample of primary NSCLC: in 39% of cases all these three genes showed reduced expression (P < 0.05).Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer RASSF1
Otani S, Takeda S, Yamada S, et al.The tumor suppressor NPRL2 in hepatocellular carcinoma plays an important role in progression and can be served as an independent prognostic factor.
J Surg Oncol. 2009; 100(5):358-63 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multifactorial, multistep process that involves the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes throughout the different stages of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. NPRL2 is one of the candidate tumor suppressor genes identified on chromosome 3p21.3, a region which frequently contains genetic abnormalities found in the early stages of the development of various human cancers. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate NPRL2 expression in HCC and to explore the prognostic significance of NPRL2.METHOD:
We investigated NPRL2 mRNA expression in 70 HCC specimens, using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, and the correlation between NPRL2 expression and clinicopathologic parameters.RESULTS:
NPRL2 mRNA was found to be expressed equally in both HCC tissues and corresponding non-cancerous liver tissues. However, higher NPRL2 expression correlated significantly with tumor size (P = 0.0062) and serum PIVKA-II levels (P = 0.0002). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that higher NPRL2 mRNA expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (risk ratio 0.39; P < 0.0001).CONCLUSION:
Our results suggest that NPRL2 mRNA expression has prognostic significance for the survival of patients with HCC.Related: Liver Cancer
We identified two 3p21.3 regions (LUCA and AP20) as most frequently affected in lung, breast and other carcinomas and reported their fine physical and gene maps. It is becoming increasingly clear that each of these two regions contains several TSGs. Until now TSGs which were isolated from AP20 and LUCA regions (e.g.G21/NPRL2, RASSF1A, RASSF1C, SEMA3B, SEMA3F, RBSP3) were shown to inhibit tumour cell growth both in vitro and in vivo.METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:
The effect of expression HYAL1 and HYAL2 was studied by colony formation inhibition, growth curve and cell proliferation tests in vitro and tumour growth assay in vivo. Very modest growth inhibition was detected in vitro in U2020 lung and KRC/Y renal carcinoma cell lines. In the in vivo experiment stably transfected KRC/Y cells expressing HYAL1 or HYAL2 were inoculated into SCID mice (10 and 12 mice respectively). Tumours grew in eight mice inoculated with HYAL1. Ectopic HYAL1 was deleted in all of them. HYAL2 was inoculated into 12 mice and only four tumours were obtained. In 3 of them the gene was deleted. In one tumour it was present but not expressed. As expected for tumour suppressor genes HYAL1 and HYAL2 were down-expressed in 15 fresh lung squamous cell carcinomas (100%) and clear cell RCC tumours (60-67%).CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:
The results suggest that the expression of either gene has led to inhibition of tumour growth in vivo without noticeable effect on growth in vitro. HYAL1 and HYAL2 thus differ in this aspect from other tumour suppressors like P53 or RASSF1A that inhibit growth both in vitro and in vivo. Targeting the microenvironment of cancer cells is one of the most promising venues of cancer therapeutics. As major hyaluronidases in human cells, HYAL1 and HYAL2 may control intercellular interactions and microenvironment of tumour cells providing excellent targets for cancer treatment.Related: Kidney Cancer Lung Cancer
Hesson LB, Cooper WN, Latif FEvaluation of the 3p21.3 tumour-suppressor gene cluster.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(52):7283-301 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Deletions of the 3p21.3 region are a frequent and early event in the formation of lung, breast, kidney and other cancers. Intense investigation of allelic losses and the discovery of overlapping homozygous deletions in lung and breast tumour-cell lines have defined a minimal critical 120 kb deletion region containing eight genes and likely to harbor one or more tumour-suppressor genes (TSGs). The candidate genes are HYAL2, FUS1, Ras-associated factor 1 (RASSF1), BLU/ZMYND10, NPR2L, 101F6, PL6 and CACNA2D2. Recent research indicates that several of these genes can suppress the growth of lung and other tumour cells. Furthermore, some genes (RASSF1A and BLU/ZMYND10) are very frequently inactivated by non-classical mechanisms such as promoter hypermethylation resulting in loss of expression. These data indicate that the 120 kb critical deletion region at 3p21.3 may represent a TSG cluster with preferential inactivation of particular genes depending on tumour type. The eight genes within this region and their potential role in cancer will be the focus of this review.Related: Chromosome 3 Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction
Ueda K, Kawashima H, Ohtani S, et al.The 3p21.3 tumor suppressor NPRL2 plays an important role in cisplatin-induced resistance in human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(19):9682-90 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Yi Lo PH, Chung Leung AC, Xiong W, et al.Expression of candidate chromosome 3p21.3 tumor suppressor genes and down-regulation of BLU in some esophageal squamous cell carcinomas.
Cancer Lett. 2006; 234(2):184-92 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Li J, Wang F, Haraldson K, et al.Functional characterization of the candidate tumor suppressor gene NPRL2/G21 located in 3p21.3C.
Cancer Res. 2004; 64(18):6438-43 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Initial analysis identified the NPRL2/G21 gene located in 3p21.3C, the lung cancer region, as a strong candidate tumor suppressor gene. Here we provide additional evidence of the tumor suppressor function of NPRL2/G21. The gene has highly conserved homologs/orthologs ranging from yeast to humans. The yeast ortholog, NPR2, shows three highly conserved regions with 32 to 36% identity over the whole length. By sequence analysis, the main product of NPRL2/G21 encodes a soluble protein that has a bipartite nuclear localization signal, a protein-binding domain, similarity to the MutS core domain, and a newly identified nitrogen permease regulator 2 domain with unknown function. The gene is highly expressed in many tissues. We report inactivating mutations in a variety of tumors and cancer cell lines, growth suppression of tumor cells with tet-controlled NPRL2/G21 transgenes on plastic Petri dishes, and suppression of tumor formation in SCID mice. Screening of 7 renal, 5 lung, and 7 cervical carcinoma cell lines showed homozygous deletions in the 3' end of NPRL2 in 2 renal, 3 lung, and 1 cervical (HeLa) cell line. Deletions in the 3' part of NPRL2 could result in improper splicing, leading to the loss of the 1.8 kb functional NPRL2 mRNA. We speculate that the NPRL2/G21 nuclear protein may be involved in mismatch repair, cell cycle checkpoint signaling, and activation of apoptotic pathway(s). The yeast NPR2 was shown to be a target of cisplatin, suggesting that the human NPRL2/G21 may play a similar role. At least two homozygous deletions of NPRL2/G21 were detected in 6 tumor biopsies from various locations and with microsatellite instability. This study, together with previously obtained results, indicates that NPRL2 is a multiple tumor suppressor gene.Related: Chromosome 3 Kidney Cancer Lung Cancer Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction
Chow LS, Lo KW, Kwong J, et al.RASSF1A is a target tumor suppressor from 3p21.3 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2004; 109(6):839-47 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Deletion on the short arm of chromosome 3 is one of the most important genetic abnormalities in the tumorigenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Both physical mapping and functional studies have targeted an NPC-related tumor suppressor gene(s) to chromosome 3p21.3. We have reported recently that RASSF1A gene, located on a 120-kb minimal deletion region on 3p21.3, was frequently inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in NPC. We further confirmed that RASSF1A is the critical target tumor suppressor from 3p21.3, with the evidence that loss of expression and aberrant methylation of the other 8 candidate genes/transcripts (HYAL2, FUS1, RASSF1C, BLU, NPRL2, 101F6, PL6 and CACNA2D2) in this 120-kb region were rare in NPC samples. The contribution of RASSF1A in NPC tumorigenesis was investigated by restoring its expression in a RASSF1A deficient cell line, C666-1. Transient transfection of wild-type RASSF1A resulted in marked growth inhibition in NPC cells. Isolated stable clones expressing wild-type RASSF1A demonstrated retarded cell proliferation in vitro. Soft-agar assay also showed decreased number and sizes of colony formed in these clones. In vivo nude mice assay demonstrated the dramatic reduction of tumorigenic potential in the RASSF1A-transfected clones. Our results provide strong evidence to support RASSF1A as a target tumor suppressor gene on 3p21.3 in NPC.Related: Azacitidine Chromosome 3 Nasopharyngeal Cancer RASSF1
Ji L, Nishizaki M, Gao B, et al.Expression of several genes in the human chromosome 3p21.3 homozygous deletion region by an adenovirus vector results in tumor suppressor activities in vitro and in vivo.
Cancer Res. 2002; 62(9):2715-20 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A group of candidate tumor suppressor genes (designated CACNA2D2, PL6, 101F6, NPRL2, BLU, RASSF1, FUS1, HYAL2, and HYAL1) has been identified in a 120-kb critical tumor homozygous deletion region (found in lung and breast cancers) of human chromosome 3p21.3. We studied the effects of six of these 3p21.3 genes (101F6, NPRL2, BLU, FUS1, HYAL2, and HYAL1) on tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis in human lung cancer cells by recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in vitro and in vivo. We found that forced expression of wild-type FUS1, 101F6, and NPRL2 genes significantly inhibited tumor cell growth by induction of apoptosis and alteration of cell cycle processes in 3p21.3 120-kb region-deficient (homozygous) H1299 and A549 cells but not in the 3p21.3 120-kb region-heterozygous H358 and the normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Intratumoral injection of Ad-101F6, Ad-FUS1, Ad-NPRL2, and Ad-HYAL2 vectors or systemic administration of protamine-complexed vectors significantly suppressed growth of H1299 and A549 tumor xenografts and inhibited A549 experimental lung metastases in nu/nu mice. Together, our results, coupled with other studies demonstrating a tumor suppressor role for the RASSSF1A isoform, suggest that multiple contiguous genes in the 3p21.3 120-kb chromosomal region may exhibit tumor suppressor activity in vitro and in vivo.Related: Apoptosis Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Chromosome 3 Lung Cancer
Lerman MI, Minna JDThe 630-kb lung cancer homozygous deletion region on human chromosome 3p21.3: identification and evaluation of the resident candidate tumor suppressor genes. The International Lung Cancer Chromosome 3p21.3 Tumor Suppressor Gene Consortium.
Cancer Res. 2000; 60(21):6116-33 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We used overlapping and nested homozygous deletions, contig building, genomic sequencing, and physical and transcript mapping to further define a approximately 630-kb lung cancer homozygous deletion region harboring one or more tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) on chromosome 3p21.3. This location was identified through somatic genetic mapping in tumors, cancer cell lines, and premalignant lesions of the lung and breast, including the discovery of several homozygous deletions. The combination of molecular manual methods and computational predictions permitted us to detect, isolate, characterize, and annotate a set of 25 genes that likely constitute the complete set of protein-coding genes residing in this approximately 630-kb sequence. A subset of 19 of these genes was found within the deleted overlap region of approximately 370-kb. This region was further subdivided by a nesting 200-kb breast cancer homozygous deletion into two gene sets: 8 genes lying in the proximal approximately 120-kb segment and 11 genes lying in the distal approximately 250-kb segment. These 19 genes were analyzed extensively by computational methods and were tested by manual methods for loss of expression and mutations in lung cancers to identify candidate TSGs from within this group. Four genes showed loss-of-expression or reduced mRNA levels in non-small cell lung cancer (CACNA2D2/alpha2delta-2, SEMA3B [formerly SEMA(V), BLU, and HYAL1] or small cell lung cancer (SEMA3B, BLU, and HYAL1) cell lines. We found six of the genes to have two or more amino acid sequence-altering mutations including BLU, NPRL2/Gene21, FUS1, HYAL1, FUS2, and SEMA3B. However, none of the 19 genes tested for mutation showed a frequent (>10%) mutation rate in lung cancer samples. This led us to exclude several of the genes in the region as classical tumor suppressors for sporadic lung cancer. On the other hand, the putative lung cancer TSG in this location may either be inactivated by tumor-acquired promoter hypermethylation or belong to the novel class of haploinsufficient genes that predispose to cancer in a hemizygous (+/-) state but do not show a second mutation in the remaining wild-type allele in the tumor. We discuss the data in the context of novel and classic cancer gene models as applied to lung carcinogenesis. Further functional testing of the critical genes by gene transfer and gene disruption strategies should permit the identification of the putative lung cancer TSG(s), LUCA, Analysis of the approximately 630-kb sequence also provides an opportunity to probe and understand the genomic structure, evolution, and functional organization of this relatively gene-rich region.Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Chromosome 3 Lung Cancer