Gene Summary

Gene:CTDSPL; CTD (carboxy-terminal domain, RNA polymerase II, polypeptide A) small phosphatase-like
Aliases: PSR1, SCP3, HYA22, RBSP3, C3orf8
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:CTD small phosphatase-like protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CTDSPL (cancer-related)

Lin YC, Lu LT, Chen HY, et al.
SCP phosphatases suppress renal cell carcinoma by stabilizing PML and inhibiting mTOR/HIF signaling.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(23):6935-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor-suppressor protein promyelocytic leukemia (PML) is aberrantly degraded in multiple types of human cancers through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Here, we show that the phosphatase SCP1 and its isoforms SCP2/3 dephosphorylate PML at S518, thereby blocking PML ubiquitination and degradation mediated by the prolyl isomerase Pin1 and the ubiquitin ligase KLHL20. Clinically, SCP1 and SCP3 are downregulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and these events correlated with PMLS518 phosphorylation, PML turnover, and high-grade tumors. Restoring SCP1-mediated PML stabilization not only inhibited malignant features of ccRCC, including proliferation, migration, invasion, tumor growth, and tumor angiogenesis, but also suppressed the mTOR-HIF pathway. Furthermore, blocking PML degradation in ccRCC by SCP1 overexpression or Pin1 inhibition enhanced the tumor-suppressive effects of the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus. Taken together, our results define a novel pathway of PML degradation in ccRCC that involves SCP downregulation, revealing contributions of this pathway to ccRCC progression and offering a mechanistic rationale for combination therapies that jointly target PML degradation and mTOR inhibition for ccRCC treatment.

Cho H, Noh KH, Chung JY, et al.
Synaptonemal complex protein 3 is a prognostic marker in cervical cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e98712 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3), a member of Cor1 family, is up-regulated in various cancer cells; however, its oncogenic potential and clinical significance has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the oncogenic role of SCP3 and its relationship with phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) in cervical neoplasias. The functional role of SCP3 expression was investigated by overexpression or knockdown of SCP3 in murine cell line NIH3T3 and human cervical cancer cell lines CUMC6, SiHa, CaSki, and HeLa both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined SCP3 expression in tumor specimens from 181 cervical cancer and 400 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the correlation between SCP3 expression and clinicopathologic factors or survival. Overexpression of SCP3 promoted AKT-mediated tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Functional studies using NIH3T3 cells demonstrated that the C-terminal region of human SCP3 is important for AKT activation and its oncogenic potential. High expression of SCP3 was significantly associated with tumor stage (P = 0.002) and tumor grade (P<0.001), while SCP3 expression was positively associated with pAKT protein level in cervical neoplasias. Survival times for patients with cervical cancer overexpressing both SCP3 and pAKT (median, 134.0 months, n = 68) were significantly shorter than for patients with low expression of either SCP3 or pAKT (161.5 months, n = 108) as determined by multivariate analysis (P = 0.020). Our findings suggest that SCP3 plays an important role in the progression of cervical cancer through the AKT signaling pathway, supporting the possibility that SCP3 may be a promising novel cancer target for cervical cancer therapy.

Senchenko VN, Kisseljova NP, Ivanova TA, et al.
Novel tumor suppressor candidates on chromosome 3 revealed by NotI-microarrays in cervical cancer.
Epigenetics. 2013; 8(4):409-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic and epigenetic alterations in cervical carcinomas were investigated using NotI-microarrays containing 180 cloned sequences flanking all NotI-sites associated with genes on chromosome 3. In total, 48 paired normal/tumor DNA samples, specifically enriched in NotI-sites, were hybridized to NotI-microarrays. Thirty genes, including tumor suppressors or candidates (for example, VHL, RBSP3/CTDSPL, ITGA9, LRRC3B, ALDH1L1, EPHB1) and genes previously unknown as cancer-associated (ABHD5, C3orf77, PRL32, LOC285375, FGD5 and others), showed methylation/deletion in 21-44% of tumors. The genes were more frequently altered in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) than in adenocarcinomas (ADC, p<0.01). A set of seven potential markers (LRRN1, PRICKLE2, VHL, BHLHE40, RBSP3, CGGBP1 and SOX14) is promising for discrimination of ADC and SCC. Alterations of more than 20 genes simultaneously were revealed in 23% of SCC. Bisulfite sequencing analysis confirmed methylation as a frequent event in SCC. High down-regulation frequency was shown for RBSP3, ITGA9, VILL, APRG1/C3orf35 and RASSF1 (isoform A) genes (3p21.3 locus) in SCC. Both frequency and extent of RASSF1A and RBSP3 mRNA level decrease were more pronounced in tumors with lymph node metastases compared with non-metastatic ones (p ≤ 0.05). We confirmed by bisulfite sequencing that RASSF1 promoter methylation was a rare event in SCC and, for the first time, demonstrated RASSF1A down-regulation at both the mRNA and protein levels without promoter methylation in tumors of this histological type. Thus, our data revealed novel tumor suppressor candidates located on chromosome 3 and a frequent loss of epigenetic stability of 3p21.3 locus in combination with down-regulation of genes in cervical cancer.

Zhu H, Vishwamitra D, Curry CV, et al.
NPM-ALK up-regulates iNOS expression through a STAT3/microRNA-26a-dependent mechanism.
J Pathol. 2013; 230(1):82-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
NPM-ALK chimeric oncogene is aberrantly expressed in an aggressive subset of T-cell lymphomas that frequently occurs in children and young adults. The mechanisms underlying the oncogenic effects of NPM-ALK are not completely elucidated. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promotes the survival and maintains the malignant phenotype of cancer cells by generating NO, a highly active free radical. We tested the hypothesis that iNOS is deregulated in NPM-ALK(+) T-cell lymphoma and promotes the survival of this lymphoma. In line with this possibility, an iNOS inhibitor and NO scavenger decreased the viability, adhesion, and migration of NPM-ALK(+) T-cell lymphoma cells, and an NO donor reversed these effects. Moreover, the NO donor salvaged the viability of lymphoma cells treated with ALK inhibitors. In further support of an important role of iNOS, we found iNOS protein to be highly expressed in NPM-ALK(+) T-cell lymphoma cell lines and in 79% of primary tumours but not in human T lymphocytes. Although expression of iNOS mRNA was identified in NPM-ALK(+) T-cell lymphoma cell lines and tumours, iNOS mRNA was remarkably elevated in T lymphocytes, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation. Consistently, we found that miR-26a contains potential binding sites and interacts with the 3'-UTR of iNOS. In addition, miR-26a was significantly decreased in NPM-ALK(+) T-cell lymphoma cell lines and tumours compared with T lymphocytes and reactive lymph nodes. Restoration of miR-26a in lymphoma cells abrogated iNOS protein expression and decreased NO production and cell viability, adhesion, and migration. Importantly, the effects of miR-26a were substantially attenuated when the NO donor was simultaneously used to treat lymphoma cells. Our investigation of the mechanisms underlying the decrease in miR-26a in this lymphoma revealed novel evidence that STAT3, a major downstream substrate of NPM-ALK tyrosine kinase activity, suppresses MIR26A1 gene expression.

Jørgensen A, Nielsen JE, Almstrup K, et al.
Dysregulation of the mitosis-meiosis switch in testicular carcinoma in situ.
J Pathol. 2013; 229(4):588-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) of young adults arise from the intratubular precursor, carcinoma in situ (CIS). CIS cells are thought to be developmentally arrested and transformed fetal germ cells that survive through childhood and gain invasive capacity after puberty. Given that germ cell neoplasms arise frequently in undervirilized and dysgenetic gonads and the striking physiological difference between meiotic entry in ovaries (fetal life) versus testes (at puberty), this study aimed to investigate whether errors in regulation of meiosis may be implicated in the pathogenesis of CIS or its invasive progression to TGCT. The main focus was on a key sex differentiation and meiosis regulator, DMRT1, which has also been linked to TGCT risk in recent genetic association studies. Expression patterns of DMRT1 and other meiosis regulators (SCP3, DMC1, STRA8, CYP26B1, NANOS2, NANOS3) were investigated in pre- and post-pubertal CIS samples and TGCT by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that meiosis markers and meiosis inhibitors were simultaneously expressed in CIS cells, in both pre- and post-pubertal testis samples. DMRT1 was present in a restricted subset of CIS cells, which was relatively greater in pre-pubertal (27%) compared to adult (2.6%) samples. In contrast to the majority of CIS cells, DMRT1-positive CIS cells in adult testes were not proliferating. DMRT1 and most of the other meiosis regulators were absent or expressed at low levels in invasive TGCT, except in spermatocytic seminoma (not derived from CIS). In conclusion, this study indicates that meiosis signalling is dysregulated in CIS cells and that a key regulator of the mitosis-meiosis switch, DMRT1, is expressed in 'early-stage' CIS cells but is down-regulated with further invasive transformation. Whether this mixed meiosis signalling in CIS cells is caused by insufficient virilization of the fetal somatic niche or a partial post-pubertal maturation remains uncertain and requires further study.

Kashuba V, Dmitriev AA, Krasnov GS, et al.
NotI microarrays: novel epigenetic markers for early detection and prognosis of high grade serous ovarian cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2012; 13(10):13352-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosome 3-specific NotI microarray (NMA) containing 180 clones with 188 genes was used in the study to analyze 18 high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) samples and 7 benign ovarian tumors. We aimed to find novel methylation-dependent biomarkers for early detection and prognosis of HGSOC. Thirty five NotI markers showed frequency of methylation/deletion more or equal to 17%. To check the results of NMA hybridizations several samples for four genes (LRRC3B, THRB, ITGA9 and RBSP3 (CTDSPL)) were bisulfite sequenced and confirmed the results of NMA hybridization. A set of eight biomarkers: NKIRAS1/RPL15, THRB, RBPS3 (CTDSPL), IQSEC1, NBEAL2, ZIC4, LOC285205 and FOXP1, was identified as the most prominent set capable to detect both early and late stages of ovarian cancer. Sensitivity of this set is equal to (72 ± 11)% and specificity (94 ± 5)%. Early stages represented the most complicated cases for detection. To distinguish between Stages I + II and Stages III + IV of ovarian cancer the most perspective set of biomarkers would include LOC285205, CGGBP1, EPHB1 and NKIRAS1/RPL15. The sensitivity of the set is equal to (80 ± 13)% and the specificity is (88 ± 12)%. Using this technique we plan to validate this panel with new epithelial ovarian cancer samples and add markers from other chromosomes.

Dmitriev AA, Kashuba VI, Haraldson K, et al.
Genetic and epigenetic analysis of non-small cell lung cancer with NotI-microarrays.
Epigenetics. 2012; 7(5):502-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to clarify genetic and epigenetic alterations that occur during lung carcinogenesis and to design perspective sets of newly identified biomarkers. The original method includes chromosome 3 specific NotI-microarrays containing 180 NotI clones associated with genes for hybridization with 40 paired normal/tumor DNA samples of primary lung tumors: 28 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and 12 adenocarcinomas (ADC). The NotI-microarray data were confirmed by qPCR and bisulfite sequencing analyses. Forty-four genes showed methylation and/or deletions in more than 15% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples. In general, SCC samples were more frequently methylated/deleted than ADC. Moreover, the SCC alterations were observed already at stage I of tumor development, whereas in ADC many genes showed tumor progression specific methylation/deletions. Among genes frequently methylated/deleted in NSCLC, only a few were already known tumor suppressor genes: RBSP3 (CTDSPL), VHL and THRB. The RPL32, LOC285205, FGD5 and other genes were previously not shown to be involved in lung carcinogenesis. Ten methylated genes, i.e., IQSEC1, RBSP3, ITGA 9, FOXP1, LRRN1, GNAI2, VHL, FGD5, ALDH1L1 and BCL6 were tested for expression by qPCR and were found downregulated in the majority of cases. Three genes (RBSP3, FBLN2 and ITGA9) demonstrated strong cell growth inhibition activity. A comprehensive statistical analysis suggested the set of 19 gene markers, ANKRD28, BHLHE40, CGGBP1, RBSP3, EPHB1, FGD5, FOXP1, GORASP1/TTC21, IQSEC1, ITGA9, LOC285375, LRRC3B, LRRN1, MITF, NKIRAS1/RPL15, TRH, UBE2E2, VHL, WNT7A, to allow early detection, tumor progression, metastases and to discriminate between SCC and ADC with sensitivity and specificity of 80-100%.

Zhu Y, Lu Y, Zhang Q, et al.
MicroRNA-26a/b and their host genes cooperate to inhibit the G1/S transition by activating the pRb protein.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2012; 40(10):4615-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The functional association between intronic miRNAs and their host genes is still largely unknown. We found that three gene loci, which produced miR-26a and miR-26b, were embedded within introns of genes coding for the proteins of carboxy-terminal domain RNA polymerase II polypeptide A small phosphatase (CTDSP) family, including CTDSPL, CTDSP2 and CTDSP1. We conducted serum starvation-stimulation assays in primary fibroblasts and two-thirds partial-hepatectomies in mice, which revealed that miR-26a/b and CTDSP1/2/L were expressed concomitantly during the cell cycle process. Specifically, they were increased in quiescent cells and decreased during cell proliferation. Furthermore, both miR-26 and CTDSP family members were frequently downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues. Gain- and loss-of-function studies showed that miR-26a/b and CTDSP1/2/L synergistically decreased the phosphorylated form of pRb (ppRb), and blocked G1/S-phase progression. Further investigation disclosed that miR-26a/b directly suppressed the expression of CDK6 and cyclin E1, which resulted in reduced phosphorylation of pRb. Moreover, c-Myc, which is often upregulated in cancer cells, diminished the expression of both miR-26 and CTDSP family members, enhanced the ppRb level and promoted the G1/S-phase transition. Our findings highlight the functional association of miR-26a/b and their host genes and provide new insight into the regulatory network of the G1/S-phase transition.

Zheng YS, Zhang H, Zhang XJ, et al.
MiR-100 regulates cell differentiation and survival by targeting RBSP3, a phosphatase-like tumor suppressor in acute myeloid leukemia.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(1):80-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal myeloblasts (mainly granulocyte or monocyte precursors) in the bone marrow and blood. Though great progress has been made for improvement in clinical treatment during the past decades, only minority with AML achieve long-term survival. Therefore, further understanding mechanisms of leukemogenesis and exploring novel therapeutic strategies are still crucial for improving disease outcome. MicroRNA-100 (miR-100), a small non-coding RNA molecule, has been reported as a frequent event aberrantly expressed in patients with AML; however, the molecular basis for this phenotype and the statuses of its downstream targets have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we found that the expression level of miR-100 in vivo was related to the stage of the maturation block underlying the subtypes of myeloid leukemia. In vitro experiments further demonstrated that miR-100 was required to promote the cell proliferation of promyelocytic blasts and arrest them differentiated to granulocyte/monocyte lineages. Significantly, we identified RBSP3, a phosphatase-like tumor suppressor, as a bona fide target of miR-100 and validated that RBSP3 was involved in cell differentiation and survival in AML. Moreover, we revealed a new pathway that miR-100 regulates G1/S transition and S-phase entry and blocks the terminal differentiation by targeting RBSP3, which partly in turn modulates the cell cycle effectors pRB/E2F1 in AML. These events promoted cell proliferation and blocked granulocyte/monocyte differentiation. Our data highlight an important role of miR-100 in the molecular etiology of AML, and implicate the potential application of miR-100 in cancer therapy.

Ghosh A, Ghosh S, Maiti GP, et al.
Frequent alterations of the candidate genes hMLH1, ITGA9 and RBSP3 in early dysplastic lesions of head and neck: clinical and prognostic significance.
Cancer Sci. 2010; 101(6):1511-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
To understand the association between candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) human mismatch repair protein homologue 1 (hMLH1), AP20 region gene 1 (APRG1), integrin alpha RLC (ITGA9), RB1 serine phosphates from human chromosome 3 (RBSP3) at chromosomal 3p22.3 region and development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), alterations (deletion/promoter methylation/expression) of these genes were analyzed in 65 dysplastic lesions and 84 HNSCC samples. Clinicopathological correlations were made with alterations of the genes. In HNSCC, deletion frequencies of hMLH1, ITGA9, and RBSP3 were comparatively higher than APRG1. Overall alterations (deletion/methylation) of hMLH1, ITGA9, and RBSP3 were high (45-55%) in mild dysplasia and comparable in subsequent stages of tumor progression. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed reduced expression of these genes in tumors concordant to their molecular alterations. An in vitro demethylation experiment by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine confirmed the promoter hypermethylation of RBSP3 in Hep2 and UPCI:SCC084 cell lines. Functionally less-active RBSP3A isoform was predominant in tumor tissues contrary to the adjacent normal tissue of tumors where more active RBSP3B isoform was prevalent. In immunohistochemical analysis, intense nuclear staining of hMLH1 and pRB (phosphorylated RB, the substrate of RBSP3) proteins were seen in the basal layer of normal epithelium. In tumors, concordance was seen between (i) low/intermediate level of hMLH1 expression and its molecular alterations; and (ii) intense nuclear staining of pRB and RBSP3 alterations. Poor patient outcome was seen with hMLH1 and RBSP3 alterations. Moreover, in absence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, tobacco-addicted patients with hMLH1, RBSP3 alterations, and nodal invasions showed poor prognosis. Thus our data suggests that dysregulation of hMLH1, ITGA9, and RBSP3 associated multiple cellular pathways are needed for the development of early dysplastic lesions of the head and neck.

Kang TH, Noh KH, Kim JH, et al.
Ectopic expression of X-linked lymphocyte-regulated protein pM1 renders tumor cells resistant to antitumor immunity.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(8):3062-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor immune escape is a major obstacle in cancer immunotherapy, but the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We have previously developed an immune evasion tumor model using an in vivo immune selection strategy and revealed Akt-mediated immune resistance to antitumor immunity induced by various cancer immunotherapeutic agents. In the current study, we used microarray gene analysis to identify an Akt-activating candidate molecule overexpressed in immune-resistant tumors compared with parental tumors. X-linked lymphocyte-regulated protein pM1 (XLR) gene was the most upregulated in immune-resistant tumors compared with parental tumor cells. Furthermore, the retroviral transduction of XLR in parental tumor cells led to activation of Akt, resulting in upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins and the induction of immune resistance phenotype in parental tumor cells. In addition, we found that transduction of parental tumor cells with other homologous genes from the mouse XLR family, such as synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3) and XLR-related, meiosis-regulated protein (XMR) and its human counterpart of SCP3 (hSCP3), also led to activation of Akt, resulting in the upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins and induction of immune resistance phenotype. Importantly, characterization of a panel of human cervical cancers revealed relatively higher expression levels of hSCP3 in human cervical cancer tissue compared with normal cervical tissue. Thus, our data indicate that ectopic expression of XLR and its homologues in tumor cells represents a potentially important mechanism for tumor immune evasion and serves as a promising molecular target for cancer immunotherapy.

Senchenko VN, Anedchenko EA, Kondratieva TT, et al.
Simultaneous down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes RBSP3/CTDSPL, NPRL2/G21 and RASSF1A in primary non-small cell lung cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2010; 10:75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The short arm of human chromosome 3 is involved in the development of many cancers including lung cancer. Three bona fide lung cancer tumor suppressor genes namely RBSP3 (AP20 region),NPRL2 and RASSF1A (LUCA region) were identified in the 3p21.3 region. We have shown previously that homozygous deletions in AP20 and LUCA sub-regions often occurred in the same tumor (P < 10-6).
METHODS: We estimated the quantity of RBSP3, NPRL2, RASSF1A, GAPDH, RPN1 mRNA and RBSP3 DNA copy number in 59 primary non-small cell lung cancers, including 41 squamous cell and 18 adenocarcinomas by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction based on TaqMan technology and relative quantification.
RESULTS: We evaluated the relationship between mRNA level and clinicopathologic characteristics in non-small cell lung cancer. A significant expression decrease (> or =2) was found for all three genes early in tumor development: in 85% of cases for RBSP3; 73% for NPRL2 and 67% for RASSF1A (P < 0.001), more strongly pronounced in squamous cell than in adenocarcinomas. Strong suppression of both, NPRL2 and RBSP3 was seen in 100% of cases already at Stage I of squamous cell carcinomas. Deregulation of RASSF1A correlated with tumor progression of squamous cell (P = 0.196) and adenocarcinomas (P < 0.05). Most likely, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms might be responsible for transcriptional inactivation of RBSP3 in non-small cell lung cancers as promoter methylation of RBSP3 according to NotI microarrays data was detected in 80% of squamous cell and in 38% of adenocarcinomas. With NotI microarrays we tested how often LUCA (NPRL2, RASSF1A) and AP20 (RBSP3) regions were deleted or methylated in the same tumor sample and found that this occured in 39% of all studied samples (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our data support the hypothesis that these TSG are involved in tumorigenesis of NSCLC. Both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms contribute to down-regulation of these three genes representing two tumor suppressor clusters in 3p21.3. Most importantly expression of RBSP3, NPRL2 and RASSF1A was simultaneously decreased in the same sample of primary NSCLC: in 39% of cases all these three genes showed reduced expression (P < 0.05).

Mitra S, Mazumder Indra D, Bhattacharya N, et al.
RBSP3 is frequently altered in premalignant cervical lesions: clinical and prognostic significance.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2010; 49(2):155-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
To understand the importance of frequent deletion of 3p22.3 in cervical carcinogenesis, alterations (deletion/methylation/expression) of the candidate genes STAC, MLH1, ITGA9, and RBSP3, located in the region, were analyzed in 24 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 137 uterine cervical carcinoma (CACX) samples. In CIN, RBSP3 deletion (48%) and methylation (26%) were high compared with the other genes (4-9%). In CACX, alterations of these genes were as follows: deletion: STAC (54%) > MLH1 (46%) > RBSP3 (45%) > ITGA9 (41%), methylation: RBSP3 (25%) > ITGA9 (24%) > STAC (19%) > MLH1 (13%). Overall, alterations of RBSP3 showed association with CIN, whereas for STAC and MLH1, this frequency increased significantly from CIN --> Stage I/II and for ITGA9 from CIN --> Stage I/II and also from Stage I/II --> Stage III/IV. Quantitative mRNA expression analysis showed differential reduced expression of these genes in CACX concordant to their molecular alterations. The more active RBSP3B splice variant was underexpressed in CACX. RB1 was infrequently deleted in CACX. Concordance was seen between (i) inactivation of RBSP3 and intense p-RB1 nuclear immunostaining and (ii) low/absence of MLH1 expression and its molecular alterations in CACX. In normal cervical epithelium, p-RB1 immunostaining was low in differentiated cells, whereas MLH1 staining was seen in both nucleus and cytoplasm irrespective of differentiation stage. Alterations of the genes were significantly associated with poor prognosis. High parity (>or=5)/early sexual debut (

Kashuba VI, Pavlova TV, Grigorieva EV, et al.
High mutability of the tumor suppressor genes RASSF1 and RBSP3 (CTDSPL) in cancer.
PLoS One. 2009; 4(5):e5231 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many different genetic alterations are observed in cancer cells. Individual cancer genes display point mutations such as base changes, insertions and deletions that initiate and promote cancer growth and spread. Somatic hypermutation is a powerful mechanism for generation of different mutations. It was shown previously that somatic hypermutability of proto-oncogenes can induce development of lymphomas.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found an exceptionally high incidence of single-base mutations in the tumor suppressor genes RASSF1 and RBSP3 (CTDSPL) both located in 3p21.3 regions, LUCA and AP20 respectively. These regions contain clusters of tumor suppressor genes involved in multiple cancer types such as lung, kidney, breast, cervical, head and neck, nasopharyngeal, prostate and other carcinomas. Altogether in 144 sequenced RASSF1A clones (exons 1-2), 129 mutations were detected (mutation frequency, MF = 0.23 per 100 bp) and in 98 clones of exons 3-5 we found 146 mutations (MF = 0.29). In 85 sequenced RBSP3 clones, 89 mutations were found (MF = 0.10). The mutations were not cytidine-specific, as would be expected from alterations generated by AID/APOBEC family enzymes, and appeared de novo during cell proliferation. They diminished the ability of corresponding transgenes to suppress cell and tumor growth implying a loss of function. These high levels of somatic mutations were found both in cancer biopsies and cancer cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of high frequencies of somatic mutations in RASSF1 and RBSP3 in different cancers suggesting it may underlay the mutator phenotype of cancer. Somatic hypermutations in tumor suppressor genes involved in major human malignancies offer a novel insight in cancer development, progression and spread.

Serganova I, Moroz E, Vider J, et al.
Multimodality imaging of TGFbeta signaling in breast cancer metastases.
FASEB J. 2009; 23(8):2662-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The skeleton is a preferred site for breast cancer metastasis. We have developed a multimodality imaging approach to monitor the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathway in bone metastases, sequentially over time in the same animal. As model systems, two MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells lines with different metastatic tropisms, SCP2 and SCP3, were transduced with constitutive and TGFbeta-inducible reporter genes and were tested in vitro and in living animals. The sites and expansion of metastases were visualized by bioluminescence imaging using a constitutive firefly luciferase reporter, while TGFbeta signaling in metastases was monitored by microPET imaging of HSV1-TK/GFP expression with [(18)F]FEAU and by a more sensitive and cost-effective bioluminescence reporter, based on nonsecreted Gaussia luciferase. Concurrent and sequential imaging of metastases in the same animals provided insight into the location and progression of metastases, and the timing and course of TGFbeta signaling. The anticipated and newly observed differences in the imaging of tumors from two related cell lines have demonstrated that TGFbeta signal transduction pathway activity can be noninvasively imaged with high sensitivity and reproducibility, thereby providing the opportunity for an assessment of novel treatments that target TGFbeta signaling.

Sinha S, Singh RK, Alam N, et al.
Frequent alterations of hMLH1 and RBSP3/HYA22 at chromosomal 3p22.3 region in early and late-onset breast carcinoma: clinical and prognostic significance.
Cancer Sci. 2008; 99(10):1984-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Young age can be an independent prognostic factor for adverse prognosis in women with breast carcinoma (BC). In younger women, BC exhibited more aggressive pathological features than older women, indicating differences in biology. Frequent alterations in chromosomal (chr.) 3p22.3 in different malignancies indicated the existence of multiple candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSG) in this region, yet its association with BC remains unclear. In an effort to understand the differences in molecular pathogenesis in two age groups of BC, detailed analysis of alterations at chr.3p22.3 region was carried out in 47 early onset (group-A: < or =40 years) and 59 late-onset (group-A: >40 years) BC samples. Deletion mapping of the four candidate TSG, hMLH1, APRG1, ITGA9 and RBSP3/HYA22, located within 1 Mb of chr.3p22.3 showed high deletion in hMLH1 and RBSP3/HYA22 genes. Frequent methylation was also observed in these genes and significantly associated with their deletion. Quantitative messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and immunohistochemical analysis showed down-regulation of these genes. Alterations (deletion/methylation) of hMLH1 were significantly associated with RBSP3/HYA22 in group-A (P = 0.02). Significant poor survival in group-A patients with alterations in hMLH1 and RBSP3/HYA22 and the same in group-B patients with hMLH1 alterations indicated their importance as prognostic markers. Differential association of alterations of these genes with higher histological grades, more advanced stages and positive lymph node involvement were also seen. Thus, the present study suggests hMLH1 and RBSP3/HYA22 to be candidate TSG associated with development of both early and late-onset BC undergoing frequent genetic and epigenetic alteration and having significant prognostic implications.

Wang F, Grigorieva EV, Li J, et al.
HYAL1 and HYAL2 inhibit tumour growth in vivo but not in vitro.
PLoS One. 2008; 3(8):e3031 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We identified two 3p21.3 regions (LUCA and AP20) as most frequently affected in lung, breast and other carcinomas and reported their fine physical and gene maps. It is becoming increasingly clear that each of these two regions contains several TSGs. Until now TSGs which were isolated from AP20 and LUCA regions (e.g.G21/NPRL2, RASSF1A, RASSF1C, SEMA3B, SEMA3F, RBSP3) were shown to inhibit tumour cell growth both in vitro and in vivo.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effect of expression HYAL1 and HYAL2 was studied by colony formation inhibition, growth curve and cell proliferation tests in vitro and tumour growth assay in vivo. Very modest growth inhibition was detected in vitro in U2020 lung and KRC/Y renal carcinoma cell lines. In the in vivo experiment stably transfected KRC/Y cells expressing HYAL1 or HYAL2 were inoculated into SCID mice (10 and 12 mice respectively). Tumours grew in eight mice inoculated with HYAL1. Ectopic HYAL1 was deleted in all of them. HYAL2 was inoculated into 12 mice and only four tumours were obtained. In 3 of them the gene was deleted. In one tumour it was present but not expressed. As expected for tumour suppressor genes HYAL1 and HYAL2 were down-expressed in 15 fresh lung squamous cell carcinomas (100%) and clear cell RCC tumours (60-67%).
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the expression of either gene has led to inhibition of tumour growth in vivo without noticeable effect on growth in vitro. HYAL1 and HYAL2 thus differ in this aspect from other tumour suppressors like P53 or RASSF1A that inhibit growth both in vitro and in vivo. Targeting the microenvironment of cancer cells is one of the most promising venues of cancer therapeutics. As major hyaluronidases in human cells, HYAL1 and HYAL2 may control intercellular interactions and microenvironment of tumour cells providing excellent targets for cancer treatment.

Murabito JM, Rosenberg CL, Finger D, et al.
A genome-wide association study of breast and prostate cancer in the NHLBI's Framingham Heart Study.
BMC Med Genet. 2007; 8 Suppl 1:S6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast and prostate cancer are two commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States. Prior work suggests that cancer causing genes and cancer susceptibility genes can be identified.
METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (Affymetrix 100K SNP GeneChip) of cancer in the community-based Framingham Heart Study. We report on 2 cancer traits--prostate cancer and breast cancer--in up to 1335 participants from 330 families (54% women, mean entry age 33 years). Multivariable-adjusted residuals, computed using Cox proportional hazards models, were tested for association with qualifying SNPs (70, 987 autosomal SNPs with genotypic call rate > or =80%, minor allele frequency > or =10%, Hardy-Weinberg test p > or = 0.001) using generalized estimating equations (GEE) models and family based association tests (FBAT).
RESULTS: There were 58 women with breast cancer and 59 men with prostate cancer. No SNP associations attained genome-wide significance. The top SNP associations in GEE models for each trait were as follows: breast cancer, rs2075555, p = 8.0 x 10(-8) in COL1A1; and prostate cancer, rs9311171, p = 1.75 x 10(-6) in CTDSPL. In analysis of selected candidate cancer susceptibility genes, two MSR1 SNPs (rs9325782, GEE p = 0.008 and rs2410373, FBAT p = 0.021) were associated with prostate cancer and three ERBB4 SNPs (rs905883 GEE p = 0.0002, rs7564590 GEE p = 0.003, rs7558615 GEE p = 0.0078) were associated with breast cancer. The previously reported risk SNP for prostate cancer, rs1447295, was not included on the 100K chip. Results of cancer phenotype-genotype associations for all autosomal SNPs are web posted at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gap/cgi-bin/study.cgi?id=phs000007 webcite.
CONCLUSION: Although no association attained genome-wide significance, several interesting associations emerged for breast and prostate cancer. These findings can serve as a resource for replication in other populations to identify novel biologic pathways contributing to cancer susceptibility.

Shu J, Jelinek J, Chang H, et al.
Silencing of bidirectional promoters by DNA methylation in tumorigenesis.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(10):5077-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
CpG island methylation within promoters is known to silence individual genes in cancer. The involvement of this process in silencing gene pairs controlled by bidirectional promoters is unclear. In a screen for hypermethylated CpG islands in cancer, bidirectional promoters constituted 25.2% of all identified promoters, which matches with the genomic representation of bidirectional promoters. From the screen, we selected three bidirectional gene pairs for detailed analysis, WNT9A/CD558500, CTDSPL/BC040563, and KCNK15/BF195580. Levels of mRNA of all three pairs of genes were inversely correlated with the degree of promoter methylation in multiple cancer cell lines. Hypomethylation of these promoters induced by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment reactivated or enhanced gene expression bidirectionally. The bidirectional nature of the WNT9A/CD558500 promoter was confirmed by luciferase assays, and hypermethylation down-regulated expression of both genes in the pair. Methylation of WNT9A/CD558500 and CTDSPL/BC040563 promoters occurs frequently in primary colon cancers and acute lymphoid leukemias (ALL), respectively, and methylation was correlated with decreased gene expression in ALL patient samples. Our study shows that hypermethylation of bidirectional promoter-associated CpG island silences two genes simultaneously, a property that should be taken into account when studying the functional consequences of hypermethylation in cancer.

Adamah DJ, Gokhale PJ, Eastwood DJ, et al.
Dysfunction of the mitotic:meiotic switch as a potential cause of neoplastic conversion of primordial germ cells.
Int J Androl. 2006; 29(1):219-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germ cell tumours (GCT) are thought to arise as the result of a defect in early development, probably shortly after arrival of the migrating primordial germ cells (PGC) in the genital ridge when, if in a male genital ridge, the germ cells arrest in mitosis, but in a female genital ridge they enter meiosis. We suggest that dysfunction of the mitotic:meiotic switch, with cells aberrantly co-expressing functions pertinent to both states, might provide the genetic instability that could initiate tumour development. If this hypothesis is correct, GCT could arise because of disruption in the function of any one of a number of different genes involved in controlling mitosis and meiosis, rather than being dependent upon a single prominent susceptibility gene. The Notch signalling system is one candidate system for controlling the switch and we have identified expression of Notch2 and Notch4 in seminomas and carcinoma in situ. Thus those two members of the Notch family are candidates for proto-oncogenes that could play a role in GCT development. We have also identified a human homologue of the synaptonemal complex protein, SCP3, and have found its apparently aberrant expression in some established EC cell lines. One possibility is that abnormal regulation of such proteins involved in the synaptonemal complex could also lead to genetic instability in PGC and so also initiate tumour development.

Senchenko VN, Liu J, Loginov W, et al.
Discovery of frequent homozygous deletions in chromosome 3p21.3 LUCA and AP20 regions in renal, lung and breast carcinomas.
Oncogene. 2004; 23(34):5719-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
We searched for chromosome 3p homo- and hemizygous losses in 23 lung cancer cell lines, 53 renal cell and 22 breast carcinoma biopsies using 31 microsatellite markers located in frequently deleted 3p regions. In addition, two sequence-tagged site markers (NLJ-003 and NL3-001) located in the Alu-PCR clone 20 region (AP20) and lung cancer (LUCA) regions, respectively, were used for quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR). We found frequent (10-18%) homozygous deletions (HDs) in both 3p21.3 regions in the biopsies and lung cancer cell lines. In addition, we discovered that amplification of 3p is a very common (15-42.5%) event in these cancers and probably in other epithelial malignancies. QPCR showed that aberrations of either NLJ-003 or NL3-001 were detected in more than 90% of all studied cases. HDs were frequently detected simultaneously both in NLJ-003 or NL3-001 loci in the same tumour (P<3-10(-7)). This observation suggests that tumour suppressor genes (TSG) in these regions could have a synergistic effect. The exceptionally high frequency of chromosome aberrations in NLJ-003 and NL3-001 loci suggests that multiple TSG(s) involved in different malignancies are located very near to these markers. Precise mapping of 15 independent HDs in the LUCA region allowed us to establish the smallest HD region in 3p21.3C located between D3S1568 (CACNA2D2 gene) and D3S4604 (SEMA3F gene). This region contains 17 genes. Mapping of 19 HDs in the AP20 region resulted in the localization of the minimal region to the interval flanked by D3S1298 and D3S3623 markers. Only four genes were discovered in this interval, namely, APRG1, ITGA9, HYA22 and VILL.

Senchenko V, Liu J, Braga E, et al.
Deletion mapping using quantitative real-time PCR identifies two distinct 3p21.3 regions affected in most cervical carcinomas.
Oncogene. 2003; 22(19):2984-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report chromosome 3p deletion mapping of 32 cervical carcinoma (CC) biopsies using 26 microsatellite markers located in frequently deleted 3p regions to detect loss of heterozygosity and homozygous loss. In addition, two STS markers (NLJ-003 and NL3-001) located in the 3p21.3 telomeric (3p21.3T) and 3p21.3 centromeric (3p21.3C) regions, respectively, were used for quantitative real-time PCR as TaqMan probes. We show that quantitative real-time PCR is reliable and sensitive and allows discriminating between 0, 1 and 2 marker copies per human genome. For the first time, frequent (five of 32 cases, i.e. 15.6%) homozygous deletions were demonstrated in CCs in both 3p21.3T and 3p21.3C regions. The smallest region homozygously deleted in 3p21.3C was located between D3S1568 (CACNA2D2 gene) and D3S4604 (SEMA3F gene) and contains 17 genes previously defined as lung cancer candidate Tumor suppressor genes (TSG(s)). The smallest region homozygously deleted in 3p21.3T was flanked by D3S1298 and NL1-024 (D3S4285), excluding DLEC1 and MYD88 as candidate TSGs involved in cervical carcinogenesis. Overall, this region contains five potential candidates, namely GOLGA4, APRG1, ITGA9, HYA22 and VILL, which need to be analysed. The data showed that aberrations of either NLJ-003 or NL3-001 were detected in 29 cases (90.6%) and most likely have a synergistic effect (P<0.01). The study also demonstrated that aberrations in 3p21.3 were complex and in addition to deletions, may involve gene amplification as well. The results strongly suggest that 3p21.3T and 3p21.3C regions harbor genes involved in the origin and/or development of CCs and imply that those genes might be multiple TSG(s).

Protopopov A, Kashuba V, Zabarovska VI, et al.
An integrated physical and gene map of the 3.5-Mb chromosome 3p21.3 (AP20) region implicated in major human epithelial malignancies.
Cancer Res. 2003; 63(2):404-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
To facilitate the identification of tumor suppressor genes in the chromosome 3p21.3-p22 AP20 subregion, we constructed a 3.5-Mb physical and gene map of this segment (between markers D3S4285 and D3S3873) that spans the distance from 124.4cR3000 to 133.5 cR3000 of the GB4 genetic map. We used NotI-linking and -jumping clones, sequence-tagged site PCR marker analysis, and multicolor and fiber fluorescence in situ hybridization to confirm the sequence order and map orientation. An integrated clone contig composed of 5 yeast artificial chromosome, 15 bacterial artificial chromosome, 5 P1 artificial chromosome, and 8 NotI-linking clones provided the physical base of the map. We unequivocally established the order of 28 sequence-tagged sites and 35 genes in the region. Gaps between published bacterial artificial chromosome contigs were determined and covered by our own sequence data. Furthermore, three new genes were isolated, namely the human homologue to the rat Golgi peripheral membrane protein p65, GOLPH5 (GORASP1), the gene for stress-inducible protein, STI2, and the AP20-region gene 1, APRG1. The tumor suppressor gene candidate APRG1 was positioned close to the border of the homozygous deletion in a small cell lung cancer cell line ACC-LC5. Expression analysis with a tissue-specific panel of cDNA revealed seven distinct tissue-specific splice variants (A-G) of the message (size range, 1.0-1.8 kb). Although the gene was expressed at a low level in all tested tissues, comparatively higher expression was detected in pancreas (splice forms B and D), kidney (A) and placenta (B and C). The APRG1 gene encoded a predicted protein of 170 amino acids (isoform B), which had an NH2-terminal part conserved among members of the eukaryotic translation factor 6 gene family. A Prosite pattern corresponding to the cell attachment sequence Arg-Gly-Asp was also found. The presence of this domain raised the intriguing possibility that APRG1B may be directly involved in membrane interactions and cell adhesion. We showed that the AP20 region was duplicated during mammalian evolution and homologous gene clusters were present in human chromosome 2 and syntenic mouse regions on chromosomes 1, 2, and 9. Interestingly, the HYA22 gene (human ortholog of the yeast YA22 gene) was located at the borders of both breakpoints, evolutionarily conserved gene cluster and homozygous deletions detected in lung, kidney and other cancers. NotI digestion revealed that the AP20 region was frequently and extensively methylated in renal carcinoma cell lines and tumor biopsies.

Ishikawa S, Kai M, Tamari M, et al.
Sequence analysis of a 685-kb genomic region on chromosome 3p22-p21.3 that is homozygously deleted in a lung carcinoma cell line.
DNA Res. 1997; 4(1):35-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Frequent chromosomal aberrations and/or losses of heterozygosity involving the short arm of chromosome 3 in carcinomas of the lung, kidney and other tissues imply that multiple putative tumor suppressor genes may be present on this chromosomal arm. To search for one of these genes, we determined DNA sequences in the genomic region at 3p22-21.3 where we had previously detected a homozygous deletion in a lung cancer cell line. The DNA sequence results of an about 685-kb region indicated that the size of the homozygously deleted segment was 638,489 bp, in which we identified only four genes including the integrin alpha RLC and the trans-Golgi p230 genes, both reported previously. The predicted amino acid sequences of one of the two novel genes showed high homology to villin, a human cytoskeleton protein; those of the other gene, termed HYA22, revealed significant homology to YA22, a hypothetical protein predicted from DNA sequences of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The computer programs HEXON or GRAIL were able to predict three-fourths of the exons; the smallest exon predicted by either program was 46 base pairs. Repetitive sequences contained in the genomic region included 151 copies of the Alu sequence (1 copy/every 4.5 kb), 19 copies of the L1 sequence (1 copy/every 36 kb), and 10 copies of the THE sequence.

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