Gene Summary

Gene:RTEL1; regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1
Aliases: NHL, RTEL, DKCA4, DKCB5, PFBMFT3, C20orf41
Summary:This gene encodes a DNA helicase which functions in the stability, protection and elongation of telomeres and interacts with proteins in the shelterin complex known to protect telomeres during DNA replication. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dyskeratosis congenita and Hoyerall-Hreidarsson syndrome. Read-through transcription of this gene into the neighboring downstream gene, which encodes tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 6b, generates a non-coding transcript. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: RTEL1 (cancer-related)

Xu P, Xia T, Ling Y, Chen B
MiRNAs with prognostic significance in multiple myeloma: A systemic review and meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(33):e16711 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell malignancy associated with hypercalcemia, bone lesions, and renal failure. The prognostic significance of the mutation of miRNAs, one kind of small noncoding RNA molecules that can modulate gene expression, should be confirmed in non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). This study aimed to identify the prognostic value of miRNAs in patients with MM.
METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the pooled hazard ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals for the associations between levels of miRNA expression (predictive factors) and outcomes in patients with MM. We systematically searched the PubMed, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases (final search conducted January 1, 2018) to identify eligible studies. Eligible studies were included by certain inclusion and exclusion criteria, whose quality was assessed by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.
RESULTS: After performing the literature search and review, 10 relevant studies, including 1214 cases, were identified. The results of our meta-analysis revealed that upregulated miR-92a level and downregulated miR-16, miR-25, miR-744, miR-15a, let-7e, and miR-19b expression were associated with poor prognosis in MM.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified miRNAs could serve as potential prognostic biomarkers in MM. Given the limited research available, the clinical application of these findings has yet to be verified.

Lu G, Qiao L, Li D, et al.
Concurrent lymphoma and hemophilia B in a pediatric patient: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(19):e15474 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Lymphoma is the third most common cancer among children in the United States and Europe. Hemophilia is a congenital bleeding disorder characterized by deficiency of coagulation factor VIII or IX. Hemophilia B is a consequence of factor IX deficiency and has an incidence of 1 in 20,000 male births. A concurrence of these 2 uncommon diseases is rare except in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We report a case of a patient with both Burkitt lymphoma and hemophilia B; this is only such report in China since 1987.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 3-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital because of melena and jaundice for several days. His older brother had died due to hemophilia B and ventricular septal defect. The patient had not experienced any previous episodes of severe bleeding. Gradual abdominal distention was observed after admission; the patient's superficial lymph nodes were not enlarged. Results of blood routine and bone marrow examinations showed no abnormalities. He was diagnosed with sclerosing cholangitis, abdominal infection, and hepatitis. However, after treatment of reducing enzyme activity and eliminating jaundice, the patient's condition deteriorated. Hydrops abdominis was detected on abdominal ultrasonography. Tumor cells were found by pathological examination of peritoneal effusion. Both a c-myc gene translocation and a c-myc-IgH gene fusion were detected.
DIAGNOSIS: Burkitt lymphoma and hemophilia B.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient was transferred to the Pediatric Hematology Department of our hospital and treated with a modified B-NHL-BFM-95 protocol. During chemotherapy, platelet changes were monitored regularly and blood products were infused timely.
OUTCOMES: The patient died of infection and bleeding after chemotherapy.
CONCLUSION: Concurrent hemophilia and lymphoma are rare, especially in children. When encountering a patient with unexplained obstructive jaundice and massive ascites, the possibility of a tumor should be considered. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment of such tumor may improve prognosis.

Zhang X, Zhou F
Successful conservative treatment of primary endometrial marginal zone lymphoma (MALT type): A case report and review of the literature.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(16):e15331 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Primary endometrial marginal zone lymphoma (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue [MALT] type) is a rare histological type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); therefore, this disease is challenging to diagnosis and treatment.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 61-year-old (gravidity 2, parity 2) female was admitted complaining of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding for 2 months.
DIAGNOSES: An ultrasound revealed a slightly thickened endometrium. Histology revealed a dense lymphoid infiltrate in the endometrium, which was suggestive of an NHL. The atypical lymphocytes were positive for CD20 and BCL-2. Moreover, the PCR demonstrated monoclonal heavy chain gene rearrangement. Taken together, the diagnosis of primary endometrial marginal zone lymphoma (MALT type) was established. According to Ann Arbor criteria, the disease was staged IEA.
INTERVENTIONS: Dilatation and curettage was performed, and no additional surgery or radiotherapy and chemotherapy was administered.
OUTCOMES: The patient was alive with no evidence of cancer for ≥41 months.
LESSONS: Primary endometrial marginal zone lymphoma (MALT Type) is a very rare indolent tumor, and its prognosis seems to be good. Thus, conservative treatment and no further therapy were suggested based on the tumor biology.

Pei M, Zhao C, Gao F, Zhang M
Bilateral mantle cell lymphoma of the ciliary body that responded to a combined local radiotherapy and chemotherapy regimen: a case report.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):355 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare, aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that often affects men over the age of 60. Systemic metastasis of MCL to eyes is rare and intraocular involvement is even rarer, which usually affects the choroid and iris. To the best of our knowledge, ciliary body metastasis of systemic MCL has not been reported.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old Han Chinese male with past-history of systemic MCL complained of redness, pain and blurred vision in the left eye. Ocular examination revealed a normal appearance in the right eye, and conjunctival injection, pseudohypopyon and anterior protrusion of peripheral iris in the left eye, all of which were unresponsive to corticosteroid treatments. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and B-scan were then performed which detected ciliary body masses in both eyes with no vitreous and retino-choroidal anomalies. Combined liquid-based cytology tests and gene rearrangement assays of the aqueous humor specimen confirmed this to be a B-cell malignancy. Then both eyes were treated with external beam irradiation (40 Gy, delivered evenly in twenty fractions) over a course of one month. Additionally, the left eye received intravitreal methotrexate (MTX) (weekly for the first month, every two weeks for the second month, and monthly thereafter) over a course of twelve months. This therapy eventually led to complete remission of all symptoms in one month and disappearance of the ciliary body masses in twelve months.
CONCLUSION: Here we first reported a case of bilateral ciliary body MCL infiltration which was diagnosed by combined liguid-based cytology and gene rearrangement of aqueous humor cells. UBM may serve as a valuable tool in the diagnosis and serial assessments of anterior segment tumors.

Zhang R, Deng Q, Jiang YY, et al.
Effect and changes in PD‑1 expression of CD19 CAR‑T cells from T cells highly expressing PD‑1 combined with reduced‑dose PD‑1 inhibitor.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(6):3455-3463 [PubMed] Related Publications
CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has changed the outcomes of relapsed/refractory B‑cell leukemia and lymphoma. However, its efficacy in patients with relapsed/refractory non‑Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been less impressive compared with that in patients with acute lymphoid leukemia. Furthermore, immune checkpoints have a critical role in the immune system. Several clinical trials have confirmed the dramatic effects of programmed death‑1/programmed death‑ligand 1 (PD‑1/PD‑L1) inhibitors in numerous malignancies, but the immune‑associated adverse events of PD‑1/PD‑L1 inhibitors may occur in a number of systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the combination of CD19 CAR‑T cells with a reduced dose of PD‑1 inhibitor. This method is expected to overcome the side-effects of PD‑1 inhibitors, while maintaining therapeutic efficacy. The findings demonstrated that a reduced dose of PD‑1 inhibitor did not affect the transfection rate, proliferation rate or cytokine secretion of CD19 CAR‑T cells. An interesting finding of the present study was that the number of PD‑1‑positive cells CAR‑T cells, measured by flow cytometry, declined when they were cultured in vitro, but returned to high levels with gradual prolongation of the co‑culture time of CD19 CAR‑T cells with lymphoma cells; however, there was no change in the mRNA expression of T cells and CAR‑T cells during this process. This phenomenon may be one of the reasons why the curative effect of CAR‑T cells on B‑cell lymphoma is unsatisfactory compared with B‑cell leukemia. The synergistic effect of a reduced‑dose PD‑1 inhibitor combined with CD19 CAR‑T cells from T cells highly expressing PD‑1 was confirmed in a mouse trial. Mice in the combined treatment group achieved the longest survival time. In this group, the proportion of CAR‑T cells and the level of interleukin‑6 were higher compared with those in the CAR‑T cell group. In conclusion, a reduced dose of a PD‑1 inhibitor combined with CD19 CAR‑T cells appears to be a promising treatment option for relapsed/refractory B‑NHL exhibiting high PD‑1 expression by T cells. This method may achieve good clinical efficacy while reducing the side-effects of PD‑1 inhibitors.

Pott C, Brüggemann M, Ritgen M, et al.
MRD Detection in B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas Using Ig Gene Rearrangements and Chromosomal Translocations as Targets for Real-Time Quantitative PCR.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1956:199-228 [PubMed] Related Publications
Minimal residual disease (MRD) diagnostics is of high clinical relevance in patients with indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL) and serves as a surrogate parameter to evaluate treatment effectiveness and long-term prognosis. MRD diagnostics performed by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) is still the gold standard and currently the most sensitive and the most broadly applied method in follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Alternatively, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) can be used for MRD monitoring in multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma with comparable sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility.The most broadly applicable MRD target in B-NHL is the junctional regions of the rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGHV). Chromosomal translocations like the t(14;18) translocation in FL and t(11;14) translocation in MCL can be used as MRD target in selected lymphoma subtypes. In patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, both flow-cytometry and RQ-PCR are equally suited for MRD assessment as long as a sensitivity of 10

Nezos A, Gkioka E, Koutsilieris M, et al.
TNFAIP3 F127C Coding Variation in Greek Primary Sjogren's Syndrome Patients.
J Immunol Res. 2018; 2018:6923213 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor necrosis factor, alpha-induced protein 3 (

Martin-Guerrero I, Salaverria I, Burkhardt B, et al.
Non-leukemic pediatric mixed phenotype acute leukemia/lymphoma: Genomic characterization and clinical outcome in a prospective trial for pediatric lymphoblastic lymphoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2019; 58(6):365-372 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rare cases of hematological precursor neoplasms fulfill the diagnostic criteria of mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL), characterized by expression patterns of at least two hematopoietic lineages, for which a highly aggressive behavior was reported. We present a series of 11 pediatric non-leukemic MPAL identified among 146 precursor lymphoblastic lymphomas included in the prospective trial Euro-LBL 02. Paraffin-embedded biopsies of 10 cases were suitable for molecular analyses using OncoScan assay (n = 7), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH; n = 7) or both (n = 5). Except for one case with biallelic KMT2A (MLL) breaks, all cases analyzed by FISH lacked the most common translocations defining molecular subsets of lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphomas. Two non-leukemic B-myeloid MPALs showed the typical genomic profile of hyperdiploid precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia with gains of chromosomes 4, 6, 10, 14, 18, and 21. One B-T MPAL showed typical aberrations of T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, such as copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity (CNN-LOH) at 9p targeting a 9p21.3 deletion of CDKN2A and 11q12.2-qter affecting the ATM gene. ATM was also mutated in a T-myeloid MPAL case with additional loss at 7q21.2-q36.3 and mutation of NRAS, two alterations common in myeloid disorders. No recurrent regions of CNN-LOH were observed. The outcome under treatment was good with all patients being alive in first complete remission after treatment according to a protocol for precursor lymphoblastic lymphoma (follow-up 3-10 years, median: 4.9 years). In summary, the present series of non-leukemic MPALs widely lacked recurrently reported translocations in lymphoid/myeloid neoplasias and showed heterogeneous spectrum of chromosomal imbalances.

Gupta A, Shah K, Oza MJ, Behl T
Reactivation of p53 gene by MDM2 inhibitors: A novel therapy for cancer treatment.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 109:484-492 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is an uncontrolled and abnormal growth of cells in the body. Gene that guards the cell cycle and function as tumor suppressor is p53 (also called as the guardian of the genome) which is encoded by the TP53 gene. Various events like DNA damage, heat shock, hypoxia and oncogene over expression, results in activation of p53.Thus, it plays a major role as a regulatory protein which regulates various diverse biological responses, responsible for genetic stability by preventing genome mutation. More than 50% mutations in human cancers along with the increase in expression of murine double minute 2 gene (mdm2), has been found as one of the reason for cancer progression. Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) is the negative regulator of p53 gene forming an autoregulatory feedback loop controlling each other cellular levels. Murine double minute 2 is unique E3 ubiquitin ligase protein which is responsible for ubiquitination and degradation of p53 gene. Many drugs/compounds have been developed for reactivation of p53 gene by inhibiting MDM2 interaction with p53, using MDM2 antagonism, inhibiting E3 ubiquitination of p53. Many compounds have entered clinical trials in haematological malignancies. This review will throw some light on reactivation of p53 gene by MDM2 and its homologues.

Pratap S, Scordino TS
Molecular and cellular genetics of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Diagnostic and prognostic implications.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2019; 106:44-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a diverse collection of malignant neoplasms with lymphoid-cell origin which includes all the malignant lymphomas that are not classified as Hodgkin lymphoma. NHL is one of the most common types of cancer diagnosed in men and women in the developed world. In the United States of America, the past few decades have seen a significant rise in the incidence of NHL and it accounts for about 4% of all cancers now. The overall survival of NHL has improved drastically over the past ten years. This can be attributed to better understanding of pathogenesis, refined classification, enhanced supportive care, and data from collaborative clinical trials. The prognosis of a newly diagnosed NHL patient depends, among other factors, on the specific subtype of lymphoma, stage of the disease, and age of the patient. Advances in the fields of molecular biology and innovations in cytogenetic techniques have led to the discovery of several oncogenic pathways involved in lymphomagenesis, which in turn has amplified the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches available for NHL. Our comprehension of the genetic features that determine the character of NHL, and ultimately guide the therapy, has undergone significant shift and it is essential that scientists as well as clinicians stay in tune with this rapidly evolving knowledge. In this review we have summarized the current concepts about cellular and molecular genetics of the common subtypes of NHL and their clinical implications.

Violeta Filip P, Cuciureanu D, Sorina Diaconu L, et al.
MALT lymphoma: epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and treatment.
J Med Life. 2018 Jul-Sep; 11(3):187-193 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary gastric lymphoma (PGL) represents a rare pathology, which can be easily misdiagnosed because of unspecific symptoms of the digestive tract. Histologically, PGL can vary from indolent marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) to aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). During the years, clinical trials revealed the important role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the pathogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is an influential promoter of gastric lymphomagenesis initiation. Long-term studies revealed that eradication therapy could regress gastric lymphomas.

Girard E, Eon-Marchais S, Olaso R, et al.
Familial breast cancer and DNA repair genes: Insights into known and novel susceptibility genes from the GENESIS study, and implications for multigene panel testing.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(8):1962-1974 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 only explain the underlying genetic cause of about 10% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Because of cost-effectiveness, multigene panel testing is often performed even if the clinical utility of testing most of the genes remains questionable. The purpose of our study was to assess the contribution of rare, deleterious-predicted variants in DNA repair genes in familial breast cancer (BC) in a well-characterized and homogeneous population. We analyzed 113 DNA repair genes selected from either an exome sequencing or a candidate gene approach in the GENESIS study, which includes familial BC cases with no BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and having a sister with BC (N = 1,207), and general population controls (N = 1,199). Sequencing data were filtered for rare loss-of-function variants (LoF) and likely deleterious missense variants (MV). We confirmed associations between LoF and MV in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and BC occurrence. We also identified for the first time associations between FANCI, MAST1, POLH and RTEL1 and BC susceptibility. Unlike other associated genes, carriers of an ATM LoF had a significantly higher risk of developing BC than carriers of an ATM MV (OR

Wenzl K, Manske MK, Sarangi V, et al.
Loss of TNFAIP3 enhances MYD88
Blood Cancer J. 2018; 8(10):97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MYD88 mutations are one of the most recurrent mutations in hematologic malignancies. However, recent mouse models suggest that MYD88

Wagener R, López C, Kleinheinz K, et al.
Blood. 2018; 132(21):2280-2285 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/11/2019 Related Publications

Chattopadhyay S, Sud A, Zheng G, et al.
Second primary cancers in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Bidirectional analyses suggesting role for immune dysfunction.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(10):2449-2457 [PubMed] Related Publications
Second primary cancers (SPCs) account for an increasing proportion of all cancer diagnoses. It is unlikely that prior therapy is solely responsible for SPC risk. To investigate risk of SPC after diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 10 of its subtypes we conducted a novel bidirectional analysis, SPCs after NHL and NHL as SPC. Using the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we identified 19,833 individuals with primary NHL diagnosed between 1993 and 2015. We calculated relative risks (RRs) of SPCs in NHL survivors and, for bi-directional analysis, risk of NHL as SPC. The overall RRs were significantly bidirectionally increased for NHL and 7 cancers. After diagnosis of NHL risks were increased for upper aerodigestive tract (RR = 1.96), colorectal (1.35), kidney (3.10), bladder (1.54) and squamous cell skin cancer (SCC) (4.12), melanoma (1.98) and Hodgkin lymphoma (9.38). The concordance between RRs for each bidirectional association between NHL and 31 different cancers was highly significant (r = 0.86, p < 0.0001). Melanoma was bidirectionally associated with all 10 subtypes of NHL. The observed bidirectional associations between NHL and cancer suggest that therapy-related carcinogenic mechanisms cannot solely explain the findings. Considering that skin SCC and melanoma are usually treated by surgery and that these cancers and NHL are most responsive of any cancer to immune suppression, the consistent bidirectional results provide population-level evidence that immune suppressed state is a key underlying mechanism in the context of SPCs. Furthermore, the quantified risks for NHL subtypes have direct clinical application in the management of NHL patients.

Pamuk GE, Tozkır H, Uyanık MS, et al.
CXCL12 rs18011157 polymorphısm in patients wıth non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Is it associated with poor outcome?
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018 Jul-Sep; 14(5):1075-1078 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective: We studied CXCL12-related rs18011157 polymorphism in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients. We also determined the effect of this polymorphism on clinical features and outcome of NHL.
Methods: We included 90 NHL patients (54 males, 36 females) and 88 healthy controls (54 males, 34 females). CXCL12-related rs18011157 polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction.
Results: rs18011157 polymorphism was significantly more frequent in NHL patients with GA genotype than in healthy controls (37.8% vs. 20.5%, P = 0.011). The frequency of patients with initially high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (65.8% vs. 38.5%) and extranodal involvement (61.1% vs. 43.8%) was significantly higher in the GA plus AA genotype groups when considered altogether (P = 0.01 and 0.09). Poor prognostic factors in univariate analysis were the presence of B symptoms, initially high International Prognostic Index (IPI), splenomegaly, nonresponse to first-line therapy, the presence of early relapse, and carrying A allele (GA plus AA genotypes). The independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis were only early relapse and an initially high IPI score.
Discussion: CXCL12 rs1801157 polymorphism which was found to be associated with extranodal involvement and increased LDH in NHL might be a marker of poor prognosis in patients with GA and AA genotypes.
Conclusions: CXCL12-related rs18011517 polymorphism was more frequent in NHL patients: it might be associated with NHL pathogenesis and outcome.

Yan J, Zhang J, Zhang X, et al.
AEG-1 is involved in hypoxia-induced autophagy and decreases chemosensitivity in T-cell lymphoma.
Mol Med. 2018; 24(1):35 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 22/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study was to examine the link between astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) and hypoxia induced-chemoresistance in T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (T-NHL), as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms.
METHODS: Expression of AEG-1, LC3-II, and Beclin-1 were initially examined in human T-NHL tissues (n = 30) and normal lymph node tissues (n = 16) using western blot, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Western blot was also performed to analyze the expression of AEG-1, LC3-II, and Beclin-1 in T-NHL cells (Hut-78 and Jurkat cells) under normoxia and hypoxia. Additionally, the proliferation and apoptosis of Hut-78 cells exposed to different concentration of Adriamycin (ADM) in normoxia and hypoxia were evaluated by MTT and Annexin-V FITC/PI staining assay. Finally, the effects of AEG-1 on Hut-78 cells exposed to ADM in hypoxia were assessed by MTT and Annexin-V FITC/PI staining assay, and 3-MA (autophagy inhibitor) was further used to determine the underlying mechanism.
RESULTS: AEG-1, LC3-II and Beclin-1 expression were significantly increased in T-NHL tissues compared with normal tissues. Incubation of Hut-78 and Jurkat cells in hypoxia obviously increased AEG-1, LC3-II and Beclin-1 expression. Hypoxia induced proliferation and reduced apoptosis of Hut-78 cells exposed to ADM. AEG-1 overexpression further increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of Hut-78 cells exposed to ADM in hypoxia. Moreover, overexpression of AEG-1 significantly inversed 3-MA induced-changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis of Hut-78 cells exposed to ADM in hypoxia.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that AEG-1 is associated with hypoxia-induced T-NHL chemoresistance via regulating autophagy, uncovering a novel target against hypoxia-induced T-NHL chemoresistance.

Chen Y, Mei X, Gan D, et al.
Integration of bioinformatics and experiments to identify TP53 as a potential target in Emodin inhibiting diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 107:226-233 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) is a group of lymphoid malignancies with unsatisfactory treatment effect in some aggressive subtypes, including diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Emodin is an anthraquinone with potent anti-cancer activities. However, the molecular mechanism of Emodin repressing aggressive NHL remains to be revealed in detail. This study delineated the active mechanism of Emodin action in aggressive NHL by using bioinformatics analysis and in vitro assay. 4 Emodin's primary direct protein targets (DPT) were identified and the DPTs-associated proteins/genes were predicted. Those Emodin-related proteins/genes were subject to enrich Emodin-associated pathways, from which 3 significantly NHL-related signal pathways were refined identified. Advanced integrated analysis exhibited TP53 and PI3K as the significant molecule and pathway by which Emodin may function in NHL. To verify those bioinformatics findings, effects of Emodin and E35, a novel derivative of emodin were investigated on DLBCL cell lines SU-DHL4. Emodin and E35 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis of SU-DHL4 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Emodin and E35 declined TP53 protein expression and decreased phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT protein in a dose-dependent manner. All of above showed that combined bioinformatics analysis with experiments offered a novel approach for outlining the mechanisms of Emodin action in DLBCL with convenience and integrity.

Sbattella M, Zanichelli A, Ghia P, et al.
Splenic marginal zone lymphomas in acquired C1-inhibitor deficiency: clinical and molecular characterization.
Med Oncol. 2018; 35(9):118 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angioedema due to acquired deficiency of the inhibitor of the first component of complement (C1-INH) is a rare disease known as acquired angioedema (AAE). About 70% of patients with AEE display autoantibodies to C1-INH, the remaining patients have no antibodies to C1-INH. The clinical features of C1-INH deficiency include recurrent, self-limiting local swellings involving the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, and the upper respiratory tract. Swelling is due to accumulation of bradykinin released from high molecular weight kininogen. Patients with angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (AEE) often have an associated lymphoproliferative disease including Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL). Among AAE patients with NHL, splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) has a higher prevalence (66%) compared to general population (2%) In the present study, we focused on patients with SMZL in AAE. We found 24 AAE patients with NHL and, among them 15 SMZL (62.5% of all NHL). We found NOTCH 2 activation in 4 /15 patients (26.6%) with SMZL, while no patients carried MYD 88 or BIRC3 mutations. Restricted immunoglobulin gene repertoire analysis showed that the IGHV1-2*04 allele was found to be over-represented in the group of patients with or without lymphoproliferative disease presenting with autoantibodies to C1-INH (41 of 55 (75%) of patients; p value 0.011) when compared to the control group of patients with AEE without antibodies to C1-INH, (7 of 27 (26%) of patients). Immunophenotyping failed to demonstrate the presence of autoreactive clones against C1-inhibitor. Taken together, these findings suggest a role for antigenic stimulation in the pathogenesis of lymphomas associated with AEE.

Özdemir İ, Pınarlı FG, Pınarlı FA, et al.
Epigenetic silencing of the tumor suppressor genes SPI1, PRDX2, KLF4, DLEC1, and DAPK1 in childhood and adolescent lymphomas.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2018; 35(2):131-144 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the study was to investigate the expression and methylation status of seven distinctive genes with tumor suppressing properties in childhood and adolescent lymphomas. A total of 96 patients with Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL, n = 41), Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL, n = 15), and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH, n = 40, as controls) are included in the research. The expression status of CDKN2A, SPI1, PRDX2, DLEC1, FOXO1, KLF4 and DAPK1 genes were measured with QPCR method after the RNA isolation from paraffin blocks of tumor tissue and cDNA conversion. DNA isolation was performed from samples with low gene expression followed by methylation PCR study specific to promoter regions of these genes. We found that SPI1, PRDX2, DLEC1, KLF4, and DAPK1 genes are significantly less expressed in patient than the control group (p = 0.0001). However, expression of CDKNA2 and FOXO1 genes in the patient and control groups were not statistically different. The methylation ratios of all genes excluding the CDKN2A and FOXO1 were significantly higher in the HL and NHL groups than the controls (p = 0.0001). We showed that SPI1, PRDX2, DLEC1, KLF4 and DAPK1 genes are epigenetically silenced via hypermethylation in the tumor tissues of children with HL and NHL. As CDKN2A gene was not expressed in both patient and control groups, we conclude that it is not specific to malignancy. As FOXO1 gene was similarly expressed in both groups, its relationship with malignancy could not be established. The epigenetically silenced genes may be candidates for biomarkers or therapeutic targets in childhood and adolescent lymphomas.

Repetto-Llamazares AHV, Malenge MM, O'Shea A, et al.
Combination of
Eur J Haematol. 2018; 101(4):522-531 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the therapeutic potential of the next-generation anti-CD37 radioimmunoconjugate
METHODS: Nude mice with subcutaneous (s.c.) Burkitt's lymphoma Daudi xenografts and SCID mice intravenously (i.v.) injected with Mantle cell lymphoma Rec-1 cells were treated with either
RESULTS: The combination of
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of mice with NHL xenografts with

Byun J, Schwartz AG, Lusk C, et al.
Genome-wide association study of familial lung cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(9):1135-1140 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/09/2019 Related Publications
To identify genetic variation associated with lung cancer risk, we performed a genome-wide association analysis of 685 lung cancer cases that had a family history of two or more first or second degree relatives compared with 744 controls without lung cancer that were genotyped on an Illumina Human OmniExpressExome-8v1 array. To ensure robust results, we further evaluated these findings using data from six additional studies that were assembled through the Transdisciplinary Research on Cancer of the Lung Consortium comprising 1993 familial cases and 33 690 controls. We performed a meta-analysis after imputation of all variants using the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 (version 3 release date September 2013). Analyses were conducted for 9 327 222 SNPs integrating data from the two sources. A novel variant on chromosome 4p15.31 near the LCORL gene and an imputed rare variant intergenic between CDKN2A and IFNA8 on chromosome 9p21.3 were identified at a genome-wide level of significance for squamous cell carcinomas. Additionally, associations of CHRNA3 and CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25.1 in sporadic lung cancer were confirmed at a genome-wide level of significance in familial lung cancer. Previously identified variants in or near CHRNA2, BRCA2, CYP2A6 for overall lung cancer, TERT, SECISPB2L and RTEL1 for adenocarcinoma and RAD52 and MHC for squamous carcinoma were significantly associated with lung cancer.

Zuo M, Shen H, Yin J, et al.
Expression of PD-1 on peripheral blood Treg cells is related to the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Leuk Res. 2018; 70:56-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of study was to explore the PD-1 expression on Treg cells and its association with T-NHL.
METHODS: 137 patients newly diagnosed with T-NHL and 115 healthy controls were enrolled. The expression level of PD-1 was measured by flow cytometry at the time of diagnose and 3-8 course of treatment.
RESULTS: Median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of PD-1 on Treg cells in T-NHL patients was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (P < 0.001). MFI of PD-1 in medium/high-risk T-NHL patients were higher than that in low-risk patients (P < 0.05). After treatment with Chidamide combined with chemotherapy, MFI of PD-1 significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In patients with high PD-1 expression (percentage>19.6% and MFI > 580), EFS was significantly lower than patients with low PD-1 expression (percentage<19.6% and MFI < 580).
CONCLUSIONS: The PD-1expression on peripheral blood Treg cells of T-NHL patients is related to the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of disease.

Fuchs O
Treatment of Lymphoid and Myeloid Malignancies by Immunomodulatory Drugs.
Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2019; 19(1):51-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thalidomide and its derivatives (lenalidomide, pomalidomide, avadomide, iberdomide hydrochoride, CC-885 and CC-90009) form the family of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs). Lenalidomide (CC5013, Revlimid®) was approved by the US FDA and the EMA for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, low or intermediate-1 risk transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with chromosome 5q deletion [del(5q)] and relapsed and/or refractory mantle cell lymphoma following bortezomib. Lenalidomide has also been studied in clinical trials and has shown promising activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Lenalidomide has anti-inflammatory effects and inhibits angiogenesis. Pomalidomide (CC4047, Imnovid® [EU], Pomalyst® [USA]) was approved for advanced MM insensitive to bortezomib and lenalidomide. Other IMiDs are in phases 1 and 2 of clinical trials. Cereblon (CRBN) seems to have an important role in IMiDs action in both lymphoid and myeloid hematological malignancies. Cereblon acts as the substrate receptor of a cullin-4 really interesting new gene (RING) E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4CRBN. This E3 ubiquitin ligase in the absence of lenalidomide ubiquitinates CRBN itself and the other components of CRL4CRBN complex. Presence of lenalidomide changes specificity of CRL4CRBN which ubiquitinates two transcription factors, IKZF1 (Ikaros) and IKZF3 (Aiolos), and casein kinase 1α (CK1α) and marks them for degradation in proteasomes. Both these transcription factors (IKZF1 and IKZF3) stimulate proliferation of MM cells and inhibit T cells. Low CRBN level was connected with insensitivity of MM cells to lenalidomide. Lenalidomide decreases expression of protein argonaute-2, which binds to cereblon. Argonaute-2 seems to be an important drug target against IMiDs resistance in MM cells. Lenalidomide decreases also basigin and monocarboxylate transporter 1 in MM cells. MM cells with low expression of Ikaros, Aiolos and basigin are more sensitive to lenalidomide treatment. The CK1α gene (CSNK1A1) is located on 5q32 in commonly deleted region (CDR) in del(5q) MDS. Inhibition of CK1α sensitizes del(5q) MDS cells to lenalidomide. CK1α mediates also survival of malignant plasma cells in MM. Though, inhibition of CK1α is a potential novel therapy not only in del(5q) MDS but also in MM. High level of full length CRBN mRNA in mononuclear cells of bone marrow and of peripheral blood seems to be necessary for successful therapy of del(5q) MDS with lenalidomide. While transfusion independence (TI) after lenalidomide treatment is more than 60% in MDS patients with del(5q), only 25% TI and substantially shorter duration of response with occurrence of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were achieved in lower risk MDS patients with normal karyotype treated with lenalidomide. Shortage of the biomarkers for lenalidomide response in these MDS patients is the main problem up to now.

Kapsogeorgou EK, Papageorgiou A, Protogerou AD, et al.
Low miR200b-5p levels in minor salivary glands: a novel molecular marker predicting lymphoma development in patients with Sjögren's syndrome.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2018; 77(8):1200-1207 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is the major adverse outcome of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) affecting both morbidity and mortality. Preliminary evidence suggested that, although not deregulated compared with sicca controls, miR200b-5p levels are decreased in the minor salivary glands (MSGs) of SS patients with NHL. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the MSG expression of miR200b-5p in SS-associated NHLs and its potential predictive value for the identification of patients with SS susceptible to develop NHL.
METHODS: miR200b-5p expression was investigated in MSG tissues of patients with SS who were at: (A) low risk and did not develop NHL during follow-up (n=27; median follow-up time on biopsy performance, range: 8.9 years, 1.33-14 years), (B) high-risk and diagnosed with NHL during follow-up (prelymphoma; n=17; median follow-up to until lymphoma diagnosis, range: 3.67 years, 0.42-8.5 years) and (C) had NHL (n=35), as well as non-SS sialadenitis controls (sarcoidosis and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, four each). The differential miR200b-5p expression, correlations with disease features and its discriminative/predictive value, was evaluated by appropriate statistical approaches.
RESULTS: The MSG levels of miR200b-5p were significantly downregulated in patients with SS who will develop or have NHL and strongly discriminated (p<0.0001) them from those without lymphoma or non-SS sialadenitis. Furthermore, they were reduced long before clinical onset of lymphoma, did not significantly change on transition to lymphoma and, importantly, were proved strong independent predictors of patients who will develop NHL (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings support that miR200b-5p levels in MSGs represent a novel predictive and possibly pathogenetic mechanism-related factor for the development of SS-associated NHL, since its expression is impaired years before lymphoma clinical onset.

Pál I, Illés Á, Gergely L, et al.
The Impact of Drug Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms on Therapeutic Response and Survival in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients.
Isr Med Assoc J. 2018; 20(4):217-221 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounts for 30% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and 80% of agressive lymphomas. Besides the traditional International Prognostic Index (IPI), some other factors may also influence the prognosis of DLBCL patients.
OBJECTIVES: To study how the genetic polymorphisms in the metabolic pathway influence the event-free and overall survivals and therapeutic responses in DLBCL.
METHODS: The study was comprised of 51 patients (32 men, 19 women). The average age was 53.1 years. DLBCL was diagnosed between 2011 and 2016 and the average follow-up time was 3.78 years. These patients received 1-8 cycles (an average of 6.2 cycles) of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristin, prednisolon (R-CHOP) immunochemotherapy. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTP1, NAT1, and NAT2 genes.
RESULTS: Our results showed that the polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTP1, and NAT1 genes did not influence the prognosis of DLBCL patients significantly. In terms of the NAT2 gene, GG homozygous patients showed slightly better therapeutic response and survival results compared to those bearing an A allele; however, the differences were not statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results could not confirm that genetic polymorphism in metabolic pathways has any predictive role in DLBCL.

Terziev D, Hutter B, Klink B, et al.
Nivolumab maintenance after salvage autologous stem cell transplantation results in long-term remission in multiple relapsed primary CNS lymphoma.
Eur J Haematol. 2018; 101(1):115-118 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recurrence of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) usually has a poor overall prognosis with limited treatment options. Data on repeated ASCT are sparse. Checkpoint inhibitor maintenance therapy has also not been reported in PCNSL. Here, we report the first documented case of a successful third ASCT in second relapse of PCNSL. Whole-exome sequencing identified a hypermutated tumor genotype. Additionally, immunohistochemistry on pretreatment tumor tissue revealed infiltrates of PD-1

Schleussner N, Merkel O, Costanza M, et al.
The AP-1-BATF and -BATF3 module is essential for growth, survival and TH17/ILC3 skewing of anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(9):1994-2007 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/09/2019 Related Publications
Transcription factor AP-1 is constitutively activated and IRF4 drives growth and survival in ALK

Bassig BA, Willhauck-Fleckenstein M, Shu XO, et al.
Serologic markers of viral infection and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A pooled study of three prospective cohorts in China and Singapore.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(3):570-579 [PubMed] Related Publications
Incidence rates of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and distributions of certain viruses differ between East Asian and Western populations. There are limited data on associations between serologic markers of multiple viral infections in pre-diagnostic blood and NHL risk in East Asians. We conducted a nested case-control study of 214 NHL cases and 214 matched controls from three population-based prospective cohorts in Shanghai and Singapore. Antibodies against antigens from herpesviruses, Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus and polyomaviruses were measured in plasma or serum using fluorescent bead-based multiplex assays. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between antibody levels and NHL risk. An increased risk of NHL was observed for higher compared to lower EA-D (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.04, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.10-3.81; p

Li M, Gan Y, Fan C, et al.
Hepatitis B virus and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: An updated meta-analysis of 58 studies.
J Viral Hepat. 2018; 25(8):894-903 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies have focused on the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, the results remain inconsistent and somehow conflicting in different subgroups. The aim of this study was to combine the findings of independent studies to comprehensively assess the association between HBV and NHL using a meta-analysis. Relevant studies were identified through structured keyword searches in PubMed, EMBASE and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, and 58 studies with a total of 53 714 NHL cases and 1 778 591 controls were finally included. Pooled estimates indicated a significantly increased NHL risk in HBV-infected individuals (summary odds ratio [sOR]: 2.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.20-2.83) regardless of the study design (case-control studies: sOR: 2.47; 95% CI: 2.16-2.82; cohort studies: sOR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.78-3.91). Considerable heterogeneity was observed across studies that was primarily attributed to the NHL subtypes (meta-regression: P < .05). Overall, B-cell NHL (sOR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.97-3.07) presented a stronger association with HBV infection than T-cell NHL (sOR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.34-2.10). Within the B-cell NHL subtypes, HBV infection was significantly associated with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, sOR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.48-2.88) and follicular lymphoma (FL, sOR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.11-2.12), but not with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) and Burkitt lymphoma. The results of this meta-analysis support a positive link between HBV infection and NHL development. Further investigations for the mechanisms underlying HBV-induced NHL are warranted.

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