SDHA

Gene Summary

Gene:SDHA; succinate dehydrogenase complex flavoprotein subunit A
Aliases: FP, PGL5, SDH1, SDH2, SDHF, CMD1GG
Location:5p15.33
Summary:This gene encodes a major catalytic subunit of succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, a complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The complex is composed of four nuclear-encoded subunits and is localized in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Mutations in this gene have been associated with a form of mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency known as Leigh Syndrome. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 3q29. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, mitochondrial
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: SDHA (cancer-related)

Santi R, Rapizzi E, Canu L, et al.
Potential Pitfalls of SDH Immunohistochemical Detection in Paragangliomas and Phaeochromocytomas Harbouring Germline SDHx Gene Mutation.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):805-812 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Germline mutations in any of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes result in destabilization of the SDH protein complex and loss of SDHB expression at immunohistochemistry. SDHA is lost together with SDHB in SDHA-mutated tumours, but its expression is retained in tumours with other SDH mutations. We investigated whether SDHA/SDHB immunohistochemistry is able to identify SDH-related tumours in a retrospective case series of phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: SDHA and SDHB immunostaining was performed in 13 SDH gene-mutated tumours (SDHB: n=3; SDHC: n=1; SDHD: n=9) and 16 wild-type tumours. Protein expression by western blot analysis and enzymatic activity were also assessed.
RESULTS: Tumours harbouring SDH gene mutations demonstrated a significant reduction in enzymatic activity and protein expression when compared to wild-type tumours. SDHB immunostaining detected 76.9% of SDH mutated PCCs/PGLs (3/3 SDHB-mutated samples; 1/1 SDHC-mutated sample; 6/9 SDHD-mutated samples). In three SDHD-related tumours with the same mutation (p.Pro81Leu), positive (n=2) or weakly diffuse (n=1) SDHB staining was observed. All wild-type PCCs/PGLs exhibited SDHB immunoreactivity, while immunostaining for SDHA was positive in 93.8% cases and weakly diffuse in one (6.2%). SDHA protein expression was preserved in all tumours with mutations.
CONCLUSION: SDHA and SDHB immunohistochemistry should be interpreted with caution, due to possible false-positive or false-negative results, and ideally in the setting of quality assurance provided by molecular testing. In SDHD mutation, weak non-specific cytoplasmic staining occurs commonly, and this pattern of staining can be difficult to interpret with certainty.

Chetty R, Serra S
Molecular and morphological correlation in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs): an update and primer.
J Clin Pathol. 2016; 69(9):754-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are a commonly encountered tumour in routine practice. In the main, the morphology of spindle, epithelioid or mixed are well recognised along with mutations of c-kit However, there are other genes that are mutated resulting in characteristic clinicopathological correlations. GISTs harbouring platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) gene mutations lead to a typical morphological constellation of findings: gastric and omental location, gross tumour that is cystic and haemorrhagic, composed of epithelioid, plasmacytoid cells exhibiting pleomorphism, low mitotic count and containing characteristic giant cells with peripherally placed nuclei. These cells are set in a myxoid stroma containing several mast cells. In addition, perivascular/intratumoural hyalinisation is often seen. These tumours are CD117 and DOG-1 positive. GISTs with SDH mutations are multinodular/bilobed/dumb-bell shape tumour masses with mucosal ulceration and histologically characterised by fibrous bands around and within nodules of epithelioid or mixed epithelioid/spindle cells. Lymphovascular invasion with lymph node metastases are usual. Immunohistochemically, the GISTs are CD117, DOG-1 positive, SDHA negative (if SDHA mutated), SDHA positive (if SDHA intact) and SDHB negative. BRAF and NF-1 mutated GISTs do not have any characteristic morphological features.

Lin CS, Lee HT, Lee MH, et al.
Role of Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number Alteration in Human Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We investigated the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number alteration in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The mtDNA copy numbers of paired cancer and non-cancer parts from five resected RCC kidneys after radical nephrectomy were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). An RCC cell line, 786-O, was infected by lentiviral particles to knock down mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM). Null target (NT) and TFAM-knockdown (TFAM-KD) represented the control and knockdown 786-O clones, respectively. Protein or mRNA expression levels of TFAM; mtDNA-encoded NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), ND6 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (COX-2); nuclear DNA (nDNA)-encoded succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA); v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 gene (AKT)-encoded AKT and v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog gene (c-MYC)-encoded MYC; glycolytic enzymes including hexokinase II (HK-II), glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and lactate dehydrogenase subunit A (LDHA); and hypoxia-inducible factors the HIF-1α and HIF-2α, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component α subunit (PDHA1) were analyzed by Western blot or Q-PCR. Bioenergetic parameters of cellular metabolism, basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (mOCRB) and basal extracellular acidification rate (ECARB), were measured by a Seahorse XF(e)-24 analyzer. Cell invasiveness was evaluated by a trans-well migration assay and vimentin expression. Doxorubicin was used as a chemotherapeutic agent. The results showed a decrease of mtDNA copy numbers in resected RCC tissues (p = 0.043). The TFAM-KD clone expressed lower mtDNA copy number (p = 0.034), lower mRNA levels of TFAM (p = 0.008), ND1 (p = 0.007), and ND6 (p = 0.017), and lower protein levels of TFAM and COX-2 than did the NT clone. By contrast, the protein levels of HIF-2α, HK-II, PFK, LDHA, AKT, MYC and vimentin; trans-well migration activity (p = 0.007); and drug resistance to doxorubicin (p = 0.008) of the TFAM-KD clone were significantly higher than those of the NT clone. Bioenergetically, the TFAM-KD clone expressed lower mOCRB (p = 0.009) but higher ECARB (p = 0.037) than did the NT clone. We conclude that a reduction of mtDNA copy number and decrease of respiratory function of mitochondria in RCC might be compensated for by an increase of enzymes and factors that are involved in the upregulation of glycolysis to confer RCC more invasive and a drug-resistant phenotype in vitro.

Kuroda N, Yorita K, Nagasaki M, et al.
Review of succinate dehydrogenase-deficient renal cell carcinoma with focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects.
Pol J Pathol. 2016; 67(1):3-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was first identified in 2004 and has been integrated into the 2016 WHO classification of RCC. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is an enzyme complex composed of four protein subunits (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD). The tumor which presents this enzyme mutation accounts for 0.05 to 0.2% of all renal carcinomas. Multiple tumors may occur in approximately 30% of affected patients. SDHB-deficient RCC is the most frequent, and the tumor histologically consists of cuboidal cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, vacuolization, flocculent intracytoplasmic inclusion and indistinct cell borders. Ultrastructurally, the tumor contains abundant mitochondria. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells are positive for SDHA, but negative for SDHB in SDHB-, SDHC- and SDHD-deficient RCCs. However, SDHA-deficient RCC shows negativity for both SDHA and SDHB. In molecular genetic analyses, a germline mutation in the SDHB, SDHC or SDHD gene (in keeping with most patients having germline mutations in an SDH gene) has been identified in patients with or without a family history of renal tumors, paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma or gastrointestinal stromal tumor. While most tumors are low grade, some tumors may behave in an aggressive fashion, particularly if they are high nuclear grade, and have coagulative necrosis or sarcomatoid differentiation.

Fujisawa K, Terai S, Takami T, et al.
Modulation of anti-cancer drug sensitivity through the regulation of mitochondrial activity by adenylate kinase 4.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adenylate kinase is a key enzyme in the high-energy phosphoryl transfer reaction in living cells. An isoform of this enzyme, adenylate kinase 4 (AK4), is localized in the mitochondrial matrix and is believed to be involved in stress, drug resistance, malignant transformation in cancer, and ATP regulation. However, the molecular basis for the AK4 functions remained to be determined.
METHODS: HeLa cells were transiently transfected with an AK4 small interfering RNA (siRNA), an AK4 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid, a control shRNA plasmid, an AK4 expression vector, and a control expression vector to examine the effect of the AK4 expression on cell proliferation, sensitivity to anti-cancer drug, metabolome, gene expression, and mitochondrial activity.
RESULTS: AK4 knockdown cells treated with short hairpin RNA increased ATP production and showed greater sensitivity to hypoxia and anti-cancer drug, cis-diamminedichloro-platinum (II) (CDDP). Subcutaneous grafting AK4 knockdown cells into nude mice revealed that the grafted cells exhibited both slower proliferation and reduced the tumor sizes in response to CDDP. AK4 knockdown cell showed a increased oxygen consumption rate with FCCP treatment, while AK4 overexpression lowered it. Metabolome analysis showed the increased levels of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, fumarate and malate in AK4 knockdown cells, while AK4 overexpression lowered them. Electron microscopy detected the increased mitochondrial numbers in AK4 knockdown cells. Microarray analysis detected the increased gene expression of two key enzymes in TCA cycle, succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA) and oxoglutarate dehydrogenease L (OGDHL), which are components of SDH complex and OGDH complex, supporting the metabolomic results.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that AK4 was involved in hypoxia tolerance, resistance to anti-tumor drug, and the regulation of mitochondrial activity. These findings provide a new potential target for efficient anticancer therapies by controlling AK4 expression.

Guo T, Gu C, Chen X, et al.
Inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase sensitizes cyclin E-driven ovarian cancer to CDK inhibition.
Biofactors. 2016 Mar-Apr; 42(2):171-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGS-OvCa) is characterized by widespread CCNE1 amplification. Current treatments lack specificity to target Cyclin E-driven OvCa.
METHODS: By in silico analysis of the TCGA OvCa dataset we searched association between genes involved in glucose metabolism and cell cycle control. Metabolic shift was studied in Cyclin E-driven OvCa cells treated with CDK inhibition (CDKi). Genetic and pharmaceutical inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) was tested in combination with CDKi.
RESULTS: OvCa patients with CCNE1 amplification could be divided by concomitant SDHA amplification. A2780 OvCa cells were similar to the Cyclin E-driven and SDHA neutral genotype. CDKi in A2780 cells using Dinaciclib resulted in compensatory enhancement of tricarboxylicacid cycle (TCA) cycle activity. Combined blockade of CDK and SDH, both genetically and pharmaceutically, showed synergy and resulted in inhibited proliferation, migration, invasion and migration in A2780 cells. The combined inhibition did not further alter cell cycle population, but induced apoptosis of A2780 cells.
CONCLUSION: Cyclin E-driven OvCa cells appeared addicted to glucose metabolism via TCA. Combined CDKi with modalities targeting TCA, like SDHA inhibition showed promising effects for this genotype.

Meulendijks D, Henricks LM, Amstutz U, et al.
Rs895819 in MIR27A improves the predictive value of DPYD variants to identify patients at risk of severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(11):2752-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study was to determine whether genotyping of MIR27A polymorphisms rs895819A>G and rs11671784C>T can be used to improve the predictive value of DPYD variants to identify patients at risk of severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity (FP-toxicity). Patients treated previously in a prospective study with fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy were genotyped for rs895819 and rs11671784, and DPYD c.2846A>T, c.1679T>G, c.1129-5923C>G and c.1601G>A. The predictive value of MIR27A variants for early-onset grade ≥3 FP-toxicity, alone or in combination with DPYD variants, was tested in multivariable logistic regression models. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed, including previously published data. A total of 1,592 patients were included. Allele frequencies of rs895819 and rs11671784 were 0.331 and 0.020, respectively. In DPYD wild-type patients, MIR27A variants did not affect risk of FP-toxicity (OR 1.3 for ≥1 variant MIR27A allele vs. none, 95% CI: 0.87-1.82, p = 0.228). In contrast, in patients carrying DPYD variants, the presence of ≥1 rs895819 variant allele was associated with increased risk of FP-toxicity (OR 4.9, 95% CI: 1.24-19.7, p = 0.023). Rs11671784 was not associated with FP-toxicity (OR 2.9, 95% CI: 0.47-18.0, p = 0.253). Patients carrying a DPYD variant and rs895819 were at increased risk of FP-toxicity compared to patients wild type for rs895819 and DPYD (OR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.27-4.37, p = 0.007), while patients with a DPYD variant but without a MIR27A variant were not (OR 0.3 95% CI: 0.06-1.17, p = 0.081). In meta-analysis, rs895819 remained significantly associated with FP-toxicity in DPYD variant allele carriers, OR 5.4 (95% CI: 1.83-15.7, p = 0.002). This study demonstrates the clinical validity of combined MIR27A/DPYD screening to identify patients at risk of severe FP-toxicity.

Jiang Q, Zhang Y, Zhou YH, et al.
A novel germline mutation in SDHA identified in a rare case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor complicated with renal cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(10):12188-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which is located on the mitochondrial inner membrane, is essential to the Krebs cycle. Mutations of the SDH gene are associated with many tumors, such as renal cell carcinoma, wild type gastrointestinal stromal tumors (WT GISTs) and hereditary paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas. Herein we present a rare case diagnosed as a WT GIST complicated with a renal chromophobe cell tumor and detected a novel germline heterozygous mutation (c.2T>C: p.M1T) in the initiation codon of the SDHA gene. We also conduct a preliminary exploration for the mechanism of reduced expression of SDHB without mutation of SDHB gene. Our case enriches the mutation spectrum of the SDH gene. After reviewing previous studies, we found it to be the first case diagnosed as a WT GIST complicated with a synchronous renal chromophobe cell tumor and identified a novel germline heterozygous mutation. It was also the second reported case of a renal cell carcinoma associated with an SDHA mutation.

Denicolaï E, Tabouret E, Colin C, et al.
Molecular heterogeneity of glioblastomas: does location matter?
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(1):902-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastomas in adults are highly heterogeneous tumors that can develop throughout the brain. To date no predictive-location marker has been identified. We previously derived two glioblastoma cell lines from cortical and periventricular locations and demonstrated distinct transcriptomic profiles. Based on these preliminary results, the aim of this study was to correlate glioblastoma locations with the expression of ten selected genes (VEGFC, FLT4, MET, HGF, CHI3L1, PROM1, NOTCH1, DLL3, PDGFRA, BCAN). Fifty nine patients with newly diagnosed glioblastomas were retrospectively included. Tumors were classified into cortical and periventricular locations, which were subsequently segregated according to cerebral lobes involved: cortical fronto-parietal (C-FP), cortical temporal (C-T), periventricular fronto-parietal (PV-FP), periventricular temporal (PV-T), and periventricular occipital (PV-O). Gene expression levels were determined using RT-qPCR. Compared to cortical glioblastomas, periventricular glioblastomas were characterized by a higher expression of two mesenchymal genes, VEGFC (p = 0.001) and HGF (p = 0.001). Among cortical locations, gene expressions were homogeneous. In contrast, periventricular locations exhibited distinct expression profiles. PV-T tumors were associated with higher expression of two proneural and cancer stem cell genes, NOTCH1 (p = 0.028) and PROM1 (p = 0.033) while PV-FP tumors were characterized by high expression of a mesenchymal gene, CHI3L1 (p = 0.006). Protein expression of NOTCH1 was correlated with RNA expression levels. PV-O glioblastomas were associated with lower expression of VEGFC (p = 0.032) than other periventricular locations, whereas MET overexpression remained exceptional. These data suggest a differential gene expression profile according to initial glioblastoma location.

Kuznia AL, Roett MA
Genital Cancers in Women: Ovarian Cancer.
FP Essent. 2015; 438:24-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
More than 20,000 US women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer each year. The average lifetime risk is 1.3%, but risk increases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations (40% and 18% risk, respectively, by age 70 years) or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (12% lifetime risk). Other risk factors include smoking, possibly past clomiphene use, and more years of ovulation. Symptoms are nonspecific. Abdominal pain is most common; others include pelvic pain, bloating, and early satiety. When ovarian cancer is suspected, evaluation should begin with transvaginal ultrasonography with Doppler studies. Cancer antigen 125 testing can be obtained, but levels are not elevated in all patients. Other biomarkers (eg, OVA1) and scoring systems can be used to help determine if cancer is present. When diagnosed early (stage I), the 5-year survival rate is 90% for epithelial ovarian cancer. However, most patients with epithelial ovarian cancer are diagnosed in stage III or later, with a 5-year survival rate of 17% to 39%. Treatment involves total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, with or without chemotherapy. Fertility-preserving options can be considered in some early-stage cancers, followed by more definitive surgical procedures. There is no evidence that routine screening is beneficial and it is associated with significant harms from unnecessary procedures. Women with genetic syndromes that increase risk should be considered for prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.

Scollo C, Russo M, De Gregorio L, et al.
A novel RET gene mutation in a patient with apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma.
Endocr J. 2016; 63(1):87-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pheochromocytoma (Pheo) is a chromaffin tumor arising from the adrenal medulla. The recent discovery of new germline mutations in RET, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, VHL, NF1, TMEM127, MAX genes, increased the rate of genetic disease from 10% to 28% in patients with apparently sporadic tumor. RET germline mutations cause multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome (MEN 2A) characterized by complete penetrance of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), and lower prevalence of Pheo and hyperparathyroidism. We describe the genetic etiology of an apparently sporadic case of monolateral Pheo in a 42-year-old male patient. A new (not previously reported) MEN 2A-associated germline RET mutation located in exon 11 (Glu632Gly, caused by an A>G point mutation at position 1895 of the RET cDNA) was found in the patient but not in his living first-degree relatives. This observation increases the number of possible germline RET mutations. Genotype-phenotype correlation of this new genetic alteration is unknown, but this rare mutation is probably associated with a low risk for MTC (usually the first tumor diagnosed in MEN 2A syndrome) and with the development of Pheo before the onset of MTC. Since we expect MTC to occur in our patient, strict follow-up is mandatory. Our findings emphasize the relevance of genetic testing in patients with Pheo, especially when the clinical presentation (family history, young age at diagnosis, multiple locations, malignant lesions, and bilateralism) is suggestive.

Lussey-Lepoutre C, Bellucci A, Morin A, et al.
In Vivo Detection of Succinate by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Hallmark of SDHx Mutations in Paraganglioma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(5):1120-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Germline mutations in genes encoding mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) are found in patients with paragangliomas, pheochromocytomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and renal cancers. SDH inactivation leads to a massive accumulation of succinate, acting as an oncometabolite and which levels, assessed on surgically resected tissue are a highly specific biomarker of SDHx-mutated tumors. The aim of this study was to address the feasibility of detecting succinate in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A pulsed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) sequence was developed, optimized, and applied to image nude mice grafted with Sdhb(-/-) or wild-type chromaffin cells. The method was then applied to patients with paraganglioma carrying (n = 5) or not (n = 4) an SDHx gene mutation. Following surgery, succinate was measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and SDH protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in resected tumors.
RESULTS: A succinate peak was observed at 2.44 ppm by (1)H-MRS in all Sdhb(-/-)-derived tumors in mice and in all paragangliomas of patients carrying an SDHx gene mutation, but neither in wild-type mouse tumors nor in patients exempt of SDHx mutation. In one patient, (1)H-MRS results led to the identification of an unsuspected SDHA gene mutation. In another case, it helped define the pathogenicity of a variant of unknown significance in the SDHB gene.
CONCLUSIONS: Detection of succinate by (1)H-MRS is a highly specific and sensitive hallmark of SDHx mutations. This noninvasive approach is a simple and robust method allowing in vivo detection of the major biomarker of SDHx-mutated tumors.

Walther C, Mayrhofer M, Nilsson J, et al.
Genetic heterogeneity in rhabdomyosarcoma revealed by SNP array analysis.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(1):3-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents. Alveolar (ARMS) and embryonal (ERMS) histologies predominate, but rare cases are classified as spindle cell/sclerosing (SRMS). For treatment stratification, RMS is further subclassified as fusion-positive (FP-RMS) or fusion-negative (FN-RMS), depending on whether a gene fusion involving PAX3 or PAX7 is present or not. We investigated 19 cases of pediatric RMS using high resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. FP-ARMS displayed, on average, more structural rearrangements than ERMS; the single FN-ARMS had a genomic profile similar to ERMS. Apart from previously known amplification (e.g., MYCN, CDK4, and MIR17HG) and deletion (e.g., NF1, CDKN2A, and CDKN2B) targets, amplification of ERBB2 and homozygous loss of ASCC3 or ODZ3 were seen. Combining SNP array with cytogenetic data revealed that most cases were polyploid, with at least one case having started as a near-haploid tumor. Further bioinformatic analysis of the SNP array data disclosed genetic heterogeneity, in the form of subclonal chromosomal imbalances, in five tumors. The outcome was worse for patients with FP-ARMS than ERMS or FN-ARMS (6/8 vs. 1/9 dead of disease), and the only children with ERMS showing intratumor diversity or with MYOD1 mutation-positive SRMS also died of disease. High resolution SNP array can be useful in evaluating genomic imbalances in pediatric RMS.

Ozluk Y, Taheri D, Matoso A, et al.
Renal carcinoma associated with a novel succinate dehydrogenase A mutation: a case report and review of literature of a rare subtype of renal carcinoma.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(12):1951-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) linked to germline mutation of succinate dehydrogenase subunits A, B, C, and D (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD, respectively) has been recently included as a provisional entity in the 2013 International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver classification. Most SDH-deficient tumors show SDHB mutation, with only a small number of RCC with SDHC or SDHD having been reported to date. Only one case of SDH-deficient renal carcinoma known to be SDHA mutated has been previously reported. Here we report an additional RCC harboring an SDHA mutation occurring in a 62-year-old man with right flank pain and nodal metastasis. The tumor was characterized by an infiltrative pattern with solid, acinar, and papillary components. Loss of SDHA and SDHB protein by immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis. Hybrid capture-based comprehensive genomic profiling identified 3 genomic alterations in tumor tissue: (i) a novel single-nucleotide splice site deletion in SDHA gene, (ii) single-nucleotide deletion in NF2 gene, and (iii) EGFR gene amplification of 19 copies. This is the second report of SDHA-mutated RCC. With increased awareness, this rare tumor can be recognized on the basis of distinctive morphology and confirmation by immunohistochemistry and genomic profiling.

Giubellino A, Lara K, Martucci V, et al.
Urinary Bladder Paragangliomas: How Immunohistochemistry Can Assist to Identify Patients With SDHB Germline and Somatic Mutations.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(11):1488-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Urinary bladder paraganglioma (paraganglioma) is a rare tumor of chromaffin cells of the sympathetic system of the urinary bladder wall. We studied 14 cases of this entity and investigated the usefulness of SDHB protein staining by immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a diagnostic tool to identify patients with bladder paragangliomas that could be associated with SDHB gene mutations, as these patients have a more aggressive disease. Eleven tumors from these patients were stained by IHC. Six of 11 tumors were negative for SDHB staining by IHC with no cytoplasmic staining in tumor cells when compared with normal tissues. Five of these 6 negative cases were confirmed to be positive for germline SDHB mutations. One case showed negative staining and no germline SDHB mutation; however, further investigation of the tumor revealed a somatic SDHB gene deletion. The remaining 5 cases showed strong cytoplasmic staining, but they were negative for the presence of SDHB mutation. They were found to be either sporadic tumors or part of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Staining for SDHA was positive in all cases. Our study confirms that there is very good correlation between the presence of an SDHB mutation, whether germline or sporadic, and negative SDHB IHC staining in urinary bladder paragangliomas, and this is the first study to demonstrate that somatic mutations can be recognized by IHC staining.

Pereira MS, de Almeida GC, Pinto F, et al.
SPINT2 Deregulation in Prostate Carcinoma.
J Histochem Cytochem. 2016; 64(1):32-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SPINT2 is a tumor suppressor gene that inhibits proteases implicated in cancer progression, like HGFA, hepsin and matriptase. Loss of SPINT2 expression in tumors has been associated with gene promoter hypermethylation; however, little is known about the mechanisms of SPINT2 deregulation in prostate cancer (PCa). We aimed to analyze SPINT2 expression levels and understand the possible regulation by SPINT2 promoter hypermethylation in PCa. In a cohort of 57 cases including non-neoplastic and PCa tissues, SPINT2 expression and promoter methylation was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. Methylation status of the SPINT2 promoter was also evaluated by bisulfite sequencing and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment. Oncomine and TCGA databases were used to perform in silico PCa analysis of SPINT2 mRNA and methylation levels. A reduction in SPINT2 expression levels from non-neoplastic to PCa tissues was observed; however, none of the cases exhibited SPINT2 promoter methylation. Both bisulfite sequencing and 5-aza demonstrated that SPINT2 promoter is not methylated in PCa cells. Bioinformatics approaches did not show downregulation of SPINT2 at the mRNA level and, in corroboration with our results, SPINT2 promoter region is reported to be unmethylated. Our study suggests an involvement of SPINT2 in PCa tumorigenesis, probably in association with a post-translational regulation of SPINT2.

Urbini M, Astolfi A, Indio V, et al.
SDHC methylation in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST): a case report.
BMC Med Genet. 2015; 16:87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) recently have been recognized as a genetically and biologically heterogeneous disease. In addition to KIT or PDGFRA mutated GIST, mutational inactivation of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits has been detected in the KIT/PDGFRA wild-type subgroup, referred to as SDH deficient (dSDH). Even though most dSDH GIST harbor mutations in SDHx subunit genes, some are SDHx wild type. Epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation of CpG islands recently has been found to be an alternative mechanism underlying the lack of SDH complex in GIST.
CASE PRESENTATION: We report a particular case of dSDH GIST, previously analyzed with microarrays and next-generation sequencing, for which no molecular pathogenetic events have been identified. Gene expression analysis showed remarkable down-modulation of SDHC mRNA with respect to all other GIST samples, both SDHA-mutant and KIT/PDGFRA-mutant GIST. By a bisulfite methylation assay targeted to 2 SDHC CpG islands, we detected hypermethylation of the SDHC promoter.
CONCLUSION: Herein we report an additional case of dSDH GIST without SDHx mutation but harboring hypermethylation in the SDHC promoter, thus confirming the complexity of the molecular background of this subtype of GIST.

Hadziabdic N, Kurtovic-Kozaric A, Pojskic N, et al.
Gene-expression analysis of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 and their tissue inhibitors in chronic periapical inflammatory lesions.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2016; 45(3):224-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Periapical inflammatory lesions have been investigated previously, but understanding of pathogenesis of these lesions (granulomas and radicular cysts) at the molecular level is still questionable. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes involved in the development of periapical pathology, specifically inflammation and tissue destruction. To elucidate pathogenesis of periapical granulomas and radicular cysts, we undertook a detailed analysis of gene expression of MMP-1, MMP-2 and their tissue inhibitors, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2.
METHODS: A total of 149 samples were analyzed using real-time PCR (59 radicular cysts, 50 periapical granulomas and 40 healthy gingiva samples as controls) for expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 genes. The determination of best reference gene for expression analysis of periapical lesions was done using a panel of 12 genes.
RESULTS: We have shown that β-actin and GAPDH are not the most stable reference controls for gene expression analysis of inflammatory periapical tissues and healthy gingiva. The most suitable reference gene was determined to be SDHA (a succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein [Fp]). We found that granulomas (n = 50) and radicular cysts (n = 59) exhibited significantly higher expression of all four examined genes, MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, when compared to healthy gingiva (n = 40; P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: This study has confirmed that the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 genes is important for the pathogenesis of periapical inflammatory lesions. Since the abovementioned markers were not differentially expressed in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts, the challenge of finding the genetic differences between the two lesions still remains.

Benn DE, Robinson BG, Clifton-Bligh RJ
15 YEARS OF PARAGANGLIOMA: Clinical manifestations of paraganglioma syndromes types 1-5.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2015; 22(4):T91-103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The paraganglioma (PGL) syndromes types 1-5 are autosomal dominant disorders characterized by familial predisposition to PGLs, phaeochromocytomas (PCs), renal cell cancers, gastrointestinal stromal tumours and, rarely, pituitary adenomas. Each syndrome is associated with mutation in a gene encoding a particular subunit (or assembly factor) of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx). The clinical manifestations of these syndromes are protean: patients may present with features of catecholamine excess (including the classic triad of headache, sweating and palpitations), or with symptoms from local tumour mass, or increasingly as an incidental finding on imaging performed for some other purpose. As genetic testing for these syndromes becomes more widespread, presymptomatic diagnosis is also possible, although penetrance of disease in these syndromes is highly variable and tumour development does not clearly follow a predetermined pattern. PGL1 syndrome (SDHD) and PGL2 syndrome (SDHAF2) are notable for high frequency of multifocal tumour development and for parent-of-origin inheritance: disease is almost only ever manifest in subjects inheriting the defective allele from their father. PGL4 syndrome (SDHB) is notable for an increased risk of malignant PGL or PC. PGL3 syndrome (SDHC) and PGL5 syndrome (SDHA) are less common and appear to be associated with lower penetrance of tumour development. Although these syndromes are all associated with SDH deficiency, few genotype-phenotype relationships have yet been established, and indeed it is remarkable that such divergent phenotypes can arise from disruption of a common molecular pathway. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these syndromes, including their component tumours and underlying genetic basis.

Lee CH, Cheung CY, Chow WS, et al.
Genetics of Apparently Sporadic Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma in a Chinese Population.
Horm Metab Res. 2015; 47(11):833-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identification of germline mutation in patients with apparently sporadic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas is crucial. Clinical indicators, which include young age, bilateral or multifocal, extra-adrenal, malignant, or recurrent tumors, predict the likelihood of harboring germline mutation in Caucasian subjects. However, data on the prevalence of germline mutation, as well as the applicability of these clinical indicators in Chinese, are lacking. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a single endocrine tertiary referral center in Hong Kong. Subjects with pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas were evaluated for the presence of germline mutations involving 10 susceptibility genes, which included NF1, RET, VHL, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, TMEM 127, MAX, and FH genes. Clinical indicators were assessed for their association with the presence of germline mutations. Germline mutations, 2 being novel, were found in 24.4% of the 41 Chinese subjects recruited and 11.4% among those with apparently sporadic presentation. The increasing number of the afore-mentioned clinical indicators significantly correlated with the likelihood of harboring germline mutation in one of the 10 susceptibility genes. (r=0.757, p=0.026). The presence of 2 or more clinical indicators should prompt genetic testing for germline mutations in Chinese subjects. In conclusion, our study confirmed that a significant proportion of Chinese subjects with apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma harbored germline mutations and these clinical indicators identified from Caucasians series were also applicable in Chinese subjects. This information will be of clinical relevance in the design of appropriate genetic screening strategies in Chinese populations.

Niemeijer ND, Papathomas TG, Korpershoek E, et al.
Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Expands the SDH-Related Tumor Spectrum.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 100(10):E1386-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Mutations in genes encoding the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) can lead to pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma formation. However, SDH mutations have also been linked to nonparaganglionic tumors.
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate which nonparaganglionic tumors belong to the SDH-associated tumor spectrum.
DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study.
SETTING: The setting was a tertiary referral center.
PATIENTS: Patients included all consecutive SDHA/SDHB/SDHC and SDHD mutation carriers followed at the Department of Endocrinology of the Leiden University Medical Center who were affected by non-pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma solid tumors.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcome measures were SDHA/SDHB immunohistochemistry, mutation analysis, and loss of heterozygosity analysis of the involved SDH-encoding genes.
RESULTS: Twenty-five of 35 tumors (from 26 patients) showed positive staining on SDHB and SDHA immunohistochemistry. Eight tumors showed negative staining for SDHB and positive staining for SDHA: a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, a macroprolactinoma, two gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors, an abdominal ganglioneuroma, and three renal cell carcinomas. With the exception of the abdominal ganglioneuroma, loss of heterozygosity was detected in all tumors. A prolactinoma in a patient with a germline SDHA mutation was the only tumor immunonegative for both SDHA and SDHB. Sanger sequencing of this tumor revealed a somatic mutation (p.D38V) as a likely second hit leading to biallelic inactivation of SDHA. One tumor (breast cancer) showed heterogeneous SDHB staining, positive SDHA staining, and retention of heterozygosity.
CONCLUSIONS: This study strengthens the etiological association of SDH genes with pituitary neoplasia, renal tumorigenesis, and gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Furthermore, our results indicate that pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor also falls within the SDH-related tumor spectrum.

Boikos SA, Xekouki P, Fumagalli E, et al.
Carney triad can be (rarely) associated with germline succinate dehydrogenase defects.
Eur J Hum Genet. 2016; 24(4):569-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Carney triad, the association of paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors and pulmonary chondromas, is a sporadic condition that is significantly more frequent in females; its genetic etiology remains unknown. Carney triad is distinct from the dyad of paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors, known as Carney-Stratakis syndrome, which is inherited in an autosomal- dominant manner and is almost always caused by succinate dehydrogenase subunit mutations. In the present study, we investigated the largest cohort of Carney triad patients that is available internationally: 63 unrelated patients. Six patients (9.5%) were found to have germline variants in the SDHA, SDHB or SDHC genes. All six patients, except one, had multifocal gastrointestinal stromal tumors, chondromas and/or paragangliomas. A patient with Carney triad and SDHC variant had a ganglioneuroma. One of the patients with Carney triad and SDHB mutation had a nephew with the same sequence defect, who developed a neuroblastoma. Other relatives, carriers of the identified SDHA, SDHB or SDHC mutations, have not developed any of the components of Carney triad or Carney-Stratakis syndrome. None of the other 57 Carney triad patients had any genomic defects of SDHA, SDHB or SDHC genes. We conclude that, in rare occasions, Carney triad can be allelic to Carney-Stratakis syndrome. Although for the vast majority of patients with Carney triad the causative defect(s) remain(s) unknown, testing for SDHA, SDHB or SDHC variations should be offered, as carriers may develop isolated paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas and occasionally other tumors.

Yoda T, Kikuchi K, Miki Y, et al.
11β-Prostaglandin F2α, a bioactive metabolite catalyzed by AKR1C3, stimulates prostaglandin F receptor and induces slug expression in breast cancer.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015; 413:236-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostaglandins are a group of lipid compounds involved in inflammation and cancer. We focused on PGF2α and its stereoisomer 11β-PGF2α and examined the expression and functions of their cognate receptor (FP receptor) and metabolizing enzymes (AKR1B1 and AKR1C3 respectively) in breast cancer. In immunohistochemical analysis FP receptor status associated with adverse clinical outcome only in the AKR1C3 positive cases. Therefore, we studied FP receptor-mediated functions of 11β-PGF2α using FP receptor expressed MCF-7 cell line (MCF-FP). 11β-PGF2α treatment phosphorylated ERK and CREB and induced Slug expression through FP receptor in MCF-FP, and MCF-FP cells demonstrated decreased chemosensitivity compared to parental controls. Finally, the correlation between FP receptor and Slug was also confirmed immunohistochemically in breast cancer cases. Overall these results indicated that the actions of AKR1C3 can produce FP receptor ligands whose activation results in carcinoma cell survival in breast cancer.

Zhu WD, Wang ZY, Chai YC, et al.
Germline mutations and genotype-phenotype associations in head and neck paraganglioma patients with negative family history in China.
Eur J Med Genet. 2015; 58(9):433-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of germline mutations and to explore genotype-phenotype associations in Chinese head and neck paraganglioma (HNPGL) patients without family history. Twenty-six Chinese patients with a diagnosis of HNPGL(14 male and 12 female, respectively)were recruited, who were followed up from 2000 to 2012. Genomic DNA was obtained from resected tumor tissues and peripheral blood samples. Seven genes, Succinate dehydrogenase complex A,B,C,D (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD), succinate dehydrogenase complex assembly factor 2 (SDHAF2), TMEM127 (transmembrane protein 127) and VHL (Von Hippel-Lindau), were screened by direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed to search for potential large deletions or duplications of SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF1 and SDHAF2. The total frequency of germline mutations was 30.8% (8/26), including 5 cases with missense mutation p.Met1Ile in SDHD, 1 case with missense mutation p.Tyr216Cys in SDHB, and 1 case with a novel truncation mutation p.Gln44Ter in SDHAF2. MLPA showed one patient with malignant HNPGL had heterozygous deletions of exon1, 2, 3, 7 and 8 in SDHB. Mutations in SDHD were the leading cause of HNPGL in this study. Mutation carriers were younger than non-mutation carriers (p < 0.01) and more likely to suffer from multiple tumors (p = 0.048), especially with mutations in SDHD. The presence of mutation was associated with the development of larger tumors (p = 0.021). This study confirmed that the missense mutation p.Met1Ile at the start codon in SDHD was a hotspot in chinese patients with HNPGLs. We recommend genetic analysis in patients below 45 years, especially SDHD gene.

Hoekstra AS, Devilee P, Bayley JP
Models of parent-of-origin tumorigenesis in hereditary paraganglioma.
Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2015; 43:117-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma are neuroendocrine tumors that originate from either the sympathetic or the parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Although 14 different genes have been linked to paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma, a subgroup of these genes is associated with hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma, the genes related to mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) including SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD and the assembly factor SDHAF2. Unlike mutations in other SDH subunit genes, mutations in SDHD and SDHAF2 show a remarkable parent-of-origin dependent tumorigenesis in which tumor formation almost exclusively occurs following paternal transmission of the mutation. To date, three different models have sought to explain the striking inheritance pattern seen in SDHD and SDHAF2-linked families. Despite the fact that the models suffer to varying degrees from a lack of experimental verification, all three models have made some attempt to incorporate current data and understanding of this phenomenon. In this review, we discuss our present understanding of this phenomenon and describe the three models that seek to explain the inheritance pattern in SDHD and SDHAF2-linked families.

Allison SE, Petrovic N, Mackenzie PI, Murray M
Pro-migratory actions of the prostacyclin receptor in human breast cancer cells that over-express cyclooxygenase-2.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2015; 96(4):306-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis is the major cause of death in cancer patients. Elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is observed in many human cancers and over-production of downstream prostaglandins (PGs) has been shown to stimulate metastasis. A role for increased PGE2 production has been proposed, but whether other PGs contribute is currently unclear. In this study the pro-migratory actions of individual PGs were evaluated in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells that stably over-expressed COX-2 (MDA-COX-2 cells); cell migration was quantified using 3D-matrigel droplet assays. Inhibition of the prostacyclin and PGE synthases, but not alternate prostanoid synthases, prevented the increase in MDA-COX-2 cell migration produced by arachidonic acid (AA); direct treatment of cells with the stable prostacyclin analogue cicaprost also promoted migration. Pharmacological antagonism and knockdown of the IP receptor decreased cell migration, while antagonists of the alternate DP, EP2, FP, and TP prostanoid receptors were inactive. In support of these findings, activation of the IP receptor also enhanced migration in the MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231 and A549 cell lines, and IP receptor knock-down in MDA-COX-2 cells decreased the expression of a number of pro-migratory genes. In further studies, the prostacyclin/IP receptor and PGE2/EP4 receptor pathways were found to be functionally independent and the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) selectively impaired the IP-receptor-dependent migration in MDA-COX-2 cells. Taken together, the prostacyclin/IP/PI3K-p38 MAPK axis has emerged as a novel pro-migratory pathway in breast cancer cells that over-express COX-2. This information could be utilized in novel treatment strategies to minimize tumor metastasis.

Hoffmann PR, Panigada M, Soprana E, et al.
Preclinical development of HIvax: Human survivin highly immunogenic vaccines.
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015; 11(7):1585-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Our previous work involved the development of a recombinant fowlpox virus encoding survivin (FP-surv) vaccine that was evaluated for efficacy in mesothelioma mouse models. Results showed that FP-surv vaccination generated significant immune responses, which led to delayed tumor growth and improved animal survival. We have extended those previous findings in the current study, which involves the pre-clinical development of an optimized version of FP-surv designed for human immunization (HIvax). Survivin-derived peptides for the most common haplotypes in the human population were identified and their immunogenicity confirmed in co-culture experiments using dendritic cells and T cells isolated from healthy donors. Peptides confirmed to induce CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells activation in humans were then included in 2 transgenes optimized for presentation of processed peptides on MHC-I (HIvax1) and MHC-II (HIvax2). Fowlpox vectors expressing the HIvax transgenes were then generated and their efficacy was evaluated with subsequent co-culture experiments to measure interferon-γ and granzyme B secretion. In these experiments, both antigen specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were activated by HIvax vaccines with resultant cytotoxic activity against survivin-overexpressing mesothelioma cancer cells. These results provide a rationale for clinical testing of HIvax1 and HIvax2 vaccines in patients with survivin-expressing cancers.

Schwaab J, Umbach R, Metzgeroth G, et al.
KIT D816V and JAK2 V617F mutations are seen recurrently in hypereosinophilia of unknown significance.
Am J Hematol. 2015; 90(9):774-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myeloproliferative neoplasms with eosinophilia are commonly characterized by a normal karyotype and remain poorly defined at the molecular level. We therefore investigated 426 samples from patients with hypereosinophilia of unknown significance initially referred for screening of the FIP1L1-PDGFRA (FP) fusion gene also for KIT D816V and JAK2 V617F mutations. Overall, 86 (20%) patients tested positive: FP+ in 55 (12%), KIT D816V+ in 14 (3%), and JAK2 V617F+ in 17 (4%) patients, respectively. To gain better insight into clinical characteristics, we compared these cases with 31 additional and well-characterized KIT D816V+ eosinophilia-associated systemic mastocytosis (SM-eo) patients enrolled within the "German Registry on Disorders of Eosinophils and Mast cells." Significant differences included younger age, male predominance, and higher eosinophil counts for FP+ cases while abdominal lymphadenopathy, ascites, and serum tryptase levels >100 μg/l were characteristic for those with KIT D816V. Leukocytes, hemoglobin, and splenomegaly did not differ significantly. A median of three additional mutations, most frequently TET2 and SRSF2, were identified in 12/13 KIT D816V+ SM-eo patients with available material indicating a more complex molecular pathogenesis. Median survival was not reached for FP+ cases but was only 26 and 41 months for KIT D816V+ SM and JAK2 V617F+ MPN-eo, respectively. Eosinophilia of ≥2 × 10(9) /l was identified as discriminator for inferior survival in KIT D816V+ and/or JAK2 V617F+ patients (median survival 20 months vs. not reached, P = 0.002). Thus, there is a clear prognostic and therapeutic rationale for detection of KIT D816V and JAK2 V617F in the diagnostic work up of eosinophilia.

Crona J, Backman S, Maharjan R, et al.
Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity Characterizes the Genetic Landscape of Pheochromocytoma and Defines Early Events in Tumorigenesis.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(19):4451-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) patients display heterogeneity in the clinical presentation and underlying genetic cause. The degree of inter- and intratumor genetic heterogeneity has not yet been defined.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In PPGLs from 94 patients, we analyzed LOH, copy-number variations, and mutation status of SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, VHL, EPAS1, NF1, RET, TMEM127, MAX, and HRAS using high-density SNP array and targeted deep sequencing, respectively. Genetic heterogeneity was determined through (i) bioinformatics analysis of individual samples that estimated absolute purity and ploidy from SNP array data and (ii) comparison of paired tumor samples that allowed reconstruction of phylogenetic trees.
RESULTS: Mutations were found in 61% of the tumors and correlated with specific patterns of somatic copy-number aberrations (SCNA) and degree of nontumoral cell admixture. Intratumor genetic heterogeneity was observed in 74 of 136 samples using absolute bioinformatics estimations and in 22 of 24 patients by comparison of paired samples. In addition, a low genetic concordance was observed between paired primary tumors and distant metastases. This allowed for reconstructing the life history of individual tumors, identifying somatic mutations as well as copy-number loss of 3p and 11p (VHL subgroup), 1p (Cluster 2), and 17q (NF1 subgroup) as early events in PPGL tumorigenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: Genomic landscapes of PPGL are specific to mutation subtype and characterized by genetic heterogeneity both within and between tumor lesions of the same patient.

Catrow JL, Zhang Y, Zhang M, Ji H
Discovery of Selective Small-Molecule Inhibitors for the β-Catenin/T-Cell Factor Protein-Protein Interaction through the Optimization of the Acyl Hydrazone Moiety.
J Med Chem. 2015; 58(11):4678-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acyl hydrazone is an important functional group for the discovery of bioactive small molecules. This functional group is also recognized as a pan assay interference structure. In this study, a new small-molecule inhibitor for the β-catenin/Tcf protein-protein interaction (PPI), ZINC02092166, was identified through AlphaScreen and FP assays. This compound contains an acyl hydrazone group and exhibits higher inhibitory activities in cell-based assays than biochemical assays. Inhibitor optimization resulted in chemically stable derivatives that disrupt the β-catenin/Tcf PPI. The binding mode of new inhibitors was characterized by site-directed mutagenesis and structure-activity relationship studies. This series of inhibitors with a new scaffold exhibits dual selectivity for β-catenin/Tcf over β-catenin/cadherin and β-catenin/APC PPIs. One derivative of this series suppresses canonical Wnt signaling, downregulates the expression of Wnt target genes, and inhibits the growth of cancer cells. This compound represents a solid starting point for the development of potent and selective β-catenin/Tcf inhibitors.

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