STIL; SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (1p32)

Gene Summary

Gene:STIL; SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus
Aliases: SIL, MCPH7
Summary:This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein implicated in regulation of the mitotic spindle checkpoint, a regulatory pathway that monitors chromosome segregation during cell division to ensure the proper distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells. The protein is phosphorylated in mitosis and in response to activation of the spindle checkpoint, and disappears when cells transition to G1 phase. It interacts with a mitotic regulator, and its expression is required to efficiently activate the spindle checkpoint. It is proposed to regulate Cdc2 kinase activity during spindle checkpoint arrest. Chromosomal deletions that fuse this gene and the adjacent locus commonly occur in T cell leukemias, and are thought to arise through illegitimate V-(D)-J recombination events. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:SCL-interrupting locus protein
Updated:14 December, 2014

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cancer RNA
  • Chromosome 1
  • ras Proteins
  • Cultured Cells
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Tumor Markers
  • Lymphocytes
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Jurkat Cells
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Gene Deletion
  • Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Proteins
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Genetic Recombination
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Adolescents
  • Translocation
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Mutation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • VDJ Recombinases
  • Infant
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • SIL
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cytogenetic Analysis
Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (2)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL)STIL and Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma View Publications8
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), childSTIL and Childhood Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia View Publications3

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: STIL (cancer-related)

Nigg EA, Čajánek L, Arquint C
The centrosome duplication cycle in health and disease.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(15):2366-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Centrioles function in the assembly of centrosomes and cilia. Structural and numerical centrosome aberrations have long been implicated in cancer, and more recent genetic evidence directly links centrosomal proteins to the etiology of ciliopathies, dwarfism and microcephaly. To better understand these disease connections, it will be important to elucidate the biogenesis of centrioles as well as the controls that govern centriole duplication during the cell cycle. Moreover, it remains to be fully understood how these organelles organize a variety of dynamic microtubule-based structures in response to different physiological conditions. In proliferating cells, centrosomes are crucial for the assembly of microtubule arrays, including mitotic spindles, whereas in quiescent cells centrioles function as basal bodies in the formation of ciliary axonemes. In this short review, we briefly introduce the key gene products required for centriole duplication. Then we discuss recent findings on the centriole duplication factor STIL that point to centrosome amplification as a potential root cause for primary microcephaly in humans. We also present recent data on the role of a disease-related centriole-associated protein complex, Cep164-TTBK2, in ciliogenesis.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Tsuji T, Hirano T, Yamasaki H, et al.
A high sIL-2R/ferritin ratio is a useful marker for the diagnosis of lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome.
Ann Hematol. 2014; 93(5):821-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (LAHS), which is the major subtype of adult-onset secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), has a poor outcome. Although the early diagnosis and treatment of LAHS contributes to a better outcome, the lack of mass formation and the absence of distinct lymph node enlargement often delay the diagnosis of underlying lymphoma. A recent study, which statistically analyzed HLH cases in the literature, showed that the serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R)/ferritin ratio could be used as a marker to diagnosis of LAHS. To verify this finding, we retrospectively analyzed the laboratory findings of 21 patients with HLH (10 benign disease-associated HLH and 11 LAHS). No significant differences were observed in the levels of LDH or CRP levels. The mean sIL-2R levels (units per milliliter) were significantly higher in the LAHS group (4,176 vs. 13,451, p = 0.0031), and ferritin levels (nanogram per milliliter) were higher in the benign disease-associated HLH group (20,462 vs. 2,561, p = 0.0031). Consequently, the mean serum sIL-2R/ferritin ratio of patients with LAHS was markedly higher than that of patients with benign disease-associated HLH (0.66 vs. 8.56, p = 0.0004). Thus, the results of this study demonstrated that the serum sIL-2R/ferritin ratio is a very useful marker for diagnosing of LAHS, which was further supported by clinical case analysis. Further studies to clarify the pathophysiology of secondary HLH caused by various triggers are needed.

Ibrahim SA, Hassan H, Vilardo L, et al.
Syndecan-1 (CD138) modulates triple-negative breast cancer stem cell properties via regulation of LRP-6 and IL-6-mediated STAT3 signaling.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e85737 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Syndecan-1 (CD138), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, acts as a coreceptor for growth factors and chemokines and is a molecular marker associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition during development and carcinogenesis. Resistance of Syndecan-1-deficient mice to experimentally-induced tumorigenesis has been linked to altered Wnt-responsive precursor cell pools, suggesting a potential role of Syndecan-1 in breast cancer cell stem function. However, the precise molecular mechanism is still elusive. Here, we decipher the functional impact of Syndecan-1 knockdown using RNA interference on the breast cancer stem cell phenotype of human triple-negative MDA-MB-231 and hormone receptor-positive MCF-7 cells in vitro employing an analytical flow cytometric approach. Successful Syndecan-1 siRNA knockdown was confirmed by flow cytometry. Side population measurement by Hoechst dye exclusion and Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity revealed that Syndecan-1 knockdown in MDA-MB-231 cells significantly reduced putative cancer stem cell pools by 60% and 27%, respectively, compared to controls. In MCF-7 cells, Syndecan-1 depletion reduced the side population by 40% and Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 by 50%, repectively. In MDA-MB-231 cells, the CD44(+)CD24(-/low) phenotype decreased significantly by 6% upon siRNA-mediated Syndecan-1 depletion. Intriguingly, IL-6, its receptor sIL-6R, and the chemokine CCL20, implicated in regulating stemness-associated pathways, were downregulated by >40% in Syndecan-1-silenced MDA-MB-231 cells, which showed a dysregulated response to IL-6-induced shifts in E-cadherin and vimentin expression. Furthermore, activation of STAT-3 and NFkB transcription factors and expression of a coreceptor for Wnt signaling, LRP-6, were reduced by >45% in Syndecan-1-depleted cells compared to controls. At the functional level, Syndecan-1 siRNA reduced the formation of spheres and cysts in MCF-7 cells grown in suspension culture. Our study demonstrates the viability of flow cytometric approaches in analyzing cancer stem cell function. As Syndecan-1 modulates the cancer stem cell phenotype via regulation of the Wnt and IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathways, it emerges as a promising novel target for therapeutic approaches.

Related: Signal Transduction

Witzig TE, Maurer MJ, Stenson MJ, et al.
Elevated serum monoclonal and polyclonal free light chains and interferon inducible protein-10 predicts inferior prognosis in untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Am J Hematol. 2014; 89(4):417-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The detection of serum free light (FLC) is useful in the diagnosis of several hematological diseases. The role and biological relevance of monoclonal or polyclonal FLC elevations in predicting long-term outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is unknown. We determined the relationship of the type of FLC elevations to outcome, tumor genotype, and pattern of serum cytokine elevations in 276 patients with untreated DLBCL. Elevated FLC was an adverse prognostic factor through 6 years of follow-up (monoclonal, Event free survival (EFS) HR = 3.56, 95% CI: 1.88-6.76, P <0.0001; polyclonal, EFS HR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.50-4.38, P = 0.0006). About 73% of DLBCL tumors with monoclonal FLC elevations were activated B-cell type (ABC) versus 33% from patients with normal FLC. Only ABC-DLBCL lines secreted kappa FLC in vitro and this secretion could be inhibited by the NF-κB inhibitor bortezomib. Patients with monoclonal FLC had significantly (all P <0.001) increased serum levels of IL-12, sIL-2Rα, IL-1R, and IP-10. Patients with polyclonal elevations of FLC had higher levels of IL-6 (P = 0.033), IL-8 (P =0.025), sIL2Rα (P = 0.011), and IL-1R1 (P = 0.041). The combination of elevated FLC and a CXC superfamily chemokine IP-10 predicted a particularly inferior outcome characterized by late relapse. These increased abnormal FLC and cytokines are potentially useful biomarkers for prognosis and selecting agents for untreated DLBCL.

Related: Monoclonal Antibodies Cytokines JAK2 gene

Loosveld M, Bonnet M, Gon S, et al.
MYC fails to efficiently shape malignant transformation in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(1):52-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
MYC is a potent oncogene involved in ∼70% of human cancers, inducing tumorigenesis with high penetrance and short latency in experimental transgenic models. Accordingly, MYC is recognized as a major driver of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in human and zebrafish/mouse models, and uncovering the context by which MYC-mediated malignant transformation initiates and develops remains a considerable challenge. Because MYC is a very complex oncogene, highly dependent on the microenvironment and cell-intrinsic context, we generated transgenic mice (tgMyc(spo)) in which ectopic Myc activation occurs sporadically (<10(-6) thymocytes) within otherwise normal thymic environment, thereby mimicking the unicellular context in which oncogenic alterations initiate human tumors. We show that while Myc(+) clones in tgMyc(spo) mice develop and initially proliferate in thymus and the periphery, no tumor or clonal expansion progress in aging mice (n = 130), suggesting an unexpectedly low ability of Myc to initiate efficient tumorigenesis. Furthermore, to determine the relevance of this observation in human pathogenesis we analyzed a human T-ALL case at diagnosis and relapse using the molecular stigmata of V(D)J recombination as markers of malignant progression; we similarly demonstrate that despite the occurrence of TAL1 and MYC translocations in early thymocyte ontogeny, subsequent oncogenic alterations were required to drive oncogenesis. Altogether, our data suggest that although central to T-ALL, MYC overexpression per se is inefficient in triggering the cascade of events leading to malignant transformation.

Zhou Y, Kurukuti S, Saffrey P, et al.
Chromatin looping defines expression of TAL1, its flanking genes, and regulation in T-ALL.
Blood. 2013; 122(26):4199-209 [PubMed] Related Publications
TAL1 is an important regulator of hematopoiesis and its expression is tightly controlled despite complexities in its genomic organization. It is frequently misregulated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), often due to deletions between TAL1 and the neighboring STIL gene. To better understand the events that lead to TAL1 expression in hematopoiesis and in T-ALL, we studied looping interactions at the TAL1 locus. In TAL1-expressing erythroid cells, the locus adopts a looping "hub" which brings into close physical proximity all known TAL1 cis-regulatory elements including CTCF-bound insulators. Loss of GATA1 results in disassembly of the hub and loss of CTCF/RAD21 from one of its insulators. Genes flanking TAL1 are partly dependent on hub integrity for their transcriptional regulation. We identified looping patterns unique to TAL1-expressing T-ALL cells, and, intriguingly, loops occurring between the TAL1 and STIL genes at the common TAL1/STIL breakpoints found in T-ALL. These findings redefine how TAL1 and neighboring genes communicate within the nucleus, and indicate that looping facilitates both normal and aberrant TAL1 expression and may predispose to structural rearrangements in T-ALL. We also propose that GATA1-dependent looping mechanisms may facilitate the conservation of TAL1 regulation despite cis-regulatory remodeling during vertebrate evolution.

Related: GATA1 gene TAL1 gene

Nanda DP, Sil H, Moulik S, et al.
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 as a potential tumor marker in breast cancer.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2013; 32(2):115-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to detect the comparative expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its correlation with known pathological parameters such as estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in 81 malignant breast tumors and adjacent normal breast tissues and in blood sera of these patients from different clinical TNM stages (ductal carcinoma in situ to T4) of breast cancer. MMP-9 was highly expressed in node-positive tumors and the preoperative blood serum of patients, but MMP-9 activity was appreciably inhibited in blood serum samples collected after surgery. The mature form of MMP-9 (84 kD) was expressed only in clinical stage III tumors (T2-4). Appreciable reduction of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor, and translocation of nuclear factor-κΒ suggested their possible role in MMP-9 activation in HER2-positive breast cancer Overexpression and activation of MMP-9 predicted a higher stage of hormone-sensitive ductal breast carcinoma. Downregulation of the endogenous inhibitor of MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, and translocation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κΒ in tumors may have an appreciable role in the overexpression of MMP-9. However, MMP-9 activation was not correlated with expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Evaluation of MMP-9 expression may provide valuable information about breast cancer treatment.

Related: Breast Cancer MMP9: matrix metallopeptidase 9 TIMP1 EGFR

Garbers C, Kuck F, Aparicio-Siegmund S, et al.
Cellular senescence or EGFR signaling induces Interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor expression controlled by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).
Cell Cycle. 2013; 12(21):3421-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) signaling plays a role in inflammation, cancer, and senescence. Here, we identified soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) as a member of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Senescence-associated sIL-6R upregulation was mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). sIL-6R was mainly generated by a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10)-dependent ectodomain shedding to enable IL-6 trans-signaling. In vivo, heterozygous PTEN-knockout mice exhibited higher mTOR activity and increased sIL-6R levels. Moreover, aberrant EGF receptor (EGFR) activation triggered IL-6 synthesis. In analogy to senescence, EGFR-induced activation of mTOR also induced IL-6R expression and sIL-6R generation. Hence, mTOR activation reprograms IL-6 non-responder cells into IL-6 responder cells. Our data suggest that mTOR serves as a central molecular switch to facilitate cellular IL-6 classic and trans-signaling via IL-6R upregulation with direct implications for cellular senescence and tumor development.

Related: PTEN Signal Transduction

Larmonie NS, Dik WA, Meijerink JP, et al.
Breakpoint sites disclose the role of the V(D)J recombination machinery in the formation of T-cell receptor (TCR) and non-TCR associated aberrations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2013; 98(8):1173-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant recombination between T-cell receptor genes and oncogenes gives rise to chromosomal translocations that are genetic hallmarks in several subsets of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias. The V(D)J recombination machinery has been shown to play a role in the formation of these T-cell receptor translocations. Other, non-T-cell receptor chromosomal aberrations, such as SIL-TAL1 deletions, have likewise been recognized as V(D)J recombination associated aberrations. Despite the postulated role of V(D)J recombination, the extent of the V(D)J recombination machinery involvement in the formation of T-cell receptor and non-T-cell receptor aberrations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is still poorly understood. We performed a comprehensive in silico and ex vivo evaluation of 117 breakpoint sites from 22 different T-cell receptor translocation partners as well as 118 breakpoint sites from non-T-cell receptor chromosomal aberrations. Based on this extensive set of breakpoint data, we provide a comprehensive overview of T-cell receptor and oncogene involvement in T-ALL. Moreover, we assessed the role of the V(D)J recombination machinery in the formation of chromosomal aberrations, and propose an up-dated mechanistic classification on how the V(D)J recombination machinery contributes to the formation of T-cell receptor and non-T-cell receptor aberrations in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Conesa-Zamora P, Torres-Moreno D, Isaac MA, Pérez-Guillermo M
Gene amplification and immunohistochemical expression of ERBB2 and EGFR in cervical carcinogenesis. Correlation with cell-cycle markers and HPV presence.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2013; 95(2):151-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the members of the epidermal growth factor receptor family ERBB2 and EGFR are important therapeutic targets in the treatment of malignant neoplasias, little is known about their role in cervical carcinogenesis. Our objective was to evaluate the dysfunction of ERBB2 and EGFR at the gene copy number and protein expression level in neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix with the aim of obtaining information about its role in cervical carcinogenesis and their possible use as therapeutic targets in these diseases. We studied gene amplification and protein expression of ERBB2 and EGFR and their relationship with Ki67, p16 and p53 and HPV presence in 22 normal/benign (N/B) cervices, 20 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 70 high-grade SILs (HSILs) and 32 invasive squamous cervical carcinomas (ISCCs). No cases showed selective amplification of ERBB2 or EGFR but corresponding chromosome-specific probes displayed chromosome 17 and 7 polyploidy associated with the grade of the lesion (p<0.0001 and p=0.004, respectively) and with the positive expression of Ki67 and p16 (p<0.01). Concurrent polyploidy for both chromosomes was statistically related (p<0.0001). ERBB2 immunohistochemical expression was not observed in any of the study cases except for one ISCC but EGFR was associated with higher-grade lesions (N/B plus LSIL 21.4% vs. HSIL plus ISCC 45.5%; p=0.007). No association was observed between EGFR expression and that of cell-cycle markers or HPV presence. Increased copy number of EGFR and ERBB2 is due to polyploidy of 7 and 17 chromosomes, this being a phenomenon associated with lesion severity and with an increase in the expression of cell-cycle markers. EGFR, but not ERBB2, is expressed in precursor lesions of squamous cervical neoplasia and is related to the neoplastic progression but not to proliferation marker expression and therefore ERBB2 and this calls into question the usefulness of ERBB2 as a therapeutic target.

Related: ERBB2 (HER2) FISH Cervical Cancer EGFR

Ara T, Nakata R, Sheard MA, et al.
Critical role of STAT3 in IL-6-mediated drug resistance in human neuroblastoma.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(13):3852-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in cancer. Here, we have evaluated the role of STAT3 in environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR) in human neuroblastoma. We determined that STAT3 was not constitutively active in most neuroblastoma cell lines but was rapidly activated upon treatment with interleukin (IL)-6 alone and in combination with the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R). Treatment of neuroblastoma cells with IL-6 protected them from drug-induced apoptosis in a STAT3-dependent manner because the protective effect of IL-6 was abrogated in the presence of a STAT3 inhibitor and upon STAT3 knockdown. STAT3 was necessary for the upregulation of several survival factors such as survivin (BIRC5) and Bcl-xL (BCL2L1) when cells were exposed to IL-6. Importantly, IL-6-mediated STAT3 activation was enhanced by sIL-6R produced by human monocytes, pointing to an important function of monocytes in promoting IL-6-mediated EMDR. Our data also point to the presence of reciprocal activation of STAT3 between tumor cells and bone marrow stromal cells including not only monocytes but also regulatory T cells (Treg) and nonmyeloid stromal cells. Thus, the data identify an IL-6/sIL-6R/STAT3 interactive pathway between neuroblastoma cells and their microenvironment that contributes to drug resistance.

Related: Apoptosis Etoposide Melphalan Neuroblastoma

Yu CC, Tsai LL, Wang ML, et al.
miR145 targets the SOX9/ADAM17 axis to inhibit tumor-initiating cells and IL-6-mediated paracrine effects in head and neck cancer.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(11):3425-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
ALDH1(+)CD44(+) cells are putative tumor-initiating cells (TIC) in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNC). miR-145 regulates tumorigenicity in various cancers but the breadth of its mechanistic contributions and potential therapeutic applications are not completely known. Here, we report that ALDH1(+)CD44(+)-HNC cells express reduced levels of miR145. SPONGE-mediated inhibition of miR-145 (Spg-miR145) was sufficient to drive tumor-initiating characteristics in non-TICs/ALDH1(-)CD44-negative HNC cells. Mechanistic analyses identified SOX9 and ADAM17 as two novel miR145 targets relevant to this process. miR-145 expression repressed TICs in HNC in a manner associated with SOX9 interaction with the ADAM17 promoter, thereby activating ADAM17 expression. Notably, the SOX9/ADAM17 axis dominated the TIC-inducing activity of miR-145. Either miR-145 suppression or ADAM17 overexpression in non-TICs/ALDH1(-)CD44(-)-HNC cells increased expression and secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and soluble-IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R). Conversely, conditioned medium from Spg-miR145-transfected non-TICs/ALDH1(-)CD44(-)-HNC cells was sufficient to confer tumor-initiating properties in non-TICs/ALDH1(-)CD44(-)-HNC and this effect could be abrogated by an IL-6-neutralizing antibody. We found that curcumin administration increased miR-145 promoter activity, thereby decreasing SOX9/ADAM17 expression and eliminating TICs in HNC cell populations. Delivery of lentivral-miR145 or orally administered curcumin blocked tumor progression in HNC-TICs in murine xenotransplant assays. Finally, immunohistochemical analyses of patient specimens confirmed that an miR-145(low)/SOX9(high)/ADAM17(high) phenotype correlated with poor survival. Collectively, our results show how miR-145 targets the SOX9/ADAM17 axis to regulate TIC properties in HNC, and how altering this pathway may partly explain the anticancer effects of curcumin. By inhibiting IL-6 and sIL-6R as downstream effector cytokines in this pathway, miR-145 seems to suppress a paracrine signaling pathway in the tumor microenvironment that is vital to maintain TICs in HNC.

Related: Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology Signal Transduction

Walter SD, Riddell CA, Rabachini T, et al.
Accuracy of p53 codon 72 polymorphism status determined by multiple laboratory methods: a latent class model analysis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e56430 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Studies on the association of a polymorphism in codon 72 of the p53 tumour suppressor gene (rs1042522) with cervical neoplasia have inconsistent results. While several methods for genotyping p53 exist, they vary in accuracy and are often discrepant.
METHODS: We used latent class models (LCM) to examine the accuracy of six methods for p53 determination, all conducted by the same laboratory. We also examined the association of p53 with cytological cervical abnormalities, recognising potential test inaccuracy.
RESULTS: Pairwise disagreement between laboratory methods occurred approximately 10% of the time. Given the estimated true p53 status of each woman, we found that each laboratory method is most likely to classify a woman to her correct status. Arg/Arg women had the highest risk of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL). Test accuracy was independent of cytology. There was no strong evidence for correlations of test errors.
DISCUSSION: Empirical analyses ignore possible laboratory errors, and so are inherently biased, but test accuracy estimated by the LCM approach is unbiased when model assumptions are met. LCM analysis avoids ambiguities arising from empirical test discrepancies, obviating the need to regard any of the methods as a "gold" standard measurement. The methods we presented here to analyse the p53 data can be applied in many other situations where multiple tests exist, but where none of them is a gold standard.

Related: Polymorphisms TP53 Cervical Cancer

Bajpai D, Banerjee A, Pathak S, et al.
Decreased expression of DNA repair genes (XRCC1, ERCC1, ERCC2, and ERCC4) in squamous intraepithelial lesion and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2013; 377(1-2):45-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reduced DNA repair might affect the risk of progression from infection with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), the etiologic agent for cervical cancer (CC), to persistent HPV infection, and hence to cervical pre-cancer and cancer. We assessed the variation in baseline expression of base excision repair gene XRCC1 and three nucleotide excision repair genes ERCC1, ERCC2, and ERCC4 and the risk of developing cervical cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was designed with 50 invasive cervical cancer patients, 40 squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) patients and 85 controls subjects. RT-qPCR and Western blotting was used to quantitate in vitro the mRNA and protein levels in fresh CC, SIL and normal cervix tissue. The levels of XRCC1, ERCC2, ERCC4, and ERCC1 transcripts and their respective proteins were lower in cervical cancer and SILs as compared to controls (p ≤ 0.001, 0.001, 0.001, and 0.025, respectively). In multivariate logistic regression analysis (adjusting for parity, age at first child birth, use of oral contraceptives, smoking status), low expression of XRCC1, ERCC2, ERCC4, and ERCC1 was associated with a significant increased risk for CC and SIL. Our results suggest that individuals whose expression of XRCC1, ERCC4, ERCC2, and ERCC1 are reduced may be at a higher risk of developing SIL which eventually leads to invasive cervical carcinoma. Moreover, independently also the reduced expression of these genes can directly lead to cervical cancer progression.

Related: Cervical Cancer

Chen J, Pise-Masison CA, Shih JH, et al.
Markedly additive antitumor activity with the combination of a selective survivin suppressant YM155 and alemtuzumab in adult T-cell leukemia.
Blood. 2013; 121(11):2029-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy of CD4(+)CD25(+) lymphocytes caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. Currently, there is no accepted curative therapy for ATL. In gene expression profiling, the antiapoptotic protein survivin (BIRC5) demonstrated a striking increase in ATL, and its expression was increased in patient ATL cells resistant to the anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab (Campath-1H). In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of a small-molecule survivin suppressant YM155 alone and in combination with alemtuzumab in a murine model of human ATL (MET-1). Both YM155 alone and its combination with alemtuzumab demonstrated therapeutic efficacy by lowering serum soluble IL-2Rα (sIL-2Rα) levels (P < .001) and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice (P < .0001). Moreover, the combination of YM155 with alemtuzumab demonstrated markedly additive antitumor activity by significantly lowering serum sIL-2Rα levels and improving the survival of leukemia-bearing mice compared with monotherapy with either YM155 (P < .001) or alemtuzumab (P < .05). More significantly, all mice that received the combination therapy survived and were tumor free >6 months after treatment. Our data support a clinical trial of the combination of YM155 with alemtuzumab in ATL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00061048.

Related: BIRC5 Alemtuzumab (Mabcampath)

Warowicka A, Kwasniewska A, Gozdzicka-Jozefiak A
Alterations in mtDNA: a qualitative and quantitative study associated with cervical cancer development.
Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 129(1):193-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: High-risk human papillomaviruses are the causative agent of cervical carcinogenesis. Additionally, a number of other unknown factors are also instrumental in the development of cancer. The aim of this present study was the analysis of the mutations in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA, and 4.997 bp deletion during cervical cancer development. Our research also extended to the relationship between mtDNA copy number, ROS (reactive oxygen species) production and the MnSOD (manganese superoxide dismutase) expression level.
METHODS: The study group consisted of postoperative tissues from patients diagnosed with L-SIL, H-SIL and squamous cell cervical carcinomas. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the copy number of the mitochondrial DNA, and MnSOD mRNA expression levels. A PCR amplification and a sequencing of DNA were used for the identification of HPV DNA and mtDNA mutations.
RESULTS: A total of 62 point mutations in the D-loop region of mtDNA were found in study patients. The mitochondrial DNA copy number increased during cervical cancer development when compared to the corresponding tissues in the control samples. About 70% of the mtDNA copy number have a 4.997 bp deletion in L-SIL. We also observed an increase in ROS generation during cervical cancer development.
CONCLUSION: Alterations in mtDNA both qualitatively (by mutations) and quantitatively (by mtDNA copy number) are associated with cervical cancer developments. High levels of mtDNA copy with a 4.997 bp deletion in L-SIL cells can be associated with the susceptibility of cells to HPV persistent infection and cervical cancer development.

Related: Mitochondrial DNA Cervical Cancer

Awan T, Iqbal Z, Aleem A, et al.
Five most common prognostically important fusion oncogenes are detected in the majority of Pakistani pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients and are strongly associated with disease biology and treatment outcome.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(11):5469-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a complex genetic disease involving many fusion oncogenes (FO) having prognostic significance. The frequency of various FO can vary in different ethnic groups, with important implications for prognosis, drug selection and treatment outcome.
METHOD: We studied fusion oncogenes in 101 pediatric ALL patients using interphase FISH and RT-PCR, and their associations with clinical features and treatment outcome.
RESULTS: Five most common fusion genes i.e. BCR-ABL t (22; 9), TCF3-PBX1 (t 1; 19), ETV6-RUNX1 (t 12; 21), MLL-AF4 (t 4; 11) and SIL-TAL1 (del 1p32) were found in 89/101 (88.1%) patients. Frequency of BCR-ABL was 44.5% (45/101). BCR-ABL positive patients had a significantly lower survival (43.7±4.24 weeks) and higher white cell count as compared to others, except patients with MLL-AF4. The highest relapse-free survival was documented with ETV6-RUNX1 (14.2 months) followed closely by those cases in which no gene was detected (13.100). RFS with BCR-ABL, MLL-AF4, TCF3-PBX1 and SIL-TAL1 was less than 10 months (8.0, 3.6, 5.5 and 8.1 months, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study from Pakistan correlating molecular markers with disease biology and treatment outcome in pediatric ALL. It revealed the highest reported frequency of BCR-ABL FO in pediatric ALL, associated with poor overall survival. Our data indicate an immediate need for incorporation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of BCR-ABL+ pediatric ALL in this population and the development of facilities for stem cell transplantation.

Related: Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) Childhood Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) ALL - Molecular Biology

Liu F, Gao L, Jing Y, et al.
Detection and clinical significance of gene rearrangements in Chinese patients with adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2013; 54(7):1521-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to develop a novel multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) assay to accurately and effectively detect 10 common gene rearrangements in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to examine the clinicopathologic characteristics and other genetic aberrations of patients with ALL expressing different fusion genes. Our RT-nPCR assay had a positive detection rate of 35.15% (90/256) for the 10 fusion genes. BCR-ABL1, FUS-ERG, MLL-AF4, ETV6-RUNX1, E2A-PBX1, dupMLL, MLL-AF10, MLL-ENL, SET-NUP214 and SIL-TAL1 were detected in 36 (14.06%), 14 (5.47%), 14 (5.47%), four (1.56%), four (1.56%), five (1.95%), four (1.56%), two (0.78%), two (0.78%) and five patients (1.95%), respectively. The RT-nPCR results were further confirmed by split-out PCR, and cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed corresponding translocations and fusions in 63 and 74 cases, respectively. JAK2 and IKZF1 mutations were commonly detected in patients with BCR-ABL1 ALL, and HOX overexpression was highly correlated with MLL fusions and SET-NUP214. This study demonstrates that RT-nPCR is an effective method for identifying 10 gene rearrangements in adult ALL, and it could potentially be developed for diagnostic use and prognostic studies of ALL.

Related: Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)

Devaraj S, Natarajan J
miRNA-mRNA network detects hub mRNAs and cancer specific miRNAs in lung cancer.
In Silico Biol. 2011-2012; 11(5-6):281-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA expression profiles can improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. In this paper, we undertook to develop a miRNA-mRNA network and uncover unique growth suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer using microarray data. The miRNA-mRNA network was developed based on a bipartite graph theory approach, and a number of miRNA-mRNA modules have been identified to mine associations between miRNAs and mRNAs. From the network, we identified totally 29 protective miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules, since we restricted our search to protective miRNAs. Subsequently we analyzed the pathways for the target genes in the protective miRNA-mRNA modules using Pathway-Express. The miRNA-mRNA network efficiently detects hub mRNAs deregulated by the protective miRNAs and identifies cancer specific miRNAs in lung cancer. From the pathway analysis results, the ECM receptor pathway, Focal adhesion pathway and cell adhesion molecules pathway seem to be more interesting to investigate, since these pathways were related to all the ten protective miRNAs. Furthermore, protective miRNA target analysis revealed that genes VCAN, SIL, CD44 and MMP14 were found to have an important role in these pathways. Hence, it was inferred that these genes can be important putative targets for those protective miRNAs. A greater understanding of the mechanisms regulating VCAN, SIL, CD44 and MMP14 expression and activity will assist in the development of specific inhibitors of cancer cell metastasis. Thus these observations are expected to have an intense implication in cancer and may be useful for further research.

Related: Lung Cancer

Habbous S, Pang V, Eng L, et al.
p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism, HPV status and initiation, progression, and development of cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(23):6407-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer develops through progression from normal cervical epithelium through squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) to invasive cancer. Cervical cancer is associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV). The HPV E6 oncoprotein binds to the tumor suppressor gene product p53, promoting its degradation; the Arg allele of p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism binds more ardently with HPV E6 than the Pro variant. Here we evaluate the role of p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and HPV status on the initiation, progression, and development of cervical cancer. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Events of interest were the initiation of neoplasia (SIL vs. normal), progression to invasive cancer (cervical cancer vs. SIL), and risk of invasive cancer (cervical cancer vs. normal) by HPV status. OR were extracted from individual studies and pooled using generic inverse variance and random effects modeling. Forty-nine studies were included. In individuals showing HPV positivity, there was a significantly higher odds of progression from SIL to cervical cancer with the p53 Arg allele [OR 1.37; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.15-1.62; P < 0.001]. This association was not seen in HPV-negative individuals. p53 Arg72Pro was not associated with the risk of cervical cancer or initiation of SIL in either HPV-positive or HPV-negative patient subsets. The Arg variant of p53 Arg72Pro is associated with progression of SIL to cervical cancer only in the presence of HPV positivity. There were no associations of this variant with overall risk or initiation of cancer in either HPV-positive or HPV-negative patients. Clin Cancer Res; 18(23); 6407-15.

Related: TP53 Cervical Cancer

Sabir N, Iqbal Z, Aleem A, et al.
Prognostically significant fusion oncogenes in Pakistani patients with adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia and their association with disease biology and outcome.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(7):3349-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chromosomal abnormalities play an important role in genesis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and have prognostic implications. Five major risk stratifying fusion genes in ALL are BCR-ABL, MLL-AF4, ETV6-RUNX11, E2A-PBX1 and SIL-TAL1. This work aimed to detect common chromosomal translocations and associated fusion oncogenes in adult ALL patients and study their relationship with clinical features and treatment outcome.
METHODS: We studied fusion oncogenes in 104 adult ALL patients using RT-PCR and interphase-FISH at diagnosis and their association with clinical characteristics and treatment outcome.
RESULTS: Five most common fusion genes i.e. BCR-ABL (t 9; 22), TCF3-PBX1 (t 1; 19), ETV6-RUNX1 (t 12; 21), MLL-AF4 (t 4; 11) and SIL-TAL1 (Del 1p32) were found in 82/104 (79%) patients. TCF3-PBX1 fusion gene was associated with lymphadenopathy, SIL-TAL positive patients had frequent organomegaly and usually presented with a platelets count of less than 50 x10(9)/l. Survival of patients with fusion gene ETV6-RUNX1 was better when compared to patients harboring other genes. MLL-AF4 and BCR-ABL positivity characterized a subset of adult ALL patients with aggressive clinical behaviour and a poor outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study from Pakistan which investigated the frequency of 5 fusion oncogenes in adult ALL patients, and their association with clinical features, treatment response and outcome. Frequencies of some of the oncogenes were different from those reported elsewhere and they appear to be associated with distinct clinical characteristics and treatment outcome. This information will help in the prognostic stratification and risk adapted management of adult ALL patients.

Related: Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)

Yang J, Kantrow S, Sai J, et al.
INK4a/ARF [corrected] inactivation with activation of the NF-κB/IL-6 pathway is sufficient to drive the development and growth of angiosarcoma.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(18):4682-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although human angiosarcoma has been associated frequently with mutational inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene Ink4a/Arf, the underlying mechanisms have not been delineated. Here we report that malignant angiosarcoma is associated with high levels of RelA/NF-κB and IL-6 in contrast to normal vessels or benign hemagiomas. Studies of Ink4a/Arf deficient mice not only recapitulate genetic traits observed in human angiosarcoma, but also unveil a possible therapeutic link comprised of the NF-kB/IL-6/Stat3 signaling axis. In Ink4a/Arf(-/-) cells, NF-κB controlled Stat3 signaling by transcriptionally controlling the expression of IL-6, gp130, and Jak2. Further, IL-6 mediated Stat3 signaling through the sIL-6R. Inhibition of Ikkβ solely in myeloid cells was insufficient to block angiosarcoma development; in contrast, systemic inhibition of Ikkβ, IL-6, or Stat3 markedly inhibited angiosarcoma growth. Our findings offer clinical implications for targeting the NF-kB/IL-6/STAT3 pathway as a rational strategy to treat angiosarcoma.

Related: Signal Transduction

Pathak S, Bhatla N, Singh N
Cervical cancer pathogenesis is associated with one-carbon metabolism.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2012; 369(1-2):1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in India and a leading cause of death in these women. Most cases of cervical cancer are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the high-risk type. It has been reported that aberrant DNA methylation can be associated with HPV infection and cervical cancer, and folate is directly involved in DNA methylation via one-carbon metabolism. We aimed to study the importance of one-carbon metabolism in the progression of cervical carcinogenesis by examining serum levels of vitamin B(12) (cobalamin), homocysteine, and folate and DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes CDH1, HIC1, and Retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ) amid these women ranging from normal to squamous intraepithelial neoplastic lesions (SIL) to cervical cancer. Blood and tissue samples were collected from normal (n = 35), SILs (n = 27), and cervical cancer patients (n = 38) in the age group of 26-70 years. Measurement of serum vitamin B(12), folate, and homocysteine were done using kits (Immulite). Promoter methylation was examined using methylation-specific PCR. The frequency of promoter hypermethylation for all the three tumor suppressor genes CDH1, HIC1, and RARβ showed an increasing trend from normal to dysplastic to invasive cervical cancer (p < 0.05). We observed that lower folate and vitamin B(12) status were associated with HPV infection. Taken together, our findings suggest a role of folate and vitamin B(12) in modulating the risk of cervical cancer and HPV infection. CDH1, HIC1, and RARβ genes can be used as potential biomarkers of cervical cancer risk assessment.

Related: Cervical Cancer CDH1 RARB

Yan L, Ping N, Zhu M, et al.
Clinical, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic features in 117 adult patients with mixed-phenotype acute leukemia defined by WHO-2008 classification.
Haematologica. 2012; 97(11):1708-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Among 4,780 consecutive adult acute lymphoblastic/myeloblastic leukemia patients, we identified 117 (2.4%) patients with mixed-phenotype acute leukemia fulfilling WHO 2008 criteria; these were classified as: Blymphoid+ myeloid (n=64), T-lymphoid+myeloid (n=38), B+T-lymphoid (n=14) and trilineage (n=1). Of 92 patients karyotyped, 59 were abnormal and were classified as: complex (22 of 92), t(9;22)(q34;q11) (14 of 92), monosomy 7 (7 of 92), polysomy 21 (7 of 92), t(v;11q23) (4 of 92), t(10;11)(p15;q21) (3 of 92), while STIL-TAL1 fusion was detected in one (T+My) patient. After investigating common acute leukemia-related mutations in 17 genes, 12 of 31 (39%) patients were found to have at least one mutation, classified with: IKZF1 deletion (4 of 31), and EZH2 (3 of 31), ASXL1 (3 of 31), ETV6 (2 of 31), NOTCH1 (1 of 31), and TET2 (1 of 31) mutations. Array-CGH revealed genomic deletions of CDKN2A (4 of 12), IKZF1 (3 of 12), MEF2C (2 of 12), BTG1 (2 of 12), together with BCOR, EBF1, K-RAS, LEF1, MBNL1, PBX3, and RUNX1 (one of 12 each). Our results indicate that mixed-phenotype acute leukemia is a complex entity with heterogeneous clinical, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic features.

Heemann C, Kreuz M, Stoller I, et al.
Circulating levels of TNF receptor II are prognostic for patients with peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(13):3637-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (T-NHL) represent a small but heterogeneous and clinically aggressive subset of NHLs with a poor outcome. Cytokines or their receptors might be associated with the clinical outcome of these lymphomas. Therefore, we tested whether gene variations and serum levels of soluble TNF receptor (TNFR)I (sTNFRI), sTNFRII, interleukin (IL)-10, or sIL-4R are predictive for treatment response in T-NHLs.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Peripheral blood DNA from 117 patients with T-NHL treated in prospective clinical trials was subjected to genotyping analysis. Whenever possible, pretreatment sera were obtained, and circulating levels of sTNFRI, sTNFRII, IL-10, and sIL-4R were determined with a specific capture enzyme-linked immunoassay.
RESULTS: Patients characterized by TNFRI-609GG (rs4149570) showed a trend toward better event free survival [EFS; univariate: P = 0.041; multivariate: HR, 1.76; confidence interval (CI), 0.99-3.14 with P = 0.056]. A protective role of IL-10-1087A, -824T, and -597A reported in another study was not confirmed in our cohort. Patients with circulating levels of soluble TNFRII ≥2.16 ng/mL had a 2.07-fold increased relative risk for shorter overall survival (OS; univariate: P = 0.0034; multivariate: HR, 2.07; CI, 0.92-4.70 with P = 0.081) and a 2.49-fold higher risk for shorter EFS (univariate: P = 0.00068; multivariate: HR, 2.49; CI, 1.22-5.08 with P = 0.012). Elevations of circulating levels of sTNFRI, IL-10, and sIL-4R are frequent, but the clinical response in these patients is not significantly different.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a critical role for TNF-TNFR signaling for the clinical outcome of patients with peripheral T-NHLs.


Yi H, Cho HJ, Cho SM, et al.
Blockade of interleukin-6 receptor suppresses the proliferation of H460 lung cancer stem cells.
Int J Oncol. 2012; 41(1):310-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
IL-6/6R signaling is closely associated with tumor growth and poor prognosis. Although there is evidence that interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R)-mediated signaling promotes the growth and malignancy of cancer, the role of IL-6R in cancer stem cells (CSCs) is poorly defined. This study investigated the role of IL-6R in the proliferation of CSCs. Sphere-forming cells were isolated from the H460 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line and identified as CSCs using confocal microscopy, RT-PCR and WST-1 assay. The H460 spheres demonstrated the typical characteristics of CSCs, including CD133 expression, upregulation of Nanog, self-renewal, and drug resistance to methotrexate (MTX) and fluorouracil (5-FU). The release of IL-6R and its ligand, IL-6, were quantitatively determined and compared between CSCs and non-CSCs. The concentration of soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) was remarkably high in CSCs compared to that in non-CSCs. Furthermore, significant upregulation of the IL-6R gene was also observed in the CSCs. The growth of CSCs was significantly inhibited by transfection with IL-6R small-interfering RNA (siRNA), as well as with the IL-6R monoclonal antibody (mAb). In addition, blocking both IL-6R and IL-6 using siRNA or mAbs intensified the inhibition of CSC proliferation. These findings indicate that IL-6R is present in CSCs and has an important role in the proliferation of CSCs in the H460 lung cancer cell line. Therefore, we suggest that IL-6R is both a viable target for the development of CSC-directed lung cancer therapeutics and a potential CSC marker in NSCLC.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Fluorouracil Lung Cancer Risk Factors and Prevention of Lung Cancer Methotrexate Signal Transduction

Yokoyama J, Ito S, Ohba S, et al.
Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland--a case report.
World J Surg Oncol. 2012; 10:58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13 cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody and thyroglobulin measured as high as 970 U/ml and 600 ng/mL respectively. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosed chronic thyroiditis. A preoperative diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto's thyroiditis was made, and a right hemithyroidectomy was performed to definite diagnosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD3 and CD45RO. The pathological diagnosis was chronic thyroiditis with atypical lymphocytes infiltration. However, Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed only a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Finally, peripheral T cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Therefore, the left hemithyroidectomy was also performed one month later. No adjuvant therapy was performed due to the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 22 months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. As malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was difficult to diagnose, gene rearrangement examination needed to be performed concurrently.

Related: Thyroid Cancer

Ronchi CL, Leich E, Sbiera S, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphism microarray analysis in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas identifies new candidate genes and pathways.
Neoplasia. 2012; 14(3):206-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The genetic mechanisms underlying adrenocortical tumor development are still largely unknown. We used high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays (Affymetrix SNP 6.0) to detect copy number alterations (CNAs) and copy-neutral losses of heterozygosity (cnLOH) in 15 cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas with matched blood samples. We focused on microalterations aiming to discover new candidate genes involved in early tumorigenesis and/or autonomous cortisol secretion. We identified 962 CNAs with a median of 18 CNAs per sample. Half of them involved noncoding regions, 89% were less than 100 kb, and 28% were found in at least two samples. The most frequently gained regions were 5p15.33, 6q16.1, 7p22.3-22.2, 8q24.3, 9q34.2-34.3, 11p15.5, 11q11, 12q12, 16q24.3, 20p11.1-20q21.11, and Xq28 (≥20% of cases), most of them being identified in the same three adenomas. These regions contained among others genes like NOTCH1, CYP11B2, HRAS, and IGF2. Recurrent losses were less common and smaller than gains, being mostly localized at 1p, 6q, and 11q. Pathway analysis revealed that Notch signaling was the most frequently altered. We identified 46 recurrent CNAs that each affected a single gene (31 gains and 15 losses), including genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11B1) or tumorigenesis (CTNNB1, EPHA7, SGK1, STIL, FHIT). Finally, 20 small cnLOH in four cases affecting 15 known genes were found. Our findings provide the first high-resolution genome-wide view of chromosomal changes in cortisol-secreting adenomas and identify novel candidate genes, such as HRAS, EPHA7, and SGK1. Furthermore, they implicate that the Notch1 signaling pathway might be involved in the molecular pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors.

Related: Adrenocortical Cancer Adrenocortical Carcinoma - Molecular Biology CGH Signal Transduction

Miyagaki T, Sugaya M, Suga H, et al.
Increased CCL18 expression in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: association with disease severity and prognosis.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013; 27(1):e60-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 18 is expressed by monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), and has potent chemotactic activity for T cells, B cells and DCs. CCL18 expression is up-regulated in lesional skin of atopic dermatitis and bullous pemphigoid, suggesting its important roles in the development of these skin diseases.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate roles of CCL18 in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL).
METHODS: The CCL18 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in CTCL skin (n = 21) and in normal skin (n = 7) was examined by quantitative RT-PCR. CCL18 expression was also examined by immunohistochemistry. Serum CCL18 levels were measured in 38 patients with CTCL and 20 healthy controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also analysed correlation between serum CCL18 levels and other clinical and laboratory data.
RESULTS: The CTCL lesional skin contained higher levels of CCL18 mRNA than normal skin. CCL18 was expressed by dermal macrophages and DCs in CTCL skin. Serum CCL18 levels in patients with CTCL were significantly higher than those of healthy controls and correlated with types of skin lesions. They also significantly correlated with modified severity-weighted assessment scores, serum sIL-2R, LDH, IL-4, IL-10, IL-31, CCL17 and CCL26 levels. Patients with high serum levels of CCL18 showed significantly poor prognosis compared with those with low CCL18 levels.
CONCLUSION: CCL18 mRNA is up-regulated in CTCL lesional skin, and serum CCL18 levels are significantly increased and correlated with the severity of CTCL. These results suggest that CCL18 may be associated with the development of CTCL.

Related: Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma Skin Cancer

Onozawa M, Aplan PD
Illegitimate V(D)J recombination involving nonantigen receptor loci in lymphoid malignancy.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012; 51(6):525-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
V(D)J recombination of antigen receptor loci (IGH, IGK, IGL, TCRA, TCRB, TCRG, and TCRD) is an essential mechanism that confers enormous diversity to the mammalian immune system. However, there are now at least six examples of intrachromosomal interstitial deletions caused by aberrant V(D)J recombination between nonantigen receptor loci; five of out these six are associated with lymphoid malignancy. The SIL-SCL fusion and deletions of CDKN2A, IKZF1, Notch1, and Bcl11b are all associated with lymphoid malignancy. These interstitial deletions seem to be species specific, as the deletions seen in mice are not seen in humans; the converse is true as well. Nucleotide sequence analysis of these rearrangements reveals the hallmarks of V(D)J recombination, including site specificity near cryptic heptamer signal sequences, exonucleolytic "nibbling" at the junction site, and nontemplated "N"-region nucleotide insertion at the junction site. Two of these interstitial deletions (murine Notch1 and Bcl11b deletions) have been detected, at low frequency, in tissues from healthy mice with no evidence of malignancy, similar to the finding of chromosomal translocations in the peripheral blood or tonsils of healthy individuals. The contention that these are mediated via V(D)J recombination is strengthened by in vivo assays using extrachromosomal substrates, and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequence analysis which shows Rag2 binding at the sites of rearrangement. Although the efficiency of these "illegitimate" recombination events is several orders of magnitude less than that at bona fide antigen receptor loci, the consequence of such deletions, namely activation of proto-oncogenes or deletion of tumor suppressor genes, is devastating, and a major cause for lymphoid malignancy.

Related: Leukemia


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. SIL gene, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/SIL.htm Accessed: date

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