Gene Summary

Gene:TYRO3; TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase
Aliases: BYK, Dtk, RSE, Rek, Sky, Tif, Etk-2
Summary:The gene is part of a 3-member transmembrane receptor kinase receptor family with a processed pseudogene distal on chromosome 15. The encoded protein is activated by the products of the growth arrest-specific gene 6 and protein S genes and is involved in controlling cell survival and proliferation, spermatogenesis, immunoregulation and phagocytosis. The encoded protein has also been identified as a cell entry factor for Ebola and Marburg viruses. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tyrosine-protein kinase receptor TYRO3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: TYRO3 (cancer-related)

Duan Y, Luo L, Qiao C, et al.
A novel human anti-AXL monoclonal antibody attenuates tumour cell migration.
Scand J Immunol. 2019; 90(2):e12777 [PubMed] Related Publications
TAM family members (TYRO3, AXL and MERTK) play essential roles in the resolution of inflammation and in infectious diseases and cancer. AXL, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is commonly overexpressed in several solid tumours and numerous hematopoietic malignancies including acute myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphocytic leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and multiple myeloma. AXL significantly promotes tumour cell migration, invasion and metastasis, as well as angiogenesis. AXL also plays an important role in inflammation and macrophage ontogeny. Recent studies have revealed that AXL contributes to leukaemic phenotypes through activation of oncogenic signalling pathways that lead to increased cell migration and proliferation. To evaluate the mechanisms underlying the role of AXL signalling in tumour metastasis, we screened a phage display library to generate a novel human monoclonal antibody, named DAXL-88, that recognizes both human and murine AXL. The concentrations of DAXL-88 required for 50% maximal binding to human and murine AXL were 0.118 and 0.164 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, DAXL-88 bound to human AXL with high affinity (K

Lee MJ, Tsai YJ, Lin MY, et al.
Calebin-A induced death of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells by activation of histone acetyltransferase.
Phytomedicine. 2019; 57:377-384 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common hereditary neurocutaneous disorders. The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), transformed from NF1 related plexiform neurofibroma, is a rapidly growing and highly invasive tumor. No effective chemotherapeutic agent is currently available. Calebin-A is a derivative from turmeric Curcuma longa. Given the anti-inflammatory and anticancer potentials of curcumin, whether Calebin-A also had the tumoricidal effect upon MPNST cells is still elusive.
PURPOSE: To determine whether Calebin-A has the potential for anti-MPNST effect.
METHODS: The MTT and FACS analysis of normal Schwann (HSC) and MPNST cells have been employed to determine the tumoricidal effect of Calebin-A. The expression of the signal pathway molecules was assessed by Western blotting. The CHIP with quantitative PCR assay was performed to quantify the promoter DNA binding to acetylated histone 3 (acetyl H3). The enzyme activities of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and deacetylase (HDAC) have been evaluated by commercial kits. The measurements of tumor size of the xenograft mouse model were also performed.
RESULTS: Calebin-A inhibited the proliferation of MPNST and primary neurofibroma cells in a dose-dependent manner. The flow cytometry analysis of the MPNST cells after treatment of 25 μm of Calebin-A demonstrated an increase of population in the G0/G1 phase but decrease in G2/M phase. Before treatment, the expression of Axl, Tyro3, and acetyl H3 was significantly higher in MPNST cells when compared to HSC. The expression of phosphorylated-AKT, -ERK1/2, survivin, hTERT, and acetyl H3 proteins were reduced after treatment. The CHIP assay shows the promoter DNA copies of survivin (BRIC5) and hTERT genes are significantly reduced post-treatment. The enzyme activity of HAT was significantly reduced, but not that of HDAC. Two HAT inhibitors, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and anacardic acid (AA) have also demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on MPNST cells. Finally, the measurements of tumor size showed a significant reduction of the xenograft tumors after treatment of Calebin-A.
CONCLUSION: Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed Calebin-A could inhibit the proliferation of MPNST with suppression of survivin and hTERT. The reduced expression of these two factors might be through the epigenetic histone modification resulting from the decreased activity of HAT.

Tyagi P, Santiago C
New features in MEK retinopathy.
BMC Ophthalmol. 2018; 18(Suppl 1):221 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The use of molecularly targeted therapy is becoming widespread in oncology. These agents cause tumour-specific genetic alterations in signal transduction pathways, hence less generalised toxicity. Dabrafenib, a BRAF inhibitor and Trametinib, a MEK inhibitor are two molecularly targeted agents recently approved for treatment of advanced, unresectable melanomas. MEK retinopathy is a recently introduced term describing retinal toxicity secondary to MEK inhibitors.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old man presented with 'circular, green patches' in his central vision for 2 weeks. He had multiple relapsed stage IV BRAF gene mutant malignant melanoma. He was on treatment with Dabrafenib (Tafinlar) for 7 months and Trametinib (Mekinist) for 4 months respectively. The fundus looked normal. The OCT scan showed bilateral symmetrical cystoid macular edema, intraretinal and subretinal fluid, thickening of elliposoid zone and subretinal granular deposits. The symptoms resolved with temporary cessation of chemotherapy but OCT signs persisted.
CONCLUSION: This case report identifies two new remarkable features of MEK retinopathy as thickening of ellipsoid zone and 'starry sky' pattern of distribution of subretinal granular deposits. These changes signify photoreceptors/ RPE toxicity and dysfunction. The subretinal granular deposits showed increased autofluorescence suggested abnormal lipofuscin clearance due to RPE dysfunction. The molecularly targeted therapy has revolutionized the cancer treatment and increased the survival rate. These agents are relatively new and recently approved for clinical use and most of them are associated with ocular toxicities. Awareness of ocular symptoms, side-effect profile of drugs, monitoring regime and liaison between oncologist and eye care professional with ocular imaging is key to early diagnosis and management of ocular adverse events.

Qin A, Qian W
MicroRNA-7 inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion via TYRO3 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein B kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway suppression.
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 42(5):2503-2514 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA‑7 (miR‑7) is a non‑coding RNA that inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) cell proliferation, migration and invasion. miR‑7 effectively silences TYRO3 expression, and the close association between TYRO3 and CRC has previously been reported. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the roles and molecular mechanisms of TYRO3 and miR‑7 in the development of CRC. The expression levels of miR‑7 and TYRO3 in CRC tissues and cell lines were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A dual‑luciferase reporter assay was also performed to confirm whether TYRO3 was a target of miR‑7. The effect of miR‑7 and TYRO3 on cell proliferation, migration and invasion was detected in vitro with MTT, wound healing and cell invasion assays, respectively. The expression of proteins associated with the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway was detected by western blot analysis. The results indicated that the expression of miR‑7 was downregulated and the levels of TYRO3 were gradually increased in CRC tissues and cell lines. TYRO3 was identified as a functional target of miR‑7, and its expression was negatively regulated by miR‑7 in CRC cell lines. The functional studies demonstrated that miR‑7 knockdown promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of CRC cells, while knockdown of TYRO3 repressed these biological processes. In addition, pathway analyses revealed that the oncogenic effect of TYRO3 was associated with PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibition. In conclusion, the data suggested that miR‑7 promoted the development of CRC by targeting oncogenic TYRO3, which may be mediated by inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Thus, miR‑7 may serve as an independent prognostic biomarker in patients with CRC.

Schwartzberg BS, Chin DT, Dorn PL, et al.
Application of 21-gene recurrence score results and ASTRO suitability criteria in breast cancer patients treated with intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT).
Am J Surg. 2018; 216(4):689-693 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) suitability criteria for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and the 21-gene recurrence score (RS) were evaluated for prognostic and predictive benefit in IORT patients.
METHODS: Outcomes of 184 patients completing IRB approved IORT protocol were retrospectively reviewed. Data included demographics, histopathology, RS, adjuvant therapy, locoregional (LRR) and distant recurrences (DR), and breast cancer-specific survival.
RESULTS: There were 10 (5.4%) breast cancer recurrences, including one breast cancer-specific death. All 184 patients were classified by ASTRO suitability criteria (suitable: 64% (5 LRR), cautionary: 30% (3 LRR), unsuitable: 6.0% (1 LRR, 1 DR leading to death). RS were available in 114 estrogen receptor positive patients (<11: 22% (1 LRR), 11-25: 63% (1 LRR), 26-30: 9%, >30: 6%). Mean follow-up was 55 months.
CONCLUSIONS: ASTRO suitability criteria for APBI and RS were useful in making prognostic and therapeutic recommendations for patients considering IORT.

Jiménez G, Hackenberg M, Catalina P, et al.
Mesenchymal stem cell's secretome promotes selective enrichment of cancer stem-like cells with specific cytogenetic profile.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 429:78-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation, metastasis and cancer recurrence, however the involvement of microenvironment is crucial. Here, we have analyzed how human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived conditioned medium (CM) affect colon and melanoma CSCs enrichment and maintenance. Our results strongly suggest that the secretome of CM-MSCs selects and maintains subpopulations with high expression of CSCs markers and ALDH1 activity, low proliferation rates with G1 phase arrest, and notably retain in vivo these properties. Cytogenetic analyses indicated that CM-cultured cells contain alterations in chromosome 17 (17q25). Subsequent SKY-FISH analyses suggested that genes located in 17q25 might be involved in stem-cell maintenance. The characterization of secreted proteins present in CM-MSCs revealed that four cytokines and seven growth factors are directly linked to the CSCs enrichment reported in this study. Further analyses revealed that the combination of just IL6 and HGF is enough to provide cancer cells with better stemness properties. In conclusion, this study demonstrates how specific chromosomal alterations present in CSCs subpopulations might represent an advantage for their in vitro maintenance and in vivo stemness properties.

Gong QX, Wang Z, Liu C, et al.
CD30 expression and its correlation with MYC and BCL2 in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
J Clin Pathol. 2018; 71(9):795-801 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: CD30+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has emerged as a new immunophenotypic variant of
METHODS: A total of 241 patients with
RESULTS: Using a >0% threshold, CD30 expression was detected in approximately 10% patient with
CONCLUSION: CD30+ DLBCL may be a subset of

Bockorny B, Rusan M, Chen W, et al.
RAS-MAPK Reactivation Facilitates Acquired Resistance in
Mol Cancer Ther. 2018; 17(7):1526-1539 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The FGFR kinases are promising therapeutic targets in multiple cancer types, including lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and bladder cancer. Although several FGFR kinase inhibitors have entered clinical trials, single-agent clinical efficacy has been modest and resistance invariably occurs. We therefore conducted a genome-wide functional screen to characterize mechanisms of resistance to FGFR inhibition in a

Sengupta S, Sobo M, Lee K, et al.
Induced Telomere Damage to Treat Telomerase Expressing Therapy-Resistant Pediatric Brain Tumors.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2018; 17(7):1504-1514 [PubMed] Related Publications
Brain tumors remain the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children and often are associated with long-term sequelae among survivors of current therapies. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify actionable targets and to develop more effective therapies. Telomerase and telomeres play important roles in cancer, representing attractive therapeutic targets to treat children with poor-prognosis brain tumors such as diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), high-grade glioma (HGG), and high-risk medulloblastoma. We have previously shown that DIPG, HGG, and medulloblastoma frequently express telomerase activity. Here, we show that the telomerase-dependent incorporation of 6-thio-2'deoxyguanosine (6-thio-dG), a telomerase substrate precursor analogue, into telomeres leads to telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIF) along with extensive genomic DNA damage, cell growth inhibition, and cell death of primary stem-like cells derived from patients with DIPG, HGG, and medulloblastoma. Importantly, the effect of 6-thio-dG is persistent even after drug withdrawal. Treatment with 6-thio-dG elicits a sequential activation of ATR and ATM pathways and induces G

Zhuo H, Zheng B, Liu J, et al.
Efficient targeted tumor imaging and secreted endostatin gene delivery by anti-CD105 immunoliposomes.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Anti-CD105 mAb-conjugated immunoliposomes, loaded with secreted mouse endostatin gene, were developed for targeted tumor imaging and antiangiogenic gene therapy.
METHODS: The liposomes were investigated for size, zeta-potential, lipid content, antibody binding ability, and pcDNA loading capacity. The ability of immunoliposomes to target tumor-derived endothelial cells and perform gene transfer in vitro was measured and their basic biocompatibility was evaluated. A nude mouse/breast cancer xenograft model was used to examine the tumor internalization of fluorescent-labeled liposomes and the clinical potential of immnuoliposomes loaded with pcDNA3.1-CSF1-endostatin.
RESULTS: Loaded immunoliposomes were homogenously distributed with a well-defined spherical shape and bilayer, diameter of 122 ± 11 nm, and zeta potential + 1.40 mV. No significant differences were observed in body weight, liver index, oxidative stress, or liver and kidney function in mice after liposomes exposure. The addition of CD105 mAb to liposomes conferred the ability to target tumor-derived endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Systemic intravenous administration of fluorescent immunoliposomes in the xenograft model resulted in selective and efficient internalization in tumor vasculature. Treatment of mice with pcDNA3.1-CSF1-endostatin-loaded immunoliposomes suppressed tumor growth by 71%.
CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the advantages of using anti-CD105 mAb-conjugated immunoliposomes to enhance tumor targeting, imaging, and gene transfer applications.

Shen Y, Chen X, He J, et al.
Axl inhibitors as novel cancer therapeutic agents.
Life Sci. 2018; 198:99-111 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression and activation of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase have been widely accepted to promote cell proliferation, chemotherapy resistance, invasion, and metastasis in several human cancers, such as lung, breast, and pancreatic cancers. Axl, a member of the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, Mer) family, and its inhibitors can specifically break the kinase signaling nodes, allowing advanced patients to regain drug sensitivity with improved therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, the research on Axl is promising and it is worthy of further investigations. In this review, we present an update on the Axl inhibitors and provide new insights into their latent application.

Wu G, Ma Z, Cheng Y, et al.
Targeting Gas6/TAM in cancer cells and tumor microenvironment.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Growth arrest-specific 6, also known as Gas6, is a human gene encoding the Gas6 protein, which was originally found to be upregulated in growth-arrested fibroblasts. Gas6 is a member of the vitamin K-dependent family of proteins expressed in many human tissues and regulates several biological processes in cells, including proliferation, survival and migration, by binding to its receptors Tyro3, Axl and Mer (TAM). In recent years, the roles of Gas6/TAM signalling in cancer cells and the tumour microenvironment have been studied, and some progress has made in targeted therapy, providing new potential directions for future investigations of cancer treatment. In this review, we introduce the Gas6 and TAM receptors and describe their involvement in different cancers and discuss the roles of Gas6 in cancer cells, the tumour microenvironment and metastasis. Finally, we introduce recent studies on Gas6/TAM targeting in cancer therapy, which will assist in the experimental design of future analyses and increase the potential use of Gas6 as a therapeutic target for cancer.

Minakata D, Sato K, Ikeda T, et al.
A leukemic double-hit follicular lymphoma associated with a complex variant translocation, t(8;14;18)(q24;q32;q21), involving BCL2, MYC, and IGH.
Cancer Genet. 2018; 220:44-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Double-hit lymphoma (DHL) is defined as lymphoma with concurrent BCL2 and MYC translocations. While the most common histological subtype of DHL is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the present patient had leukemic follicular lymphoma (FL). A 52-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to general fatigue and cervical and inguinal lymph node swelling. The patient was leukemic and the pathological diagnosis of the inguinal lymph node was FL grade 1. Chromosomal analysis revealed a complex karyotype including a rare three-way translocation t(8;14;18)(q24;q32;q21) involving the BCL2, MYC, and IGH genes. Based on a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using BCL2, MYC and IGH, and spectral karyotyping (SKY), the karyotype was interpreted as being the result of a multistep mechanism in which the precursor B-cell gained t(14;18) in the bone marrow and acquired a translocation between der(14)t(14;18) and chromosome 8 in the germinal center, resulting in t(8;14;18). The pathological diagnosis was consistently FL, not only at presentation but even after a second relapse. The patient responded well to standard chemotherapies but relapsed after a short remission. This patient is a unique case of leukemic DH-FL with t(8;14;18) that remained in FL even at a second relapse.

Conde M, Michen S, Wiedemuth R, et al.
Chromosomal instability induced by increased BIRC5/Survivin levels affects tumorigenicity of glioma cells.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):889 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Survivin, belonging to the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family, is abundantly expressed in tumors. It has been hypothesized that Survivin facilitates carcinogenesis by inhibition of apoptosis resulting in improved survival of tumorigenic progeny. Additionally, Survivin plays an essential role during mitosis. Together with its molecular partners Aurora B, Borealin and inner centromere protein it secures bipolar chromosome segregation. However, whether increased Survivin levels contribute to progression of tumors by inducing chromosomal instability remains unclear.
METHODS: We overexpressed Survivin in U251-MG, SVGp12, U87-MG, HCT116 and p53-deficient U87-MG
RESULTS: Overexpression of Survivin affected cells with knockdown of p53, cells harboring mutant p53 and SV40 large T antigen, respectively, resulting in the increase of cell fractions harboring 4n and >4n DNA contents. Increased γH2AX levels, indicative of DNA damage were monitored in all Survivin-transduced cell lines, but only in p53 wild type cells this was accompanied by an attenuated S-phase entry and activation of p21
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that increased Survivin levels promote adaptive evolution of tumors through combining induction of genetic heterogeneity with inhibition of apoptosis.

Shao H, Wang A, Lauffenburger D, Wells A
Tyro3-mediated phosphorylation of ACTN4 at tyrosines is FAK-dependent and decreases susceptibility to cleavage by m-Calpain.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018; 95:73-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tyro3, a member of TAM receptor tyrosine kinase family, has been implicated in the regulation of melanoma progression and survival. In this study, we sought the molecular mechanism of Tyro3 effects avoiding endogenous background by overexpression of Tyro3 in fibroblasts that have negligible levels of Tyro3. This introduction triggers the tyrosyl-phosphorylation of ACTN4, a member of actin binding protein family involved in motility, a behavior critical for invasive progression, as shown by siRNA to Tyro3 limiting melanoma cell migration and invasion. Tyro3-mediated phosphorylation of ACTN4 required FAK activation at tyrosine 397 and the EGF receptor cascade, but not EGFR ligand binding. Using PCR-based mutagenesis, the sites of Tyro3-mediated ACTN4 phosphorylation were mapped to ACTN4 tyrosine 11 and 13, and this occurs in conjunction with EGF-mediated phosphorylation on Y4 and Y31. Interestingly, Tyro3-mediated phosphorylation only slightly decreases the actin binding activity of ACTN4. However, this rendered the phosphorylated ACTN4 resistant to the m-calpain cleavage between Y13 and G14, a limited proteolysis that prevents growth factor regulation of ACTN4 interaction with F-actin. Overexpression of both WT ACTN4 and ACTN4Y11/13E, a mimic of ACTN4 phosphorylated at tyrosine 11 and 13, in melanoma WM983b cells resulted in a likely mesenchymal to amoeboidal transition. ACTN4Y11/13E-expressing cells were more amoeboidal, less migratory on collagen I gel coated surface but more invasive through collagen networks. In parallel, expression of ACTN4Y11/13E, in ACTN4 knockdown melanoma WM1158 cells resulted in an increase of invasion compared to WT ACTN4. These findings suggest that Tyro3-mediated phosphorylation of ACTN4 is involved in invasion of melanoma cells.

Dantas-Barbosa C, Lesluyes T, Loarer FL, et al.
Expression and role of TYRO3 and AXL as potential therapeutical targets in leiomyosarcoma.
Br J Cancer. 2017; 117(12):1787-1797 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) are 15% of adult sarcomas and remain seldom curable in metastatic phase. The TAM receptors and their ligands are overexpressed or activated in multiple malignancies, including LMS.
METHODS: The TAM receptor and ligand expression was evaluated in LMS cell lines and 358 sarcoma samples by either gene expression or immunohistochemistry. TYRO3 and AXL were knocked down. Crizotinib and foretinib were investigated in vitro.
RESULTS: High expression of TYRO3 and AXL was detected in LMS cell lines. TYRO3 or AXL gene knockdown reduced cell proliferation/colony formation. Crizotinib and foretinib decreased TYRO3 and AXL phosphorylation, apoptosis, G2/arrest and reduced colony formation. Immunohistochemistry performed in 107 sarcomas showed higher expression of TYRO3 and GAS6 in LMS vs other sarcomas and nuclear TYRO3 only in LMS. Microarray gene expression performed in 251 sarcomas revealed significantly higher expression of TYRO3 and GAS6 in LMS than other sarcomas. Leiomyosarcoma patients with high expression of GAS6 or PROS1 present a significantly worse PFS.
CONCLUSIONS: Leiomyosarcoma patients, especially those whom develop metastasis, express higher levels of TYRO3 and GAS6. Crizotinib and foretinib showed effective antitumour activity in LMS through TYRO3 and AXL deactivation indicating that clinical trials using TYRO3 and AXL inhibitors are warranted in advanced LMS.

Kabir TD, Ganda C, Brown RM, et al.
A microRNA-7/growth arrest specific 6/TYRO3 axis regulates the growth and invasiveness of sorafenib-resistant cells in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2018; 67(1):216-231 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sorafenib remains the only approved drug for treating patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the therapeutic effect of sorafenib is transient, and patients invariably develop sorafenib resistance (SR). Recently, TYRO3, a member of the TYRO3-AXL-MER family of receptor tyrosine kinases, was identified as being aberrantly expressed in a significant proportion of HCC; however, its role in SR is unknown. In this study, we generated two functionally distinct sorafenib-resistant human Huh-7 HCC cell lines in order to identify new mechanisms to abrogate acquired SR as well as new potential therapeutic targets in HCC. Initially, we investigated the effects of a microRNA (miR), miR-7-5p (miR-7), in both in vitro and in vivo preclinical models of human HCC and identified miR-7 as a potent tumor suppressor of human HCC. We identified TYRO3 as a new functional target of miR-7, which regulates proliferation, migration, and invasion of Huh-7 cells through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway and is markedly elevated with acquisition of SR. Furthermore, miR-7 effectively silenced TYRO3 expression in both sorafenib-sensitive and sorafenib-resistant Huh-7 cells, inhibiting TYRO3/growth arrest specific 6-mediated cancer cell migration and invasion.
CONCLUSION: We identified a mechanism for acquiring SR in HCC that is through the aberrant expression of the TYRO3/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal transduction pathway, and that can be overcome by miR-7 overexpression. Taken together, these data suggest a potential role for miR-7 as an RNA-based therapeutic to treat refractory and drug-resistant HCC. (Hepatology 2018;67:216-231).

Rozenblum E, Sotelo-Silveira JR, Kim GY, et al.
Novel near-diploid ovarian cancer cell line derived from a highly aneuploid metastatic ovarian tumor.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(8):e0182610 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A new ovarian near-diploid cell line, OVDM1, was derived from a highly aneuploid serous ovarian metastatic adenocarcinoma. A metastatic tumor was obtained from a 47-year-old Ashkenazi Jewish patient three years after the first surgery removed the primary tumor, both ovaries, and the remaining reproductive organs. OVDM1 was characterized by cell morphology, genotyping, tumorigenic assay, mycoplasma testing, spectral karyotyping (SKY), and molecular profiling of the whole genome by aCGH and gene expression microarray. Targeted sequencing of a panel of cancer-related genes was also performed. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression data clearly confirmed the ovarian origin of the cell line. OVDM1 has a near-diploid karyotype with a low-level aneuploidy, but samples of the original metastatic tumor were grossly aneuploid. A number of single nucleotide variations (SNVs)/mutations were detected in OVDM1 and the metastatic tumor samples. Some of them were cancer-related according to COSMIC and HGMD databases (no founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been found). A large number of focal copy number alterations (FCNAs) were detected, including homozygous deletions (HDs) targeting WWOX and GATA4. Progression of OVDM1 from early to late passages was accompanied by preservation of the near-diploid status, acquisition of only few additional large chromosomal rearrangements and more than 100 new small FCNAs. Most of newly acquired FCNAs seem to be related to localized but massive DNA fragmentation (chromothripsis-like rearrangements). Newly developed near-diploid OVDM1 cell line offers an opportunity to evaluate tumorigenesis pathways/events in a minor clone of metastatic ovarian adenocarcinoma as well as mechanisms of chromothripsis.

Uribe DJ, Mandell EK, Watson A, et al.
The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL promotes migration and invasion in colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(7):e0179979 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) TYRO3, AXL and MERTK (TAM) have well-described oncogenic functions in a number of cancers. Notwithstanding, TAM RTKs are also potent and indispensable inhibitors of inflammation. The combined deletion of Axl and Mertk in mice enhances chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, including increased inflammation in the gut and colitis-associated cancer. On the other hand, deletion of Tyro3 increases the risk of allergic responses. Therefore, the indiscriminate inhibition of these TAM RTKs could result in undesirable immunological diseases. Here we show that AXL, but not MERTK or TYRO3 expression is enhanced in late stage colorectal cancer (CRC) and AXL expression associates with a cell migration gene signature. Silencing AXL or the inhibition of AXL kinase activity significantly inhibits tumor cell migration and invasion. These results indicate that the selective inhibition of AXL alone might confer sufficient therapeutic benefit in CRC, while preserving at least some of the beneficial, anti-inflammatory effects of MERTK and TYRO3 RTKs.

Wang SJ, Asthana S, van Zante A, et al.
Establishment and characterization of an oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line from a never-smoking patient.
Oral Oncol. 2017; 69:1-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The rising incidence of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) in patients who have never smoked and the paucity of knowledge of its biological behavior prompted us to develop a new cell line originating from a never-smoker.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fresh tumor tissue of keratinizing OTSCC was collected from a 44-year-old woman who had never smoked. Serum-free media with a low calcium concentration were used in cell culture, and a multifaceted approach was taken to verify and characterize the cell line, designated UCSF-OT-1109.
RESULTS: UCSF-OT-1109 was authenticated by STR DNA fingerprint analysis, presence of an epithelial marker EpCAM, absence of human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA, and SCC-specific microscopic appearance. Sphere-forming assays supported its tumorigenic potential. Spectral karyotype (SKY) analysis revealed numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) identified 46 non-synonymous and 13 synonymous somatic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one frameshift deletion in the coding regions. Specifically, mutations of CDKN2A, TP53, SPTBN5, NOTCH2, and FAM136A were found in the databases. Copy number aberration (CNA) analysis revealed that the cell line loses chromosome 3p and 9p, but lacks amplification of 3q and 11q (as does HPV-negative, smoking-unrelated OTSCC). It also exhibits four distinctive focal amplifications in chromosome 19p, containing 131 genes without SNPs. Particularly, 52 genes showed >3- to 4-fold amplification and could be potential oncogenic drivers.
CONCLUSION: We have successfully established a novel OTSCC cell line from a never-smoking patient. UCSF-OT-1109 is potentially a robust experimental model of OTSCC in never-smokers.

Wang W, Jia WD, Hu B, Pan YY
RAB10 overexpression promotes tumor growth and indicates poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(16):26434-26447 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most common and lethal cancers worldwide, has a high recurrence rate with current treatment modalities. Identifying biomarkers for early diagnosis and discovering new sufficient molecular targets for the development of targeted therapies are urgently needed. RAB10, a member of the RAS family, has been shown to be highly expressed in HCC. However, the function of RAB10 in HCC is less studied. Here we report that RAB10 acts as an oncogene in HCC. The shRNA-mediated knockdown of RAB10 significantly reduced the proliferation of HCC cells and colony formation, induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and increased apoptosis in vitro. In addition, RAB10 knockdown suppressed HCC growth in nude mice. Moreover, RAB10 silencing decreased the phosphorylation of InsR, Met/HGFR, Ron/MST1R, Ret, c-Kit/SCFR, EphA3, EphB4, Tyro3/Dtk, Axl, Tie2/TEK, VEGFR2/KDR, Akt/PKB/Rac, S6 Ribosomal Protein and c-Abl, while the phosphorylation of HSP27, p38 MAPK, Chk2 and TAK1 increased significantly. These results suggest that RAB10 regulates cell survival and proliferation through multiple oncogenic, cell stress and apoptosis pathways. More importantly, high RAB10 expression levels in HCC cells correlated with a poor prognosis in HCC patients. Therefore, our findings revealed an oncogenic role for RAB10 in the pathogenesis of HCC and that RAB10 is a potential molecular target or a biomarker for HCC.

Lewinska A, Bednarz D, Adamczyk-Grochala J, Wnuk M
Phytochemical-induced nucleolar stress results in the inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation.
Redox Biol. 2017; 12:469-482 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The nucleolus is a stress sensor and compromised nucleolar activity may be considered as an attractive anticancer strategy. In the present study, the effects of three plant-derived natural compounds, i.e., sulforaphane (SFN), ursolic acid (UA) and betulinic acid (BA) on nucleolar state were investigated in breast cancer cell lines of different receptor status, namely MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells. Cytostatic action of phytochemicals against breast cancer cells was observed at low micromolar concentration window (5-20µM) and mediated by elevated p21 levels, and cell proliferation of SFN-, UA- and BA-treated normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) was unaffected. Phytochemical-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation was accompanied by increased levels of superoxide and protein carbonylation that lead to disorganization of A- and B-type lamin networks and alterations in the nuclear architecture. Phytochemicals promoted nucleolar stress as judged by the nucleoplasmic translocation of RNA polymerase I-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3/TIF-IA, inhibition of new rRNA synthesis and decrease in number of nucleoli. Phytochemicals also decreased the levels of NOP2, proliferation-associated nucleolar protein p120, and WDR12 required for maturation of 28S and 5.8S ribosomal RNAs and formation of the 60S ribosome, and phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein that may result in diminished translation and inhibition of cell proliferation. In summary, three novel ribotoxic stress stimuli were revealed with a potential to be used in nucleolus-focused anticancer therapy.

Wu G, Ma Z, Hu W, et al.
Molecular insights of Gas6/TAM in cancer development and therapy.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(3):e2700 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Since growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) was discovered in 1988, numerous studies have highlighted the role of the Gas6 protein and its receptors Tyro3, Axl and Mer (collectively referred to as TAM), in proliferation, apoptosis, efferocytosis, leukocyte migration, sequestration and platelet aggregation. Gas6 has a critical role in the development of multiple types of cancers, including pancreatic, prostate, oral, ovarian and renal cancers. Acute myelocytic leukaemia (AML) is a Gas6-dependent cancer, and Gas6 expression predicts poor prognosis in AML. Interestingly, Gas6 also has a role in establishing tumour dormancy in the bone marrow microenvironment and in suppressing intestinal tumorigenesis. Numerous studies regarding cancer therapy have targeted Gas6 and TAM receptors with good results. However, some findings have suggested that Gas6 is associated with the development of resistance to cancer therapies. Concerning these significant effects of Gas6 in numerous cancers, we discuss the roles of Gas6 in cancer development in this review. First, we introduce basic knowledge on Gas6 and TAM receptors. Next, we describe and discuss the involvement of Gas6 and TAM receptors in cancers from different organ systems. Finally, we highlight the progress in therapies targeting Gas6 and TAM receptors. This review presents the significant roles of Gas6 in cancers from different systems and may contribute to the continued promotion of Gas6 as a therapeutic target.

Dewan R, Pemov A, Dutra AS, et al.
First insight into the somatic mutation burden of neurofibromatosis type 2-associated grade I and grade II meningiomas: a case report comprehensive genomic study of two cranial meningiomas with vastly different clinical presentation.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):127 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a rare autosomal dominant nervous system tumor predisposition disorder caused by constitutive inactivation of one of the two copies of NF2. Meningiomas affect about one half of NF2 patients, and are associated with a higher disease burden. Currently, the somatic mutation landscape in NF2-associated meningiomas remains largely unexamined.
CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present an in-depth genomic study of benign and atypical meningiomas, both from a single NF2 patient. While the grade I tumor was asymptomatic, the grade II tumor exhibited an unusually high growth rate: expanding to 335 times its initial volume within one year. The genomes of both tumors were examined by whole-exome sequencing (WES) complemented with spectral karyotyping (SKY) and SNP-array copy-number analyses. To better understand the clonal composition of the atypical meningioma, the tumor was divided in four sections and each section was investigated independently. Both tumors had second copy inactivation of NF2, confirming the central role of the gene in meningioma formation. The genome of the benign tumor closely resembled that of a normal diploid cell and had only one other deleterious mutation (EPHB3). In contrast, the chromosomal architecture of the grade II tumor was highly re-arranged, yet uniform among all analyzed fragments, implying that this large and fast growing tumor was composed of relatively few clones. Besides multiple gains and losses, the grade II meningioma harbored numerous chromosomal translocations. WES analysis of the atypical tumor identified deleterious mutations in two genes: ADAMTSL3 and CAPN5 in all fragments, indicating that the mutations were present in the cell undergoing fast clonal expansion CONCLUSIONS: This is the first WES study of NF2-associated meningiomas. Besides second NF2 copy inactivation, we found low somatic burden in both tumors and high level of genomic instability in the atypical meningioma. Genomic instability resulting in altered gene dosage and compromised structural integrity of multiple genes may be the primary reason of the high growth rate for the grade II tumor. Further study of ADAMTSL3 and CAPN5 may lead to elucidation of their molecular implications in meningioma pathogenesis.

Abboud-Jarrous G, Priya S, Maimon A, et al.
Protein S drives oral squamous cell carcinoma tumorigenicity through regulation of AXL.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(8):13986-14002 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The TAM family of proto-oncogenic receptor protein tyrosine kinases, comprising of TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK, is implicated in many human cancers. Their activation leads to cancer cell proliferation, enhanced migration, invasion, and drug resistance; however how TAMs are activated in cancers is less understood. We previously showed that Protein S (PROS1) is a ligand of the TAM receptors. Here we identify PROS1 as a mediator of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) in proliferation, cell survival and migration. We demonstrate that excess PROS1 induces OSCC proliferation and migration. Conversely, blocking endogenous PROS1 expression using shRNA significantly inhibits cell proliferation and migration in culture. This inhibition was rescued by the addition of purified PROS1. Moreover, PROS1 knockdown reduced anchorage-independent growth in-vitro, reduced tumor xenograft growth in nude mice and altered their differentiation profile. Mechanistically, we identify the downregulation of AXL transcripts and protein following PROS1 knockdown. Re-introducing PROS1 rescues AXL expression both at the protein and transcriptional levels. The anti-proliferative effect of the AXL inhibitor R428 was significantly reduced following PROS1 inhibition, indicating the functional significance of PROS1-mediated regulation of AXL in OSCC. Taken together, we identify PROS1 as a driver of OSCC tumor growth and a modulator of AXL expression. Our results point to PROS1 as a potential novel anti-cancer therapeutic target.

Gay CM, Balaji K, Byers LA
Giving AXL the axe: targeting AXL in human malignancy.
Br J Cancer. 2017; 116(4):415-423 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, activated by a complex interaction between its ligand growth arrest-specific protein 6 and phosphatidylserine, regulates various vital cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, motility, and immunologic response. Although not implicated as an oncogenic driver itself, AXL, a member of the TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in several haematologic and solid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukaemia, non-small cell lung cancer, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas, and breast and prostate cancers. In the context of malignancy, evidence suggests that AXL overexpression drives wide-ranging processes, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition, tumour angiogenesis, resistance to chemotherapeutic and targeted agents, and decreased antitumor immune response. As a result, AXL is an attractive candidate not only as a prognostic biomarker in malignancy but also as a target for anticancer therapies. Several AXL inhibitors are currently in preclinical and clinical development. This article reviews the structure, regulation, and function of AXL; the role of AXL in the tumour microenvironment; the development of AXL as a therapeutic target; and areas of ongoing and future investigation.

Oliveira CC, Maciel-Guerra H, Kucko L, et al.
Double-hit lymphomas: clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic study in a series of Brazilian patients with high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Diagn Pathol. 2017; 12(1):3 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Double-hit lymphomas (DHL) are rare high-grade neoplasms characterized by two translocations: one involving the gene MYC and another involving genes BCL2 or BCL6, whose diagnosis depends on cytogenetic examination. This research studied DHL and morphological and/or immunophenotypic factors associated with the detection of these translocations in a group of high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases.
METHOD: Clinical and morphological reviews of 120 cases diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma were conducted. Immunohistochemistry (CD20, CD79a, PAX5, CD10, Bcl6, Bcl2, MUM1, TDT and Myc) and fluorescence in situ hybridization for detection of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 gene translocations were performed in a tissue microarray platform.
RESULTS: Three cases of DHL were detected: two with translocations of MYC and BCL2 and one with translocations of MYC and BCL6, all leading to death in less than six months. Among 90 cytogenetically evaluable biopsies, associations were determined between immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYC (p = 0.036) and BCL2 (p = 0.001). However, these showed only regular agreement, indicated by Kappa values of 0.23 [0.0;0.49] and 0.35 [0.13;0.56], respectively. "Starry sky" morphology was strongly associated with MYC positivity (p = 0.01). The detection of three cases of DHL, all resulting in death, confirms the rarity and aggressiveness of this neoplasm.
CONCLUSIONS: The "starry sky" morphological pattern and immunohistochemical expression of Myc and Bcl2 represent possible selection factors for additional cytogenetic diagnostic testing.

Lee YJ, Lim T, Han MS, et al.
Anticancer effect of luteolin is mediated by downregulation of TAM receptor tyrosine kinases, but not interleukin-8, in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(2):1219-1226 [PubMed] Related Publications
TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Tyro3, Axl and MerTK, transduce diverse signals responsible for cell survival, growth, proliferation and anti-apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of luteolin, a flavonoid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, on the expression and activation of TAM RTKs and the association with its cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We observed the cytotoxic effect of luteolin in parental A549 and H460 cells as well as in cisplatin-resistant A549/CisR and H460/CisR cells. Exposure of these cells to luteolin also resulted in a dose‑dependent decrease in clonogenic ability. Next, luteolin was found to decrease the protein levels of all three TAM RTKs in the A549 and A549/CisR cells in a dose‑dependent manner. In a similar manner, in H460 and H460/CisR cells, the protein levels of Axl and Tyro3 were decreased following luteolin treatment. In addition, Axl promoter activity was decreased by luteolin, indicating that luteolin suppresses Axl expression at the transcriptional level. We next found that luteolin abrogated Axl phosphorylation in response to growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), its ligand, implying the inhibitory effect of luteolin on Gas6-induced Axl activation. Ectopic expression of Axl was observed to attenuate the antiproliferative effect of luteolin, while knockdown of the Axl protein level using a gold nanoparticle-assisted gene delivery system increased its cytotoxicity. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of luteolin on the expression of TAM RTKs, interleukin-8 (IL-8) production was not decreased by luteolin in H460 and H460/CisR cells, while IL-8 production/cell was increased. Collectively, our data suggest that TAM RTKs, but not IL-8, are promising therapeutic targets of luteolin to abrogate cell proliferation and to overcome chemoresistance in NSCLC cells.

Che Mat MF, Abdul Murad NA, Ibrahim K, et al.
Silencing of PROS1 induces apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion of glioblastoma multiforme cells.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 49(6):2359-2366 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumor and most patients have poor prognosis. Despite many advances in research, there has been no significant improvement in the patient survival rate. New molecular therapies are being studied and RNA interference (RNAi) therapy is one of the promising approaches to improve prognosis and increase survival in patients with GBM. We performed a meta‑analysis of five different microarray datasets and identified 460 significantly upregulated genes in GBM. Loss‑of‑function screening of these upregulated genes using LN18 cells was performed to identify the significant target genes for glioma. Further investigations were performed using siRNA in LN18 cells and various functional assays were carried out on the selected candidate gene to understand further its role in GBM. We identified PROS1 as a candidate gene for GBM from the meta‑analysis and RNAi screening. Knockdown of PROS1 in LN18 cells significantly induced apoptosis compared to siPROS1‑untreated cells (p<0.05). Migration in cells treated with siPROS1 was reduced significantly (p<0.05) and this was confirmed with wound-healing assay. PROS1 knockdown showed substantial reduction in cell invasion up to 82% (p<0.01). In addition, inhibition of PROS1 leads to decrease in cellular proliferation by 18%. Knockdown of PROS1 in LN18 cells caused activation of both of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. It caused major upregulation of FasL which is important for death receptor signaling activation and also downregulation of GAS6 and other members of TAM family of receptors. PROS1 may play an important role in the development of GBM through cellular proliferation, migration and invasion as well as apoptosis. Targeting PROS1 in GBM could be a novel therapeutic strategy in GBM treatment.

McNeil NE, Padilla-Nash HM, Buishand FO, et al.
Novel mouse model recapitulates genome and transcriptome alterations in human colorectal carcinomas.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(3):199-213 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human colorectal carcinomas are defined by a nonrandom distribution of genomic imbalances that are characteristic for this disease. Often, these imbalances affect entire chromosomes. Understanding the role of these aneuploidies for carcinogenesis is of utmost importance. Currently, established transgenic mice do not recapitulate the pathognonomic genome aberration profile of human colorectal carcinomas. We have developed a novel model based on the spontaneous transformation of murine colon epithelial cells. During this process, cells progress through stages of pre-immortalization, immortalization and, finally, transformation, and result in tumors when injected into immunocompromised mice. We analyzed our model for genome and transcriptome alterations using ArrayCGH, spectral karyotyping (SKY), and array based gene expression profiling. ArrayCGH revealed a recurrent pattern of genomic imbalances. These results were confirmed by SKY. Comparing these imbalances with orthologous maps of human chromosomes revealed a remarkable overlap. We observed focal deletions of the tumor suppressor genes Trp53 and Cdkn2a/p16. High-level focal genomic amplification included the locus harboring the oncogene Mdm2, which was confirmed by FISH in the form of double minute chromosomes. Array-based global gene expression revealed distinct differences between the sequential steps of spontaneous transformation. Gene expression changes showed significant similarities with human colorectal carcinomas. Pathways most prominently affected included genes involved in chromosomal instability and in epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our novel mouse model therefore recapitulates the most prominent genome and transcriptome alterations in human colorectal cancer, and might serve as a valuable tool for understanding the dynamic process of tumorigenesis, and for preclinical drug testing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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