Gene Summary

Gene:UGT2B7; UDP glucuronosyltransferase family 2 member B7
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) family. UGTs serve a major role in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This protein is localized in the microsome membrane, and has unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol, suggesting that it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent estrogen metabolites. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: UGT2B7 (cancer-related)

Hagberg Thulin M, Nilsson ME, Thulin P, et al.
Osteoblasts promote castration-resistant prostate cancer by altering intratumoral steroidogenesis.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016; 422:182-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The skeleton is the preferred site for prostate cancer (PC) metastasis leading to incurable castration-resistant disease. The increased expression of genes encoding steroidogenic enzymes found in bone metastatic tissue from patients suggests that up-regulated steroidogenesis might contribute to tumor growth at the metastatic site. Because of the overall sclerotic phenotype, we hypothesize that osteoblasts regulate the intratumoral steroidogenesis of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in bone. We here show that osteoblasts alter the steroidogenic transcription program in CRPC cells, closely mimicking the gene expression pattern described in CRPC. Osteoblast-stimulated LNCaP-19 cells displayed an increased expression of genes encoding for steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1, HSD3B1, and AKR1C3), estrogen signaling-related genes (CYP19A1, and ESR2), and genes for DHT-inactivating enzymes (UGT2B7, UGT2B15, and UGT2B17). The observed osteoblast-induced effect was exclusive to osteogenic CRPC cells (LNCaP-19) in contrast to osteolytic PC-3 and androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. The altered steroid enzymatic pattern was specific for the intratibial tumors and verified by immunohistochemistry in tissue specimens from LNCaP-19 xenograft tumors. Additionally, the overall steroidogenic effect was reflected by corresponding levels of progesterone and testosterone in serum from castrated mice with intratibial xenografts. A bi-directional interplay was demonstrated since both proliferation and Esr2 expression of osteoblasts were induced by CRPC cells in steroid-depleted conditions. Together, our results demonstrate that osteoblasts are important mediators of the intratumoral steroidogenesis of CRPC and for castration-resistant growth in bone. Targeting osteoblasts may therefore be important in the development of new therapeutic approaches.

Han K, Jin JY, Marchand M, et al.
Population pharmacokinetics and dosing implications for cobimetinib in patients with solid tumors.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015; 76(5):917-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To characterize cobimetinib pharmacokinetics and evaluate impact of clinically relevant covariates on cobimetinib pharmacokinetics.
METHODS: Plasma samples (N = 4886) were collected from 487 patients with various solid tumors (mainly melanoma) in three clinical studies (MEK4592g, NO25395, GO28141). Cobimetinib was administered orally, once daily on either a 21-day-on/7-day-off, 14-day-on/14-day-off or 28-day-on schedule in a 28-day dosing cycle as single agent or in combination with vemurafenib. Cobimetinib doses ranged from 2.1 to 125 mg. NONMEM was used for pharmacokinetic analysis.
RESULTS: A linear two-compartment model with first-order absorption, lag time and first-order elimination described cobimetinib pharmacokinetics. The typical estimates (inter-individual variability) of apparent clearance (CL/F), central volume of distribution (V2/F) and terminal half-life were 322 L/day (58 %), 511 L (49 %) and 2.2 days, respectively. Inter-occasion variability on relative bioavailability was estimated at 46 %. CL/F decreased with age. V2/F increased with body weight (BWT). However, the impact of age and BWT on cobimetinib steady-state exposure (peak and trough concentrations and AUC following the recommended daily dose of 60 mg 21-day-on/7-day-off) was limited (<25 % changes across the distribution of age and BWT). No significant difference in cobimetinib pharmacokinetics or steady-state exposure was observed between patient subgroups based on sex, renal function, ECOG score, hepatic function tests, race, region, cancer type, and co-administration of moderate and weak CYP3A inducers or inhibitors and vemurafenib.
CONCLUSION: A population pharmacokinetic model was developed for cobimetinib in cancer patients. Covariates had minimal impact on steady-state exposure, suggesting no need for dose adjustments and supporting the recommended dose for all patients.

Seltzer J, Scotton TC, Kang K, et al.
Gene expression in prolactinomas: a systematic review.
Pituitary. 2016; 19(1):93-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Prolactinomas are the most common functional pituitary adenomas. Current classification systems rely on phenotypic elements and have few molecular markers for complementary classification. Treatment protocols for prolactinomas are also devoid of molecular targets, leaving those refractory to standard treatments without many options.
METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed utilizing the PRISMA guidelines. We aimed to summarize prior research exploring gene and protein expression in prolactinomas in order to highlight molecular variations associated with tumor development, growth, and prolactin secretion. A PubMed search of select MeSH terms was performed to identify all studies reporting gene and protein expression findings in prolactinomas from 1990 to 2014.
RESULTS: 1392 abstracts were screened and 51 manuscripts were included in the analysis, yielding 54 upregulated and 95 downregulated genes measured by various direct and indirect analytical methods. Of the many genes identified, three upregulated (HMGA2, HST, SNAP25), and three downregulated (UGT2B7, Let7, miR-493) genes were selected for further analysis based on our subjective identification of strong potential targets.
CONCLUSIONS: Many significant genes have been identified and validated in prolactinomas and most have not been fully analyzed for therapeutic and diagnostic potential. These genes could become candidate molecular targets for biomarker development and precision drug targeting as well as catalyze deeper research efforts utilizing next generation profiling/sequencing techniques, particularly genome scale expression and epigenomic analyses.

Romero-Lorca A, Novillo A, Gaibar M, et al.
Impacts of the Glucuronidase Genotypes UGT1A4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 on Tamoxifen Metabolism in Breast Cancer Patients.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0132269 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tamoxifen is used to prevent and treat estrogen-dependent breast cancer. It is described as a prodrug since most of its antiestrogen effects are exerted through its hydroxylated metabolites 4-OH-tamoxifen and endoxifen. In prior work, we correlated optimal plasma levels of these metabolites with certain genotypes of CYP2D6 and SULT1A2. This descriptive study examines correlations between concentrations of tamoxifen's glucuronide metabolites and genotypes UGT1A4 Pro24Thr, UGT1A4 Leu48Val, UGT2B7 His268Tyr, UGT2B15 Asp85YTyr UGT2B15 Lys523Thr and UGT2B17del in 132 patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer under treatment with tamoxifen. Patients were genotyped by real-time and conventional PCR-RFLP. The glucuronides 4-OH-tamoxifen-N-glucuronide, 4-OH-tamoxifen-O-glucuronide and endoxifen-O-glucuronide were isolated from blood plasma and quantified using a high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. Individuals who were homozygous for UGT1A448VAL showed significantly lower mean concentrations of both glucuronide metabolites compared to subjects genotyped as wt/wt plus wt/48Val (p=0.037 and p=0.031, respectively). Women homozygous for UGT2B7268Tyr also showed mean substrate/product ratios of 4-OH-tamoxifen/4-OH-tamoxifen-O-glucuronide and 4-OH-tamoxifen/4-OH-tamoxifen-N-glucuronide indicative of reduced glucuronidase activity compared to wt homozygotes or to heterozygotes for the polymorphism (p=0.005 and p=0.003, respectively). In contrast, UGT2B15 Lys523Thr and UGT2B17del were associated with possibly increased enzyme activity. Patients with at least one variant allele UGT2B15523Thr showed significantly higher 4-OH-tamoxifen-O-glucuronide and endoxifen-glucuronide levels (p=0.023 and p=0.025, respectively) indicating a variant gene-dose effect. Higher 4-OH-tamoxifen-N-glucuronide levels observed in UGT2B17del genotypes (p=0.042) could be attributed to a mechanism that compensates for the greater expression of other genes in UGT2B17 del/del individuals. Our observations suggest that patients carrying mutations UGT1A448Val, UGT2B7268Tyr or with wt genotypes for UGT2B17nodel and UGT2B15523Lys could be the best candidates for a good response to tamoxifen therapy in terms of eliciting effective plasma active tamoxifen metabolite levels. However, additional studies examining the effects of UGT genotype on overall patient response to TAM are needed to further examine the role of UGT polymorphisms in the therapeutic efficacy of TAM.

Lu L, Zhou J, Shi J, et al.
Drug-Metabolizing Activity, Protein and Gene Expression of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases Are Significantly Altered in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0127524 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), the most important enzymes in body detoxification and homeostasis maintaining, govern the glucuronidation reaction of various endogenous and environmental carcinogens. The metabolic function of UGTs can be severely influenced by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the fifth prevalent and third malignant cancer worldwide. Particularly in China, HBV-positive HCC account for approximately 80% of HCC patients. But rare papers addressed the alteration on the metabolism of UGTs specific substrates, translational and transcriptional activity of UGTs in HBV-positive HCC patients. In present study, we choose the main UGT isoforms, UGT1As, UGT1A1, UGT1A9, UGT1A4 and UGT2B7, to determine the alterations of metabolic activity, protein and gene expression of UGTs in HBV-positive HCC. The corresponding specific substrates such as genistein, SN-38, tamoxifen, propofol and zidovudine were utilized respectively in UGTs metabolic activity determination. Furthermore, the plausible mechanism responsible for UGTs alterations was addressed by analyzing the protein and gene expressions in tumor and the adjacent normal tissues in HBV-positive HCC. The results revealed that in the tumor human liver microsomes (HLMs), either V(max) (maximum reaction rate, R(max) for UGT1A1) or the clearance rates (V(max)/K(m), Clint) of UGT1A, UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 were significant lower than those of in the adjacent normal HLMs. Subsequently, the relative protein and gene expressions of these isoforms were notably decreased in most of tumor tissues comparing with the adjacent normal tissues. More interestingly, in tumor tissues, the metabolic activity reduction ratio of each UGT isoform was closely related to its protein reduction ratio, indicating that decreasing protein level would contribute to the reduced metabolic function of UGTs in HBV-positive HCC. In summary, our study firstly determined the alteration of UGT function in HBV-positive HCC patients, which would provide an important insight for toxicity or efficacy determination of chemotherapeutic drugs, and even bring a new strategy for clinical regimen in the health cares for the relative patients.

Hu DG, Mackenzie PI, Lu L, et al.
Induction of human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 gene expression by cytotoxic anticancer drugs in liver cancer HepG2 cells.
Drug Metab Dispos. 2015; 43(5):660-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We recently reported induction of UGT2B7 by its substrate epirubicin, a cytotoxic anthracycline anticancer drug, via activation of p53 and subsequent recruitment of p53 to the UGT2B7 promoter in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Using the same HepG2 model cell line, the present study assessed the possibility of a similar induction of UGT2B7 by several other cytotoxic drugs. We first demonstrated by reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction that, as observed with epirubicin, nine cytotoxic drugs including three anthracyclines (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, and idarubicin) and six nonanthracyclines (mitomycin C, 5-fluorouracil, camptothecin, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin, topotecan, and etoposide) significantly increased UGT2B7 mRNA levels. To investigate a potential involvement of p53 in this induction, we conducted further experiments with four of the nine drugs (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, idarubicin, and mitomycin C). The cytotoxic drugs studied increased p53 and UGT2B7 protein levels. Knockdown of p53 expression by small interfering RNA reduced cytotoxic drug-induced UGT2B7 expression. Luciferase reporter assays showed activation of the UGT2B7 promoter by cytotoxic drugs via a previously reported p53 site. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated p53 recruitment to the UGT2B7 p53 site upon exposure to mitomycin C, the most potent UGT2B7 inducer among the nine tested drugs. Taken together, these results provide further evidence supporting UGT2B7 as a p53 target gene. The cytotoxic drug-induced UGT2B7 activity in target liver cancer cells or possibly in normal liver cells may affect the therapeutic efficacy of co-administered cytotoxic drugs (e.g., epirubicin) and noncytotoxic drugs (e.g., morphine), which are UGT2B7 substrates.

Joerger M, Huitema AD, Boot H, et al.
Germline TYMS genotype is highly predictive in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies receiving capecitabine-based chemotherapy.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015; 75(4):763-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This work was initiated to extend data on the effect of pharmacogenetics and chemotherapy pharmacokinetics (PK) on clinical outcome in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies.
METHODS: We assessed 44 gene polymorphisms in 16 genes (TYMS, MTHFR, GSTP1, GSTM1, GSTT1, DPYD, XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, ERCC1, RECQ1, RAD54L, ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2 and UGT2B7) in 64 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) receiving capecitabine/oxaliplatin and 76 patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) receiving epirubicin/cisplatin/capecitabine, respectively. Plasma concentrations of anticancer drugs were measured for up to 24 h, and results were submitted to population PK analysis. We calculated the association between gene polymorphisms, chemotherapy exposure, tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and chemotherapy-related toxicity using appropriate statistical tests.
RESULTS: Patients with a low clearance of 5FU were at increased risk of neutropenia (P < 0.05) and hand-foot syndrome (P = 0.002). DPYD T85C, T1896C and A2846T mutant variants were associated with diarrhea (P < 0.05) and HFS (P < 0.02), and IVS14+1G>A additionally with diarrhea (P < 0.001). The TYMS 2R/3G, 3C/3G or 3G/3G promoter variants were associated with worse PFS in the CRC (HR = 2.0, P < 0.01) and GEC group (HR = 5.4, P < 0.001) and worse OS in the GEC group (HR = 4.7, P < 0.001). The GSTP1 A313G mutant variant was associated with a higher PFS (HR = 0.55, P = 0.001) and OS (HR = 0.60, P = 0.002) in the CRC group.
CONCLUSIONS: Germline polymorphisms of DPYD, TYMS and GSTP1 have a significant effect on toxicity and clinical outcome in patients receiving capecitabine-based chemotherapy for advanced colorectal or gastroesophageal cancer. These data should further be validated in prospective clinical studies.

Hevir-Kene N, Rižner TL
The endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa and HEC-1A, and the control cell line HIEEC, differ in expression of estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic genes, and in androstenedione and estrone-sulfate metabolism.
Chem Biol Interact. 2015; 234:309-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogens have important roles in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer. They can have carcinogenic effects through stimulation of cell proliferation or formation of DNA-damaging species. To characterize model cell lines of endometrial cancer, we determined the expression profiles of the estrogen receptors (ERs) ESR1, ESR2 and GPER, and 23 estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic genes, and investigated estrogen biosynthesis in the control HIEEC cell line and the Ishikawa and HEC-1A EC cell lines. HIEEC and Ishikawa expressed all ERs to different extents, while HEC-1A cells lacked expression of ESR1. Considering the estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic enzymes, these cells showed statistically significant different gene expression profiles for SULT2B1, HSD3B2, CYP19A1, AKR1C3, HSD17B1, HSD17B7, HSD17B12, CYP1B1, CYP3A5, COMT, SULT1A1, GSTP1 and NQO2. In these cells, E2 was formed from E1S and E1, while androstenedione was not converted to estrogens. HIEEC and Ishikawa had similar profiles of androstenedione and E1 metabolism, but hydrolysis of E1S to E1 was weaker in Ishikawa cells. HEC-1A cells were less efficient for activation of E1 into the potent E2, but metabolized androstenedione to other androgenic metabolites better than HIEEC and Ishikawa cells. This study reveals that HIEEC, Ishikawa, and HEC-1A cells can all form estrogens only via the sulfatase pathway. HIEEC, Ishikawa, and HEC-1A cells expressed all the major genes in the production of hydroxyestrogens and estrogen quinones, and in their conjugation. Significantly higher CYP1B1 mRNA levels in Ishikawa cells compared to HEC-1A cells, together with lack of UGT2B7 expression, indicate that Ishikawa cells can accumulate more toxic estrogen-3,4-quinones than HEC-1A cells, as also for HIEEC cells. This study provides further characterization of HIEEC, Ishikawa, and HEC-1A cells, and shows that they differ greatly in expression of the genes investigated and in their capacity for E2 formation, and thus they represent different in vitro models.

Vulsteke C, Pfeil AM, Schwenkglenks M, et al.
Impact of genetic variability and treatment-related factors on outcome in early breast cancer patients receiving (neo-) adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 147(3):557-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
To assess the impact of patient-related factors, including genetic variability in genes involved in the metabolism of chemotherapeutic agents, on breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and recurrence-free interval (RFI). We selected early breast cancer patients treated between 2000 and 2010 with 4-6 cycles of (neo-)adjuvant 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) or 3 cycles FEC followed by 3 cycles docetaxel. Tumor stage/subtype; febrile neutropenia and patient-related factors such as selected single nucleotide polymorphisms and baseline laboratory parameters were evaluated. Multivariable Cox regression was performed. Of 991 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, 152 (15.3 %) patients relapsed and 63 (6.4 %) patients died. Advanced stage and more aggressive subtype were associated with poorer BCSS and RFI in multivariable analysis (p < 0.0001). Associations with worse BCSS in multivariable analysis were: homozygous carriers of the rs1057910 variant C-allele in CYP2C9 (hazard ratio [HR] 30.4; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 6.1-151.5; p < 0.001) and higher white blood cell count (WBC) (HR 1.2; 95 % CI 1.0-1.3; p = 0.014). The GT genotype of the ABCB1 variant rs2032582 was associated with better BCSS (HR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.9, p = 0.021). Following associations with worse RFI were observed: higher WBC (HR 1.1; 95 % CI 1.0-1.2; p = 0.026), homozygous carriers of the rs1057910 variant C-allele in CYP2C9 (HR 10.9; 95 % CI 2.5-47.9; p = 0.002), CT genotype of the CYBA variant rs4673 (HR 1.8; 95 % CI 1.2-2.7; p = 0.006), and G-allele homozygosity for the UGT2B7 variant rs3924194 (HR 3.4; 95 % CI 1.2-9.7, p = 0.023). Patient-related factors including genetic variability and baseline white blood cell count, impacted on outcome in early breast cancer.

Sugishita M, Imai T, Kikumori T, et al.
Pharmacogenetic association between GSTP1 genetic polymorphism and febrile neutropenia in Japanese patients with early breast cancer.
Breast Cancer. 2016; 23(2):195-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic risk factors for febrile neutropenia (FN), the major adverse event of perioperative chemotherapy for early breast cancer, remain unclear.
METHODS: This study retrospectively explored pharmacogenetic associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the uridine glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7, rs7668258), glutathione-S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1, rs1695), and microcephalin 1 (MCPH1, rs2916733) genes with chemotherapy-related adverse events in 102 Japanese women who received epirubicin and cyclophosphamide as perioperative chemotherapy for early breast cancer.
RESULTS: The allele frequencies for all of the SNPs were in concordance with the Hap-Map data of Japanese individuals. Among the 24 patients who had FN at least once during all courses of chemotherapy, 23 had the A/A genotype, and 1 had the A/G genotype of the GSTP1 polymorphism (rs1695, P = 0.001); 23 of the 70 patients with the A/A genotype had FN, as compared with only 1 of the 32 patients with the A/G and G/G genotypes. The genotype distributions of the UGT2B7 and MCPH1 polymorphisms did not differ between the patients who had FN or grade 3/4 neutropenia and those who did not.
CONCLUSION: Among Japanese women who received epirubicin and cyclophosphamide as perioperative chemotherapy for early breast cancer, those with the A/A genotype of the GSTP1 polymorphism (rs1695) were more likely to have FN.

Hu DG, Rogers A, Mackenzie PI
Epirubicin upregulates UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 expression in liver cancer cells via the p53 pathway.
Mol Pharmacol. 2014; 85(6):887-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anthracyclines are effective genotoxic anticancer drugs for treating human malignancies; however, their clinical use is limited by tumor resistance and severe cardiotoxicity (e.g., congestive heart failure). Epirubicin (EPI) is less cardiotoxic compared with other canonical anthracyclines (e.g., doxorubicin). This has been attributed to its unique glucuronidation detoxification pathway. EPI is primarily inactivated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) in the liver. Hence, the regulation of hepatic UGT2B7 expression is critical for EPI systemic clearance but remains poorly characterized. We show herein that EPI upregulates UGT2B7 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 and Huh7 cells. Our analyses of deleted and mutated UGT2B7 promoter constructs identified a p53 response element (p53RE) in the UGT2B7 promoter. EPI stimulated UGT2B7 promoter activity via this p53RE and enhanced in vivo p53 binding at this p53RE in HepG2 cells. Knockdown of p53 expression by small interfering RNA silencing technology significantly repressed the capacity of EPI to stimulate UGT2B7 transcription. Furthermore, the p53 activator nutlin-3α significantly enhanced UGT2B7 expression and recruited the p53 protein to the UGT2B7 p53RE in HepG2 cells. Collectively, our results demonstrated that EPI promotes its own detoxification via the p53-mediated pathway. This regulation may contribute to tumor resistance to EPI-containing HCC chemotherapy and may also provide a new explanation for the reduced cardiotoxicity of EPI compared with other anthracyclines. Our finding also suggests that upon exposure to genotoxic agents, detoxifying genes are activated by the p53-mediated pathway to clear genotoxic agents locally within the tumor site or even systemically through the liver.

Ménard V, Lévesque E, Chen S, et al.
Expression of UGT2B7 is driven by two mutually exclusive promoters and alternative splicing in human tissues: changes from prenatal life to adulthood and in kidney cancer.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2013; 23(12):684-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) plays a major detoxification role in commonly prescribed drugs and endogenous lipophilic molecules. Additional exons and multiple alternative splicing events (ASEs) at the UGT2B7 locus were recently discovered.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Novel and classical ASEs were quantified in 27 human tissues, as well as in fetal and tumoral tissues. The activity of the alternative UGT2B7 promoters was studied in cell lines.
RESULTS: UGT2B7 expression is driven by an alternate promoter 1a associated with transcripts containing exon 1b, which is located ∼44 kb upstream of the known promoter 1 associated with transcripts containing exon 1 required for enzyme activity. The exon 1 was expressed most abundantly in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, whereas exon 1b was expressed predominantly in other extrahepatic tissues. Experimental evidence indicated endogenous translation that yields alternative UGT2B7s derived from the use of exon 1b are enzymatically inactive. Alternate 5' ASE predominates in fetal tissues (kidney, lung) and kidney tumor samples compared with normal adult kidney. These changes further correlate with reduced glucuronidation in neoplastic kidneys. This differential expression pattern was further confirmed using four liver and kidney cell lines and was consistent with the differential usage of alternate promoters in hepatic (promoter 1) and kidney cells (1a).
CONCLUSION: UGT2B7 is characterized by two mutually exclusive exons 1, both flanked by a unique 5' promoter region. Data also indicated a switch toward functional enzyme upon maturation in the kidney and reversal of this process in neoplastic cells, considerably modifying the glucuronidation potential across human tissues and cells.

Wang J, Scholtens D, Holko M, et al.
Lipid metabolism genes in contralateral unaffected breast and estrogen receptor status of breast cancer.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013; 6(4):321-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Risk biomarkers that are specific to estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes of breast cancer would aid the development and implementation of distinct prevention strategies. The contralateral unaffected breast of women with unilateral breast cancer (cases) is a good model for defining subtype-specific risk because women with ER-negative (ER-) index primaries are at high risk for subsequent ER-negative primary cancers. We conducted random fine needle aspiration of the unaffected breasts of cases. Samples from 30 subjects [15 ER-positive (ER+) and 15 ER- cases matched for age, race and menopausal status] were used for Illumina expression array analysis. Findings were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in the same samples. A validation set consisting of 36 subjects (12 ER+, 12 ER- and 12 standard-risk healthy controls) was used to compare gene expression across groups. ER- case samples displayed significantly higher expression of 18 genes/transcripts, 8 of which were associated with lipid metabolism on gene ontology analysis (GO: 0006629). This pattern was confirmed by qRT-PCR in the same samples, and in the 24 cases of the validation set. When compared to the healthy controls in the validation set, significant overexpression of 4 genes (DHRS2, HMGCS2, HPGD and ACSL3) was observed in ER- cases, with significantly lower expression of UGT2B11 and APOD in ER+ cases, and decreased expression of UGT2B7 in both subtypes. These data suggest that differential expression of lipid metabolism genes may be involved in the risk for subtypes of breast cancer, and are potential biomarkers of ER-specific breast cancer risk.

Vulsteke C, Lambrechts D, Dieudonné A, et al.
Genetic variability in the multidrug resistance associated protein-1 (ABCC1/MRP1) predicts hematological toxicity in breast cancer patients receiving (neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC).
Ann Oncol. 2013; 24(6):1513-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To assess the impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on predefined severe adverse events in breast cancer (BC) patients receiving (neo-)adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (FU), epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC) chemotherapy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six SNPs in 16 genes of interest, including the drug transporter gene ABCC1/MRP1, were selected based on a literature survey. An additional 33 SNPs were selected in these genes, as well as in 12 other genes known to be involved in the metabolism of the studied chemotherapeutics. One thousand and twelve female patients treated between 2000 and 2010 with 3-6 cycles of (neo-)adjuvant FEC were genotyped for these SNPs using Sequenom MassARRAY. Severe adverse events were evaluated through an electronic chart review for febrile neutropenia (FN, primary end point), FN first cycle, prolonged grade 4 or deep (<100/µl) neutropenia, anemia grade 3-4, thrombocytopenia grade 3-4 and non-hematological grade 3-4 events (secondary end points).
RESULTS: Carriers of the rs4148350 variant T-allele in ABCC1/MRP1 were associated with FN relative to homozygous carriers of the G-allele [P = 0.0006; false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.026]. Strong correlations with secondary end points such as prolonged grade 4 neutropenia (P = 0.002, FDR = 0.046) were also observed. Additionally, two other SNPs in ABCC1/MRP1 (rs45511401 and rs246221) correlated with FN (P = 0.007 and P = 0.01, respectively; FDR = 0.16 and 0.19), as well as two SNPs in UGT2B7 and FGFR4 (P = 0.024 and P = 0.04; FDR = 0.28 and 0.38).
CONCLUSION: Genetic variability in ABCC1/MRP1 was associated with severe hematological toxicity of FEC.

Fladvad T, Klepstad P, Langaas M, et al.
Variability in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes and morphine metabolism: observations from a cross-sectional multicenter study in advanced cancer patients with pain.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2013; 23(3):117-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to determine whether genetic variability in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) genes, together with clinical factors, contribute to variability in morphine glucuronide (M6G and M3G) to morphine serum concentration ratios in patients with advanced cancer receiving chronic morphine therapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 polymorphisms and predicted haplotypes in the UGT2B7, UGT1A1, and UGT1A8 genes were analyzed in 759 patients who were recruited from the European Pharmacogenetic Opioid Study and received chronic morphine therapy by the oral route (n=635) or parenterally (n=124). The administration groups were analyzed separately by multiple linear regression analyses.
RESULTS: Two haplotypes in UGT1A1/UGT1A8 were weak predictors of reduced M6G/morphine and M3G/morphine serum ratios after oral administration (false discovery rate-corrected P-values<0.1). No effect of genotype was seen in the parenteral group. Of the clinical variables (age, sex, BMI, renal function, Karnofsky performance status, and presence of liver metastases), renal function was the major contributor to variation in serum concentration ratios. Concomitant administration of paracetamol predicted significantly higher morphine metabolic ratios after oral administration of morphine (false discovery rate-corrected P-values<2.1E-12). The regression models explained about 35% of the total variability in the data.
CONCLUSION: Genetic variation in the UGT genes together with clinical factors influence morphine metabolic ratios in patients with advanced cancer disease and who are scheduled with oral morphine. This information may be included in future research that develop and test new classification systems for opioid treatment in patients with advanced cancer.

Chung CJ, Pu YS, Shiue HS, et al.
4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) metabolism-related enzymes gene polymorphisms, NNK metabolites levels and urothelial carcinoma.
Toxicol Lett. 2013; 216(1):16-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene polymorphisms of the 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) metabolism-related enzymes-cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase 2A13 (CYP2A13) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT)-2B7 could contribute to the levels of NNK-related metabolites in urine, thereby increasing the susceptibility to urothelial carcinoma (UC). Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the roles of two gene polymorphisms (CYP2A13 and UGT2B7) of NNK metabolism-related enzymes in the carcinogenesis of UC in Taiwan. A hospital-based pilot case-control study was conducted. There were 121 UC cases and 121 age- and sex-matched healthy participants recruited from March 2007 to April 2009. Urine samples were analyzed for NNK-related metabolites using the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Genotyping was conducted using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. ANCOVA and multivariate logistic regression were applied for data analyses. In healthy controls, former smokers had significantly higher total NNAL and higher NNAL-Gluc than never smokers or current smokers. Subjects carrying the UGT2B7 268 His/Tyr or Tyr/Tyr genotype had significantly lower total NNAL than those carrying His/His genotype. However, no association was seen between gene polymorphisms of CYP2A13 and UGT2B7 and UC risk after adjustment for age and sex. Significant dose -response associations between total NNAL, free NNAL, the ratios of free NNAL/total NNAL and NNAL-Gluc/total NNAL and UC risk were observed. In the future, large-scale studies will be required to verify the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms of NNK metabolism-related enzymes and UC risk.

Dellinger RW, Matundan HH, Ahmed AS, et al.
Anti-cancer drugs elicit re-expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in melanoma cells.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e47696 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) family of enzymes plays a vital role in the detoxification of carcinogens as well as clearance of anti-cancer drugs. In humans, 19 UGT family members have been identified and are expressed in a tissue specific manner throughout the body. However, the UGTs have not been previously characterized in melanocytes or melanoma. In the present study, UGT2B7, UGT2B10, and UGT2B15 were identified as being normally expressed in human melanocytes. The same three UGT family members were also expressed in the primary melanoma cell line WM115. No UGT expression was detected in another primary melanoma cell line, WM3211, or in any metastatic melanoma cell line examined. These results suggest that UGT expression is lost during melanoma progression. Treatment of WM3211 or metastatic melanoma cell lines with anti-cancer agents (including vemurafenib) induced expression of UGT2B7, UGT2B10 and UGT2B15 demonstrating that melanoma cells retain the ability to re-express these same three UGTs. The corresponding increase in glucuronidation activity in melanoma cells following anti-cancer treatment was also observed. Furthermore, knockdown of UGT2B7 in WM115 cells sensitized these cells to treatment by adriamycin and epirubicin indicating that UGT2B7 is involved in resistance to these drugs. However, knockdown of UGT2B7 had no effect on temozolomide toxicity. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate a role for UGTs in melanoma etiology. Since the UGTs are drug metabolism enzymes, we propose that re-expression of the UGTs constitutes a previously unsuspected mechanism for intratumoral drug resistance in melanoma.

Grant DJ, Hoyo C, Oliver SD, et al.
Association of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B gene variants with serum glucuronide levels and prostate cancer risk.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2013; 17(1):3-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: Uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B (UGT2B) enzymes conjugate testosterone metabolites to enable their excretion in humans. The functional significance of the UGT2B genetic variants has never been described in humans. We evaluated UGT2B variants in relation to plasma androstane-3α,17β-diol-glucuronide (AAG) levels and the prostate cancer risk.
RESULTS: AAG levels were measured in sera from 150 controls and compared to the polymorphisms of UGT2B17, UGT2B15, and UGT2B7. Genomic DNA from controls (301) and cases (148) was genotyped for the polymorphisms, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analyses. Having two copies of UGT2B17 was associated with higher AAG levels in controls among Whites (p=0.02), but not Blacks (p=0.82). Logistic regression models adjusting for age and race revealed that homozygosity for the G allele of the UGT2B15(D85Y) polymorphism was directly associated with the prostate cancer risk (OR=2.70, 95% CI=1.28, 5.55).
CONCLUSIONS: While the small sample size limits inference, our findings suggest that an association between the UGT2B17 copy number variant (CNV) and serum AAG levels in Whites, but unexpectedly not in Blacks. This novel observation suggests that genetic determinants of AAG levels in Blacks are unrelated to the UGT2B17 CNV. This study replicates the results that show an association of UGT215(D85Y) with an increased prostate cancer risk.

Cui X, Lu X, Hiura M, et al.
Association of genotypes of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and smoking status with bladder cancer in a Japanese population.
Environ Health Prev Med. 2013; 18(2):136-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Arylamines are considered to be the primary causative agent of bladder cancer in tobacco smokers. To test the hypothesis that variation in the genes that metabolize tobacco carcinogens contribute to bladder cancer, we examined the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes of four key enzymes: cytochrome P450 1A2, N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 2, sulfotransferase 1A1, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7.
METHODS: In this study, 282 Japanese patients with transitional cell carcinoma, the most common bladder cancer, and 257 healthy controls were surveyed and compared for frequencies of the genotypes of the four enzymes. Genotypes were determined using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and TaqMan assays. Smoking information was collected by personal interview. Logistic regression analysis and the chi-square test were employed as statistical methods.
RESULTS: The NAT2 slow genotype was significantly associated with the risk of bladder cancer [odds ratio (OR) 3.41, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 1.68-6.87; p < 0.05). The NAT2 slow genotype also significantly increased the risk of bladder cancer in heavy smokers (OR 8.57, 95 % CI 1.82-40.25; p < 0.05). Among the different combinations of the four enzyme genotypes, the highest OR (4.20; 95 % CI 1.34-13.14; p < 0.05) was obtained with the NAT2 slow genotype when present in combination with the UGT2B7 *2/*2 or *1/*2 genotype.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that individuals with different genotypes for the enzymes involved in metabolizing carcinogenic arylamines have a different risk of developing bladder cancer. In particularly, the combination of the NAT2 slow genotype with UGT2B7 *1/*2 or *2/*2 genotype is a high risk factor for bladder cancer.

Lacko M, Voogd AC, Roelofs HM, et al.
Combined effect of genetic polymorphisms in phase I and II biotransformation enzymes on head and neck cancer risk.
Head Neck. 2013; 35(6):858-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Combinations of genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes might modify the individual risk for head and neck cancer.
METHODS: Blood from 432 patients with head and neck cancer and 437 controls was investigated for genetic polymorphisms in 9 different phase I and II biotransformation enzymes. Analysis of the risk-modifying effect was performed according to predicted enzyme activities, based on genetic polymorphisms in the corresponding genes.
RESULTS: Combination of polymorphisms in COX-2 or EPHX1 with high activity polymorphisms in UGT1A1, UGT1A6, or UGT1A7 showed a risk-modulating effect in head and neck carcinogenesis, especially among heavy smokers and patients with laryngeal cancer. However, no additional effect for the combination of these polymorphisms was discovered when compared to the impact of polymorphism in UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and UGT1A7 individually.
CONCLUSION: Predicted high activity polymorphisms in the phase II enzymes UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and UGT1A7 are associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer.

Rae JM, Drury S, Hayes DF, et al.
CYP2D6 and UGT2B7 genotype and risk of recurrence in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012; 104(6):452-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant tamoxifen therapy substantially decreases the risk of recurrence and mortality in women with hormone (estrogen and/or progesterone) receptor-positive breast cancer. Previous studies have suggested that metabolic conversion of tamoxifen to endoxifen by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is required for patient benefit from tamoxifen therapy.
METHODS: Tumor specimens from a subset of postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive early-stage (stages I, II, and IIIA) breast cancer, who were enrolled in the randomized double-blind Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) clinical trial, were genotyped for variants in CYP2D6 (N = 1203 patients: anastrozole [trade name: Arimidex] group, n = 615 patients; tamoxifen group, n = 588 patients) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase-2B7 (UGT2B7), whose gene product inactivates endoxifen (N = 1209 patients; anastrozole group, n = 606 patients; tamoxifen group, n = 603 patients). Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-based TaqMan assays. Based on the genotypes for CYP2D6, patients were classified as poor metabolizer (PM), intermediate metabolizer (IM), or extensive metabolizer (EM) phenotypes. We evaluated the association of CYP2D6 and UGT2B7 genotype with distant recurrence (primary endpoint) and any recurrence (secondary endpoint) by estimating the hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards models. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 10 years, no statistically significant associations were observed between CYP2D6 genotype and recurrence in tamoxifen-treated patients (PM vs EM: HR for distant recurrence = 1.25, 95% CI = 0.55 to 3.15, P = .64; HR for any recurrence = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.48 to 2.08, P = .99). A near-null association was observed between UGT2B7 genotype and recurrence in tamoxifen-treated patients. No associations were observed between CYP2D6 and UGT2B7 genotypes and recurrence in anastrozole-treated patients.
CONCLUSION: The results do not support the hypothesis that CYP2D6 genotype predicts clinical benefit of adjuvant tamoxifen treatment among postmenopausal breast cancer patients.

Aschebrook-Kilfoy B, Neta G, Brenner AV, et al.
Common genetic variants in metabolism and detoxification pathways and the risk of papillary thyroid cancer.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2012; 19(3):333-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Relationships are unclear between polymorphisms in genes involved in metabolism and detoxification of various chemicals and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) risk as well as their potential modification by alcohol or tobacco intake. We evaluated associations between 1647 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 132 candidate genes/regions involved in metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds (Phase I/II, oxidative stress, and metal binding pathways) and PTC risk in 344 PTC cases and 452 controls. For 15 selected regions and their respective SNPs, we also assessed interaction with alcohol and tobacco use. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the main effect of SNPs (P(trend)) and interaction with alcohol/tobacco intake. Gene- and pathway-level associations and interactions (P(gene interaction)) were evaluated by combining P(trend) values using the adaptive rank-truncated product method. While we found associations between PTC risk and nine SNPs (P(trend) ≤ 0.01) and seven genes/regions (P(region)<0.05), none remained significant after correction for the false discovery rate. We found a significant interaction between UGT2B7 and NAT1 genes and alcohol intake (P(gene interaction)=0.01 and 0.02 respectively) and between the CYP26B1 gene and tobacco intake (P(gene interaction)=0.02). Our results are suggestive of interaction between the genetic polymorphisms in several detoxification genes and alcohol or tobacco intake on risk of PTC. Larger studies with improved exposure assessment should address potential modification of PTC risk by alcohol and tobacco intake to confirm or refute our findings.

Hevir N, Sinkovec J, Rižner TL
Disturbed expression of phase I and phase II estrogen-metabolizing enzymes in endometrial cancer: lower levels of CYP1B1 and increased expression of S-COMT.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011; 331(1):158-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression levels of genes encoding phase I and phase II estrogen-metabolizing enzymes: CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, SULT1A1, SULT1E1, SULT2B1, COMT, UGT2B7, and GSTP1 were studied by real-time PCR in 38 samples of cancerous and adjacent control endometrium. We found significantly lower levels of CYP1B1 and CYP3A7, higher levels of SULT2B1, UGT2B7 and GSTP1, and no differences in expression of COMT, CYP1A1, CYP3A5, SULT1E1 and SULT2A1 in the endometrial cancers. The CYP1B1 and COMT proteins were also examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining, supporting the real-time PCR analysis. Lower levels of CYP1B1 detected in cancerous endometrium suggest its important role in control, precancerous tissue. Additionally, we showed for the first time higher protein levels of soluble COMT in cancerous endometrium, and higher levels of membrane-bound COMT in control, precancerous endometrium. The importance of the changed ratio between soluble and membrane-bound COMT still needs to be evaluated in further studies.

Fujita K, Ando Y, Yamamoto W, et al.
Association of UGT2B7 and ABCB1 genotypes with morphine-induced adverse drug reactions in Japanese patients with cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010; 65(2):251-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of genetic polymorphisms on morphine-induced adverse events in cancer patients.
METHODS: We examined the relation of morphine-related adverse events to polymorphisms in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, number 1 (ABCB1), and μ-opioid receptor 1 genes in 32 Japanese cancer patients receiving oral controlled-release morphine sulfate tablets.
RESULTS: The T/T genotype at 1236 or TT/TT diplotype at 2677 and 3435 in ABCB1 was associated with significantly lower frequency of fatigue (grades 1-3) (P = 0.012 or 0.011, Fisher’s exact test). The UGT2B7*2 genotype was associated with the frequency of nausea (grades 1-3) (P = 0.023). The frequency of nausea was higher in patients without UGT2B7*2 allele than others. The diplotype at 2677 and 3435 in ABCB1 was associated with the frequency of vomiting (grades 1-3) (P = 0.011). No patient whose diplotype was consisted of no GC allele at 2677 and 3435 suffered from vomiting.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that pharmacogenetics can be used to predict the risk of morphine-induced adverse events.

Genetic polymorphisms in phase I and phase II enzymes and breast cancer risk associated with menopausal hormone therapy in postmenopausal women.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 119(2):463-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent findings indicate a greater risk of postmenopausal breast cancer with estrogen-progestagen therapy than estrogen monotherapy, and more so for current than past use. Few studies have examined individual genetic susceptibility to the effects of menopausal hormone therapy. We used two population-based case-control studies with 3,155 postmenopausal breast cancer patients and 5,496 controls to evaluate modification of breast cancer risk associated with duration of hormone use by genes involved in hormone metabolism and detoxification. Twenty-eight polymorphisms in eight genes of phase I (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7) and nine genes of phase II enzymes (COMT, GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTP1, GSTT1, SULT1A1, UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT2B7) were genotyped. The risk associated with duration of use of combined estrogen-progestagen therapy was significantly modified by genetic polymorphisms located in CYP1B1, GSTP1, and GSTT1. In homozygote carriers of the CYP1B1_142_G and the CYP1B1_355 _T variant alleles, adjusted odds ratios (OR) per year of use were 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.09) and 1.06 (95% CI = 1.03-1.09), respectively, compared with 1.02 (95% CI = 1.01-1.03) in non-carriers of either polymorphism (p(interaction) = 0.01). Carriers of the functional GSTT1 allele and the GSTP1_341_T allele were at significantly higher risks associated with hormone use compared with non-carriers (p(interaction) = 0.0001 and 0.02). CYP1A1_2452_C>A significantly reduced the risk associated with duration of use of estrogen monotherapy (p(interaction) = 0.01). The finding regarding GSTT1 was still statistically significant after corrections for multiple comparisons. Postmenopausal breast cancer risk associated with hormone therapy may be modified by genetically determined variations in phase I and II enzymes involved in steroid hormone metabolism.

Lehmann L, Wagner J
Gene expression of 17beta-estradiol-metabolizing isozymes: comparison of normal human mammary gland to normal human liver and to cultured human breast adenocarcinoma cells.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008; 617:617-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metabolic activation of 17beta-estradiol (E2) to catechols and quinones together with lack of deactivation constitute risk factors in human breast carcinogenesis. E2-catchols are generated by cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases (CYPs). Deactivation of E2, E2-catechols, and E2-quinones is mediated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), sulfotransferase (SULT), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and NADPH-quinone-oxidoreductase (QR) isozymes, respectively. The aim of the present study was to quantify mRNA levels of E2-metabolizing isozymes expressed in MCF-7 cells cultured in the presence/absence of steroids by reverse transcription/competitive PCR in relation to the housekeeping gene hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and compare them with expression levels in normal human mammary gland (MG) and liver tissue. CYP1A1, 1B1, SULT1A1, 1A2, membrane-bound and soluble COMT, GSTT1, QR1, and UGT2B7 were detected in both tissues and MCF-7 cells; however, most enzymes were expressed at least tenfold higher in liver. Yet, CYP1B1 was expressed as high in breast as in liver and UGTs were not detected in MCF-7 cells cultured with steroids. MCF-7 cells cultured steroid-free additionally expressed CYP1A2 as well as UGT1A4, 1A8, and 1A9. Normal human liver but not MG expressed CYP1A2, 3A4, UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A9, and SULT2A1. UGT1A8 was only detected in MCF7 cells but was not found in human liver. Thus, our study provides a comprehensive overview of expression levels of E2-metabolizing enzymes in a popular in vitro model and in human tissues, which will contribute to the interpretation of in vitro studies concerning the activation/deactivation of E2.

Veeriah S, Miene C, Habermann N, et al.
Apple polyphenols modulate expression of selected genes related to toxicological defence and stress response in human colon adenoma cells.
Int J Cancer. 2008; 122(12):2647-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Apples contain significant amounts of flavonoids that are potentially cancer risk reducing by acting antioxidative or antiproliferative and by favorably modulating gene expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether polyphenols from apples modulate expression of genes related to colon cancer prevention in preneoplastic cells derived from colon adenoma (LT97). For this, LT97 cells were treated with effective concentrations of apple extracts (AEs). RNA was isolated and used for synthesis and labeling of cDNA that was hybridized to cDNA-arrays. Gene expression studies were performed using a commercial cDNA-array from Superarray that contains a limited number of genes (96 genes) related to drug metabolism, and a custom-made cDNA microarray that contains a higher number of genes (300 genes, including some genes from Superarray) related to mechanisms of carcinogenesis or chemoprevention. Real-time PCR and enzyme activity assays were additionally performed to confirm selected array results. Treatment of cells with AE resulted in 30 and 46 genes expressed over cut-off values (>or=1.5- or

Berkhout M, Roelofs HM, te Morsche RH, et al.
Detoxification enzyme polymorphisms are not involved in duodenal adenomatosis in familial adenomatous polyposis.
Br J Surg. 2008; 95(4):499-505 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are at high risk of developing duodenal adenomas and carcinomas. Besides germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, additional factors may influence the age of onset and number of duodenal adenomas. This study compared the genotype distributions of duodenal detoxification enzyme isoforms in patients with FAP and controls.
METHODS: The study included 85 patients with FAP and 218 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Genotyping of all participants using polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect polymorphisms in isoforms of uridine 5'-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs): UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A10, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15, GSTA1, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1.
RESULTS: The variant genotypes of UGT1A3 were less common in patients with FAP than in controls (odds ratio 0.39 (95 per cent confidence interval 0.22 to 0.67)). There were no associations between FAP and the other polymorphic genes. The polymorphisms investigated had no predictive value for the severity of duodenal adenomatosis in patients with FAP.
CONCLUSION: Although the variant genotypes of UGT1A3 were less common in patients with FAP than in those without, this did not modulate the severity of duodenal adenomatosis.

Bioulac-Sage P, Rebouissou S, Thomas C, et al.
Hepatocellular adenoma subtype classification using molecular markers and immunohistochemistry.
Hepatology. 2007; 46(3):740-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) with activated beta-catenin present a high risk of malignant transformation. To permit robust routine diagnosis to allow for HCA subtype classification, we searched new useful markers. We analyzed the expression of candidate genes by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction QRT-PCR followed by immunohistochemistry to validate their specificity and sensitivity according to hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1alpha) and beta-catenin mutations as well as inflammatory phenotype. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that FABP1 (liver fatty acid binding protein) and UGT2B7 were downregulated in HNF1alpha-inactivated HCA (P CONCLUSION: We refined HCA classification and its phenotypic correlations, providing a routine test to classify hepatocellular adenomas using simple and robust immunohistochemistry.

Valentini A, Biancolella M, Amati F, et al.
Valproic acid induces neuroendocrine differentiation and UGT2B7 up-regulation in human prostate carcinoma cell line.
Drug Metab Dispos. 2007; 35(6):968-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer originates as an androgen-dependent hyperproliferation of the epithelial cells of the gland and it evolves in an androgen-independent, highly aggressive cancer for which no successful therapy is available to date. Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer to an androgen-independent state with profound impact on prostate cancer (CaP) therapies. Actually, new approaches on treating advanced prostate cancer are focused on modulators of epigenetic transcriptional regulation. A new class of antitumoral agents is emerging: histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are interesting for their ability to arrest cell growth, to induce cell differentiation, and in some cases, to induce apoptosis of cancer cells. We studied the effect of valproic acid (VPA), an inhibitor of HDAC, in the human prostate androgen-dependent cancer cell line LNCaP. We observed that VPA promotes neuroendocrine-like differentiation associated with an increase in the expression of neuron-specific enolase, a decrease in prostate-specific antigen, and a down-regulation of androgen receptor protein, suggesting a modulation in the responsiveness to androgen therapy. Furthermore, selective gene expression profiling using a low-density microarray showed that VPA was able to modulate the expression of different androgen metabolism genes. We observed a down-regulation of androgen receptor coregulator (ARA24) and prostate-specific antigen, and an up-regulation of some of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT2B11 and UGT2B7) implicated in catabolism of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was detected. Even though UGT2B7 has only about one-tenth to one-hundredth the activity of UGT2B15 and 2B17 toward active androgens and we did not found any modulation in gene expression of these enzymes, it can be hypothesized that VPA might enhance DHT catabolism in this in vitro model and induces NE differentiation. Our data seem to raise concern about CaP treatment with VPA.

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