Gene Summary

Gene:ZMYND10; zinc finger, MYND-type containing 10
Aliases: BLU, FLU, CILD22
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:zinc finger MYND domain-containing protein 10
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
ZMYND10 is implicated in:
- cytoplasm
- protein binding
- zinc ion binding
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ZMYND10 (cancer-related)

Nalwa HS
A special issue on reviews in nanomedicine, drug delivery and vaccine development.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2014; 10(9):1635-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
This thematic special issue of the Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology focused on the "Reviews in Nanomedicine, Drug Delivery and Vaccine Development" contains 30 state-of-the-art review articles covering recent advances, trends and future directions emphasized on nanoparticle-based new strategies for diagnosis and cancer phototherapies, nanomedicine, nucleic acid-based nanocarriers, gene and drug delivery systems, tuberculosis mucosal and H5N1 influenza vaccines, drug-loaded electrospun polymer nanofibers, microneedle technology for insulin delivery for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, RNA-based therapies, nanotoxicity and biosafety of nanomaterials to environment and human health.

Booth L, Roberts JL, Cash DR, et al.
GRP78/BiP/HSPA5/Dna K is a universal therapeutic target for human disease.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(7):1661-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The chaperone GRP78/Dna K is conserved throughout evolution down to prokaryotes. The GRP78 inhibitor OSU-03012 (AR-12) interacted with sildenafil (Viagra) or tadalafil (Cialis) to rapidly reduce GRP78 levels in eukaryotes and as a single agent reduce Dna K levels in prokaryotes. Similar data with the drug combination were obtained for: HSP70, HSP90, GRP94, GRP58, HSP27, HSP40 and HSP60. OSU-03012/sildenafil treatment killed brain cancer stem cells and decreased the expression of: NPC1 and TIM1; LAMP1; and NTCP1, receptors for Ebola/Marburg/Hepatitis A, Lassa fever, and Hepatitis B viruses, respectively. Pre-treatment with OSU-03012/sildenafil reduced expression of the coxsakie and adenovirus receptor in parallel with it also reducing the ability of a serotype 5 adenovirus or coxsakie virus B4 to infect and to reproduce. Similar data were obtained using Chikungunya, Mumps, Measles, Rubella, RSV, CMV, and Influenza viruses. OSU-03012 as a single agent at clinically relevant concentrations killed laboratory generated antibiotic resistant E. coli and clinical isolate multi-drug resistant N. gonorrhoeae and MRSE which was in bacteria associated with reduced Dna K and Rec A expression. The PDE5 inhibitors sildenafil or tadalafil enhanced OSU-03012 killing in N. gonorrhoeae and MRSE and low marginally toxic doses of OSU-03012 could restore bacterial sensitivity in N. gonorrhoeae to multiple antibiotics. Thus, Dna K and bacterial phosphodiesterases are novel antibiotic targets, and inhibition of GRP78 is of therapeutic utility for cancer and also for bacterial and viral infections.

Bürgler S, Gimeno A, Parente-Ribes A, et al.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells express CD38 in response to Th1 cell-derived IFN-γ by a T-bet-dependent mechanism.
J Immunol. 2015; 194(2):827-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B cell malignancy associated with increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. Similarly, expression of CD38 on CLL cells correlates with CLL cell survival and proliferation, but the mechanisms that regulate CD38 expression and inflammatory cytokines remain unclear. We have recently demonstrated that patients have CLL-specific Th cells that support CLL proliferation. In this article, we show that CLL cells attract such Th cells, thereby establishing an Ag-dependent collaboration. Blocking experiments performed in vitro as wells as in vivo, using a xenograft model, revealed that secretion of IFN-γ was a major mechanism by which CLL-specific Th cells increased CD38 on CLL cells. The expression of the transcription factor T-bet in peripheral blood CLL cells significantly correlated with CD38 expression, and transient transfection of CLL cells with T-bet resulted in T-bet(hi)CD38(hi) cells. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that T-bet can bind to regulatory regions of the CD38 gene. These data suggest that CLL cells attract CLL-specific Th cells and initiate a positive feedback loop with upregulation of T-bet, CD38, and type 1 chemokines allowing further recruitment of Th cells and increased type 1 cytokine secretion. This insight provides a cellular and molecular mechanism that links the inflammatory signature observed in CLL pathogenesis with CD38 expression and aggressive disease and suggests that targeting the IFN-γ/IFN-γR/JAK/STAT/T-bet/CD38 pathway could play a role in the therapy of CLL.

Salis O, Bedir A, Gulten S, et al.
Cytotoxic effect of fluvastatin on MCF-7 cells possibly through a reduction of the mRNA expression levels of SGK1 and CAV1.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2014; 29(9):368-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fluvastatin (FLU) prevents the conversion of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) to mevalonic acid by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and decreases cholesterol level. Although the effects of FLU treatment on several cancer types through many mechanisms have been identified, its relationship with unfolded protein response and apoptosis has not been clearly understood. In this recent study, we aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of Fluvastatin on MCF-7 cells and define the transcriptional regulation of specific genes during the occurrence of this cytotoxic effect. We administered 0.62, 2.5, 5, and 40 μM FLU on MCF-7 cells singly and in combination with 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), and we monitored cell viability and proliferation for 48 hours using real-time cell analyzer system (xCELLigence). At the same time, we measured the mRNA expression levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, homologous protein (CHOP), caveolin-1 (CAV1), NDRG1 Variant 1 and Variant 2, HMOX1, SGK1, and prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR4) genes using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (LightCycler 480 II). We accepted GAPDH gene and control groups as the reference gene and calibrator, respectively. We performed relative gene expression analyses of the study groups using the QIAGEN 2009 Relative Expression Software Tool (REST). FLU revealed an antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cells, while causing the transcriptional regulation of many genes. Of these genes, the mRNA expressions of CHOP, heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) V1, and NDRG1 V2 increased. On the other hand, the mRNA expression levels of SGK1 and CAV1 decreased. The antiproliferative effects of FLU may be related to the decreased expression levels of SGK1 and CAV1.

Eshaghi A, Shalhoub S, Rosenfeld P, et al.
Multiple influenza A (H3N2) mutations conferring resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors in a bone marrow transplant recipient.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014; 58(12):7188-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immunocompromised patients are predisposed to infections caused by influenza virus. Influenza virus may produce considerable morbidity, including protracted illness and prolonged viral shedding in these patients, thus prompting higher doses and prolonged courses of antiviral therapy. This approach may promote the emergence of resistant strains. Characterization of neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor (NAI)-resistant strains of influenza A virus is essential for documenting causes of resistance. In this study, using quantitative real-time PCR along with conventional Sanger sequencing, we identified an NAI-resistant strain of influenza A (H3N2) virus in an immunocompromised patient. In-depth analysis by deep gene sequencing revealed that various known markers of antiviral resistance, including transient R292K and Q136K substitutions and a sustained E119K (N2 numbering) substitution in the NA protein emerged during prolonged antiviral therapy. In addition, a combination of a 4-amino-acid deletion at residues 245 to 248 (Δ245-248) accompanied by the E119V substitution occurred, causing resistance to or reduced inhibition by NAIs (oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir). Resistant variants within a pool of viral quasispecies arose during combined antiviral treatment. More research is needed to understand the interplay of drug resistance mutations, viral fitness, and transmission.

Tung CY, Lewis DE, Han L, et al.
Activation of dendritic cell function by soypeptide lunasin as a novel vaccine adjuvant.
Vaccine. 2014; 32(42):5411-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The addition of an appropriate adjuvant that activates the innate immunity is essential to subsequent development of the adaptive immunity specific to the vaccine antigens. Thus, any innovation capable of improving the immune responses may lead to a more efficacious vaccine. We recently identified a novel immune modulator using a naturally occurring seed peptide called lunasin. Lunasin was originally isolated from soybeans, and it is a small peptide containing 43 amino acids. Our studies revealed stimulatory effects of lunasin on innate immune cells by regulating expression of a number of genes that are important for immune responses. The objective was to define the effectiveness of lunasin as an adjuvant that enhances immune responses. The immune modulating functions of lunasin were characterized in dendritic cells (DCs) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Lunasin-treated conventional DCs (cDCs) not only expressed elevated levels of co-stimulatory molecules (CD86, CD40) but also exhibited up-regulation of cytokines (IL1B, IL6) and chemokines (CCL3, CCL4). Lunasin-treated cDCs induced higher proliferation of allogeneic CD4+ T cells when comparing with medium control treatment in the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). Immunization of mice with ovalbumin (OVA) and lunasin inhibited the growth of OVA-expressing A20 B-lymphomas, which was correlated with OVA-specific CD8+ T cells. In addition, lunasin was an effective adjuvant for immunization with OVA, which together improved animal survival against lethal challenge with influenza virus expressing the MHC class I OVA peptide SIINFEKL (PR8-OTI). These results suggest that lunasin may function as a vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC maturation, which in turn enhances the development of protective immune responses to the vaccine antigens.

Song G, Valdez BC, Li Y, et al.
Synergistic cytotoxicity of sorafenib with busulfan and nucleoside analogs in human FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplications-positive acute myeloid leukemia cells.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014; 20(11):1687-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clofarabine (Clo), fludarabine (Flu), and busulfan (Bu) are used in pretransplantation conditioning therapy for patients with myeloid leukemia. To further improve their efficacy in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD)-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we investigated their synergism with sorafenib (Sor). Exposure of FLT3-ITD-positive MV-4-11 and MOLM 13 cells to Bu+Clo+Flu+Sor resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity; no such synergism was observed in the FLT3-wild type THP-1 and KBM3/Bu250(6) cell lines. The drug synergism in MV-4-11 cells could be attributed to activation of DNA damage response, histone 3 modifications, inhibition of prosurvival kinases, and activation of apoptosis. Further, the phosphorylation of kinases, including FLT3, MAPK kinase (MEK), and AKT, was inhibited. The FLT3-ITD substrate STAT5 and its target gene PIM 2 product decreased when cells were exposed to Sor alone, Bu+Clo+Flu, and Bu+Clo+Flu+Sor. The level of the proapoptotic protein p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) increased, whereas the level of prosurvival protein MCL-1 decreased when cells were exposed to Bu+Clo+Flu+Sor. The interactions of PUMA with MCL-1 and/or BCL-2 were enhanced when cells were exposed to Bu+Clo+Flu or Bu+Clo+Flu+Sor. The changes in the level of these proteins, which are involved in mitochondrial control of apoptosis, correlate with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. Bu+Clo+Flu+Sor decreased mitochondrial membrane potential by 60% and caused leakage of cytochrome c, second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC)/direct IAP Binding protein with low pI (DIABLO), and AIF from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm, caspase activation, and cell death, suggesting the activation of apoptosis. Analogous, synergistic cytotoxicity in response to Bu, Clo, Flu, and Sor was observed in mononuclear cells isolated from FLT3-ITD-positive AML patients. Although our previous studies were aimed at standardizing the conditioning regimen, the new findings suggest that patients with abnormal expression of FLT3 might further benefit from individualizing treatment through the addition of Sor to Bu+Clo+Flu, thereby providing personalized pretransplantation therapy.

Kim A, Im M, Yim NH, et al.
A novel herbal medicine, KIOM-C, induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death mediated by activation of JNK and reactive oxygen species in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e98703 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
KIOM-C was recently demonstrated to have anti-metastatic activity in highly malignant cancer cells via suppression of NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 activity. In addition, it was reported to be effective for clearance of the influenza virus by increasing production of anti-viral cytokines, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, and efficacious in the treatment of pigs suffering from porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). In this study, we investigated whether KIOM-C induces cancer cell death and elucidated the underlying anti-cancer mechanisms. In addition, we examined whether KIOM-C oral administration suppresses in vivo tumor growth of HT1080 cells in athymic nude mice. We initially found that KIOM-C at concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg/ml caused dose- and time-dependent cell death in cancer cells, but not normal hepatocytes, to approximately 50% of control levels. At the early stage of KIOM-C treatment (12 h), cells were arrested in G1 phase, which was accompanied by up-regulation of p21 and p27, down-regulation of cyclin D1, and subsequent increases in apoptotic and autophagic cells. Following KIOM-C treatment, the extent of caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, Beclin-1 expression, and LC3-II conversion was remarkably up-regulated, but p62 expression was down-regulated. Phosphorylation of AMPK, ULK, JNK, c-jun, and p53 was increased significantly in response to KIOM-C treatment. The levels of intracellular ROS and CHOP expression were also increased. In particular, the JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 blocked KIOM-C-induced ROS generation and CHOP expression almost completely, which consequently almost completely rescued cell death, indicating that JNK activation plays a critical role in KIOM-C-induced cell death. Furthermore, daily oral administration of 85 and 170 mg/kg KIOM-C efficiently suppressed the tumorigenic growth of HT1080 cells, without systemic toxicity. These results collectively suggest that KIOM-C efficiently induces cancer cell death by both autophagy and apoptosis via activation of JNK signaling pathways, and KIOM-C represents a safe and potent herbal therapy for treating malignancies.

Lu X, Ng HH, Bubulya PA
The role of SON in splicing, development, and disease.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA. 2014 Sep-Oct; 5(5):637-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
SON is a nuclear protein involved in multiple cellular processes including transcription, pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing, and cell cycle regulation. Although SON was discovered 25 years ago, the importance of SON's function was only realized recently when its roles in nuclear organization and pre-mRNA splicing as well as the influence of these activities in maintaining cellular health were unveiled. Furthermore, SON was implicated to have a key role in stem cells as well as during the onset of various diseases such as cancer, influenza, and hepatitis. Here we review the progress that has been made in studying this multifunctional protein and discuss questions that remain to be answered about SON.

Kong K, Kumar M, Taruishi M, Javier RT
The human adenovirus E4-ORF1 protein subverts discs large 1 to mediate membrane recruitment and dysregulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.
PLoS Pathog. 2014; 10(5):e1004102 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Adenoviruses infect epithelial cells lining mucous membranes to cause acute diseases in people. They are also utilized as vectors for vaccination and for gene and cancer therapy, as well as tools to discover mechanisms of cancer due to their tumorigenic potential in experimental animals. The adenovirus E4-ORF1 gene encodes an oncoprotein that promotes viral replication, cell survival, and transformation by activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). While the mechanism of activation is not understood, this function depends on a complex formed between E4-ORF1 and the membrane-associated cellular PDZ protein Discs Large 1 (Dlg1), a common viral target having both tumor suppressor and oncogenic functions. Here, we report that in human epithelial cells, E4-ORF1 interacts with the regulatory and catalytic subunits of PI3K and elevates their levels. Like PI3K activation, PI3K protein elevation by E4-ORF1 requires Dlg1. We further show that Dlg1, E4-ORF1, and PI3K form a ternary complex at the plasma membrane. At this site, Dlg1 also co-localizes with the activated PI3K effector protein Akt, indicating that the ternary complex mediates PI3K signaling. Signifying the functional importance of the ternary complex, the capacity of E4-ORF1 to induce soft agar growth and focus formation in cells is ablated either by a mutation that prevents E4-ORF1 binding to Dlg1 or by a PI3K inhibitor drug. These results demonstrate that E4-ORF1 interacts with Dlg1 and PI3K to assemble a ternary complex where E4-ORF1 hijacks the Dlg1 oncogenic function to relocate cytoplasmic PI3K to the membrane for constitutive activation. This novel mechanism of Dlg1 subversion by adenovirus to dysregulate PI3K could be used by other pathogenic viruses, such as human papillomavirus, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, and influenza A virus, which also target Dlg1 and activate PI3K in cells.

Gulley JL, Madan RA, Tsang KY, et al.
Immune impact induced by PROSTVAC (PSA-TRICOM), a therapeutic vaccine for prostate cancer.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2014; 2(2):133-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
PSA-TRICOM (PROSTVAC) is a novel vector-based vaccine designed to generate a robust immune response against prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-expressing tumor cells. The purpose of this report is to present an overview of both published studies and new data in the evaluation of immune responses to the PSA-TRICOM vaccine platform, currently in phase III testing. Of 104 patients tested for T-cell responses, 57% (59/104) demonstrated a ≥ 2-fold increase in PSA-specific T cells 4 weeks after vaccine (median 5-fold increase) compared with pre-vaccine, and 68% (19/28) of patients tested mounted post-vaccine immune responses to tumor-associated antigens not present in the vaccine (antigen spreading). The PSA-specific immune responses observed 28 days after vaccine (i.e., likely memory cells) are quantitatively similar to the levels of circulating T cells specific for influenza seen in the same patients. Measurements of systemic immune response to PSA may underestimate the true therapeutic immune response (as this does not account for cells that have trafficked to the tumor) and does not include antigen spreading. Furthermore, although the entire PSA gene is the vaccine, only one epitope of PSA is evaluated in the T-cell responses. Because this therapeutic vaccine is directed at generating a cellular/Th1 immune response (T-cell costimulatory molecules and use of a viral vector), it is not surprising that less than 0.6% of patients (2/349) tested have evidence of PSA antibody induction following vaccine. This suggests that post-vaccine PSA kinetics were not affected by PSA antibodies. An ongoing phase III study will evaluate the systemic immune responses and correlation with clinical outcomes.

Li Y, Li LJ, Wang LJ, et al.
Selective intra-arterial infusion of rAd-p53 with chemotherapy for advanced oral cancer: a randomized clinical trial.
BMC Med. 2014; 12:16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In this study, a combination of recombinant adenoviral p53 (rAd-p53) gene therapy and intra-arterial delivery of chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma was evaluated.
METHODS: In total, 99 patients with stage III or IV oral carcinoma who had refused or were ineligible for surgery were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase III clinical trial. They were randomly assigned to group I (n = 35; intra-arterial infusion of rAd-p53 plus chemotherapy), group II (n = 33; intra-arterial infusion of rAd-p53 plus placebo chemotherapy), or group III (n = 31; intra-arterial infusion of placebo rAd-p53 plus chemotherapy).
RESULTS: The median length of follow-up was 36 months (range, 3 to 86 months). During follow-up, 16 patients in group I, 20 in group II, and 22 in group III died. Group I (48.5%) had a higher complete response rate than groups II (16.7%) and III (17.2%) (P = 0.006). The rate of non-responders in group I was significantly lower than that in groups II and III (P < 0.020). A log-rank test for survival rate indicated that group I had a significantly higher survival rate than group III (P = 0.019). The survival rate of patients with stage III but not stage IV oral cancer was significantly higher in group I than in group III (P = 0.015, P = 0.200, respectively). The survival rate of patients with stage IV did not differ significantly among the three groups. Or the 99 patients, 63 patients experienced adverse events of either transient flu-like symptoms or bone marrow suppression, while 13 patients had both these conditions together. No replication-deficient virus was detected in patient serum, urine, or sputum. rAd-p53 treatment increased Bax expression in the primary tumor of 80% of patients, as shown by immunohistochemical staining.
CONCLUSIONS: Intra-arterial infusion of combined rAd-p53 and chemotherapy significantly increased the survival rate of patients with stage III but not stage IV oral cancer, compared with intra-arterial chemotherapy. Intra-arterial infusion of combined rAd-p53 and chemotherapy may represent a promising alternative treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR-TRC-09000392 (Date of registration: 2009-05-18).

Dunmire SK, Odumade OA, Porter JL, et al.
Primary EBV infection induces an expression profile distinct from other viruses but similar to hemophagocytic syndromes.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85422 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis and establishes lifelong infection associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. To better understand immunity to EBV, we performed a prospective study of natural infection in healthy humans. Transcriptome analysis defined a striking and reproducible expression profile during acute infection but no lasting gene changes were apparent during latent infection. Comparing the EBV response profile to multiple other acute viral infections, including influenza A (influenza), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV), and Dengue fever virus (DENV), revealed similarity only to DENV. The signature shared by EBV and DENV was also present in patients with hemophagocytic syndromes, suggesting these two viruses cause uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Interestingly, while EBV induced a strong type I interferon response, a subset of interferon induced genes, including MX1, HERC5, and OAS1, were not upregulated, suggesting a mechanism by which viral antagonism of immunity results in a profound inflammatory response. These data provide an important first description of the response to a natural herpesvirus infection in humans.

O'Hara S, Wang K, Slayden RA, et al.
Iterative feature removal yields highly discriminative pathways.
BMC Genomics. 2013; 14:832 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We introduce Iterative Feature Removal (IFR) as an unbiased approach for selecting features with diagnostic capacity from large data sets. The algorithm is based on recently developed tools in machine learning that are driven by sparse feature selection goals. When applied to genomic data, our method is designed to identify genes that can provide deeper insight into complex interactions while remaining directly connected to diagnostic utility. We contrast this approach with the search for a minimal best set of discriminative genes, which can provide only an incomplete picture of the biological complexity.
RESULTS: Microarray data sets typically contain far more features (genes) than samples. For this type of data, we demonstrate that there are many equivalently-predictive subsets of genes. We iteratively train a classifier using features identified via a sparse support vector machine. At each iteration, we remove all the features that were previously selected. We found that we could iterate many times before a sustained drop in accuracy occurs, with each iteration removing approximately 30 genes from consideration. The classification accuracy on test data remains essentially flat even as hundreds of top-genes are removed.Our method identifies sets of genes that are highly predictive, even when comprised of genes that individually are not. Through automated and manual analysis of the selected genes, we demonstrate that the selected features expose relevant pathways that other approaches would have missed.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results challenge the paradigm of using feature selection techniques to design parsimonious classifiers from microarray and similar high-dimensional, small-sample-size data sets. The fact that there are many subsets of genes that work equally well to classify the data provides a strong counter-result to the notion that there is a small number of "top genes" that should be used to build classifiers. In our results, the best classifiers were formed using genes with limited univariate power, thus illustrating that deeper mining of features using multivariate techniques is important.

Pan H, Zhang Y, Luo Z, et al.
Autophagy mediates avian influenza H5N1 pseudotyped particle-induced lung inflammation through NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014; 306(2):L183-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since avian influenza virus H5N1-induced hypercytokemia plays a key role in acute lung injury, understanding its molecular mechanism is highly desirable for discovering therapeutic targets against H5N1 infection. In the present study, we investigated the role of autophagy in H5N1-induced lung inflammation by using H5N1 pseudotyped viral particles (H5N1pps). The results showed that H5N1pps significantly induced autophagy both in A549 human lung epithelial cells and in mouse lung tissues, which was primarily due to hemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 virus. Blocking autophagy with 3-methyladenine (an autophagy inhibitor) or siRNA knockdown of autophagy-related genes (beclin1 and atg5) dramatically attenuated H5N1pp-induced proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, and CCL5, both in vitro and in vivo. Autophagy-mediated inflammatory responses involved the activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, which required the presence of clathrin but did not rely on p62 or autophagosome-lysosome fusion. On the other hand, the activation of NF-κB also promoted H5N1pp-induced autophagosome formation. These data indicated a positive feedback loop between autophagy and NF-κB signaling cascade, which could exacerbate H5N1pp-induced lung inflammation. Our data demonstrated an essential role of autophagy in H5N1pp-triggered inflammatory responses, and targeting the autophagic pathway could be a promising strategy to treat H5N1 virus-caused lung inflammation.

Balasubramaniam VR, Hong Wai T, Ario Tejo B, et al.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus nucleoprotein interacts with TREX complex adaptor protein Aly/REF.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e72429 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
We constructed a novel chicken (Gallus gallus) lung cDNA library fused inside yeast acting domain vector (pGADT7). Using yeast two-hybrid screening with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) nucleoprotein (NP) from the strain (A/chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004(H5N1)) as bait, and the Gallus gallus lung cDNA library as prey, a novel interaction between the Gallus gallus cellular RNA export adaptor protein Aly/REF and the viral NP was identified. This interaction was confirmed and validated with mammalian two hybrid studies and co-immunoprecipitation assay. Cellular localization studies using confocal microscopy showed that NP and Aly/REF co-localize primarily in the nucleus. Further investigations by mammalian two hybrid studies into the binding of NP of other subtypes of influenza virus such as the swine A/New Jersey/1976/H1N1 and pandemic A/Malaysia/854/2009(H1N1) to human Aly/REF, also showed that the NP of these viruses interacts with human Aly/REF. Our findings are also supported by docking studies which showed tight and favorable binding between H5N1 NP and human Aly/REF, using crystal structures from Protein Data Bank. siRNA knockdown of Aly/REF had little effect on the export of HPAI NP and other viral RNA as it showed no significant reduction in virus titer. However, UAP56, another component of the TREX complex, which recruits Aly/REF to mRNA was found to interact even better with H5N1 NP through molecular docking studies. Both these proteins also co-localizes in the nucleus at early infection similar to Aly/REF. Intriguingly, knockdown of UAP56 in A549 infected cells shows significant reduction in viral titer (close to 10 fold reduction). Conclusively, our study have opened new avenues for research of other cellular RNA export adaptors crucial in aiding viral RNA export such as the SRSF3, 9G8 and ASF/SF2 that may play role in influenza virus RNA nucleocytoplasmic transport.

Cantini L, Attaway CC, Butler B, et al.
Fusogenic-oligoarginine peptide-mediated delivery of siRNAs targeting the CIP2A oncogene into oral cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e73348 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Despite a better understanding of the pathogenesis of oral cancer, its treatment outcome remains poor. Thus, there is a need for new therapeutic strategies to improve the prognosis of this disease. RNA interference (RNAi) appears to be a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of many diseases, including oral cancer. However, an obstacle for RNAi-mediated therapies has been delivery, in particular, the retention of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in endosomes and their subsequent degradation in lysosomes, resulting in inefficient gene silencing. Thus, the current study examined the feasibility of designing and utilizing a peptide, termed 599, consisting of a synthetic influenza virus-derived endosome-disruptive fusogenic peptide sequence and a stretch of cationic cell-penetrating nona(D-arginine) residues, to deliver siRNAs into oral cancer cells and induce silencing of the therapeutic target, CIP2A, an oncoprotein overexpressed in various human malignancies including oral cancer. Increasing the 599 peptide-to-siRNA molar ratio demonstrated a higher binding capacity for siRNA molecules and enhanced siRNA delivery into the cytoplasm of oral cancer cells. In fact, quantitative measurements of siRNA delivery into cells demonstrated that a 50∶1 peptide-to-siRNA molar ratio could deliver 18-fold higher amounts of siRNAs compared to cells treated with siRNA alone with no significant long-term cytotoxic effects. Most importantly, the 599 peptide-mediated siRNA delivery promoted significant CIP2A mRNA and protein silencing which resulted in decreased oral cancer cell invasiveness and anchorage-independent growth. Together, these data demonstrate that a chimeric peptide consisting of a fusogenic sequence, in combination with cell-penetrating residues, can be used to effectively deliver siRNAs into oral cancer cells and induce the silencing of its target gene, potentially offering a new therapeutic strategy in combating oral cancer.

Shawi M, Chu TW, Martinez-Marignac V, et al.
Telomerase contributes to fludarabine resistance in primary human leukemic lymphocytes.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e70428 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
We report that Imetelstat, a telomerase inhibitor that binds to the RNA component of telomerase (hTR), can sensitize primary CLL lymphocytes to fludarabine in vitro. This effect was observed in lymphocytes from clinically resistant cases and with cytogenetic abnormalities associated with bad prognosis. Imetelstat mediated-sensitization to fludarabine was not associated with telomerase activity, but with the basal expression of Ku80. Since both Imetelstat and Ku80 bind hTR, we assessed 1) if Ku80 and Imetelstat alter each other's binding to hTR in vitro and 2) the effect of an oligonucleotide complementary to the Ku binding site in hTR (Ku oligo) on the survival of primary CLL lymphocytes exposed to fludarabine. We show that Imetelstat interferes with the binding of Ku70/80 (Ku) to hTR and that the Ku oligo can sensitize CLL lymphocytes to FLU. Our results suggest that Ku binding to hTR may contribute to fludarabine resistance in CLL lmphocytes. This is the first report highlighting the potentially broad effectiveness of Imetelstat in CLL, and the potential biological and clinical implications of a functional interaction between Ku and hTR in primary human cancer cells.

Okada T, Nakamura M, Nishikawa J, et al.
Identification of genes specifically methylated in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinomas.
Cancer Sci. 2013; 104(10):1309-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
We studied the comprehensive DNA methylation status in the naturally derived gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SNU-719, which was infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by methylated CpG island recovery on chip assay. To identify genes specifically methylated in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas (EBVaGC), we focused on seven genes, TP73, BLU, FSD1, BCL7A, MARK1, SCRN1, and NKX3.1, based on the results of methylated CpG island recovery on chip assay. We confirmed DNA methylation of the genes by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing in SNU-719. The expression of the genes, except for BCL7A, was upregulated by a combination of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A treatment in SNU-719. After the treatment, unmethylated DNA became detectable in all seven genes by methylation-specific PCR. We verified DNA methylation of the genes in 75 primary gastric cancer tissues from 25 patients with EBVaGC and 50 EBV-negative patients who were controls. The methylation frequencies of TP73, BLU, FSD1, BCL7A, MARK1, SCRN1, and NKX3.1 were significantly higher in EBVaGC than in EBV-negative gastric carcinoma. We identified seven genes with promoter regions that were specifically methylated in EBVaGC. Inactivation of these genes may suppress their function as tumor suppressor genes or tumor-associated antigens and help to develop and maintain EBVaGC.

Liu S, Chen P, Hu M, et al.
Randomized, controlled phase II study of post-surgery radiotherapy combined with recombinant adenoviral human p53 gene therapy in treatment of oral cancer.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2013; 20(6):375-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical benefits of recombinant adenoviral human p53 (rAd-p53) gene therapy combined with radiotherapy in prevention of oral cancer recurrence after a radical resection. A total of 51 patients with tongue cancer (TCa) and 56 patients with gingival carcinoma (GCa) satisfying the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to two groups: the experiment group (EG) and the control group (CG). The EG group received multipoint injections of rAd-p53 into the surgical wound surface at a dose of 1 × 10¹² viral particles after a radical resection. Patients in both EG and CG were given radiotherapy at a total dose of 60 Gy at 3 weeks after surgery. All these patients were followed up for at least 3 years. Two cases (2/27) of TCa and 2 (2/30) in GCa patients had a local recurrence in EG, but 8 (8/24) TCa and 8 (8/26) GCa patients in CG had a local recurrence. Both recurrent rates of TCa (33.3%) and GCa (30.8%) in CG are statistically significantly higher than those of TCa (7.4%) and GCa (6.7%) in EG, respectively. The overall recurrent rate in EG is 7%, which is also statistically significantly lower than that (32%) in CG. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate and 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate of EG is 100% and 93%, respectively. The 3-year OS and DFS rates of CG are 94 and 68%, respectively. Mild or medium fever and flu-like symptoms were more frequently observed in EG and were considered to be associated with application of rAd-p53. Post-tumorectomy wound surface injection of rAd-p53 combining with radiotherapy is a safe and effective regimen for the patients with TGa or GCa.

Park ST, Byun HJ, Kim BR, et al.
Tumor suppressor BLU promotes paclitaxel antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis through the down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression in tumorigenesis.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 435(1):153-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this current work, we investigated whether BLU could enhance pro-apoptotic activity of chemotherapeutic drugs in ovarian carcinoma cells. A combination with a chemotherapeutic drug showed an additive effect, and this additive effect was supplemented by the enhancement of caspase-3 and -9 activities. BLU and paclitaxel induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase through the reduction of cyclin dependent kinase 1, cyclin B1, while promoting both p16 and p27 expression. In addition, both BLU and paclitaxel enhanced the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax together with the suppression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, a protein which is well-known for its function as a regulator in protecting cells from apoptosis. As expected, the Bax and p21 activities were enhanced by BLU or paclitaxel, while a combination of BLU and paclitaxel were additively promoted, whereas Bcl-xL and NF-κB including Bcl-2 activity were inactivated. This study has yielded promising results, which evidence for the first time that BLU could suppress the growth of carcinoma cells. Furthermore, both BLU and paclitaxel inhibited the phosphorylation of signaling components downstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, such as 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1, and Akt. Also, BLU plus paclitaxel decreased phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase, as well as decreasing the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, which is one of the representative targets of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling cascade. These results provide evidence that BLU enhances G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death through the up-regulation of Bax, p21 and p53 expression.

You OH, Kim SH, Kim B, et al.
Ginkgetin induces apoptosis via activation of caspase and inhibition of survival genes in PC-3 prostate cancer cells.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013; 23(9):2692-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ginkgetin is a natural biflavonoid isolated from leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. Though it was known to have anti-inflammatory, anti-influenza virus, anti-fungal activity, osteoblast differentiation stimulating activity and neuro-protective effects, the underlying antitumor mechanism of ginkgetin still remains unclear. Thus, in the present study, anti-cancer mechanism of ginkgetin was elucidated in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Ginkgetin suppressed the viability of PC-3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner and also significantly increased the sub-G1 DNA contents of cell cycle in PC-3 cells. Ginkgetin activated caspase-3 and attenuated the expression of survival genes such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, survivin and Cyclin D1 at protein and mRNA levels. Consistently, pan-caspase inhibitor Z-DEVD-fmk blocked sub G1 accumulation and cleavages of PRAP and caspase 3 induced by ginkgetin in PC-3 cells. Overall, these findings suggest that ginkgetin induces apoptosis in PC-3 cells via activation of caspase 3 and inhibition of survival genes as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer treatment.

Weiss R, Sachet M, Zinngrebe J, et al.
IL-24 sensitizes tumor cells to TLR3-mediated apoptosis.
Cell Death Differ. 2013; 20(6):823-33 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Interleukin-24 (IL-24), a member of the IL-10 cytokine family whose physiological function remains largely unknown, has been shown to induce apoptosis when expressed in an adenoviral background. It is yet little understood, why IL-24 alone induced apoptosis only in a limited number of tumor cell lines. Analyzing an influenza A virus vector expressing IL-24 for its oncolytic potential revealed enhanced pro-apoptotic activity of the chimeric virus compared with virus or IL-24 alone. Interestingly, IL-24-mediated enhancement of influenza-A-induced apoptosis did not require viral replication but critically depended on toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and caspase-8. Immunoprecipitation of TLR3 showed that infection by influenza A virus induced formation of a TLR3-associated signaling complex containing TRIF, RIP1, FADD, cFLIP and pro-caspase-8. Co-administration of IL-24 decreased the presence of cFLIP in the TLR3-associated complex, converting it into an atypical, TLR3-associated death-inducing signaling complex (TLR3 DISC) that induced apoptosis by enabling caspase-8 activation at this complex. The sensitizing effect of IL-24 on TLR3-induced apoptosis, mediated by influenza A virus or the TLR3-specific agonist poly(I:C), was also evident on tumor spheroids. In conclusion, rather than acting as an apoptosis inducer itself, IL-24 sensitizes cancer cells to TLR-mediated apoptosis by enabling the formation of an atypical DISC which, in the case of influenza A virus or poly(I:C), is associated with TLR3.

Glymph S, Mandal S, Knowell AE, et al.
The myxovirus resistance A (MxA) gene -88G>T single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with prostate cancer.
Infect Genet Evol. 2013; 16:186-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance A (MxA) is an interferon stimulated antiviral protein that is required for a complete antiviral response. MxA polymorphism (rs2071430) is located within an Interferon Stimulated Response Element (ISRE) at position -88 in the gene's promoter region, and it has been associated with increased susceptibility to infections and various diseases. In general, the low promoter activity genotype (GG) promotes susceptibility, whereas the high promoter activity genotype (TT) confers protection to Hepatitis C viral infection. MxA's role in prostate cancer is not fully understood. Previous literature has shown that MxA may be a mediator of the effect of IFN on normal and tumor cell motility. MxA may act as a tumor suppressor and the level of expression may be a predictor of metastatic potential. Based on this information, in this study we investigated the association of this functional polymorphism (rs2071430) in MxA with prostate cancer.
METHODS: Sample size and power was calculated using the PGA software. Genomic DNA from a controls (n=140) and prostate cancer patients (n=164) were used for genotyping SNP rs2071430 on all samples. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression model.
RESULTS: A significant association was observed between rs2071430 genotype GG and prostate cancer. Individuals harboring the GG genotype are at an increased risk of prostate cancer. Data stratification reveals that the mutant GT genotype offers either offers some protection against prostate cancer in Caucasians.
CONCLUSIONS: MxA SNP rs2071430 GG genotype is significantly associated with prostate cancer irrespective of race. However, data stratification also suggests that the GT genotype is under-represented in Caucasian subjects suggesting its role in protection against prostate cancer in Caucasians. Although MxA is primarily implicated in viral infection, but it may be also be associated with prostate cancer. Recent studies have implicated viral and bacterial infections with increased prostate cancer risk. Expression of the high promoter activity genotype may offer resistance to prostate cancer infection and possibly influence clinical outcomes.

Chakraborty NG, Yadav M, Dadras SS, et al.
Analyses of T cell-mediated immune response to a human melanoma-associated antigen by the young and the elderly.
Hum Immunol. 2013; 74(5):640-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Elderly cancer patients are often excluded from immune-based clinical trials and therapies based on the belief that they respond poorly to tumor antigens. Using melanoma as a model and melanoma related Mart-127-35 epitope specific T cell receptor (TCR) engineered T cells as a tool we compared the T cell responses from young and elderly to the Mart-127-35 epitope, ex vivo. We also compared the natural Treg (nTreg) activities and the expression of a number of genes associated with immune response by quantitative real-time reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRTPCR) in formalin fixed primary melanomas, in situ. We detected a significant difference in CD8(+) T cell response to Flu antigen (influenza matrix peptide Flu MP58-66), but the responses of the two cohorts to melanoma antigen were comparable. nTreg activities in the elderly was significantly compromised. The qPCR analyses of tissues from elderly patients revealed lower levels of Fox-P3 expression but comparable levels of expression of IL-2, IFNγ, TNFα, IL-4, IL-10, IDO, and TGFβ. These findings indicate that elderly patients might be capable of responding to tumor antigens, and need not be excluded from immune-based therapies or clinical trials.

Chiang YC, Chang MC, Chen PJ, et al.
Epigenetic silencing of BLU through interfering apoptosis results in chemoresistance and poor prognosis of ovarian serous carcinoma patients.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013; 20(2):213-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is usually present at the advanced stage, during which the patients generally have poor prognosis. Our study aimed to evaluate the correlation of gene methylation and the clinical outcome of patients with advanced-stage, high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. The methylation status of eight candidate genes was first evaluated by methylation-specific PCR and capillary electrophoresis to select three potential genes including DAPK, CDH1, and BLU (ZMYND10) from the exercise group of 40 patients. The methylation status of these three genes was further investigated in the validation group consisting of 136 patients. Patients with methylated BLU had significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS; hazard ratio (HR) 1.48, 95% CI 1.01-2.56, P=0.013) and overall survival (OS; HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.07-3.11, P=0.027) in the multivariate analysis. Methylation of BLU was also an independent risk factor for 58 patients undergoing optimal debulking surgery for PFS (HR 2.37, 95% CI 1.03-5.42, P=0.043) and OS (HR 3.96, 95% CI 1.45-10.81, P=0.007) in the multivariate analysis. A possible mechanism of BLU in chemoresistance was investigated in ovarian cancer cell lines by in vitro apoptotic assays. In vitro studies have shown that BLU could upregulate the expression of BAX and enhance the effect of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Our study suggested that methylation of BLU could be a potential prognostic biomarker for advanced ovarian serous carcinoma.

Sato Y, Morimoto K, Kubo T, et al.
High mannose-binding antiviral lectin PFL from Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 promotes cell death of gastric cancer cell MKN28 via interaction with α2-integrin.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e45922 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Novel anti-HIV lectin family which shows a strict binding specificity for high mannose glycans has been found in lower organisms. The bacterial orthologue has been identified in the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 and the gene coding a putative lectin was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by one step gel filtration. Glycan array screening of the recombinant lectin, termed PFL, has revealed that PFL preferentially recognizes high mannose glycans with α1-3 Man that was highly exposed at the D2 position. In contrast, masking of this α1-3 Man with α1-2 Man dramatically impaired lectin-carbohydrate interactions. Reducing terminal disaccharide, GlcNAc-GlcNAc of high mannose glycans was also essential for PFL-binding. PFL showed a potent anti-influenza virus activity by inhibiting the virus entry into cells at doses of low nanomolar concentration. At micromolar concentration or higher, PFL showed a cytotoxicity accompanying loss of the cell adhesion against human gastric cancer MKN28 cells. The cell surface molecule to which PFL bound was co-precipitated with biotin-labeled PFL and identified as integrin α2 by peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Intriguingly, upon treatment with exogenous PFL, integrin α2 on the cell surface underwent rapid internalization to the cytoplasm and accumulated to perinuclear region, together with the bound PFL. The resulting loss of cell adherence would trigger a signaling pathway that induced anoikis-like cell death. These events were effectively inhibited by pretreatment of PFL with mannnan, indicating the involvement of high mannose glycans on PFL-induced cell death that was triggered by PFL-integrin α2 interactions.

Kiss NB, Kogner P, Johnsen JI, et al.
Quantitative global and gene-specific promoter methylation in relation to biological properties of neuroblastomas.
BMC Med Genet. 2012; 13:83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In this study we aimed to quantify tumor suppressor gene (TSG) promoter methylation densities levels in primary neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines. A subset of these TSGs is associated with a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in other tumor types.
METHODS: The study panel consisted of 38 primary tumors, 7 established cell lines and 4 healthy references. Promoter methylation was determined by bisulphate Pyrosequencing for 14 TSGs; and LINE-1 repeat element methylation was used as an indicator of global methylation levels.
RESULTS: Overall mean TSG Z-scores were significantly increased in cases with adverse outcome, but were unrelated to global LINE-1 methylation. CIMP with hypermethylation of three or more gene promoters was observed in 6/38 tumors and 7/7 cell lines. Hypermethylation of one or more TSG (comprising TSGs BLU, CASP8, DCR2, CDH1, RASSF1A and RASSF2) was evident in 30/38 tumors. By contrast only very low levels of promoter methylation were recorded for APC, DAPK1, NORE1A, P14, P16, TP73, PTEN and RARB. Similar involvements of methylation instability were revealed between cell line models and neuroblastoma tumors. Separate analysis of two proposed CASP8 regulatory regions revealed frequent and significant involvement of CpG sites between exon 4 and 5, but modest involvement of the exon 1 region.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results highlight the involvement of TSG methylation instability in neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines using quantitative methods, support the use of DNA methylation analyses as a prognostic tool for this tumor type, and underscore the relevance of developing demethylating therapies for its treatment.

Kubuschok B, Pfreundschuh M, Breit R, et al.
Mutated Ras-transfected, EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines as a model tumor vaccine for boosting T-cell responses against pancreatic cancer: a pilot trial.
Hum Gene Ther. 2012; 23(12):1224-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetically modified lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) have been shown to be an attractive alternative source of antigen-presenting cells for cancer vaccination in vitro. We tested their application in patients with pancreatic cancer in a phase I clinical trial. As a model tumor antigen, we selected the point-mutated (codon 12) Ki-Ras p21 oncogene (muRas) frequently (∼85%) present in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Autologous LCLs were established in vitro by spontaneous outgrowth from peripheral blood lymphocytes of seven pancreatic carcinoma patients and were genetically modified with an episomal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-based expression vector to express muRas (muRas-LCL). Weekly vaccinations with subcutaneous injection of 5×10(6) muRas-LCL were done. In six of seven patients, therapeutic vaccination elicited a T-cell response with an increase in the frequency of muRas-specific precursor cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and positive delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions at the injection site. Besides local reactions and flu-like symptoms, there were no signs of toxicity and no acute EBV infection, onset of EBV-associated lymphoma, or other severe complications. A clinical response (stable disease) was observed for a short time period (2-4 months) in four of seven patients (57%), mostly in earlier tumor stages. Our results indicate that LCL presenting genetically modified antigen represent a valuable and easily available tool for in vivo autologous tumor vaccination. LCL can be transfected with any known tumor antigen and therefore should be further clinically investigated.

Ohler A, Becker-Pauly C
TMPRSS4 is a type II transmembrane serine protease involved in cancer and viral infections.
Biol Chem. 2012; 393(9):907-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Proteolytic enzymes are involved in almost all biological processes reflecting their importance in health and disease. The human genome contains nearly 600 protease-encoding genes forming more than 2% of the total human proteome. The serine proteases, with about 180 members, built the oldest and second largest family of human proteases. Ten years ago, a novel serine protease family named the type II transmembrane family (TTSP) was identified. This minireview summarizes the up-to-date knowledge about the still growing TTSPs, particularly focusing on the pathophysiological functions of the family member type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS) 4. Recent studies provided important data on TMPRSS4 activity associated with the spreading of influenza viruses, mediated by the cleavage of hemagglutinin. Progression and metastatic potential of several cancers is concordant with an increased expression of TMPRSS4, though being a possible diagnostic marker. However, to benefit from TMPRSS4 as a therapeutic target, more data concerning its physiological relevance are needed, as done by a specific morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos.

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