Gene Summary

Gene:ANXA2; annexin A2
Aliases: P36, ANX2, LIP2, LPC2, CAL1H, LPC2D, ANX2L4, PAP-IV, HEL-S-270
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the annexin family. Members of this calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein family play a role in the regulation of cellular growth and in signal transduction pathways. This protein functions as an autocrine factor which heightens osteoclast formation and bone resorption. This gene has three pseudogenes located on chromosomes 4, 9 and 10, respectively. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:annexin A2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ANXA2 (cancer-related)

Christensen MV, Høgdall C, Jensen SG, et al.
Annexin A2 and S100A10 as Candidate Prognostic Markers in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2475-2482 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the 5th most common cancer among European women. Approximately 70-80% of OC is diagnosed at advanced stage resulting in an elevated mortality rate. The aim of this study was to examine whether Annexin A2 and S100A10 expression can be used as prognostic markers for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of Annexin A2 and S100A10 was evaluated in EOC tissue samples (n=303) by immunohistochemistry. The staining of the membrane, cytoplasmic and stroma was assessed according to intensity.
RESULTS: The expression of both markers correlated to histological subtype, histological grading, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, and macro-radical surgery. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that Annexin A2 and S100A10 in stromal tissue correlated with shorter overall survival (OS). Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated no independent prognostic significance of stromal Annexin A2 expression.
CONCLUSION: High expression of Annexin A2 and S100A10 in stromal tissue from EOC patients was associated with reduced OS; however, no independent prognostic value was found for any of the markers.

Wu W, Yu T, Wu Y, et al.
The miR155HG/miR-185/ANXA2 loop contributes to glioblastoma growth and progression.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):133 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of astrocytoma among adult brain tumors. Multiple studies have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in acting as molecular sponge for competing with microRNAs (miRNAs) to regulate downstream molecules in tumor progression. We previously reported that miR155 host gene (miR155HG), an lncRNA, and its derivative miR-155 promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in glioma. However, the other biological functions and mechanisms of miR155HG sponging miRNAs have been unknown. Considering ANXA2 has been generally accepted as oncogene overexpressed in a vast of cancers correlated with tumorigenesis, which might be the target molecule of miR155HG sponging miRNA via bioinformatics analysis. We designed this study to explore the interaction of miR155HG and ANXA2 to reveal the malignancy of them in GBM development.
METHODS: The expression of miR155HG was analyzed in three independent databases and clinical GBM specimens. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to assess the potential tumor-related functions of miR155HG. The interaction of miR155HG and miR-185 and the inhibition of ANXA2 by miR-185 were analyzed by luciferase reporter experiments, and biological effects in GBM were explored by colony formation assays, EDU cell proliferation assays, flow cytometric analysis and intracranial GBM mouse model. Changes in protein expression were analyzed using western blot. We examined the regulatory mechanism of ANXA2 on miR155HG in GBM by gene expression profiling analysis, double immunofluorescence staining, chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays.
RESULTS: We found that miR155HG was upregulated in GBM tissues and cell lines. Bioinformatic analyses of three GBM databases showed that miR155HG expression levels were closely associated with genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Knocking down miR155HG suppressed GBM cell proliferation in vitro, induced a G1/S-phase cell cycle arrest, and increased apoptosis. We also found that miR155HG functions as a competing endogenous RNA for miR-185. Moreover, miR-185 directly targets and inhibits ANXA2, which exhibits oncogenic functions in GBM. We also found that ANXA2 promoted miR155HG expression via STAT3 phosphorylation.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that overexpressed miR155HG in GBM can sponge miR-185 to promote ANXA2 expression, and ANXA2 stimulates miR155HG level through phosphorylated STAT3 binding to the miR155HG promoter. We establish the miR155HG/miR185/ANXA2 loop as a mechanism that underlies the biological functions of miR155HG and ANXA2 in GBM and further suggest this loop may serve as a therapeutic target and/or prognostic biomarker for GBM.

Wang QS, Shi LL, Sun F, et al.
High Expression of
Dis Markers. 2019; 2019:9267046 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: Accumulating evidence suggests that pseudogenes play potential roles in the regulation of their cognate wild-type genes, oncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes. ANXA2P2 (annexin A2 pseudogene 2) is one of three pseudogenes of annexin A2 that have recently been shown to be aberrantly transcribed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, its clinical meaning and biological function in HCC have remained unclear. Therefore, the present study was aimed at exploring the prognostic value of a high expression of ANXA2P2 in HCC tissue and at identifying whether it can affect the efficacy of targeted drugs (sorafenib, regorafenib, and lenvatinib).
Methods: We obtained ANXA2P2 mRNA expression levels from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA sequence database. The expression levels of ANXA2P2 in 49 pairs of intratumoral and peritumoral liver tissues were examined by RT-PCR. Wound healing and transwell assays were performed to confirm the tumor-promoting properties of ANXA2P2 in HCC cells. CCK8 assay was conducted to identify whether ANXA2P2 can affect the growth of HCC cells when administered with targeted drugs (sorafenib, regorafenib, and lenvatinib).
Results: The expression of ANXA2P2 in HCC tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent cancerous tissues from TCGA database and validation group. Additionally, patients with high ANXA2P2 expression in HCC tissue had a shorter overall survival, whereas no statistically significant correlation was found between ANXA2P2 expression and disease-free survival (
Conclusion: Our study confirmed elevated ANXA2P2 expression levels in HCC tissue compared with adjacent noncancerous tissue and a worse prognosis of patients with high ANXA2P2 levels in the HCC tissue. The newly found properties of promoting migration and invasion of ANXA2P2 in HCC help to explain this phenomenon. ANXA2P2 could be a novel and suitable predicative biomarker for the risk assessment of recurrence or metastasis of HCC patients but may not be effective to predict the efficacy of targeted drugs.

Kuskucu A, Tuysuz EC, Gurkan S, et al.
Co-polysomy of 1p/19q in glial tumors: Retrospective analysis of 221 cases from single center.
Gene. 2019; 701:161-168 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glial tumors are malignant brain tumors that arise from glial cells of brain or spine and have genetic aberrations in their genome. 1p/19q co-deletion is associated with increased Overall Survival (OS) time with enhanced response to chemo- and radio-therapy in oligodendrogliomas. However, prognostic significance of 1p/19q co-polysomy is still unclear. We evaluated 1p/19q status of 221 patients with glial tumor by Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH). Records of the patients were collected retrospectively. Our results demonstrated that 1p/19q co-polysomy was associated with decreased OS time, high P53 expression and frequently located in temporal lobe, whereas 1p/19q co-deletion was associated with increased overall survival time, low P53 expression and frontal lobe location. Furthermore, classification of patients based on both 1p/19q status and P53 expression revealed that patients with 1p/19q co-polysomy and high P53 expression had the worst prognosis. Lastly, our bioinformatic survival analysis revealed that high expression of SRM, ICMT, and FTL located in 1p36.13-p36.31 and 19q13.2-q13.33 region were related with decreased OS time in patients with Low Grade Glioma (LGG). The study demonstrated that 1p/19q co-polysomy is a poor prognostic marker for glial tumor.

Pidugu VK, Wu MM, Yen AH, et al.
IFIT1 and IFIT3 promote oral squamous cell carcinoma metastasis and contribute to the anti-tumor effect of gefitinib via enhancing p-EGFR recycling.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(17):3232-3247 [PubMed] Related Publications
IFIT1 and IFIT3 are abundant products of interferon-stimulating genes. While the importance of IFIT1 and IFIT3 in the prognosis of cancer has been reported, the molecular basis of IFIT1 and IFIT3 in cancer progression remains unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the modes of action and the clinical significance of IFIT1 and IFIT3 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Ectopic expression of IFIT1 or IFIT3 induced OSCC cell invasion by promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, whereas IFIT1 or IFIT3 knockdown exhibited opposite effects. Overexpression of IFIT1 or IFIT3 promoted tumor growth, regional and distant metastasis in xenograft and orthotopic nude mice models. Most importantly, IFIT1 or IFIT3 overexpression increased the levels of p-EGFR

Nuerzhati Y, Dong R, Song Z, Zheng S
Role of the long non‑coding RNA‑Annexin A2 pseudogene 3/Annexin A2 signaling pathway in biliary atresia‑associated hepatic injury.
Int J Mol Med. 2019; 43(2):739-748 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Biliary atresia (BA) is the most common cause of chronic cholestasis in children. The long non‑coding RNA (lncRNA) Annexin A2 pseudogene 3 (ANXA2P3) and Annexin A2 (ANXA2) have been suggested to serve pivotal roles in BA; however, the clinical significance and biological roles of ANXA2P3 and ANXA2 in BA remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to elucidate the function of ANAX2P3 and ANXA2 in BA‑induced liver injury using a human liver cell line and liver tissues from patients with BA. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry were conducted to determine the expression levels of ANXA2 and ANXA2P3 in liver tissues from patients with BA. Classification of fibrosis was analyzed by Masson staining. The functional roles of ANXA2 and ANXA2P3 in liver cells were determined by Cell Counting kit‑8 assay, and flow cytometric and cell cycle analyses. Activation of the ANXA2/ANXA2P3 signaling pathway in liver cells was evaluated by western blot analysis. According to the present results, the expression levels of ANXA2 and ANXA2P3 were significantly increased in liver tissues from patients with BA. In addition, knocking down the expression of ANXA2P3 and ANXA2 may result in reduced liver cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and increased apoptosis of liver cells in vitro. Furthermore, in cells in which ANXA2 and ANXA2P3 were overexpressed, cell apoptosis was reduced and cell cycle arrest in G2 phase. Taken together, these results indicated that ANXA2P3 and ANXA2 may have protective effects against liver injury progression and may be considered biomarkers in patients with BA.

Gibbs LD, Chaudhary P, Mansheim K, et al.
ANXA2 expression in African American triple-negative breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 174(1):113-120 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Our aim was to determine the role of Annexin A2 (AnxA2), which we have previously found to contribute to the aggressiveness of TNBC, with AA TNBC patients and clinical outcome.
METHODS: We analyzed TCGA breast cancer database (n = 1098) to observe AnxA2 expression within breast cancer subtypes and is correlation with overall survival. Further, we examined breast tissue specimens (n = 119) through chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and specimen were scored independently by two pathologists in a blinded study.
RESULTS: In our TCGA analysis, high expression of AnxA2 was correlated with poor survival in patients with TNBC. AnxA2 gene expression was not correlated with poor survival in other breast cancer subtypes. AnxA2 average CISH intensity score (CISH score = 0, null expression to 3, high expression) for TNBC was significantly higher in comparison to estrogen receptor and/or progesterone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor positive, and non-malignant tissues. Furthermore, AnxA2 average score was significantly higher in AA TNBC patients (CISH average score = 2.45 ± 0.3266) in comparison to Caucasian TNBC patients (CISH average score = 1.1 ± 0.4069).
CONCLUSION: AnxA2 is overexpressed in TNBC, implicating AnxA2 as a contributor to the aggressive biology of TNBC in AA women.

Yang H, Hong D, Cho SY, et al.
RhoGAP domain-containing fusions and PPAPDC1A fusions are recurrent and prognostic in diffuse gastric cancer.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4439 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
We conducted an RNA sequencing study to identify novel gene fusions in 80 discovery dataset tumors collected from young patients with diffuse gastric cancer (DGC). Twenty-five in-frame fusions are associated with DGC, three of which (CLDN18-ARHGAP26, CTNND1-ARHGAP26, and ANXA2-MYO9A) are recurrent in 384 DGCs based on RT-PCR. All three fusions contain a RhoGAP domain in their 3' partner genes. Patients with one of these three fusions have a significantly worse prognosis than those without. Ectopic expression of CLDN18-ARHGAP26 promotes the migration and invasion capacities of DGC cells. Parallel targeted RNA sequencing analysis additionally identifies TACC2-PPAPDC1A as a recurrent and poor prognostic in-frame fusion. Overall, PPAPDC1A fusions and in-frame fusions containing a RhoGAP domain clearly define the aggressive subset (7.5%) of DGCs, and their prognostic impact is greater than, and independent of, chromosomal instability and CDH1 mutations. Our study may provide novel genomic insights guiding future strategies for managing DGCs.

Wei DM, Dang YW, Feng ZB, et al.
Biological Effect and Mechanism of the miR-23b-3p/ANXA2 Axis in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 50(3):823-840 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) modulate the expression of known tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. In the present study, we found that the proliferation and invasion ability of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells were significantly suppressed by the overexpression of miR-23b-3p. In addition, there are miR-23b-3p binding sites in annexin A2 (ANXA2). Here, we investigated whether miR-23b-3p had an impact on the progression and metastasis of PDAC by targeting ANXA2.
METHODS: Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and cell cycle assays were performed to explore the effect of miR-23b-3p on various malignant phenotypes of pancreatic cancer cells. The size of tumors was observed following miR-23b-3p overexpression in an in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Dual-luciferase reporter, quantitative real-time PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses were used to validate the relationship between miR-23b-3p and ANXA2 in vitro.
RESULTS: We observed that miR-23b-3p could bind specifically to the 3' untranslated region of ANXA2 and inhibit its expression. MiR-23b-3p overexpression downregulated the expression of ANXA2 mRNA in PDAC cells and limited the size of tumors or even prevented tumor formation. In addition, there was a negative correlation between miR-23b-3p expression and ANXA2 protein expression in clinical specimens.
CONCLUSION: MiR-23b-3p inhibits the development and progression of PDAC by regulating ANXA2 directly.

Chang Y, Zhang J, Zhou C, et al.
Long non-coding RNA FOXD2-AS1 plays an oncogenic role in hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting miR‑206.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(6):3625-3634 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) FOXD2 adjacent opposite strand RNA 1 (FOXD2-AS1) has been recognized to function as an oncogene in several human tumors, and FOXD2‑AS1 dysregulation has been closely associated with carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Nevertheless, the correlation between the aberrant expression of FOXD2‑AS1 and the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, FOXD2‑AS1 was found to be overexpressed in HCC tissues, and FOXD2‑AS1 overexpression resulted in significantly shortened patient survival. FOXD2‑AS1 overexpression enhanced the viability and metastasis of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo, as revealed by MTT, wound healing and cell migration assays. In addition, mechanistic studies revealed that FOXD2‑AS1 upregulated the expression of the miR‑206 target gene annexin A2 (ANXA2) by acting as a miR‑206 sponge. In summary, FOXD2‑AS1 was concluded to function as an oncogene in HCC and to upregulate ANXA2 expression in part by 'sponging' miR‑206.

Sharma MC
Annexin A2 (ANX A2): An emerging biomarker and potential therapeutic target for aggressive cancers.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(9):2074-2081 [PubMed] Related Publications
ANX A2 is an important member of annexin family of proteins expressed on surface of endothelial cells (ECs), macrophages, mononuclear cells and various types of cancer cells. It exhibits high affinity binding for calcium (Ca

Ma S, Lu CC, Yang LY, et al.
ANXA2 promotes esophageal cancer progression by activating MYC-HIF1A-VEGF axis.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):183 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: ANXA2 (Annexin A2) is a pleiotropic calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein that is abnormally expressed in various cancers. We previously found that ANXA2 is upregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study was designed to investigate the functional significance of ANXA2 dysregulation and underlying mechanism in ESCC.
METHODS: Proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis assay were performed to examine the functional roles of ANXA2 in ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Real-time RT-PCR, immunoblotting, ChIP, reporter assay, confocal-immunofluorescence staining, co-immunoprecipitation and ubiquitination assay were used to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the actions of deregulated ANXA2 in ESCC cells.
RESULTS: Overexpression of ANXA2 promoted ESCC cells migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo through activation of the MYC-HIF1A-VEGF cascade. Notably, ANXA2 phosphorylation at Tyr23 by SRC led to its translocation into the nucleus and enhanced the metastatic potential of ESCC cells. Phosphorylated ANXA2 (Tyr23) interacted with MYC and inhibited ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of MYC protein. Accumulated MYC directly potentiated HIF1A transcription and then activated VEGF expression. Correlation between these molecules were also found in ESCC tissues. Moreover, dasatinib in combination with bevacizumab or ANXA2-siRNA produced potent inhibitory effects on the growth of ESCC xenograft tumors in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that highly expressed p-ANXA2 (Tyr23) contributes to ESCC progression by promoting migration, invasion and metastasis, and suggests that targeting the SRC-ANXA2-MYC-HIF1A-MYC axis may be an efficient strategy for ESCC treatment.

She S, Jiang L, Zhang Z, et al.
Identification of the C-Reactive Protein Interaction Network Using a Bioinformatics Approach Provides Insights into the Molecular Pathogenesis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(2):741-752 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: C reactive protein (CRP) levels are elevated in many diseases, including malignant tumors and cardiovascular disorders. In this study, the protein interaction network for CRP was evaluated to determine the importance of CRP and its interacting proteins in the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and mass spectrometry were used to identify CRP interacting proteins in SMMC7721 cells. Moreover, Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were used to evaluate enriched genes and pathways for differentially expressed genes using DAVID and WebGestalt. Co-immunoprecipitation and western blot analyses were employed to assess interactions between CRP and KRT8, ANXA2, ENO2, and HSP90B1.
RESULTS: In total, 52 proteins that interact with CRP were identified. A GO analysis suggested that most of the interacting proteins were involved in CRP complexes and regulated metabolic processes. A KEGG pathway analysis suggested that most CRP-interacting proteins contribute to the TRAIL signaling pathway, Class I PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, plasma membrane estrogen receptor signaling, Nectin adhesion pathway, and S1P1 pathway. Immunoprecipitation and western blot analyses revealed interactions between CRP and KRT8, ANXA2, ENO2, and HSP90B1.
CONCLUSIONS: iTRAQ based proteomic profiling revealed the network of CRP interacting proteins. This network may activate the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of HCC.

Zhang Y, Bi J, Zhu H, et al.
ANXA2 could act as a moderator of EGFR-directed therapy resistance in triple negative breast cancer.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2018; 82(10):1733-1741 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients cannot benefit from EGFR-targeted therapy even though the EGFR is highly expressed, because patients exhibit resistance to these drugs. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms remain relatively unknown. ANXA2, highly expressed in invasive breast cancer cells, is closely related with poor prognosis, and acts as a molecular switch to EGFR activation. In this study, MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF7 cells were used. Our results showed that ANXA2 expression is inversely correlated with cell sensitivity to gefitinib. Knockdown of ANXA2 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells increased the gefitinib induced cell death. When ANXA2 was overexpressed in MCF7 cells, the gefitinib induced cell death was decreased. Furthermore, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of ANXA2 at Tyr23 is negatively correlated with the sensitivity of TNBC to gefitinib. Altogether, our results suggest a new role of ANXA2 in regulating sensitivity of TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells to the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib.

Atkinson SJ, Gontarczyk AM, Alghamdi AA, et al.
The β3-integrin endothelial adhesome regulates microtubule-dependent cell migration.
EMBO Rep. 2018; 19(7) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Integrin β3 is seen as a key anti-angiogenic target for cancer treatment due to its expression on neovasculature, but the role it plays in the process is complex; whether it is pro- or anti-angiogenic depends on the context in which it is expressed. To understand precisely β3's role in regulating integrin adhesion complexes in endothelial cells, we characterised, by mass spectrometry, the β3-dependent adhesome. We show that depletion of β3-integrin in this cell type leads to changes in microtubule behaviour that control cell migration. β3-integrin regulates microtubule stability in endothelial cells through Rcc2/Anxa2-driven control of active Rac1 localisation. Our findings reveal that angiogenic processes, both

Skalski M, Ustaszewski A, Jaskiewicz K, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphism rs11614913 associated with CC genotype in miR-196a2 is overrepresented in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, but not salivary gland tumors in Polish population.
J Appl Genet. 2018; 59(3):301-304 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
The miRNA-196a2 has shown significance in the development of various neoplasms, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The oncogenic functionality of this miRNA is mediated via its potential to target annexin A1 mRNA, a tumor suppressor gene involved in inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. Interestingly, recent data indicate a susceptibility for aforementioned neoplasms in patients with the CC genotype vs the CT and TT genotypes of the rs11614913 SNP located within the DNA sequence of the miR-196a2 that results in elevated expression of the gene. To further investigate this phenomenon, we genotyped this SNP in 40 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), the most common tumor of the head and neck region and 60 patients with salivary gland tumors (SGT) that show a yet unexplained incidence increase in the last two decades. In agreement with previous reports, we have identified a statistically significant (p < 0.05) overrepresentation of the CC genotype in LSCC patients and demonstrated in LSCC cell lines that it results in elevated expression of miR-196a2 as compared to cell lines with the TT genotype of the respective SNP. Importantly, none of these correlations was found in patients with SGT. These findings underline the importance of the SNP rs11614913 for LSCC development in the Polish population and moreover highlight the different genetic background of the two studied neoplasms of the head and neck region.

Dechassa ML, Tryndyak V, de Conti A, et al.
Identification of chromatin-accessible domains in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-derived hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(8):978-987 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is becoming one of the major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States and Western countries; however, the molecular mechanisms associated with NASH-related liver carcinogenesis are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated cancer-associated chromatin alterations using a model that resembles the development of NASH-related HCC in humans. An assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) identified 1677 tumor-specific chromatin-accessible regions in NASH-derived HCC tissue samples. Using a combined analysis of ATAC-seq and global gene expression data, we identified 199 differentially expressed genes, 139 up-regulated and 60 down-regulated. Interestingly, 15 of the 139 up-regulated genes had accessible chromatin sites within 5 Kb of the transcription start site (TSS), including Apoa4, Anxa2, Serpine1, Igfbp1, and Tubb2a, genes critically involved in the development of NASH and HCC. We demonstrate that the mechanism for the up-regulation of these genes is associated with the enrichment of chromatin-accessible regions by transcription factors, especially NFATC2, and histone H3K4me1 and H3K27ac gene transcription-activating marks. These data underline the important role of chromatin accessibility perturbations in reshaping of the chromatin landscape in NASH-related HCC.

Espersen ADL, Noren-Nyström U, Abrahamsson J, et al.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(7;12)(q36;p13) is associated with infancy and trisomy 19: Data from Nordic Society for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO-AML) and review of the literature.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(7):359-365 [PubMed] Related Publications
The t(7;12)(q36;p13) (MNX1/ETV6) is not included in the WHO classification but has been described in up to 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in children <2 years and associated with a poor prognosis. We present the clinical and cytogenetics characteristics of AML cases with t(7;12)(p36;p13). A literature review identified 35 patients with this translocation, published between 2000 and 2015. Outcome data were available in 22 cases. The NOPHO-AML (Nordic Society for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology) database contained 651 patients with AML from 1993 to 2014 and seven (1.1%) had the translocation. The t(7;12) was only present in patients <2 years of age (median age 6 months) but none was diagnosed as newborn. These patients constituted 4.3% of the patients <2 years of age. There was a strong association with trisomy 19 (literature: 86%, NOPHO: 100%) and +8 (literature: 19%, NOPHO: 14%). Seventeen of 22 patients from the literature with t(7;12) and four of seven patients from the NOPHO database suffered from relapse. The patients with t(7;12) had a 3-year event free survival of 24% (literature) vs. 43% (NOPHO) and a 3-year overall survival of 42% (literature) vs. 100% (NOPHO). None of the NOPHO patients was treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first complete remission. Relapse was frequent but the salvage rate using HSCT was high. We conclude that t(7;12)(q36;13) is a unique subgroup of childhood AML with presentation before 2 years of age with most cases being associated with +19.

Pan BL, Tong ZW, Wu L, et al.
Effects of MicroRNA-206 on Osteosarcoma Cell Proliferation, Apoptosis, Migration and Invasion by Targeting ANXA2 Through the AKT Signaling Pathway.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 45(4):1410-1422 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which microRNA-206 (miR-206) affects the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of osteosarcoma (OS) cells by targeting ANXA2 via the AKT signaling pathway.
METHODS: A total of 132 OS tissues and 120 osteochondroma tissues were examined in this study. The targeting relationship between miR-206 and ANXA2 was verified with a dual-luciferase reporter assay. The miR-206 expression and ANXA2, AKT, PARP, FASN, Survivin, Bax, Mcl-1 and Bcl-1 mRNA and protein expression in the above two groups were examined by qRT-PCR and western blotting. The cultured OS cells were divided into 6 groups: a blank group, negative control (NC) group, miR-206 mimic group, miR-206 inhibitor group, si-ANXA2 group and miR-206 inhibitor + si-ANXA2 group. Cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry, cell migration was examined with a wound-healing assay, and cell invasion was assessed with a Transwell assay. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between ANXA2 mRNA expression and miR-206 expression in OS.
RESULTS: OS tissues exhibited increased mRNA and protein expression of ANXA2, AKT, PARP, FASN, Survivin, Mcl-1 and Bcl-2; decreased miR-206 expression; and decreased Bax mRNA and protein expression. ANXA2 mRNA expression was strongly negatively correlated with miR-206 expression in OS. ANXA2 was found to be a miR-206 target gene. In the miR-206 mimic group and the si-ANXA2 group, the mRNA and protein expression of ANXA2, AKT, PARP, FASN, Survivin, Mcl-1 and Bcl-1 decreased markedly, cell proliferation was inhibited, apoptosis was promoted, higher cell growth in G1 phase and decreased growth in S phase was detected, and decreased cell migration and invasion were observed compared with those in the blank group.
CONCLUSION: The current results demonstrate that miR-206 overexpression inhibits OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion and promotes apoptosis through targeting ANXA2 by blocking the AKT signaling pathway.

Guo D, Xu Q, Pabla S, et al.
Cytokeratin-8 in Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: More Than a Simple Structural Cytoskeletal Protein.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(2) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is almost universally fatal. Elevated keratin-8 (KRT8) protein expression is an established diagnostic cancer biomarker in several epithelial cancers (but not ATC). Several keratins, including KRT8, have been suggested to have a role in cell biology beyond that of structural cytoskeletal proteins. Here, we provide evidence that KRT8 plays a direct role in the growth of ATCs. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of >5000 patients demonstrates that

Kopp S, Sahana J, Islam T, et al.
The role of NFκB in spheroid formation of human breast cancer cells cultured on the Random Positioning Machine.
Sci Rep. 2018; 8(1):921 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Human MCF-7 breast cancer cells were exposed to a Random Positioning Machine (RPM). After 24 hours (h) the cells grew either adherently within a monolayer (AD) or within multicellular spheroids (MCS). AD and MCS populations were separately harvested, their cellular differences were determined performing qPCR on genes, which were differently expressed in AD and MCS cells. Gene array technology was applied to detect RPM-sensitive genes in MCF-7 cells after 24 h. Furthermore, the capability to form multicellular spheroids in vitro was compared with the intracellular distribution of NF-kappaB (NFκB) p65. NFκB was equally distributed in static control cells, but predominantly localized in the cytoplasm in AD cells and nucleus in MCS cells exposed to the RPM. Gene array analyses revealed a more than 2-fold change of only 23 genes including some whose products are affected by oxygen levels or regulate glycolysis. Significant upregulations of the mRNAs of enzymes degrading heme, of ANXA1, ANXA2, CTGF, CAV2 and ICAM1, as well as of FAS, Casp8, BAX, p53, CYC1 and PARP1 were observed in MCS cells as compared with 1g-control and AD cells. An interaction analysis of 47 investigated genes suggested that HMOX-1 and NFκB variants are activated, when multicellular spheroids are formed.

Zhao S, Su G, Yang W, et al.
Identification and Comparison of Differentiation-Related Proteins in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Tissues by Proteomics.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 16(6):1092-1101 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Histological differentiation is a major pathological criterion indicating the risk of tumor invasion and metastasis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The degree of tumor differentiation is controlled by a complex interacting network of associated proteins. The principal aim of the present study is to identify the possible differentiation-related proteins which may be used for early diagnosis and more effective therapies. We compared poorly differentiated and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma tissues by using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Among the 11 identified protein spots, 6 were found to be upregulated in poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and 5 were correspondingly downregulated. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 106 hepatocellular carcinoma tissues to confirm the results of the proteomic analysis. By using bioinformatic tools GO and STRING, these proteins were found to be related to catalytic activity, binding, and antioxidant activity. In particular, our data suggest that overexpression of peroxiredoxin-2, annexin A2, and heat shock protein β-1 was correlated with tumor invasion, metastasis, and poor prognosis, and therefore, these proteins may serve as potential diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers.

Liu G, Feng S, Jia L, et al.
Lung fibroblasts promote metastatic colonization through upregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in tumor cells.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(11):1519-1533 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a rate-limiting step in metastasis, metastatic colonization requires survival signals from supportive stroma. However, the mechanisms driving this process are incompletely understood. Here, we showed that the proliferation of B16F10 cells was promoted when cocultured with lung fibroblasts. Meanwhile, co-injection of B16F10 tumor cells with mouse lung fibroblasts significantly increased lung metastasis. Based on GEO database, we identified stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) as a novel factor promoting metastatic colonization. Importantly, we found that fibroblast-secreted cathepsin B (CTSB) induced the upregulation of SCD1 in B16F10 through Annexin A2 (ANXA2) and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The elevated SCD1 induced a higher ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in B16F10 cells. The changes in fatty acid composition contributed to tumor cell proliferation and metastatic colonization. Furthermore, targeting SCD1 effectively inhibited lung metastasis and prolonged the overall survival of mice. Meanwhile, the expression of SCD1 was negatively correlated with disease-free survival in five types of cancer patients. Collectively, our study identifies SCD1 as a critical modulator of tumor cell proliferation that is activated by cathepsin B, secreted by lung fibroblasts at the metastatic niche. Our novel findings provide potential therapeutic targets to prevent tumor metastasis.

Kohli S, Bhardwaj A, Kumari R, Das S
SIRT6 Is a Target of Regulation by UBE3A That Contributes to Liver Tumorigenesis in an ANXA2-Dependent Manner.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(3):645-658 [PubMed] Related Publications
UBE3A is an E3 ubiquitin ligase well known for its role in the proteasomal degradation of p53 in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. Here we report that UBE3A ubiquitylates and triggers degradation of the tumor-suppressive sirtuin SIRT6 in hepatocellular carcinoma. UBE3A ubiquitylated the highly conserved Lys160 residue on SIRT6. FOXO1-mediated transcriptional repression of

Yan X, Zhang D, Wu W, et al.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Hepatocarcinogenesis via lncRNA-MUF Interaction with ANXA2 and miR-34a.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(23):6704-6716 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer-associated mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) contribute to the development and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) has been associated with these processes but cellular mechanisms are obscure. In this study, we report that HCC-associated mesenchymal stem cells (HCC-MSC) promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and liver tumorigenesis. We identified a novel lncRNA that we termed

Feng X, Liu H, Zhang Z, et al.
Annexin A2 contributes to cisplatin resistance by activation of JNK-p53 pathway in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 36(1):123 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Development of resistance to therapy continues to be a serious clinical problem in lung cancer management. We previously identified that Annexin A2 is significantly up-regulated in cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549/DDP cells. However, the exact function and molecular mechanism of Annexin A2 in cisplatin resistance of NSCLCs has not been determined.
METHODS: Western blot and qRT-PCR were performed to analyze the protein and mRNA level of indicated molecules, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze the expression of Annexin A2 in NSCLC tissue samples. MTS assay, Colony formation assays, AnnexinV/PI apoptosis assay, Luciferase Reporter Assay, Chromatin-immunoprecipitation, and nude mice xenograft assay were used to visualize the function of Annexin A2 on cisplatin resistance.
RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that knockdown of Annexin A2 increased cisplatin sensitivity of cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells both in vitro and in vivo, whereas overexpression of Annexin A2 increased cisplatin resistance of A549, H460 and H1650 cells. Moreover, we found that Annexin A2 enhanced cisplatin resistance via inhibition of cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis. Our studies showed that Annexin A2 suppressed the expression of p53 through activation of JNK/c-Jun signaling, which in turn resulted in a decrease in the expression of p53-regulated apoptotic genes p21, GADD45 and BAX, as well as p53-dependent cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that in NSCLC cases that Annexin A2 is highly expressed; it is positively correlated with a poor prognosis, as well as correlated with short disease-free survival for patients who received chemotherapy after surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggested that Annexin A2 induces cisplatin resistance of NSCLCs via regulation of JNK/c-Jun/p53 signaling, and provided an evidence that blockade of Annexin A2 could serve as a novel therapeutic approach for overcoming drug resistance in NSCLCs.

Grindheim AK, Saraste J, Vedeler A
Protein phosphorylation and its role in the regulation of Annexin A2 function.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017; 1861(11 Pt A):2515-2529 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a multifunctional protein involved in endocytosis, exocytosis, membrane domain organisation, actin remodelling, signal transduction, protein assembly, transcription and mRNA transport, as well as DNA replication and repair.
SCOPE OF REVIEW: The current knowledge of the role of phosphorylation in the functional regulation of AnxA2 is reviewed. To provide a more comprehensive treatment of this topic, we also address in depth the phosphorylation process in general and discuss its possible conformational effects. Furthermore, we discuss the apparent limitations of the methods used to investigate phosphoproteins, as exemplified by the study of AnxA2.
MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: AnxA2 is subjected to complex regulation by post-translational modifications affecting its cellular functions, with Ser11, Ser25 and Tyr23 representing important phosphorylation sites. Thus, Ser phosphorylation of AnxA2 is involved in the recruitment and docking of secretory granules, the regulation of its association with S100A10, and sequestration of perinuclear, translationally inactive mRNP complexes. By contrast, Tyr phosphorylation of AnxA2 regulates its role in actin dynamics and increases its association with endosomal compartments. Modification of its three main phosphorylation sites is not sufficient to discriminate between its numerous functions. Thus, fine-tuning of AnxA2 function is mediated by the joint action of several post-translational modifications.
GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: AnxA2 participates in malignant cell transformation, and its overexpression and/or phosphorylation is associated with cancer progression and metastasis. Thus, tight regulation of AnxA2 function is an integral aspect of cellular homeostasis. The presence of AnxA2 in cancer cell-derived exosomes, as well as the potential regulation of exosomal AnxA2 by phosphorylation or other PTMs, are topics of great interest.

Wang Y, Chen K, Cai Y, et al.
Annexin A2 could enhance multidrug resistance by regulating NF-κB signaling pathway in pediatric neuroblastoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 36(1):111 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy is one of major therapeutic regimens for neuroblastoma (NB) in children. However, recurrence and metastasis associated with poor prognosis caused by acquired multidrug resistance remains a challenge. There is a great need to achieve new insight into the molecular mechanism of drug resistance in NB. The aim of this study is to identify novel drug sensitivity-related biomarkers as well as new therapeutic targets to overcome chemoresistance.
METHODS: We proteome-wide quantitatively compared protein expression of two NB cell lines with different drug sensitivities, isolated from the same patient prior to and following chemotherapy. Annexin A2 (ANXA2) emerged as a key factor contributing to drug resistance in NB. Then, we assessed the correlation of ANXA2 expression and clinical characteristics using a tissue microarray. Further, the roles of ANXA2 in chemoresistance for NB and the underlying mechanisms were studied by using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in vitro and vivo.
RESULTS: First in total, over 6000 proteins were identified, and there were about 460 significantly regulated proteins which were up- or down-regulated by greater than two folds. We screened out ANXA2 which was upregulated by more than 12-fold in the chemoresistant NB cell line, and it might be involved in the drug resistance of NB. Then, using a tissue chip containing 42 clinical NB samples, we found that strong expression of ANXA2 was closely associated with advanced stage, greater number of chemotherapy cycles, tumor metastasis and poor prognosis. Following knockdown of ANXA2 in NB cell line SK-N-BE(2) using shRNA, we demonstrate enhanced drug sensitivity for doxorubicin (2.77-fold) and etoposide (7.87-fold) compared with control. Pro-apoptotic genes such as AIF and cleaved-PARP were upregulated. Inhibiting ANXA2 expression attenuated transcriptional activity of NF-κB via down-regulated nuclear translocation of subunit p50. Finally, simulated chemotherapy in a xenograft NB nude mouse model suggests that ANXA2 knockdown could improve clinical results in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Our profiling data provided a rich source for further study of the molecular mechanisms of acquired drug resistance in NB. Further study may determine the role of ANXA2 as a prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for patients with multidrug-resistant NB.

Gocheva V, Naba A, Bhutkar A, et al.
Quantitative proteomics identify Tenascin-C as a promoter of lung cancer progression and contributor to a signature prognostic of patient survival.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017; 114(28):E5625-E5634 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
The extracellular microenvironment is an integral component of normal and diseased tissues that is poorly understood owing to its complexity. To investigate the contribution of the microenvironment to lung fibrosis and adenocarcinoma progression, two pathologies characterized by excessive stromal expansion, we used mouse models to characterize the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of normal lung, fibrotic lung, lung tumors, and metastases. Using quantitative proteomics, we identified and assayed the abundance of 113 ECM proteins, which revealed robust ECM protein signatures unique to fibrosis, primary tumors, or metastases. These analyses indicated significantly increased abundance of several S100 proteins, including Fibronectin and Tenascin-C (Tnc), in primary lung tumors and associated lymph node metastases compared with normal tissue. We further showed that Tnc expression is repressed by the transcription factor Nkx2-1, a well-established suppressor of metastatic progression. We found that increasing the levels of Tnc, via CRISPR-mediated transcriptional activation of the endogenous gene, enhanced the metastatic dissemination of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Interrogation of human cancer gene expression data revealed that high

Bao J, Xu Y, Wang Q, et al.
miR-101 alleviates chemoresistance of gastric cancer cells by targeting ANXA2.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 92:1030-1037 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemoresistance remains a main clinical obstacle in the treatment of gastric cancer (GC). microRNAs have been revealed to participate in the regulation of drug resistance in a variety of cancers. However, little is known about the function and detailed molecular mechanism of miR-101 in GC chemoresistance.
METHODS: The expressions of miR-101 and Annexin A2 (ANXA2) in GC tissues and cells were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot. The effects of miR-101 overexpression on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at mRNA and protein levels, cell viability, and apoptosis in drug-resistant GC cells were examined by qRT-PCR, western blot, MTT and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and qRT-PCR were applied to confirm whether miR-101 could target ANXA2 and regulate its expression. Rescue experiment was performed to verify the mechanism by which miR-101 involved in chemoresistance.
RESULTS: miR-101 was downregulated in GC tissues and drug-resistant GC cells. A negative correlation between miR-101 and ANXA2 expression was observed in GC tissues. Forced expression of miR-101 significantly reduced P-gp expression at mRNA and protein levels in drug-resistant GC cells. Overexpression of miR-101 enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin (DDP) or vincristine (VCR) via viability inhibition and apoptosis promotion. ANXA2 was identified as a direct target of miR-101 and miR-101 negatively regulated ANXA2 expression. Moreover, ectopic expression of ANXA2 reversed the effect of miR-101 on P-gp expression, cell viability and apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: miR-101 alleviated chemoresistance of gastric cancer cells by targeting ANXA2. Therefore, targeting miR-101 may be a potential therapeutic approach for drug-resistant GC.

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