Gene Summary

Gene:BMP7; bone morphogenetic protein 7
Aliases: OP-1
Summary:This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate each subunit of the disulfide-linked homodimer, which plays a role in bone, kidney and brown adipose tissue development. Additionally, this protein induces ectopic bone formation and may promote fracture healing in human patients. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:bone morphogenetic protein 7
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (65)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (4)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Lung Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Melanoma
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta Receptors
  • Zinc Finger E-box-Binding Homeobox 1
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Transcription
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Smad Proteins
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Down-Regulation
  • siRNA
  • Western Blotting
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Bone Cancer
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Gene Expression
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Eye Cancer
  • Survival Rate
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7
  • Uveal Neoplasms
  • DNA Methylation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Promoter Regions
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Breast Cancer
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Transfection
  • Cell Survival
  • Apoptosis
  • Chromosome 20
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cell Movement
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BMP7 (cancer-related)

Zhou X, Yan L, Bu XL, et al.
Arotinoid trometamol inhibits arsenic trioxide-stimulated keratinocyte proliferation via the Wnt, Shh, and bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2019 May-Jun; 33(3):731-743 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arsenic acts as a human carcinogen and contributes to skin cancer via mechanisms that remain largely unknown. Recent evidence implicates the perturbation of Wnt, Shh and BMP signals as a potential mechanism. We initiated studies to examine gene expression changes in these signaling pathways. Meanwhile, the antagonistic effect of retinoic acid was explored. In this study, HaCaT and NHEK cells were treated with arsenic trioxide (As2O3) alone or in combination with arotinoid trometamol (retinoic acid receptor agonist). Flow cytometric analysis, PCR array and Western blot were used to determine the potential mechanism and signaling pathways associated with arsenic carcinogenesis. The results showed that low concentration As2O3 could stimulate keratinocyte proliferation, and arotinoid trometamol inhibited the process via regulating the expression of about 20 genes. These genes included components of Wnt signaling (CSNK1A1L, CTNNB1, SFRP1, Wnt10B, Wnt11, Wnt16, Wnt5A, Wnt8A), Shh signaling (C6orf138, HHIP, PTCHD1) and BMP signaling pathway (BMP2, BMP7). The changes of some differentially expressed genes of these signaling pathways in As2O3 treatment group were counteracted by the subsequent arotinoid trometamol treatment. Our data suggest that dysregulation and cross-talk of Wnt, Shh and BMP signals play great roles in the process of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis, which could be antagonized by arotinoid trometamol.

Kijewska M, Viski C, Turrell F, et al.
Using an in-vivo syngeneic spontaneous metastasis model identifies ID2 as a promoter of breast cancer colonisation in the brain.
Breast Cancer Res. 2019; 21(1):4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dissemination of breast cancers to the brain is associated with poor patient outcome and limited therapeutic options. In this study we sought to identify novel regulators of brain metastasis by profiling mouse mammary carcinoma cells spontaneously metastasising from the primary tumour in an immunocompetent syngeneic host.
METHODS: 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma sublines derived from primary tumours and spontaneous brain and lung metastases in BALB/c mice were subject to genome-wide expression profiling. Two differentially expressed genes, Id2 and Aldh3a1, were validated in in-vivo models using mouse and human cancer cell lines. Clinical relevance was investigated in datasets of breast cancer patients with regards to distant metastasis-free survival and brain metastasis relapse-free survival. The role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)7 in regulating Id2 expression and promoting cell survival was investigated in two-dimensional and three-dimensional in-vitro assays.
RESULTS: In the spontaneous metastasis model, expression of Id2 and Aldh3a1 was significantly higher in 4T1 brain-derived sublines compared with sublines from lung metastases or primary tumour. Downregulation of expression impairs the ability of cells to colonise the brain parenchyma whereas ectopic expression in 4T1 and human MDA-MB-231 cells promotes dissemination to the brain following intracardiac inoculation but has no impact on the efficiency of lung colonisation. Both genes are highly expressed in oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers and, within this poor prognosis sub-group, increased expression correlates with reduced distant metastasis-free survival. ID2 expression also associates with reduced brain metastasis relapse-free survival. Mechanistically, BMP7, which is present at significantly higher levels in brain tissue compared with the lungs, upregulates ID2 expression and, after BMP7 withdrawal, this elevated expression is retained. Finally, we demonstrate that either ectopic expression of ID2 or BMP7-induced ID2 expression protects tumour cells from anoikis.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies ID2 as a key regulator of breast cancer metastasis to the brain. Our data support a model in which breast cancer cells that have disseminated to the brain upregulate ID2 expression in response to astrocyte-secreted BMP7 and this serves to support metastatic expansion. Moreover, elevated ID2 expression identifies breast cancer patients at increased risk of developing metastatic relapse in the brain.

Nagel S, MacLeod RAF, Meyer C, et al.
NKL homeobox gene activities in B-cell development and lymphomas.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0205537 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Homeobox genes encode transcription factors which regulate basic processes in development and cell differentiation. Several members of the NKL subclass are deregulated in T-cell progenitors and support leukemogenesis. We have recently described particular expression patterns of nine NKL homeobox genes in early hematopoiesis and T-cell development. Here, we screened NKL homeobox gene activities in normal B-cell development and extended the NKL-code to include this lymphoid lineage. Analysis of public expression profiling datasets revealed that HHEX and NKX6-3 were the only members differentially active in naïve B-cells, germinal center B-cells, plasma cells and memory B-cells. Subsequent examination of different types of B-cell malignancies showed both aberrant overexpression of NKL-code members and ectopic activation of subclass members physiologically silent in lymphopoiesis including BARX2, DLX1, EMX2, NKX2-1, NKX2-2 and NKX3-2. Based on these findings we performed detailed studies of the B-cell specific NKL homeobox gene NKX6-3 which showed enhanced activity in patient subsets of follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and in three DLBCL cell lines to serve as in vitro models. While excluding genomic and chromosomal rearrangements at the locus of NKX6-3 (8p11) promoter studies demonstrated that B-cell factors MYB and PAX5 activated NKX6-3 transcription. Furthermore, aberrant BMP7/SMAD1-signalling and deregulated expression of chromatin complex components AUTS2 and PCGF5 promoted NKX6-3 activation. Finally, NKL homeobox genes HHEX, HLX, MSX1 and NKX6-3 were expressed in B-cell progenitors and generated a regulatory gene network in cell lines which we propose may provide physiological support for NKL-code formation in early B-cell development. Together, we identified an NKL-code in B-cell development whose violation may deregulate differentiation and promote malignant transformation.

Kang SM, Kim J, Kang SH, et al.
Up-regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 by 2-Hydroxycinnamaldehyde Attenuates HNSCC Cell Invasion.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(10):5747-5757 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Few studies have examined the effect of 2'-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (HCA) on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell invasion. This study examined the role of BMP7 on the anti-migration and anti-invasion activity of HCA using HNSCC cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Matrigel invasion and wound healing assays were conducted to investigate cell migration or invasion. BMP7 overexpression vector or siRNA mixture was used for transient regulation of gene expression.
RESULTS: HCA attenuated HNSCC cell migration and spheroids Matrigel invasion without cytotoxicity. mRNA and protein expression of BMP7 increased with HCA treatment. Exogenous BMP7 overexpression without HCA treatment attenuated Matrigel invasion of cells. Furthermore, suppression of BMP7 by siRNA alleviated the inhibitory effect of HCA on the invasion of Matrigel by the cell, indicating that BMP7 is responsible for the anti-migration effect of HCA in HNSCC cells.
CONCLUSION: HCA treatment led to a remarkable up-regulation of BMP7, which resulted in the attenuation of HNSCC cell invasion.

Liu RX, Ma Y, Hu XL, et al.
Anticancer effects of oridonin on colon cancer are mediated via BMP7/p38 MAPK/p53 signaling.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(5):2091-2101 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colon cancer is a prevalent malignancy affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Oridonin (ORI) is a promising chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of colon cancer. In this study, we examined the anticancer activity of ORI against colon cancer and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cell counting kit-8, flow cytometric and western blot analyses were conducted to analyze the growth inhibitory effects of ORI on SW620 cells; we employed BMP7 and p53 recombinant adenovirus to detect the influence of ORI on the p38 MAPK signal pathway; PT-qPCR, cell immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of BMP7, p38 and p-p38, p53 and p-p53. A xenograft tumor model and histological evaluation were introduced to detect the effects of ORI and BMP7 in SW620 cells in vivo. ORI inhibited the proliferation of SW620 cells and induced apoptosis. ORI also increased the total and phosphorylated levels of p53. The overexpression of p53 was found to enhance the anti-proliferative effects of ORI on the SW620 cells, while the inhibition of p53 partially reversed these effects. ORI increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) in the SW620 cells. The overexpression of BMP7 also enhanced the antiproliferative effects of ORI on the SW620 cells and reduced the growth rate of tumors in mice. BMP7-induced immunosuppression markedly decreased the anti-proliferative effects of ORI. ORI was not found to exert any substantial effect on the phosphorylation levels of Smad1/5/8, although it increased the level of p-p38 significantly. The inhibition of p38 significantly attenuated the ORI-induced increase in the levels of p-p53. The overexpression of BMP7 enhanced the promoting effects of ORI on the p-p53 and p-p38 levels, while BMP7-induced immunosuppression reduced the effects of ORI on p-p38 and p-p53. On the whole, the findings of this study suggest that ORI may be a promising agent for use in the treatment of colon cancer, and the anticancer effects of ORI may be partially mediated through the BMP7/p38 MAPK/p53 signaling pathway.

Pellatt AJ, Mullany LE, Herrick JS, et al.
The TGFβ-signaling pathway and colorectal cancer: associations between dysregulated genes and miRNAs.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):191 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The TGFβ-signaling pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Loss of function of several genes within this pathway, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been seen as key events in CRC progression.
METHODS: In this study we comprehensively evaluate differential gene expression (RNASeq) of 81 genes in the TGFβ-signaling pathway and evaluate how dysregulated genes are associated with miRNA expression (Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0). We utilize paired carcinoma and normal tissue from 217 CRC cases. We evaluate the associations between differentially expressed genes and miRNAs and sex, age, disease stage, and survival months.
RESULTS: Thirteen genes were significantly downregulated and 14 were significantly upregulated after considering fold change (FC) of > 1.50 or < 0.67 and multiple comparison adjustment. Bone morphogenetic protein genes BMP5, BMP6, and BMP2 and growth differentiation factor GDF7 were downregulated. BMP4, BMP7, INHBA (Inhibin beta A), TGFBR1, TGFB2, TGIF1, TGIF2, and TFDP1 were upregulated. In general, genes with the greatest dysregulation, such as BMP5 (FC 0.17, BMP6 (FC 0.25), BMP2 (FC 0.32), CDKN2B (FC 0.32), MYC (FC 3.70), BMP7 (FC 4.17), and INHBA (FC 9.34) showed dysregulation in the majority of the population (84.3, 77.4, 81.1, 80.2, 82.0, 51.2, and 75.1% respectively). Four genes, TGFBR2, ID4, ID1, and PITX2, were un-associated or slightly upregulated in microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumors while downregulated in microsatellite-unstable (MSI) tumors. Eight dysregulated genes were associated with miRNA differential expression. E2F5 and THBS1 were associated with one or two miRNAs; RBL1, TGFBR1, TGIF2, and INHBA were associated with seven or more miRNAs with multiple seed-region matches. Evaluation of the joint effects of mRNA:miRNA identified interactions that were stronger in more advanced disease stages and varied by survival months.
CONCLUSION: These data support an interaction between miRNAs and genes in the TGFβ-signaling pathway in association with CRC risk. These interactions are associated with unique clinical characteristics that may provide targets for further investigations.

Eikesdal HP, Becker LM, Teng Y, et al.
BMP7 Signaling in
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(10):1568-1578 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Deregulated transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling is a common feature of many epithelial cancers. Deletion of

Singhal U, Wang Y, Henderson J, et al.
Multigene Profiling of CTCs in mCRPC Identifies a Clinically Relevant Prognostic Signature.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(4):643-654 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
The trend toward precision-based therapeutic approaches dictated by molecular alterations offers substantial promise for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, current approaches for molecular characterization are primarily tissue based, necessitating serial biopsies to understand changes over time and are limited by the challenges inherent to extracting genomic material from predominantly bone metastases. Therefore, a circulating tumor cell (CTC)-based assay was developed to determine gene expression across a panel of clinically relevant and potentially actionable prostate cancer-related genes. CTCs were isolated from the whole blood of mCRPC patients (

Caja L, Tzavlaki K, Dadras MS, et al.
Snail regulates BMP and TGFβ pathways to control the differentiation status of glioma-initiating cells.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(19):2515-2531 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme is a brain malignancy characterized by high heterogeneity, invasiveness, and resistance to current therapies, attributes related to the occurrence of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) promotes self-renewal and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) induces differentiation of GSCs. BMP7 induces the transcription factor Snail to promote astrocytic differentiation in GSCs and suppress tumor growth in vivo. We demonstrate that Snail represses stemness in GSCs. Snail interacts with SMAD signaling mediators, generates a positive feedback loop of BMP signaling and transcriptionally represses the TGFB1 gene, decreasing TGFβ1 signaling activity. Exogenous TGFβ1 counteracts Snail function in vitro, and in vivo promotes proliferation and re-expression of Nestin, confirming the importance of TGFB1 gene repression by Snail. In conclusion, novel insight highlights mechanisms whereby Snail differentially regulates the activity of the opposing BMP and TGFβ pathways, thus promoting an astrocytic fate switch and repressing stemness in GSCs.

Nishio K, Ozawa Y, Ito H, et al.
Functional expression of BMP7 receptors in oral epithelial cells. Interleukin-17F production in response to BMP7.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2017; 37(5):515-521 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. Recently, BMP7 has been demonstrated to be produced by salivary glands and contribute to embryonic branching in mice. The BMP7 in saliva is thought to be delivered to the oral cavity and is expected to contact with stratified squamous epithelial cells which line the surface of oral mucosa. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of BMP7 on oral epithelial cells.
METHODS: The expression of BMP receptors was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). OSCCs were stimulated with human recombinant BMP7 (hrBMP7) and the phosphorylation status of Smad1/5/8 was examined by western blotting. For microarray analysis, Ca9-22 cells were stimulated with 100 ng/mL of hrBMP7 and total RNA was extracted and subjected to real-time PCR. The 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of IL-17 F gene was cloned to pGL4-basic vector and used for luciferase assay. Ca9-22 cells were pre-incubated with DM3189, a specific inhibitor of Smad1/5/8, for inhibition assay.
RESULTS: All isoforms of type I and type II BMP receptors were expressed in both Ca9-22 and HSC3 cells and BMP7 stimulation resulted in the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in both cell lines. The microarray analysis revealed the induction of interleukin-17 F (IL-17 F), netrin G2 (NTNG2) and hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1). Luciferase assay using the 5'-UTR of the IL-17 F gene revealed transcriptional regulation. Induced IL-17 F production was further confirmed at the protein level by ELISA. Smad1/5/8 inhibitor pretreatment decreased IL-17 F expression levels in the cells.

Wu DC, Wang SSW, Liu CJ, et al.
Reprogramming Antagonizes the Oncogenicity of HOXA13-Long Noncoding RNA HOTTIP Axis in Gastric Cancer Cells.
Stem Cells. 2017; 35(10):2115-2128 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reprogramming of cancer cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is a compelling idea for inhibiting oncogenesis, especially through modulation of homeobox proteins in this reprogramming process. We examined the role of various long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs)-homeobox protein HOXA13 axis on the switching of the oncogenic function of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), which is significantly lost in the gastric cancer cell derived iPS-like cells (iPSLCs). BMP7 promoter activation occurred through the corecruitment of HOXA13, mixed-lineage leukemia 1 lysine N-methyltransferase, WD repeat-containing protein 5, and lncRNA HoxA transcript at the distal tip (HOTTIP) to commit the epigenetic changes to the trimethylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 in cancer cells. By contrast, HOXA13 inhibited BMP7 expression in iPSLCs via the corecruitment of HOXA13, enhancer of zeste homolog 2, Jumonji and AT rich interactive domain 2, and lncRNA HoxA transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) to various cis-element of the BMP7 promoter. Knockdown experiments demonstrated that HOTTIP contributed positively, but HOTAIR regulated negatively to HOXA13-mediated BMP7 expression in cancer cells and iPSLCs, respectively. These findings indicate that the recruitment of HOXA13-HOTTIP and HOXA13-HOTAIR to different sites in the BMP7 promoter is crucial for the oncogenic fate of human gastric cells. Reprogramming with octamer-binding protein 4 and Jun dimerization protein 2 can inhibit tumorigenesis by switching off BMP7. Stem Cells 2017;35:2115-2128.

Liu RX, Ren WY, Ma Y, et al.
BMP7 mediates the anticancer effect of honokiol by upregulating p53 in HCT116 cells.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(3):907-917 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death. Hence, there is a great need to explore new efficacious drugs for the treatment of CRC. Honokiol (HNK), a natural product extracted from magnolia bark, processes various biological activities, including anticancer. In this study, we introduced cell viability assay, western blotting, real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining to determine the anticancer effect of HNK, and the possible mechanism underlying this biological process. We found that HNK can inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis in HCT116 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. HNK activates p53 in HCT116 and other colon cancer cells. Exogenous p53 potentiates the anticancer of HNK, while p53 inhibitor decreases this effect of HNK. Moreover, HNK upregulates the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) in colon cancer cells; Exogenous BMP7 enhances the anticancer activity of HNK and BMP7 specific antibody reduces this effect of HNK. For mechanism, we found that HNK cannot increase the level of Smad1/5/8; Exogenous BMP7 potentiates the HNK-induced activation of p53. On the contrary, BMP7 specific antibody inhibits the HNK-induced activation of p53 in colon cancer cells and partly decreases the total level of p53. Our findings suggested that HNK may be a promising anticancer drug for CRC; activation of p53 plays an important role in the anticancer activity of HNK, which may be initialized partly by the HNK-induced upregulation of BMP7.

Jiang ZH, Peng J, Yang HL, et al.
Upregulation and biological function of transmembrane protein 119 in osteosarcoma.
Exp Mol Med. 2017; 49(5):e329 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is suggested to be caused by genetic and molecular alterations that disrupt osteoblast differentiation. Recent studies have reported that transmembrane protein 119 (TMEM119) contributes to osteoblast differentiation and bone development. However, the level of TMEM119 expression and its roles in osteosarcoma have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, TMEM119 mRNA and protein expression was found to be up-regulated in osteosarcoma compared with normal bone cyst tissues. The level of TMEM119 protein expression was strongly associated with tumor size, clinical stage, distant metastasis and overall survival time. Moreover, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) GSE42352 dataset revealed TMEM119 expression in osteosarcoma tissues to be positively correlated with cell cycle, apoptosis, metastasis and TGF-β signaling. We then knocked down TMEM119 expression in U2OS and MG63 cells using small interfering RNA, which revealed that downregulation of TMEM119 could inhibit the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. We also found that TMEM119 knockdown significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion, and decreased the expression of TGF-β pathway-related factors (BMP2, BMP7 and TGF-β). TGF-β application rescued the inhibitory effects of TMEM119 knockdown on osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion. Further in vitro experiments with a TGF-β inhibitor (SB431542) or BMP inhibitor (dorsomorphin) suggested that TMEM119 significantly promotes cell migration and invasion, partly through TGF-β/BMP signaling. In conclusion, our data support the notion that TMEM119 contributes to the proliferation, migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells, and functions as an oncogene in osteosarcoma.

Hu M, Cui F, Liu F, et al.
BMP signaling pathways affect differently migration and invasion of esophageal squamous cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 50(1):193-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are broadly involved in normal embryo development and abnormal pathological process such as cancer. The complexity and diversity of BMPs and their signaling pathways impose quite different or even conflicting effects on clinical traits of tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different BMPs, including BMP2, BMP4, BMP6 and BMP7, influence esophageal squamous cancer cell (ESCC) growth, invasion and metastasis. BMP6 and type I receptor ALK2 and type II receptor BMPRII, ActRIIA and ActRIIB were expressed in all ESCC cell lines. In addition, adenovirus-mediated BMP overexpression did not affect ECA-109 cell growth. BMP6/7 overexpression increased ECA-109 cell invasion and metastasis, activated SMAD1/5/8 signal pathway and induced downstream gene ID1 expression. While BMP2/4 overexpression reduced ECA-109 cell invasion and metastasis and obviously promoted ERK1/2, P-38 and JNK activation with weak SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. When BMP6/7 favorite type I receptor ALK2 or type II receptor BMPRII was interfered with by dominant-negative mutation, BMP6/7-induced invasion and metastasis augmentation disappeared. Further investigation on clinical ESCC samples and non-tumorous adjacent tissue found that tumors with triple-positive BMP6, ALK2 and BMPRII had deeper growth than tumors with only BMP6 expression. These results suggested that different BMPs distinctly affected esophageal squamous cancer cell invasion and metastasis by employing different signal pathways.

Bigagli E, De Filippo C, Castagnini C, et al.
DNA copy number alterations, gene expression changes and disease-free survival in patients with colorectal cancer: a 10 year follow-up.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2016; 39(6):545-558 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) and gene expression changes have amply been encountered in colorectal cancers (CRCs), but the extent at which CNAs affect gene expression, as well as their relevance for tumor development, are still poorly defined. Here we aimed at assessing the clinical relevance of these parameters in a 10 year follow-up study.
METHODS: Tumors and normal adjacent colon mucosa, obtained at primary surgery from 21 CRC patients, were subjected to (i) high-resolution array CGH (a-CGH) for the detection of CNAs and (ii) microarray-based transcriptome profiling for the detection of gene expression (GE) changes. Correlations between these genomic and transcriptomic changes and their associations with clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed with the aim to identify molecular signatures associated with disease-free survival of the CRC patients during a 10 year follow-up.
RESULTS: DNA copy number gains were frequently detected in chromosomes 7, 8q, 13, 19, 20q and X, whereas DNA copy number losses were frequently detected in chromosomes 1p, 4, 8p, 15, 17p, 18, 19 and 22q. None of these alterations were observed in all samples. In addition, we found that 2,498 genes were up- and that 1,094 genes were down-regulated in the tumor samples compared to their corresponding normal mucosa (p < 0.01). The expression of 65 genes was found to be significantly associated with prognosis (p < 0.01). Specifically, we found that up-regulation of the IL17RA, IGF2BP2 and ABCC2 genes, and of genes acting in the mTOR and cytokine receptor pathways, were strongly associated with a poor survival. Subsequent integrated analyses revealed that increased expression levels of the MMP9, BMP7, UBE2C, I-CAM, NOTCH3, NOTCH1, PTGES2, HMGB1 and ERBB3 genes were associated with copy number gains, whereas decreased expression levels of the MUC1, E2F2, HRAS and SIRT3 genes were associated with copy number losses. Pathways related to cell cycle progression, eicosanoid metabolism, and TGF-β and apoptosis signaling, were found to be most significantly affected.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that CNAs in CRC tumor tissues are associated with concomitant changes in the expression of cancer-related genes. In other genes epigenetic mechanism may be at work. Up-regulation of the IL17RA, IGF2BP2 and ABCC2 genes, and of genes acting in the mTOR and cytokine receptor pathways, appear to be associated with a poor survival. These alterations may, in addition to Dukes' staging, be employed as new prognostic biomarkers for the prediction of clinical outcome in CRC patients.

Cassar L, Nicholls C, Pinto AR, et al.
TGF-beta receptor mediated telomerase inhibition, telomere shortening and breast cancer cell senescence.
Protein Cell. 2017; 8(1):39-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) plays a central role in telomere lengthening for continuous cell proliferation, but it remains unclear how extracellular cues regulate telomerase lengthening of telomeres. Here we report that the cytokine bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) induces the hTERT gene repression in a BMPRII receptor- and Smad3-dependent manner in human breast cancer cells. Chonic exposure of human breast cancer cells to BMP7 results in short telomeres, cell senescence and apoptosis. Mutation of the BMPRII receptor, but not TGFbRII, ACTRIIA or ACTRIIB receptor, inhibits BMP7-induced repression of the hTERT gene promoter activity, leading to increased telomerase activity, lengthened telomeres and continued cell proliferation. Expression of hTERT prevents BMP7-induced breast cancer cell senescence and apoptosis. Thus, our data suggest that BMP7 induces breast cancer cell aging by a mechanism involving BMPRII receptor- and Smad3-mediated repression of the hTERT gene.

Yin H, Wang Y, Chen W, et al.
Drug-resistant CXCR4-positive cells have the molecular characteristics of EMT in NSCLC.
Gene. 2016; 594(1):23-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
High expression of Chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is important in tumor invasion, metastasis, drug-resistance and maintenance of stemness in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We therefore studied the molecular characteristics of drug-resistant CXCR4-positive cells on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) for the future identification of the tumor cells with the properties of both EMT and stemness. EMT RT

Sharma S, Xing F, Liu Y, et al.
Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) Mediates Metastatic Dormancy of Prostate Cancer in Bone.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(37):19351-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Prostate cancer is known to frequently recur in bone; however, how dormant cells switch its phenotype leading to recurrent tumor remains poorly understood. We have isolated two syngeneic cell lines (indolent and aggressive) through in vivo selection by implanting PC3mm stem-like cells into tibial bones. We found that indolent cells retained the dormant phenotype, whereas aggressive cells grew rapidly in bone in vivo, and the growth rates of both cells in culture were similar, suggesting a role of the tumor microenvironment in the regulation of dormancy and recurrence. Indolent cells were found to secrete a high level of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), which significantly stimulated the expression of BMP7 in bone marrow stromal cells. The secreted BMP7 then kept cancer cells in a dormant state by inducing senescence, reducing "stemness," and activating dormancy-associated p38 MAPK signaling and p21 expression in cancer cells. Importantly, we found that SPARC was epigenetically silenced in aggressive cells by promoter methylation, but 5-azacytidine treatment reactivated the expression. Furthermore, high SPARC promoter methylation negatively correlated with disease-free survival of prostate cancer patients. We also found that the COX2 inhibitor NS398 down-regulated DNMTs and increased expression of SPARC, which led to tumor growth suppression in bone in vivo These findings suggest that SPARC plays a key role in maintaining the dormancy of prostate cancer cells in the bone microenvironment.

Taira N, Nguyen BC, Be Tu PT, Tawata S
Effect of Okinawa Propolis on PAK1 Activity, Caenorhabditis elegans Longevity, Melanogenesis, and Growth of Cancer Cells.
J Agric Food Chem. 2016; 64(27):5484-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Propolis from different areas has been reported to inhibit oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1, which is responsible for a variety of conditions, including cancer, longevity, and melanogenesis. Here, a crude extract of Okinawa propolis (OP) was tested against PAK1 activity, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) longevity, melanogenesis, and growth of cancer cells. We found that OP blocks PAK1 and exhibits anticancer activity in the A549 cell (human lung cancer cell) line with IC50 values of 6 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL, respectively. Most interestingly, OP (1 μg/mL) significantly reduces reproduction and prolongs the lifespan of C. elegans by activating the HSP-16.2 gene, as shown in the PAK1-deficient strain. Furthermore, OP inhibits melanogenesis in a melanoma cell line (B16F10) by downregulating intracellular tyrosinase activity with an IC50 of 30 μg/mL. Our results suggest that OP demonstrated a life span extending effect, C. elegans, anticancer, and antimelanogenic effects via PAK1 inactivation; therefore, this can be a potent natural medicinal supplement against PAK1-dependent diseases.

Tang B, Tang F, Wang Z, et al.
Overexpression of CTNND1 in hepatocellular carcinoma promotes carcinous characters through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35(1):82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports the association of CTNND1 with tumor development and progression. However, the mechanism and clinical significance of CTNND1 deregulation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of CTNND1 in HCC.
METHODS: qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses were used to measure the levels of CTNND1 in HCC specimens and HCC cell lines. CTNND1 and shCTNND1 were transfected into HCC cell lines to investigate its role in HCC. Cell migration and invasion were measured by Transwell and Matrigel analyses in vitro. In vivo metastasis assays were performed in SCID mice.
RESULTS: In clinical HCC samples, we found that CTNND1 expression was significantly up-regulated in cancer lesions compared with paired normal liver tissues. By silencing or overexpressing CTNND1 in HCC cells, we found that CTNND1 could promote cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. An in-vivo assay showed that CTNND1 dramatically promoted HCC cell tumor formation and metastasis. Moreover, CTNND1 promoted HCC metastasis, at least in part, by indirectly enhancing Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Consistent with these results, the expression of CTNND1 was positively correlated with β-catenin, WNT11, Cyclin D1, and BMP7 expression in human HCC specimens.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that CTNND1 functions as a novel tumor oncogene in HCC, and may be a potential therapeutic target for HCC management.

Ren CM, Li Y, Chen QZ, et al.
Oridonin inhibits the proliferation of human colon cancer cells by upregulating BMP7 to activate p38 MAPK.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(5):2691-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oridonin (ORI), a diterpenoid purified from Rabdosia rubescens, has been reported as a promising chemotherapy drug for colon cancer treatment; yet, the precise mechanisms underlying this anticancer activity remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effect of ORI in HCT116 cells, and dissected the possible molecular mechanisms underlying this activity. With crystal violet staining, flow cytometry and western blot assay, we found that ORI effectively inhibited the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of HCT116 cells. Further analysis of the results indicated that BMP7 was greatly upregulated by ORI in the HCT116 cells, but its endogenous expression in FHC cells was apparently lower than that in the colon cancer cell lines. Exogenous expression of BMP7 inhibited the proliferation of the HCT116 cells, and substantially potentiated the anticancer effect of ORI. However, the specific antibody of BMP7 nearly abolished this anticancer activity of ORI in the HCT116 cells. Meanwhile, ORI exerted no significant effect on the level of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 or total p38 MAPK, but greatly increased the level of phosphorylated p38 MAPK in the HCT116 cells. A p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor partly reversed the antiproliferative effect of BMP7 in the HCT116 cells, but prominently promoted the effect of the BMP7 antibody on proliferation. Exogenous expression of BMP7 increased the ORI-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, while the BMP7 antibody almost abolished the ORI-elevated p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that ORI may be an efficacious drug for colon cancer treatment. This anticancer activity of ORI may be mediated by upregulating BMP7 at least to increase the activation of p38 MAPK.

Yang YR, Li YX, Gao XY, et al.
MicroRNA-137 inhibits cell migration and invasion by targeting bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(9):10847-53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
MicroRNA-137 (miR-137) was reported to be dysregulated in several human cancers. However, the function and mechanism of miR-137 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still unclear. In the current study, we explored the role of miR-137 in NSCLC progression. Using qRT-PCR, our data showed that miR-137 was significantly down-regulated in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. In vitro functional assay, we found that over-expression of miR-137 suppressed NSCLC cells proliferation, migration and invasion, indicating that miR-137 could act as a tumor suppressor in NSCLC progression. In addition, bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) was identified as a target of miR-137 in NSCLC cells, Luciferase reporter assay suggested that miR-137 directly targeted 3'-UTR of BMP7, and correlation analysis revealed that BMP7 inversely correlated with miR-137 in NSCLC tissues. Furthermore, Restoration of BMP7 remarkably reversed the tumor suppressive effects of miR-137 on NSCLC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Taken together, our findings suggested that miR-137/BMP7 axis could contribute to the progression of NSCLC, suggesting miR-137 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC.

Karol SE, Mattano LA, Yang W, et al.
Genetic risk factors for the development of osteonecrosis in children under age 10 treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood. 2016; 127(5):558-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Osteonecrosis is a dose-limiting toxicity in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Prior studies on the genetics of osteonecrosis have focused on patients ≥10 years of age, leaving the genetic risk factors for the larger group of children <10 years incompletely understood. Here, we perform the first evaluation of genetic risk factors for osteonecrosis in children <10 years. The discovery cohort comprised 82 cases of osteonecrosis and 287 controls treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) standard-risk ALL protocol AALL0331 (NCT00103285,, with results tested for replication in 817 children <10 years treated on COG protocol AALL0232 (NCT00075725, The top replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were near bone morphogenic protein 7 [BMP7: rs75161997, P = 5.34 × 10(-8) (odds ratio [OR] 15.0) and P = .0498 (OR 8.44) in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively] and PROX1-antisense RNA1 (PROX1-AS1: rs1891059, P = 2.28 × 10(-7) [OR 6.48] and P = .0077 [OR 3.78] for the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). The top replicated nonsynonymous SNP, rs34144324, was in a glutamate receptor gene (GRID2, P = 8.65 × 10(-6) [OR 3.46] and P = .0136 [OR 10.8] in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively). In a meta-analysis, the BMP7 and PROX1-AS1 variants (rs75161997 and rs1891059, respectively) met the significance threshold of <5 × 10(-8). Top replicated SNPs were enriched in enhancers active in mesenchymal stem cells, and analysis of annotated genes demonstrated enrichment in glutamate receptor and adipogenesis pathways. These data may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis.

Tso JL, Yang S, Menjivar JC, et al.
Bone morphogenetic protein 7 sensitizes O6-methylguanine methyltransferase expressing-glioblastoma stem cells to clinically relevant dose of temozolomide.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:189 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral DNA-alkylating agent used for treating patients with glioblastoma. However, therapeutic benefits of TMZ can be compromised by the expression of O6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) in tumor tissue. Here we used MGMT-expressing glioblastoma stem cells (GSC) lines as a model for investigating the molecular mechanism underlying TMZ resistance, while aiming to explore a new treatment strategy designed to possibly overcome resistance to the clinically relevant dose of TMZ (35 μM).
METHODS: MGMT-expressing GSC cultures are resistant to TMZ, and IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) is estimated at around 500 μM. Clonogenic GSC surviving 500 μM TMZ (GSC-500 μM TMZ), were isolated. Molecular signatures were identified via comparative analysis of expression microarray against parental GSC (GSC-parental). The recombinant protein of top downregulated signature was used as a single agent or in combination with TMZ, for evaluating therapeutic effects of treatment of GSC.
RESULTS: The molecular signatures characterized an activation of protective stress responses in GSC-500 μM TMZ, mainly including biotransformation/detoxification of xenobiotics, blocked endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and inhibited growth/differentiation. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) was identified as the top down-regulated gene in GSC-500 μM TMZ. Although augmenting BMP7 signaling in GSC by exogenous BMP7 treatment did not effectively stop GSC growth, it markedly sensitized both GSC-500 μM TMZ and GSC-parental to 35 μM TMZ treatment, leading to loss of self-renewal and migration capacity. BMP7 treatment induced senescence of GSC cultures and suppressed mRNA expression of CD133, MGMT, and ATP-binding cassette drug efflux transporters (ABCB1, ABCG2), as well as reconfigured transcriptional profiles in GSC by downregulating genes associated with EMT/migration/invasion, stemness, inflammation/immune response, and cell proliferation/tumorigenesis. BMP7 treatment significantly prolonged survival time of animals intracranially inoculated with GSC when compared to those untreated or treated with TMZ alone (p = 0.0017), whereas combination of two agents further extended animal survival compared to BMP7 alone (p = 0.0489).
CONCLUSIONS: These data support the view that reduced endogenous BMP7 expression/signaling in GSC may contribute to maintained stemness, EMT, and chemoresistant phenotype, suggesting that BMP7 treatment may provide a novel strategy in combination with TMZ for an effective treatment of glioblastoma exhibiting unmethylated MGMT.

Ji X, Jin S, Qu X, et al.
Lysine-specific demethylase 5C promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion through inhibition BMP7 expression.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:801 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of tumor and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Patients with HCC routinely undergo surgery followed by adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Despite such aggressive treatment approaches, median survival times remain under 1 year in most cases. KDM5C is a member of the family of JmjC domain-containing proteins that removes methyl residues from methylated lysine 4 on histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4). KDM5C has been proposed as an oncogene in many types of tumors; however, its role and underlying mechanisms in HCC remain unclear.
METHODS: Expression level of KDM5C was examined by RT-PCR, and IHC. Forced expression of KDM5C was mediated by retroviruses, and KDM5C was downregulated by shRNAs expressing lentiviruses. Migration and invasion of HCC cells was measured by wound healing, Transwell and Matrigel assays respectively.
RESULTS: In this study, we report that KDM5C is abundantly expressed in invasive human HCC cells. Cellular depletion of KDM5C by shRNA inhibited HCC cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro, and markedly decreased the metastasis capacity of invasive HCC cells in the liver and lung. Furthermore, ectopic expression of KDM5C in HCC cells promoted cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the inactivation of BMP7. Knockdown of BMP7 significantly promotes shKDM5C-induced cell migration inhibition.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data suggest that KDM5C-mediated BMP7 inactivation is essential for HCC cell invasion.

Ying X, Sun Y, He P
Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 Inhibits EMT-Associated Genes in Breast Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015; 37(4):1271-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) has been shown to reduce the severity of injury-induced fibrosis through counteracting the fibrotic effects of transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1). However, this model in the carcinogenesis of breast cancer is unknown.
METHODS: We analyzed the effects of BMP7 and TGFβ1 on gene transcripts and protein levels of EMT-related factors in breast cancer cells by RT-qPCR and Western blot, respectively. The effects of BMP7 and TGFβ1 on cell invasiveness and migration were evaluated by scratch wound healing assay and transwell cell migration assay. The cell growth was measured by MTT assay.
RESULTS: BMP7 did not alter the TGFβ1-stimulated phosphorylation of TGFβ receptor, but significantly inhibited the TGFβ1-activated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes in breast cancer cells, resulting in a significant reduction in TGFβ1-triggered cell growth and cell metastasis.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that besides being a well-known antagonist for TGFβ1 in fibrosis, BMP7 may also antagonize TGFβ1 in tumorigenesis-associated EMT in breast cancer. Thus, BMP7 may be a promising therapeutic target for treating breast cancer.

Li X, Chen T, Shi Q, et al.
Angiopoietin-like 4 enhances metastasis and inhibits apoptosis via inducing bone morphogenetic protein 7 in colorectal cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 467(1):128-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), a secretory glycoprotein, plays an important role in cancer metastasis. In the present study, we aim to investigate the roles and mechanisms of ANGPTL4 in the regulation of colorectal cancer metastasis. We found that expression level of ANGPTL4 was increased in colorectal cancer tissues, compared with that in normal tissues. Moreover, liver metastasis was significantly associated with higher expression of ANGPTL4. In vitro studies further showed that overexpression of ANGPTL4 enhanced cell migration, invasion and inhibited apoptosis. At the molecular level, ANGPTL4 overexpression resulted in an up-regulation of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7). Indeed, knockdown of BMP7 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligos reversed the roles of ANGPTL4 overexpression in HCT116 cells. Finally, in vivo studies further confirmed the metastatic roles of ANGPTL4 by inducing BMP7. Therefore, our study demonstrated that ANGPTL4 might promote metastasis and might inhibit apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells by up-regulation of BMP7.

Yin Y, Yang Y, Yang L, et al.
Overexpression of Gremlin promotes non-small cell lung cancer progression.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(2):2597-602 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and 80 % of them are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. Gremlin, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist, is overexpressed in various cancerous tissues; however, little is known about the roles of Gremlin in lung carcinogenesis, and it remains unclear whether Gremlin expression may associate with EGFR-TKI resistance. In this study, expression of Gremlin mRNA and protein in matched tumor and normal lung specimens are quantified by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. The functional role of Gremlin in NSCLC cells was evaluated by interference RNA (siRNA). The effects of Silenced Gremlin on the resistant PC-9/GR cell line were investigated by proliferation and apoptosis analysis compared with control PC-9 cells. Our results found that Gremlin expression levels were higher in NSCLC tissues, and Gremlin was more highly expressed in PC-9/GR cells compared to PC-9 cells. Knocking down of Gremlin in PC-9/GR cells decreased cell proliferation and increased the expression of BMP7 protein. In addition, Gremlin silencing significantly potentiated apoptosis induced by gefitinib in PC-9/GR with Gremlin knockdown compared to PC-9 transfected with control shRNA, suggesting Gremlin contributes to gefitinib resistance in NSCLC. Gremlin might be explored as a candidate of therapeutic target for modulating EGFR-TKI sensitivity in NSCLC.

Leinhäuser I, Richter A, Lee M, et al.
Oncogenic features of the bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) in pheochromocytoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(36):39111-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BMP7 is a growth factor playing pro- or anti-oncogenic roles in cancer in a cell type-dependent manner. We previously reported that the BMP7 gene is overexpressed in pheochromocytomas (PCCs) developing in MENX-affected rats and human patients. Here, analyzing a large cohort of PCC patients, we found that 72% of cases showed elevated levels of the BMP7 protein. To elucidate the role of BMP7 in PCC, we modulated its levels in PCC cell lines (overexpression in PC12, knockdown in MPC and MTT cells) and conducted functional assays. Active BMP signaling promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and sustained survival of MENX rat primary PCC cells. In PCC, BMP7 signals through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and causes integrin β1 up-regulation. Silencing integrin β1 in PC12 cells suppressed BMP7-mediated oncogenic features. Treatment of MTT cells with DMH1, a novel BMP antagonist, suppressed proliferation and migration. To verify the clinical applicability of our findings, we evaluated a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor (NVP-BEZ235) in MENX-affected rats in vivo. PCCs treated with NVP-BEZ235 had decreased proliferation and integrin β1 levels, and higher apoptosis. Altogether, BMP7 activates pro-oncogenic pathways in PCC. Downstream effectors of BMP7-mediated signaling may represent novel targets for treating progressive/inoperable PCC, still orphan of effective therapy.

Zhang ST, Zuo C, Li WN, et al.
Identification of key genes associated with the effect of estrogen on ovarian cancer using microarray analysis.
Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016; 293(2):421-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify key genes related to the effect of estrogen on ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Microarray data (GSE22600) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Eight estrogen and seven placebo treatment samples were obtained using a 2 × 2 factorial designs, which contained 2 cell lines (PEO4 and 2008) and 2 treatments (estrogen and placebo). Differentially expressed genes were identified by Bayesian methods, and the genes with P < 0.05 and |log2FC (fold change)| ≥0.5 were chosen as cut-off criterion. Differentially co-expressed genes (DCGs) and differentially regulated genes (DRGs) were, respectively, identified by DCe function and DRsort function in DCGL package. Topological structure analysis was performed on the important transcriptional factors (TFs) and genes in transcriptional regulatory network using tYNA. Functional enrichment analysis was, respectively, performed for DEGs and the important genes using Gene Ontology and KEGG databases.
RESULTS: In total, 465 DEGs were identified. Functional enrichment analysis of DEGs indicated that ACVR2B, LTBP1, BMP7 and MYC involved in TGF-beta signaling pathway. The 2285 DCG pairs and 357 DRGs were identified. Topological structure analysis showed that 52 important TFs and 65 important genes were identified. Functional enrichment analysis of the important genes showed that TP53 and MLH1 participated in DNA damage response and the genes (ACVR2B, LTBP1, BMP7 and MYC) involved in TGF-beta signaling pathway.
CONCLUSION: TP53, MLH1, ACVR2B, LTBP1 and BMP7 might participate in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer.

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