Research IndicatorsGraph generated 20 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 20 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: BMP7 (cancer-related)
Preclinical data, and an increasing list of clinical investigations, show anti-inflammatory agents to favourably influence the biology of colorectal tumor. We have earlier reported on re-expression of activated immune cells after three days preoperative treatment of patients with colorectal carcinoma, randomized to receive oral NSAID (indomethacin or celebrex). Antisecretory prophylaxis (esomeprasol) was provided to all patients and served as sham treatment. Concomittant to MHC locus activation, Prominin1/CD133, a marker associated with stemness and poor prognosis in several solid tumors, was downregulated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate expression of additional regulators belonging to the stem cell niche, OCT4, SOX2 and BMP7, as well as some microRNAs, reported to act as tumor suppressors or oncomiRs. Peroperative tumor biopsies were analyzed by microarrays, quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The stem cell master regulator SOX2 was increased by NSAIDs (p<0.01), as well as the tumor suppressor miR-630 (p<0.01), while BMP7, a marker for poor prognosis in CRC, was downregulated by NSAID (indomethacin, p<0.02). The upregulation of SOX2, but not of its heterodimer binding partner OCT4, could imply a negative feed-back loop, with a switch‑off for stemness preservation of tumor cells. This is supported by the overall evaluation of gene expression profiles with subsequent events, indicating less aggressive tumors following NSAID treatment.
Epigenetic modifications and DNA methylation in particular, have been recognized as important mechanisms to alter gene expression in malignant cells. Here, we identified candidate genes which were upregulated after an epigenetic treatment of B-cell lymphoma cell lines (Burkitt's lymphoma, BL; Follicular lymphoma, FL; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, DLBCL activated B-cell like, ABC; and germinal center like, GCB) and simultaneously expressed at low levels in samples from lymphoma patients. Qualitative methylation analysis of 24 candidate genes in cell lines revealed five methylated genes (BMP7, BMPER, CDH1, DUSP4 and LRP12), which were further subjected to quantitative methylation analysis in clinical samples from 59 lymphoma patients (BL, FL, DLBCL ABC and GCB; and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, PMBL). The genes LRP12 and CDH1 showed the highest methylation frequencies (94% and 92%, respectively). BMPER (58%), DUSP4 (32%) and BMP7 (22%), were also frequently methylated in patient samples. Importantly, all gene promoters were unmethylated in various control samples (CD19+ peripheral blood B cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tonsils) as well as in follicular hyperplasia samples, underscoring a high specificity. The combination of LRP12 and CDH1 methylation could successfully discriminate between the vast majority of the lymphoma and control samples, emphasized by receiver operating characteristic analysis with a c-statistic of 0.999. These two genes represent promising epigenetic markers which may be suitable for monitoring of B-cell lymphoma.
BACKGROUND: CD166, also known as activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), is expressed by various cells in several tissues including cancer. However, the role of CD166 in malignant tumors is controversial, especially in pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to clarify the role and significance of CD166 expression in pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry to analyze the expression of CD166 in surgical pancreatic tissues and pancreatic cancer cell lines. The differences between isolated CD166+ and CD166- pancreatic cancer cells were analyzed by invasion and migration assays, and in mouse xenograft models. We also performed quantitative RT-PCR and microarray analyses to evaluate the expression levels of CD166 and related genes in cultured cells.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry revealed high expression of CD166 in pancreatic cancer tissues (12.2%; 12/98) compared with that in normal pancreas controls (0%; 0/17) (p = 0.0435). Flow cytometry indicated that CD166 was expressed in 33.8-70.2% of cells in surgical pancreatic tissues and 0-99.5% of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Invasion and migration assays demonstrated that CD166- pancreatic cancer cells showed stronger invasive and migratory activities than those of CD166+ cancer cells (p<0.05). On the other hand, CD166+ Panc-1 cells showed a significantly stronger colony formation activity than that of CD166- Panc-1 cells (p<0.05). In vivo analysis revealed that CD166+ cells elicited significantly greater tumor growth than that of CD166- cells (p<0.05) in both subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse tumor models. mRNA expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition activator Zeb1 was over-expressed in CD166- cells (p<0.001). Microarray analysis showed that TSPAN8 and BST2 were over-expressed in CD166+ cells, while BMP7 and Col6A1 were over-expressed in CD166- cells.
CONCLUSIONS: CD166+ pancreatic cancer cells are strongly tumorigenic, while CD166- pancreatic cancer cells exhibit comparatively stronger invasive and migratory activities. These findings suggest that CD166 expression is related to different functions in pancreatic cancer cells.
Charfi C, Edouard E, Rassart EIdentification of GPM6A and GPM6B as potential new human lymphoid leukemia-associated oncogenes.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2014; 37(3):179-91 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previously, we found that the Graffi murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is able to induce a wide spectrum of hematologic malignancies in vivo. Using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays, we established the gene expression profiles of several of these malignancies, thereby specifically focusing on genes deregulated in the lymphoid sub-types. We observed over-expression of a variety of genes, including Arntl2, Bfsp2, Gfra2, Gpm6a, Gpm6b, Nln, Fbln1, Bmp7, Etv5 and Celsr1 and, in addition, provided evidence that Fmn2 and Parm-1 may act as novel oncogenes. In the present study, we assessed the expression patterns of eight selected human homologs of these genes in primary human B-cell malignancies, and explored the putative oncogenic potential of GPM6A and GPM6B.
METHODS: The gene expression levels of the selected human homologs were tested in human B-cell malignancies by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The protein expression profiles of human GPM6A and GPM6B were analyzed by Western blotting. The localization and the effect of GPM6A and GPM6B on the cytoskeleton were determined using confocal and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. To confirm the oncogenic potential of GPM6A and GPM6B, classical colony formation assays in soft agar and focus forming assays were used. The effects of these proteins on the cell cycle were assessed by flow cytometry analysis.
RESULTS: Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we found that most of the primary B-cell malignancies assessed showed altered expression patterns of the genes tested, including GPM6A and GPM6B. Using confocal microscopy, we found that the GPM6A protein (isoform 3) exhibits a punctate cytoplasmic localization and that the GPM6B protein (isoform 4) exhibits a peri-nuclear and punctate cytoplasmic localization. Interestingly, we found that exogenous over-expression of both proteins in NIH/3T3 cells alters the actin and microtubule networks and induces the formation of long filopodia-like protrusions. Additionally, we found that these over-expressing NIH/3T3 cells exhibit anchorage-independent growth and enhanced proliferation rates. Cellular transformation (i.e., loss of contact inhibition) was, however, only observed after exogenous over-expression of GPM6B.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that several human homologs of the genes found to be deregulated in Graffi MuLV experimental mouse models may serve as candidate biomarkers for human B-cell malignancies. In addition, we found that GPM6A and GPM6B may act as novel oncogenes in the development of these malignancies.
Increased expression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) induces apoptosis in numerous tumor cell lines, with either Angiotensin II-dependent or Angiotensin II-independent regulation, but its molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we used PCR Array analysis to determine the gene and microRNA expression profiles in human prostate cancer cell lines transduced with AT2R recombinant adenovirus. Our results demonstrated that AT2R over expression leads to up-regulation of 6 apoptosis-related genes (TRAIL-R2, BAG3, BNIPI, HRK, Gadd45a, TP53BP2), 2 cytokine genes (IL6 and IL8) and 1 microRNA, and down-regulation of 1 apoptosis-related gene TNFSF10 and 2 cytokine genes (BMP6, BMP7) in transduced DU145 cells. HRK was identified as an up-regulated gene in AT2R-transduced PC-3 cells by real-time RT-PCR. Next, we utilized siRNAs to silence the up-regulated genes to further determine their roles on AT2R overexpression mediated apoptosis. The results showed downregulation of Gadd45a reduced the apoptotic effect by ∼30% in DU145 cells, downregulation of HRK reduced AT2R-mediated apoptosis by more than 50% in PC-3 cells, while downregulation of TRAIL-R2 enhanced AT2R-mediated apoptosis more than 4 times in DU145 cells. We also found that the effects on AT2R-mediated apoptosis caused by downregulation of Gadd45a, TRAIL-R2 and HRK were independent in activation of p38 MAPK, p44/42 MAPK and p53. Taken together, our results demonstrated that TRAIL-R2, Gadd45a and HRK may be novel target genes for further study of the mechanism of AT2R-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a leading cause of cancer deaths, represents a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, mostly comprising squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (AC) and large-cell carcinoma (LCC). The objectives of this study were to utilize integrated genomic data including copy-number alteration, mRNA, microRNA expression and candidate-gene full sequencing data to characterize the molecular distinctions between AC and SCC.
METHODS: Comparative genomic hybridization followed by mutational analysis, gene expression and miRNA microarray profiling were performed on 123 paired tumor and non-tumor tissue samples from patients with NSCLC.
RESULTS: At DNA, mRNA and miRNA levels we could identify molecular markers that discriminated significantly between the various histopathological entities of NSCLC. We identified 34 genomic clusters using aCGH data; several genes exhibited a different profile of aberrations between AC and SCC, including PIK3CA, SOX2, THPO, TP63, PDGFB genes. Gene expression profiling analysis identified SPP1, CTHRC1 and GREM1 as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of the cancer, and SPINK1 and BMP7 to distinguish between AC and SCC in small biopsies or in blood samples. Using integrated genomics approach we found in recurrently altered regions a list of three potential driver genes, MRPS22, NDRG1 and RNF7, which were consistently over-expressed in amplified regions, had wide-spread correlation with an average of ~800 genes throughout the genome and highly associated with histological types. Using a network enrichment analysis, the targets of these potential drivers were seen to be involved in DNA replication, cell cycle, mismatch repair, p53 signalling pathway and other lung cancer related signalling pathways, and many immunological pathways. Furthermore, we also identified one potential driver miRNA hsa-miR-944.
CONCLUSIONS: Integrated molecular characterization of AC and SCC helped identify clinically relevant markers and potential drivers, which are recurrent and stable changes at DNA level that have functional implications at RNA level and have strong association with histological subtypes.
PURPOSE: Epigenetic regulation by promoter methylation plays a key role in tumorigenesis. Our goal was to investigate whether altered DNA methylation signatures associated with oncogenic signaling delineate biomarkers predictive of endometrial cancer recurrence.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Methyl-CpG-capture sequencing was used for global screening of aberrant DNA methylation in our endometrial cancer cohort, followed by validation in an independent The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort. Bioinformatics as well as functional analyses in vitro, using RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown, were performed to examine regulatory mechanisms of candidate gene expression and contribution to aggressive phenotype, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
RESULTS: We identified 2,302 hypermethylated loci in endometrial tumors compared with control samples. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family genes, including BMP1, 2, 3, 4, and 7, were among the frequently hypermethylated loci. Interestingly, BMP2, 3, 4, and 7 were less methylated in primary tumors with subsequent recurrence and in patients with shorter disease-free interval compared with nonrecurrent tumors, which was validated and associated with poor survival in the TCGA cohort (BMP4, P = 0.009; BMP7, P = 0.007). Stimulation of endometrial cancer cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced EMT and transcriptional activation of these genes, which was mediated by the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). EGF signaling was implicated in maintaining the promoters of candidate BMP genes in an active chromatin configuration and thus subject to transcriptional activation.
CONCLUSIONS: Hypomethylation signatures of candidate BMP genes associated with EpCAM-mediated expression present putative biomarkers predictive of poor survival in endometrial cancer.
PURPOSE: We designed a gene profiling experiment to identify genes involved in secondary drug resistance in mantle cell lymphomas (MCL).
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We obtained paired tissue samples collected from the same patients before treatment and after relapse or progression. Variations in gene expression between the 2 samples were estimated for 5 patients. For each gene, the mean variation was estimated for patients with a refractory primary tumor and for responders who developed secondary drug resistance. Nine genes of interest were selected on the basis of the magnitude and statistical significance of the variation of expression in responders and non-responders.
RESULTS: BMP7 was the only one with significantly increased expression at relapse in patients who developed secondary resistance. Validation of BMP7 as a key gene involved in secondary resistance was performed using cultures of cell line. Incubation of BMP7 with MCL cell lines increased their resistance to bortezomib and cytarabine, while inhibition of BMP7 expression by siRNA correlated with increased cell death linked to drug application.
CONCLUSION: Variations in gene expression after treatment point out BMP7 as a key gene involved in secondary resistance in mantle cell lymphoma.
Kuphal S, Wallner S, Bosserhoff AKImpact of LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor) expression in malignant melanoma.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2013; 95(2):156-65 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling regulates cellular processes to maintain the self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Independent of these capabilities, LIF was also identified to be responsible for cancer development and progression. However, its detailed cellular function in cancer remains unclear thus far. We found LIF to be expressed in melanoma cell lines of primary and metastatic origin and in melanoma tissue. We further elucidated stimuli that are responsible for the high expression levels of LIF. Interestingly, hypoxia, specifically through HIF-1α, is involved in regulating LIF. Furthermore, our data showed that the signaling of LIF was not mediated by the classically described pathway via STAT3, but rather through BMP4 and BMP7. We hypothesize that the co-expression of LIF and BMP is necessary for a de-differentiated cancer phenotype. Ancillary to BMP4 and BMP7, classical stem cell proteins, e.g., SOX2, NANOG, OCT3/4 and GBX2, are regulated by LIF. We therefore speculate that LIF can induce a typical "cancer stem cell"-like behavior, as the appropriate genes are regulated by LIF. Particularly, the expression of these genes has been proposed as a driving force for tumorigenesis and the initiation of metastasis. Notably, LIF has an important role not only for ES cells but also for cancer development. Melanoblast-related cells (MBrcs), which resemble the neural crest precursor cells of melanocytes, expressed LIF in minor amounts compared to normal human melanocytes. These data, along with the data that LIF is upregulated in melanoma cell lines compared to melanocytes, strongly indicate that LIF is important for the stabilization of the melanoma phenotype. To elucidate the role of LIF in cellular melanoma behavior, we analyzed proliferation, attachment, migration and colony formation after silencing LIF by siRNA, and found all four characteristics restricted. In summary, we can show that LIF is an important factor in melanoma progression.
Shen Z, Kauttu T, Cao J, et al.Macrophage coculture enhanced invasion of gastric cancer cells via TGF-β and BMP pathways.
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2013; 48(4):466-72 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily plays an important role in regulating gastric cancer progression. As previously demonstrated, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promoted the invasion of gastric cancer cells in Matrigel. However, the role of TGF-β superfamily signaling between TAMs and gastric cancer remains unclear.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three-dimensional dynamic migration imaging system was used to detect gastric cancer invasion rate cocultured with macrophages in Matrigel before or after TGF-β receptor 1 or bone morphogenic protein (BMP) receptor 1A and 1B inhibition; real-time RT-PCR was used to quantitatively investigate gene expression (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, BMP4, and BMP7, ADAM9, MMP9, TIMP3, VEGF-A, and VEGF-C).
RESULTS: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, BMP4, and BMP7 expressions were increased significantly in macrophages grown with cancer cells as compared to macrophages grown alone. The invasion rate and invasion-related genes expressions of both AGS and Hs-746T gastric cancer cell lines were upregulated by macrophages, although the expression profile was different. Invasion rate and invasion-related genes' expressions of AGS cells cocultured with macrophages were downregulated significantly after TGF-βR1 and BMPR1 inhibition.
CONCLUSIONS: Macrophages associated with tumor might promote gastric cancer cells invasion though enhancing TGF-β/BMPs signal pathway. Inhibiting TGF-β/BMPs signal between TAMs and gastric cancer cells might provide a new therapeutic method of gastric cancer.
Xu G, Tang S, Yang J, et al.BMP7 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its potential role in modulating metastasis.
Dig Dis Sci. 2013; 58(7):1871-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Our previous study showed that BMP7 revealed significantly higher levels in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues with lymph node metastasis compared with non-lymph node metastasis, using gene expression profiling assays. The roles of BMP7 in ESCC is not fully understood.
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMP7 on lymph node metastasis of ESCC and to explore its potential mechanism.
METHODS: Expression of BMP7 in ESCC tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. BMP7 were down-regulated by RNA interference. The protein and mRNA levels of BMP7 were detected by western blot and RT-PCR, respectively. High content screening and transwell assay were used to identify the metastatic ability of tumor cells.
RESULTS: Positivity of BMP7 staining was 57.5 % in the tissues of primary carcinoma with lymph node metastasis compared to tissues without lymph node metastasis, and expression of BMP7 was significantly higher in the cell lines with highly metastatic capacity than that in the cell lines without metastatic ability. Suppression of endogenous BMP7 expression by siRNA in the highly metastatic cell lines resulted in significant reduction in ability of cell migration and invasion in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, inhibition of BMP7 by siRNA also leads to up-regulation of E-cadherin and down-regulation of MMP-9 in the highly metastatic cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that BMP7 modulates the expression of E-cadherin and MMP-9, and by which mechanism it may regulate cell migration and metastasis of ESCCs.
Balboni AL, Hutchinson JA, DeCastro AJ, et al.ΔNp63α-mediated activation of bone morphogenetic protein signaling governs stem cell activity and plasticity in normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(2):1020-30 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic analysis of TP63 indicates that ΔNp63 isoforms are required for preservation of regenerative stasis within diverse epithelial tissues. In squamous carcinomas, TP63 is commonly amplified, and ΔNp63α confers a potent survival advantage. Genome-wide occupancy studies show that ΔNp63 promotes bidirectional target gene regulation by binding more than 5,000 sites throughout the genome; however, the subset of targets mediating discreet activities of TP63 remains unclear. We report that ΔNp63α activates bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) signaling by inducing the expression of BMP7. Immunohistochemical analysis indicates that hyperactivation of BMP signaling is common in human breast cancers, most notably in the basal molecular subtype, as well as in several mouse models of breast cancer. Suppression of BMP signaling in vitro with LDN193189, a small-molecule inhibitor of BMP type I receptor kinases, represses clonogenicity and diminishes the cancer stem cell-enriched ALDH1(+) population. Importantly, LDN193189 blocks reconstitution of mixed ALDH1(+)/ALDH1(-) cultures indicating that BMP signaling may govern aspects of cellular plasticity within tumor hierarchies. These results show that BMP signaling enables reversion of committed populations to a stem-like state, potentially supporting progression and maintenance of tumorigenesis. Treatment of a mouse model of breast cancer with LDN193189 caused reduced expression of markers associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, in vivo limiting dilution analysis assays revealed that LDN193189 treatment suppressed tumor-initiating capacity and increased tumor latency. These studies support a model in which ΔNp63α-mediated activation of BMP signaling governs epithelial cell plasticity, EMT, and tumorigenicity during breast cancer initiation and progression.
Khalaf M, Morera J, Bourret A, et al.BMP system expression in GCs from polycystic ovary syndrome women and the in vitro effects of BMP4, BMP6, and BMP7 on GC steroidogenesis.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2013; 168(3):437-44 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors involved in the folliculogenesis. Alteration in their expression may compromise the reproductive process in disease such as the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigated the expression and role of granulosa cell (GC) BMP from normal cycling and PCOS women.
METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective study was performed in GCs obtained from 14 patients undergoing IVF: i) six women with normal ovulatory cycles and tubal or male infertility and ii) eight women with PCOS. BMP2, BMP4, BMP5, BMP6, BMP7, and BMP8A and their receptors BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and BMPR2 were identified by RT-PCR in GCs from normally cycling and PCOS women. BMP4, BMP6, and BMP7 expressions were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Quantitative transcript analysis showed the predominant expression of BMP6. In GCs from PCOS women, an overexpression of BMP6 (P<0.01) and BMPR1A mRNA (P<0.05) was observed. GC culture experiments demonstrated that basal estradiol (E₂) production was threefold higher but FSH-induced E₂ increment was twofold lower in PCOS compared with controls. In PCOS, BMP6 and BMP7 exerted a stimulatory effect on basal E₂ production while BMP4 and BMP6 inhibited FSH-induced E₂ production. FSH receptor and aromatase expression were not different between both groups.
CONCLUSION: The BMP system is expressed in human GCs from normal cycling and PCOS women. The BMP may be involved in reproductive abnormalities found in PCOS.
Slattery ML, John EM, Torres-Mejia G, et al.Genetic variation in bone morphogenetic proteins and breast cancer risk in hispanic and non-hispanic white women: The breast cancer health disparities study.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 132(12):2928-39 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are thought to be important in breast cancer promotion and progression. We evaluated genetic variation in BMP-related genes and breast cancer risk among Hispanic (2,111 cases, 2,597 controls) and non-Hispanic White (NHW) (1,481 cases, 1,586 controls) women who participated in the 4-Corner's Breast Cancer Study, the Mexico Breast Cancer Study and the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study. BMP genes and their receptors evaluated include ACVR1, AVCR2A, ACVR2B, ACVRL1, BMP1, BMP2, BMP4, BMP6, BMP7, BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, MSTN and GDF10. Additionally, 104 ancestral informative markers were assessed to discriminate between European and native American ancestry. The importance of estrogen on BMP-related associations was suggested through unique associations by menopausal status and estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor status of tumors. After adjustment for multiple comparisons ACVR1 (8 SNPs) was modestly associated with ER+PR+ tumors [odds ratios (ORs) between 1.18 and 1.39 padj < 0.05]. ACVR1 (3 SNPs) and BMP4 (3 SNPs) were associated with ER+PR- tumors (ORs 0.59-2.07; padj < 0.05). BMPR2 was associated with ER-PR+ tumors (OR 4.20; 95% CI 1.62, 10.91; padj < 0.05) as was GDF10 (2 SNPs; ORs 3.62 and 3.85; padj < 0.05). After adjustment for multiple comparisons several SNPs remained associated with ER-PR- tumors (padj < 0.05) including ACVR1 BMP4 and GDF10 (ORs between 0.53 and 2.12). Differences in association also were observed by percentage of native ancestry and menopausal status. Results support the hypothesis that genetic variation in BMPs is associated with breast cancer in this admixed population.
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) expression and signaling are altered in a variety of cancers, but the functional impact of these alterations is uncertain. In this study we investigated the impact of expression of multiple BMPs and their signaling pathway components in human B-cell lymphoma. BMP messages, in particular BMP7, were detected in normal and malignant B cells. Addition of exogenous BMPs inhibited DNA synthesis in most lymphoma cell lines examined, but some cell lines were resistant. Tumor specimens from three out of five lymphoma patients were also resistant to BMPs, as determined by no activation of the BMP effectors Smad1/5/8. We have previously shown that BMP-7 potently induced apoptosis in normal B cells, which was in contrast to no or little inhibitory effect of this BMP in the lymphoma cells tested. BMP-resistance mechanisms were investigated by comparing sensitive and resistant cell lines. While BMP receptors are downregulated in many cancers, we documented similar receptor levels in resistant and sensitive lymphoma cells. We found a positive correlation between activation of Smad1/5/8 and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Gene expression analysis of two independent data sets showed that the levels of inhibitory Smads varied across different B-cell lymphoma. Furthermore, stable overexpression of Smad7 in two different BMP-sensitive cell lines with low endogenous levels of SMAD7, rendered them completely resistant to BMPs. This work highlights the role of Smads in determining the sensitivity to BMPs and shows that upregulation of Smad7 in cancer cells is sufficient to escape the negative effects of BMPs.
The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is involved in embryogenesis and physiologic processes including cell survival and proliferation. We used the HT-29 and other human colon carcinoma cell lines to investigate Hh signaling and biological functions in colonic epithelial cells. HT-29 cells were cultured under different conditions and exposed to various stimuli. The expression of Hh pathway components and related genes and proteins were assessed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. Viability, apoptosis and cell proliferation were measured by the MTT assay, Annexin-V/7-AAD staining and BrdU uptake, respectively. Chemokines production was measured by ELISA in culture supernatants. Indian and Sonic Hh mRNA levels and the downstream transcription factors Gli-1 and Gli-2 increased following treatment with Hh agonists and butyrate, but decreased upon exposure to cyclopamine or GANT61. BMP4 and BMP7 expression increased after stimulation with Hh agonists. Gli-1 protein expression increased after Hh agonists and decreased following cyclopamine. Exposure to Hh agonists promoted β-catenin reduction and subcellular redistribution. Levels of IL-8 and MCP-1 decreased upon exposure to Hh agonists compared to Hh antagonists, LPS, IFN-γ or EGF. Monocyte chemotaxis decreased upon exposure to supernatants of HT-29 cells treated with Shh compared to Hh antagonists, LPS and IFN-γ. Cellular incorporation of BrdU and cell viability decreased following Hh blockade. Hh agonists abrogated the anti-CD95 induced apoptosis. Hh pathway is a key controller of colon cancer cells, as demonstrated by its effect in dampening inflammatory signals and antagonizing apoptosis. The differential expression of Hh components may underlie abnormalities in the local immune response and in epithelial barrier integrity, with potential homeostatic implications for the development of colonic inflammation and malignancies.
INTRODUCTION: Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has a dual role during tumor progression, initially as a suppressor and then as a promoter. Epithelial TGF-β signaling regulates fibroblast recruitment and activation. Concurrently, TGF-β signaling in stromal fibroblasts suppresses tumorigenesis in adjacent epithelia, while its ablation potentiates tumor formation. Much is known about the contribution of TGF-β signaling to tumorigenesis, yet the role of TGF-β in epithelial-stromal migration during tumor progression is poorly understood. We hypothesize that TGF-β is a critical regulator of tumor-stromal interactions that promote mammary tumor cell migration and invasion.
METHODS: Fluorescently labeled murine mammary carcinoma cells, isolated from either MMTV-PyVmT transforming growth factor-beta receptor II knockout (TβRII KO) or TβRIIfl/fl control mice, were combined with mammary fibroblasts and xenografted onto the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane. These combinatorial xenografts were used as a model to study epithelial-stromal crosstalk. Intravital imaging of migration was monitored ex ovo, and metastasis was investigated in ovo. Epithelial RNA from in ovo tumors was isolated by laser capture microdissection and analyzed to identify gene expression changes in response to TGF-β signaling loss.
RESULTS: Intravital microscopy of xenografts revealed that mammary fibroblasts promoted two migratory phenotypes dependent on epithelial TGF-β signaling: single cell/strand migration or collective migration. At epithelial-stromal boundaries, single cell/strand migration of TβRIIfl/fl carcinoma cells was characterized by expression of α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, while collective migration of TβRII KO carcinoma cells was identified by E-cadherin+/p120+/β-catenin+ clusters. TβRII KO tumors also exhibited a twofold greater metastasis than TβRIIfl/fl tumors, attributed to enhanced extravasation ability. In TβRII KO tumor epithelium compared with TβRIIfl/fl epithelium, Igfbp4 and Tspan13 expression was upregulated while Col1α2, Bmp7, Gng11, Vcan, Tmeff1, and Dsc2 expression was downregulated. Immunoblotting and quantitative PCR analyses on cultured cells validated these targets and correlated Tmeff1 expression with disease progression of TGF-β-insensitive mammary cancer.
CONCLUSION: Fibroblast-stimulated carcinoma cells utilize TGF-β signaling to drive single cell/strand migration but migrate collectively in the absence of TGF-β signaling. These migration patterns involve the signaling regulation of several epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition pathways. Our findings concerning TGF-β signaling in epithelial-stromal interactions are important in identifying migratory mechanisms that can be targeted as recourse for breast cancer treatment.
Grönroos E, Kingston IJ, Ramachandran A, et al.Transforming growth factor β inhibits bone morphogenetic protein-induced transcription through novel phosphorylated Smad1/5-Smad3 complexes.
Mol Cell Biol. 2012; 32(14):2904-16 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In vivo cells receive simultaneous signals from multiple extracellular ligands and must integrate and interpret them to respond appropriately. Here we investigate the interplay between pathways downstream of two transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily members, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and TGF-β. We show that in multiple cell lines, TGF-β potently inhibits BMP-induced transcription at the level of both BMP-responsive reporter genes and endogenous BMP target genes. This inhibitory effect requires the TGF-β type I receptor ALK5 and is independent of new protein synthesis. Strikingly, we show that Smad3 is required for TGF-β's inhibitory effects, whereas Smad2 is not. We go on to demonstrate that TGF-β induces the formation of complexes comprising phosphorylated Smad1/5 and Smad3, which bind to BMP-responsive elements in vitro and in vivo and mediate TGF-β-induced transcriptional repression. Furthermore, loss of Smad3 confers on TGF-β the ability to induce transcription via BMP-responsive elements. Our results therefore suggest that not only is Smad3 important for mediating TGF-β's inhibitory effects on BMP signaling but it also plays a critical role in restricting the transcriptional output in response to TGF-β.
Follicular lymphoma (FL) has variable progression and survival, and improved identification of patients at high risk for progression would aid in identifying patients most likely to benefit from alternative therapy.In a sample of 244 FL cases identified during a population-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we examined 6,679 tag SNPs in 488 gene regions for associations with overall FL survival. Over a median follow-up of 89 months with 65 deaths in this preliminary study, we identified 5 gene regions (BMP7, GALNT12,DUSP2, GADD45B, and ADAM17) that were associated with overall survival from FL. Results did not meet the criteria for statistical significance after adjustment for multiple hypothesis testing. These results,which support a role for host factors in determining the variable progression of FL, serve as an initial examination that can inform future studies of genetic variation and FL survival. However, they require replication in independent populations, as well as assessment in rituximab-treated patients.
Liu Y, Chen J, Yang Y, et al.Μolecular impact of bone morphogenetic protein 7, on lung cancer cells and its clinical significance.
Int J Mol Med. 2012; 29(6):1016-24 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), in human pulmonary cancer tissues/cells and to evaluate the cellular impact of bone morphogenetic proteins on pulmonary cancer cells. BMP7 expression was determined in human lung cancer cell lines. The invasiveness and growth of cells transfected with BMP7, in vitro, were evaluated using the in vitro invasion assay and in vitro tumour models. Cellular migration was analysed using wounding assays. BMP7-positive tumours correlated with the absence of bone metastasis (P=0.040). In this analysis, we identified that 4 of 4 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) tissue specimens had no BMP7 expression, which illustrated that BMP7 may have no role in SCLC. BMP7 expression was not correlated with the overall survival time in lung cancer patients. Downregulation of BMP7 expression significantly inhibited the invasiveness of SPC-A1 cells (P<0.001) and forced-expression of BMP7 dramatically increased the motility of A549 cells. Overexpression of BMP7 in A549 cells and its knockdown in SPC-A1 cells did not significantly alter proliferation compared with the control cells (P>0.5 respectively). In conclusion, we have demonstrated that BMP7 has an important role in controlling lung cancer cell motility and invasiveness, without affecting the growth process, cell proliferation and cell apoptosis. A higher BMP7 expression may be an indicator for bone metastasis. The therapeutic role of BMP7 warrants further investigation.
BACKGROUND: Testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) is a common disease that links testicular germ cell cancer, cryptorchidism and some cases of hypospadias and male infertility with impaired development of the testis. The incidence of these disorders has increased over the last few decades, and testicular cancer now affects 1% of the Danish and Norwegian male population.
METHODS: To identify genetic variants that span the four TDS phenotypes, the authors performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0 to screen 488 patients with symptoms of TDS and 439 selected controls with excellent reproductive health. Furthermore, they developed a novel integrative method that combines GWAS data with other TDS-relevant data types and identified additional TDS markers. The most significant findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 671 Nordic men.
RESULTS: Markers located in the region of TGFBR3 and BMP7 showed association with all TDS phenotypes in both the discovery and replication cohorts. An immunohistochemistry investigation confirmed the presence of transforming growth factor β receptor type III (TGFBR3) in peritubular and Leydig cells, in both fetal and adult testis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the KITLG gene showed significant associations, but only with testicular cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: The association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the TGFBR3 and BMP7 genes, which belong to the transforming growth factor β signalling pathway, suggests a role for this pathway in the pathogenesis of TDS. Integrating data from multiple layers can highlight findings in GWAS that are biologically relevant despite having border significance at currently accepted statistical levels.
Metastatic disease is the major cause of cancer deaths, and recurrent tumors at distant organs are a critical issue. However, how metastatic tumor cells become dormant and how and why tumors recur in target organs are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that BMP7 (bone morphogenetic protein 7) secreted from bone stromal cells induces senescence in prostate cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) by activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and increasing expression of the cell cycle inhibitor, p21, and the metastasis suppressor gene, NDRG1 (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1). This effect of BMP7 depended on BMPR2 (BMP receptor 2), and BMPR2 expression inversely correlated with recurrence and bone metastasis in prostate cancer patients. Importantly, this BMP7-induced senescence in CSCs was reversible upon withdrawal of BMP7. Furthermore, treatment of mice with BMP7 significantly suppressed the growth of CSCs in bone, whereas the withdrawal of BMP7 restarted growth of these cells. These results suggest that the BMP7-BMPR2-p38-NDRG1 axis plays a critical role in dormancy and recurrence of prostate CSCs in bone and suggest a potential therapeutic utility of BMP7 for recurrent metastatic disease.
Rodriguez-Martinez A, Alarmo EL, Saarinen L, et al.Analysis of BMP4 and BMP7 signaling in breast cancer cells unveils time-dependent transcription patterns and highlights a common synexpression group of genes.
BMC Med Genomics. 2011; 4:80 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of growth factors. They are known for their roles in regulation of osteogenesis and developmental processes and, in recent years, evidence has accumulated of their crucial functions in tumor biology. BMP4 and BMP7, in particular, have been implicated in breast cancer. However, little is known about BMP target genes in the context of tumor. We explored the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 treatment on global gene transcription in seven breast cancer cell lines during a 6-point time series, using a whole-genome oligo microarray. Data analysis included hierarchical clustering of differentially expressed genes, gene ontology enrichment analyses and model based clustering of temporal data.
RESULTS: Both ligands had a strong effect on gene expression, although the response to BMP4 treatment was more pronounced. The cellular functions most strongly affected by BMP signaling were regulation of transcription and development. The observed transcriptional response, as well as its functional outcome, followed a temporal sequence, with regulation of gene expression and signal transduction leading to changes in metabolism and cell proliferation. Hierarchical clustering revealed distinct differences in the response of individual cell lines to BMPs, but also highlighted a synexpression group of genes for both ligands. Interestingly, the majority of the genes within these synexpression groups were shared by the two ligands, probably representing the core molecular responses common to BMP4 and BMP7 signaling pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: All in all, we show that BMP signaling has a remarkable effect on gene transcription in breast cancer cells and that the functions affected follow a logical temporal pattern. Our results also uncover components of the common cellular transcriptional response to BMP4 and BMP7. Most importantly, this study provides a list of potential novel BMP target genes relevant in breast cancer.
Li J, Ye L, Kynaston HG, Jiang WGRepulsive guidance molecules, novel bone morphogenetic protein co-receptors, are key regulators of the growth and aggressiveness of prostate cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2012; 40(2):544-50 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family members RGMA, RGMB and RGMC are GPI-linked membrane proteins recently identified as co-receptor of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). BMPs are a group of proteins enriched in bone and play important roles in prostate cancer. The current study aimed to investigate roles played by RGMs in prostate cancer. Expression of RGMs was examined in prostate cancer cell lines and prostate cancer tissues using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Knockdown of each RGM in prostate cancer cells was performed using the respective anti-RGMA, RGMB and RGMC transgenes. A variety of in vitro function tests were employed to analyze the influence on cancer cell functions by RGM knockdown. The implications of RGM knockdown in BMP signalling were also examined using both Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR. Knockdown of RGMA had no effect on cell growth, migration and invasion, but promoted cell-matrix adhesion. Knockdown of RGMB and RGMC increased growth and adhesion, but only RGMB knockdown increased capacities of migration and invasion in PC-3 cells. Further investigations showed an increase in Smad-3 activation and reduced levels of Smad-1 in PC-3 cells by RGMB and RGMC knockdown, and also an up-regulation of ID1, a BMP target gene particularly in exposure to BMP7. RGMs play inhibitory roles in prostate cancer by suppressing cell growth, adhesion, migration and invasion. RGMs can coordinate Smad-dependent signalling of BMPs in prostate cancer cells.
Lu JW, Hsia Y, Yang WY, et al.Identification of the common regulators for hepatocellular carcinoma induced by hepatitis B virus X antigen in a mouse model.
Carcinogenesis. 2012; 33(1):209-19 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Hepatitis B virus X antigen plays an important role in the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The key regulators controlling the temporal downstream gene expression for HCC progression remains unknown. In this study, we took advantage of systems biology approach and analyzed the microarray data of the HBx transgenic mouse as a screening process to identify the differentially expressed genes and applied the software Pathway Studio to identify potential pathways and regulators involved in HCC. Using subnetwork enrichment analysis, we identified five common regulator genes: EDN1, BMP7, BMP4, SPIB and SRC. Upregulation of the common regulators was validated in the other independent HBx transgenic mouse lines. Furthermore, we verified the correlation of their RNA expression levels by using the human HCC samples, and their protein levels by using the human liver disease tissue arrays. EDN1, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 and BMP7 were upregulated in cirrhosis, BMP4, BMP7 and SRC were further upregulated in hepatocellular or cholangiocellular carcinoma samples. The trend of increasing expression of the common regulators correlates well with the progression of human liver cancer. Overexpression of the common regulators increases the cell viability, promotes migration and invasiveness and enhances the colony formation ability in Hep3B cells. Our approach allows us to identify the critical genes in hepatocarcinogenesis in an HBx-induced mouse model. The validation of the gene expressions in the liver cancer of human patients and their cellular function assays suggests that the identified common regulators may serve as useful molecular targets for the early-stage diagnosis or therapy for HCC.
Shi Q, Zhong YS, Yao LQ, et al.Down-regulation of Smad4 enhances proliferation and invasion of colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells and up-regulates Id2.
Mol Med Rep. 2012; 5(1):89-95 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to determine whether the suppression of Smad4 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) regulates the proliferation and invasion of colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells and Id2 expression. The Smad4‑shRNA expression vectors were constructed and stably transfected to HCT116 cells. The expression of mRNA and protein of Smad4 and Id2 was detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Cellular proliferation inhibitory activity was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Transwell assay was used to detect the effect of the inhibition of Smad4-shRNA on migration and invasion. The Smad4-shRNA vector, which inhibited Smad4 expression, was constructed and successfully transfected to HCT116 cells. The levels of mRNA and protein expression of Smad4 were markedly decreased following transfection of shRNA compared with the control groups (P<0.05). The abilities of proliferation, migration and invasion were increased following transfection of shRNA (P<0.05). The expression of Id2 was increased following transfection of shRNA (P<0.05). For the Smad4-down-regulated HCT116 cells, treated with or without BMP7 (25 ng/ml), no difference was found. shRNA-mediated silencing of Smad4 was able to enhance the abilities of proliferation, migration and invasion in the HCT116 cell line. Therefore, Smad4 may act as a tumor-suppressor gene in colorectal carcinoma.
Lim M, Chuong CM, Roy-Burman PPI3K, Erk signaling in BMP7-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of PC-3 prostate cancer cells in 2- and 3-dimensional cultures.
Horm Cancer. 2011; 2(5):298-309 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We reported previously that bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) could induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in PC-3 prostate cancer cells grown in tissue culture plates. In this study, we examined BMP7-induced morphological and molecular expression changes that are characteristic of EMT using these cells under both two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions. Filamentous outgrowths from spheroid structures that were formed from PC-3 cells in 3D cultures were strikingly evident when the spheroids were exposed to extracellular BMP7. This morphological change in 3D was accompanied by down-regulation of E-cadherin, which is an essential adhesion molecule for the integrity of epithelial phenotype. Invasiveness of the cancer cells was significantly enhanced with BMP7 treatment along with activation and up-regulation of proteases such as MMP1, MMP13, and urokinase plasminogen activator. Signal transduction of EMT conversion was examined by the use of certain pathway-specific inhibitors. Of the chemical inhibitors tested, inhibitors of PI3 kinase and Erk were found to suppress BMP-induced morphological changes both in 2D and 3D conditions. These results suggest that, besides the Smad signaling pathways, BMP-induced activation of PI3K and Erk contribute to EMT morphologic conversion of the PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Together, the results support the notion that the complexity of EMT may be better evaluated in terms of both spatial and temporal processes in 3D cell culture models that are physiologically more relevant than the cell growth in tissue culture plates.
BACKGROUND: The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily comprises cytokines such as TGF-β and Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), which have a critical role in a multitude of biological processes. In breast cancer, high levels of TGF-β are associated with poor outcome, whereas inhibition of TGF-β-signaling reduces metastasis. In contrast, BMP-7 inhibits bone metastasis of breast cancer cells.
METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effect of BMP-7 on TGF-β-induced invasion in a 3 dimensional invasion assay.
RESULTS: BMP-7 inhibited TGF-β-induced invasion of the metastatic breast cancer cell line MCF10CA1a, but not of its premalignant precursor MCF10AT in a spheroid invasion model. The inhibitory effect appears to be specific for BMP-7, as its closest homolog, BMP-6, did not alter the invasion of MCF10CA1a spheroids. To elucidate the mechanism by which BMP-7 inhibits TGF-β-induced invasion, we analyzed invasion-related genes. BMP-7 inhibited TGF-β-induced expression of integrin α(v)β(3) in the spheroids. Moreover, targeting of integrins by a chemical inhibitor or knockdown of integrin β(3) negatively affected TGF-β-induced invasion. On the other hand, overexpression of integrin β(3) counteracted the inhibitory effect of BMP7 on TGF-β-induced invasion.
CONCLUSION: Thus, BMP-7 may exert anti-invasive actions by inhibiting TGF-β-induced expression of integrin β(3).
Yu L, van der Valk M, Cao J, et al.Sclerostin expression is induced by BMPs in human Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells but not via direct effects on the sclerostin gene promoter or ECR5 element.
Bone. 2011; 49(6):1131-40 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Sclerostin is a secreted inhibitor of Wnt signaling and plays an essential role in the regulation of bone mass. The expression of sclerostin is largely restricted to osteocytes although its mode of transcriptional regulation is not well understood. We observed regulated expression of sclerostin mRNA and protein that was directly correlated with the mineralization response in cultured human Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells and rat primary calvarial cells. Sclerostin mRNA and protein levels were increased following treatment of cells with BMP2, BMP4 and BMP7. Analysis of deletion mutants from the -7.4 kb upstream region of the human sclerostin promoter did not reveal any specific regions that were responsive to BMPs, Wnt3a, PTH, TGFβ1 or Activin A in Saos-2 cells. The downstream ECR5 element did not show enhancer activity in Saos-2 cells and also was not affected when Saos-2 cells were treated with BMPs or PTH. Genome-wide microarray analysis of Saos-2 cells treated with BMP2 showed significant changes in expression of several transcription factors with putative consensus DNA binding sites in the region of the sclerostin promoter. However, whereas most factors tested showed either a range of inhibitory activity (DLX family, MSX2, HEY1, SMAD6/7) or lack of activity on the sclerostin promoter including SMAD9, only MEF2B showed a positive effect on both the promoter and ECR5 element. These results suggest that the dramatic induction of sclerostin gene expression by BMPs in Saos-2 cells occurs indirectly and is associated with late stage differentiation of osteoblasts and the mineralization process.
Markić D, Ćelić T, Gršković A, et al.mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic proteins and their receptors in human renal cell carcinoma.
Urol Int. 2011; 87(3):353-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been studied in several cancers, but only limited information is available about renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). We determined the expression of mRNA of several BMP ligands and BMP receptors (BMPRs) in healthy kidney tissue and RCCs, and data were compared to clinicopathological parameters.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-four samples of RCCs and healthy renal tissues were prospectively examined. The expression of BMP2, BMP4, BMP6, BMP7, BMPRIA, BMPRIB and BMPRII mRNA was determined using semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: The expression levels of different BMP ligands and BMPRs were considerably higher in RCCs than in normal kidney tissue. BMP ligands showed elevated expression in clear-cell RCCs, whereas all three BMPRs showed higher expression levels in non-clear-cell RCCs. In clear-cell RCCs, the expression levels of BMP2 progressively increased and expression levels of BMP6, BMP7 and BMPRIB were lost with higher tumor stage.
CONCLUSIONS: All BMPs and their receptors have stronger expression levels in RCC. The expression level of BMP2 is strongly elevated in kidney cancer.