Gene Summary

Gene:BTRC; beta-transducin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase
Aliases: FWD1, FBW1A, FBXW1, bTrCP, FBXW1A, bTrCP1, betaTrCP, BETA-TRCP
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbws class; in addition to an F-box, this protein contains multiple WD-40 repeats. The encoded protein mediates degradation of CD4 via its interaction with HIV-1 Vpu. It has also been shown to ubiquitinate phosphorylated NFKBIA (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha), targeting it for degradation and thus activating nuclear factor kappa-B. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. A related pseudogene exists in chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 1A
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (34)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (5)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • siRNA
  • rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
  • Messenger RNA
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Survival Rate
  • Transfection
  • Up-Regulation
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • HeLa Cells
  • MicroRNAs
  • p21-Activated Kinases
  • Breast Cancer
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • beta Catenin
  • SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases
  • Ubiquitination
  • Chromosome 10
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cell Movement
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Liver Cancer
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Stability
  • Transcription Factors
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • GTP-Binding Proteins
  • beta-Transducin Repeat-Containing Proteins
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BTRC (cancer-related)

Wang YC, Wu YS, Hung CY, et al.
USP24 induces IL-6 in tumor-associated microenvironment by stabilizing p300 and β-TrCP and promotes cancer malignancy.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3996 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have previously demonstrated that USP24 is involved in cancer progression. Here, we found that USP24 expression is upregulated in M2 macrophages and lung cancer cells. Conditioned medium from USP24-knockdown M2 macrophages decreases the migratory and chemotactic activity of lung cancer cells and the angiogenic properties of human microvascular endothelial cell 1 (HMEC-1). IL-6 expression is significantly decreased in USP24-knockdown M2 macrophages and lung cancer cells, and IL-6-replenished conditioned medium restores the migratory, chemotactic and angiogenetic properties of the cells. USP24 stabilizes p300 and β-TrCP to increase the levels of histone-3 acetylation and NF-κB, and decreases the levels of DNMT1 and IκB, thereby increasing IL-6 transcription in M2 macrophages and lung cancer cells, results in cancer malignancy finally. IL-6 has previously been a target for cancer drug development. Here, we provide direct evidence to support that USP24 promotes IL-6 expression, which might be beneficial for cancer therapy.

Li J, Wang H, Wang L, et al.
Decursin inhibits the growth of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells via Hippo/YAP signaling pathway.
Phytother Res. 2018; 32(12):2456-2465 [PubMed] Related Publications
Targeted therapy has a pivotal role for the treatment of liver cancer. The aim of this current study was to examine the effects of decursin on the growth of HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanisms. Our present study showed that treatment of HepG2 cells with decursin significantly inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells by suppressing cell proliferation, cell cycle arresting, and promoting apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most significantly, administration of decursin dramatically impeded in vivo tumor growth in nude mice. Mechanically, it is noteworthy that decursin treatment provoked degradation of YAP by upregulating the expression of phosphorylated LATS1 and βTRCP. Moreover, apoptosis caused by decursin could be reversed by a selective MST1/2 inhibitor, XMU-MP-1, suggesting that decursin may function through Hippo/YAP signaling. This study has identified that decursin is a potential agent for HCC therapy, and further research should be undertaken to facilitate its therapeutic application.

Sekine H, Okazaki K, Kato K, et al.
Mol Cell Biol. 2018; 38(17) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cells often heavily depend on the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) for their growth and survival. Irrespective of their strong dependence on the proteasome activity, cancer cells, except for multiple myeloma, are mostly resistant to proteasome inhibitors. A major cause of this resistance is the proteasome bounce-back response mediated by NRF1, a transcription factor that coordinately activates proteasome subunit genes. To identify new targets for efficient suppression of UPS, we explored, using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, the possible existence of nuclear proteins that cooperate with NRF1 and identified

Chen GY, Zheng HC
The clinicopathological and prognostic significances of Dkk3 expression in cancers: A bioinformatics analysis.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 23(3):323-331 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dkk3 protein attenuates the expression of Wnt3a, Wnt5a and LRP6, and their interaction, and interacts with βTrCP to suppress wnt/β-catenin pathway.
METHODS: We performed a bioinformatics analysis of Dkk3 mRNA expression through Oncomine, TCGA and Kaplan-Meier plotter databases up to July 10, 2017.
RESULTS: Up-regulated Dkk3 expression was higher in gastric, breast, and ovarian cancers than normal tissues (p< 0.05). Bitter's database showed a higher Dkk3 expression in ovarian cytoadenocarcinoma than clear cell adenocarcinoma (p< 0.05). Dkk3 was more expressed in ductal breast cancer in situ than invasive ductal breast cancer (p< 0.05), in mixed lobular and ductal cancer, and lobular cancer than ductal breast cancer (p< 0.05). In TCGA data, Dkk3 expression was lower in gastric cancers with than without Barret's esophagus (p< 0.05), in intestinal-type than diffuse-type cancers (p< 0.05), and in the cancers of elder than younger patients (p< 0.05). Dkk3 expression was higher in squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma (p< 0.05). Dkk3 expression was higher in ductal than lobular breast cancer, or in younger than elder patients with breast cancer (p< 0.05). According to Kaplan-Meier plotter, Dkk3 expression was negatively correlated with overall, progression-free, relapse-free or distant-metastasis-free survival rate of gastric, breast or ovarian cancer patients, but versa for lung cancer patients (p< 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Dkk3 expression might be employed as a potential marker to indicate carcinogenesis and histogenesis, even prognosis.

Zhang B, Zhang Z, Li L, et al.
TSPAN15 interacts with BTRC to promote oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma metastasis via activating NF-κB signaling.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):1423 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Beta-transducin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (BTRC) is crucial for the degradation of IκBα. Our previous transcriptome sequencing analysis revealed that tetraspanin 15 (TSPAN15) was significantly upregulated in clinical oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues. Here, we show that high TSPAN15 expression in OSCC tissues is significantly associated with lymph node and distant metastasis, advanced clinical stage, and poor prognosis. Elevated TSPAN15 expression is, in part, caused by the reduction of miR-339-5p. Functional studies demonstrate that TSPAN15 promotes metastatic capabilities of OSCC cells. We further show that TSPAN15 specifically interacts with BTRC to promote the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of p-IκBα, and thereby triggers NF-κB nuclear translocation and subsequent activation of transcription of several metastasis-related genes, including ICAM1, VCAM1, uPA, MMP9, TNFα, and CCL2. Collectively, our findings indicate that TSPAN15 may serve as a new biomarker and/or provide a novel therapeutic target to OSCC patients.

Huang Y, Hu K, Zhang S, et al.
S6K1 phosphorylation-dependent degradation of Mxi1 by β-Trcp ubiquitin ligase promotes Myc activation and radioresistance in lung cancer.
Theranostics. 2018; 8(5):1286-1300 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Li N, Truong S, Nouri M, et al.
Non-canonical activation of hedgehog in prostate cancer cells mediated by the interaction of transcriptionally active androgen receptor proteins with Gli3.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(17):2313-2325 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hedgehog (Hh) is an oncogenic signaling pathway that regulates the activity of Gli transcription factors. Canonical Hh is a Smoothened- (Smo-) driven process that alters the post-translational processing of Gli2/Gli3 proteins. Though evidence supports a role for Gli action in prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth and progression, there is little indication that Smo is involved. Here we describe a non-canonical means for activation of Gli transcription in PCa cells mediated by the binding of transcriptionally-active androgen receptors (ARs) to Gli3. Androgens stimulated reporter expression from a Gli-dependent promoter in a variety of AR + PCa cells and this activity was suppressed by an anti-androgen, Enz, or by AR knockdown. Androgens also upregulated expression of endogenous Gli-dependent genes. This activity was associated with increased intranuclear binding of Gli3 to AR that was antagonized by Enz. Fine mapping of the AR binding domain on Gli2 showed that AR recognizes the Gli protein processing domain (PPD) in the C-terminus. Mutations in the arginine-/serine repeat elements of the Gli2 PPD involved in phosphorylation and ubiquitinylation blocked the binding to AR. β-TrCP, a ubiquitin ligase that recognizes the Gli PPD, competed with AR for binding to this site. AR binding to Gli3 suppressed its proteolytic processing to the Gli3 repressor form (Gli3R) whereas AR knockdown increased Gli3R. Both full-length and truncated ARs were able to activate Gli transcription. Finally, we found that an ARbinding decoy polypeptide derived from the Gli2 C-terminus can compete with Gli3 for binding to AR. Exogenous overexpression of this decoy suppressed Gli transcriptional activity in PCa cells. Collectively, this work identifies a novel pathway for non-canonical activation of Hh signaling in PCa cells and identifies a means for interference that may have clinical relevance for PCa patients.

Wen D, Liao T, Ma B, et al.
Downregulation of CSN6 attenuates papillary thyroid carcinoma progression by reducing Wnt/β-catenin signaling and sensitizes cancer cells to FH535 therapy.
Cancer Med. 2018; 7(2):285-296 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased worldwide at a rate higher than that of any other cancer. CSN6 is overexpressed in many types of cancers, and such expression is linked to oncogenic activity. However, the detailed biological functions of CSN6 in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) have not been well characterized. We investigated CSN6 expression in PTC specimens and cell lines. We used short-hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing to explore the biological effects of CSN6 depletion in PTC cells. The combined effects of CSN6 silencing and FH535 therapy were assessed in terms of cell viability. The mechanism by which CSN6 regulated β-catenin expression was also analyzed. CSN6 levels were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (mRNA), Western blotting, and immunochemistry (protein). The CCK-8 and migration assays and orthotopic xenograft transplantation were used to investigate the biological effects of CSN6. We assessed the combined effects of CSN6 silencing and FH535 on cell viability in vitro. We also analyzed the relationship between the CSN6 level and clinical pathological status. CSN6 was overexpressed in human PTCs, and loss of CSN6 attenuated tumor proliferation and migration both in vitro and in vivo. CSN6 stabilized β-catenin and facilitated the epidermal-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in PTC cells. CSN6 positively regulated β-catenin expression in a β-Trcp-dependent manner and triggered expression of several EMT-related genes regulated by β-catenin. CSN6 silencing sensitized PTC cells to FH535 therapy via downregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Finally, in PTC patients, the level of CSN6 was significantly (inversely) correlated with tumor size, the presence of multifocal lesions, and TNM stage. CSN6 overexpression in PTC is a strong indicator of enhanced tumor aggressiveness. CSN6 promotes PTC progression by inducing the EMT. CSN6 knockdown sensitizes PTC cells to FH535 therapy via downregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

Zhang X, Sun F, Qiao Y, et al.
TFCP2 Is Required for YAP-Dependent Transcription to Stimulate Liver Malignancy.
Cell Rep. 2017; 21(5):1227-1239 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although YAP-dependent transcription is closely associated with liver tumorigenesis, the mechanism by which YAP maintains its function is poorly understood. Here, we show that TFCP2 is required for YAP-dependent transcription and liver malignancy. Mechanistically, YAP function is stimulated by TFCP2 via a WW-PSY interaction. TFCP2 also maintains YAP stability by inhibiting βTrCP. Notably, genomic co-occupancy of YAP and TFCP2 is revealed. TFCP2 acts as a transcription co-factor that stimulates YAP transcription by facilitating YAP binding with YAP binding motif (YBF)-containing transcription factors. Interestingly, TFCP2 also stimulated the YAP-TEAD interaction and TEAD target gene expression. Finally, several genes co-regulated by YAP and TFCP2 that contribute to YAP-dependent tumorigenesis are identified and verified. Thus, we establish a model showing that TFCP2 acts as a YAP co-factor to maintain YAP-dependent transcription in liver cancer cells, suggesting that simultaneous targeting of both YAP and TFCP2 may be an effective therapeutic approach.

Novellasdemunt L, Foglizzo V, Cuadrado L, et al.
USP7 Is a Tumor-Specific WNT Activator for APC-Mutated Colorectal Cancer by Mediating β-Catenin Deubiquitination.
Cell Rep. 2017; 21(3):612-627 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tumor suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is mutated in most colorectal cancers (CRCs), resulting in constitutive Wnt activation. To understand the Wnt-activating mechanism of the APC mutation, we applied CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer various APC-truncated isogenic lines. We find that the β-catenin inhibitory domain (CID) in APC represents the threshold for pathological levels of Wnt activation and tumor transformation. Mechanistically, CID-deleted APC truncation promotes β-catenin deubiquitination through reverse binding of β-TrCP and USP7 to the destruction complex. USP7 depletion in APC-mutated CRC inhibits Wnt activation by restoring β-catenin ubiquitination, drives differentiation, and suppresses xenograft tumor growth. Finally, the Wnt-activating role of USP7 is specific to APC mutations; thus, it can be used as a tumor-specific therapeutic target for most CRCs.

Huang CH, Lee YC, Chen YJ, et al.
Quinacrine induces the apoptosis of human leukemia U937 cells through FOXP3/miR-183/β-TrCP/SP1 axis-mediated BAX upregulation.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017; 334:35-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Quinacrine, which is clinically used as an antimalarial drug, has anti-cancer activity. However, mechanism underlying its cytotoxic effect remains to be completely elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of quinacrine on human leukemia U937 cells. Quinacrine-induced apoptosis of U937 cells was accompanied with ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, and BAX upregulation. Quinacrine-treated U937 cells showed ROS-mediated p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation, which in turn upregulated FOXP3 transcription. FOXP3-mediated miR-183 expression decreased β-TrCP mRNA stability and suppressed β-TrCP-mediated SP1 degradation, thus increasing SP1 expression in U937 cells. Upregulated SP1 expression further increased BAX expression. BAX knock-down attenuated quinacrine-induced mitochondrial depolarization and increased the viability of quinacrine-treated cells. Together, our data indicate that quinacrine-induced apoptosis of U937 cells is mediated by mitochondrial alterations triggered by FOXP3/miR-183/β-TrCP/SP1 axis-mediated BAX upregulation.

Ben Younes K, Body S, Costé É, et al.
A lowered 26S proteasome activity correlates with mantle lymphoma cell lines resistance to genotoxic stress.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):538 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B-cell hemopathy characterized by the t(11;14) translocation and the aberrant overexpression of cyclin D1. This results in an unrestrained cell proliferation. Other genetic alterations are common in MCL cells such as SOX11 expression, mutations of ATM and/or TP53 genes, activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and NOTCH receptors. These alterations lead to the deregulation of the apoptotic machinery and resistance to drugs. We observed that among a panel of MCL cell lines, REC1 cells were resistant towards genotoxic stress. We studied the molecular basis of this resistance.
METHODS: We analyzed the cell response regarding apoptosis, senescence, cell cycle arrest, DNA damage response and finally the 26S proteasome activity following a genotoxic treatment that causes double strand DNA breaks.
RESULTS: MCL cell lines displayed various sensitivity/resistance towards genotoxic stress and, in particular, REC1 cells did not enter apoptosis or senescence after an etoposide treatment. Moreover, the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint was deficient in REC1 cells. We observed that three main actors of apoptosis, senescence and cell cycle regulation (cyclin D1, MCL1 and CDC25A) failed to be degraded by the proteasome machinery in REC1 cells. We ruled out a default of the βTrCP E3-ubiquitine ligase but detected a lowered 26S proteasome activity in REC1 cells compared to other cell lines.
CONCLUSION: The resistance of MCL cells to genotoxic stress correlates with a low 26S proteasome activity. This could represent a relevant biomarker for a subtype of MCL patients with a poor response to therapies and a high risk of relapse.

Wu Q, Wang Y, Qian M, et al.
Sirt1 suppresses Wnt/βCatenin signaling in liver cancer cells by targeting βCatenin in a PKAα-dependent manner.
Cell Signal. 2017; 37:62-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here, bioinformatics data from Sirt1 knock-out (KO) and knock-in (KI) mice suggest that Sirt1 inhibits Wnt/βCatenin signaling in the liver. However, it is unclear how this relationship occurs and how it contributes to malignant phenotypes in liver cancer cells. We found that Sirt1 expression promotes phosphorylation of βCatenin at Ser675, which may subsequently decrease expression of total-βCatenin. Mechanistically, Sirt1 expression elevates phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of protein kinase A (PKAα), and this event is essential for Sirt1-induced phosphorylation of βCatenin. The negative effects of Sirt1 on βCatenin stability are also dependent on PKAα. Stimulating PKAα recruits βTrCP, a well-known ubiquitin E3 ligase for βCatenin, to βCatenin. Interestingly, Sirt1 expression is able to up-regulate βTrCP expression. Finally, we found that malignant phenotypes occur in hepatocytes when Sirt1 and βCatenin are co-overexpressed, and such effects are enhanced by simultaneous knockdown of PKAα. In contrast, malignant phenotypes are abrogated upon knockdown of Sirt1, and this phenotype is magnified by knockdown of βCatenin. Collectively, we conclude that suppression of both Sirt1 and Wnt/βCatenin might be effective in treating liver cancer.

Zhang R, Huang SY, Ka-Wai Li K, et al.
Dual degradation signals destruct GLI1: AMPK inhibits GLI1 through β-TrCP-mediated proteasome degradation.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(30):49869-49881 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of the GLI1 gene has frequently been found in various cancer types, particularly in brain tumors, in which aberrant GLI1 induction promotes cancer cell growth. Therefore, identifying the molecular players controlling GLI1 expression is of clinical importance. Previously, we reported that AMPK directly phosphorylated and destabilized GLI1, resulting in the suppression of the Hedgehog signaling pathway. The current study not only demonstrates that AMPK inhibits GLI1 nuclear localization, but further reveals that β-TrCP plays an essential role in AMPK-induced GLI1 degradation. We found that activation of AMPK promotes the interaction between β-TrCP and GLI1, and induces β-TrCP-mediated GLI1-ubiquitination and degradation. Inhibiting AMPK activity results in the dissociation of the β-TrCP and GLI1 interaction, and diminishes β-TrCP-mediated-GLI1 ubiquitination and degradation. On GLI1, substitution of AMPK phosphorylation sites to aspartic acid (GLI13E) results in stronger binding affinity of GLI1 with β-TrCP, accompanied by enhanced GLI1 ubiquitination and later degradation. In contrast, the GLI1 alanine mutant (GLI13A) shows weaker binding with β-TrCP, which is accompanied by reduced β-TrCP-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. Together, these results demonstrate that AMPK regulates GLI1 interaction with β-TrCP by phosphorylating GLI1 and thus both post-translational modifications by AMPK and β-TrCP ultimately impact GLI1 degradation.

Wu HC, Lay IS, Shibu MA, et al.
Zanthoxylum avicennae extract enhances GSK-3β to attenuate β-catenin via phosphatase 2A to block metastatic effects of HA22T cells and hepatocellular carcinoma xenografted nude mice.
Environ Toxicol. 2017; 32(9):2133-2143 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis is often associated with the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Zanthoxylum avicennae (Ying Bu Bo, YBB), a traditional herb with hepatoprotective effect, has been proven to inhibit human HCC in in vivo models however, the in vitro and in vivo effect of YBB on tumor metastasis is not clear yet. To determine whether YBB could inhibit HA22T human HCC cell by acting on β-catenin metastatic signaling in vitro and in vivo, HA22T cells were treated with different concentrations of YBB extracts (YBBE) and analyzed by Immunofluorescence staining assay, western blot analysis, siRNA mediated gene knock-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation assay. Additionally, the HA22T-implanted xenograft nude mice were used to confirm the assessed cellular effects. Mice treated with YBBEs showed a strong increasing trend in PP2Acα, GSK-3β, APC, and β-TrCP/HOS levels, however the expression of β-catenin, p-GSK-3β, TBX 3, and IL8 proteins showed a decreasing trend. YBBE significantly downregulated the nuclear and cytosolic β-catenin levels by facilitating the proteosomal degradation of β-catenin. Moreover, as observed by co-immunoprecipitation assay, YBBE directly promoted the protein interactions between GSK-3β, β-TrCP, APC, PP2A, and β-catenin. In conclusion, both in vitro and in vivo models clearly demonstrated that YBBE inhibits β-catenin involved metastatic signaling in highly metastatic HA22T cells through PP2A activation.

Shi Q, Liu H, Han P, et al.
Genetic Variants in WNT2B and BTRC Predict Melanoma Survival.
J Invest Dermatol. 2017; 137(8):1749-1756 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is the most lethal skin cancer. The Wnt pathway has an impact on development, invasion, and metastasis of CM, thus likely affecting CM prognosis. Using data from a published genome-wide association study from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, we assessed the associations of 19,830 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 151 Wnt pathway autosomal genes with CM-specific survival and then validated significant SNPs in another genome-wide association study from Harvard University. In the single-locus analysis, 1,855 SNPs were significantly associated with CM-specific survival at P < 0.05, of which 547 SNPs were still considered noteworthy after the correction by the false-positive report probability. In the replication, two SNPs remained significantly associated with CM-specific survival after multiple comparison correction. By performing functional prediction and stepwise selection, we identified two independent SNPs (i.e., WNT2B rs1175649 G>T and BTRC rs61873997 G>A) that showed a predictive role in CM-specific survival, with an effect-allele-attributed hazards ratio (adjusted hazards ratio) of 1.99 (95% confidence interval = 1.41-2.81, P = 8.10 × 10

Zhang X, Qiao Y, Wu Q, et al.
The essential role of YAP O-GlcNAcylation in high-glucose-stimulated liver tumorigenesis.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8:15280 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
O-GlcNAcylation has been implicated in the tumorigenesis of various tissue origins, but its function in liver tumorigenesis is not clear. Here, we demonstrate that O-GlcNAcylation can enhance the expression, stability and function of Yes-associated protein (YAP), the downstream transcriptional regulator of the Hippo pathway and a potent oncogenic factor in liver cancer. O-GlcNAcylation induces transformative phenotypes of liver cancer cells in a YAP-dependent manner. An O-GlcNAc site of YAP was identified at Thr241, and mutating this site decreased the O-GlcNAcylation, stability, and pro-tumorigenic capacities of YAP, while increasing YAP phosphorylation. Importantly, we found via in vitro cell-based and in vivo mouse model experiments that O-GlcNAcylation of YAP was required for high-glucose-induced liver tumorigenesis. Interestingly, a positive feedback between YAP and global cellular O-GlcNAcylation is also uncovered. We conclude that YAP O-GlcNAcylation is a potential therapeutic intervention point for treating liver cancer associated with high blood glucose levels and possibly diabetes.

Diamantopoulou Z, White G, Fadlullah MZH, et al.
TIAM1 Antagonizes TAZ/YAP Both in the Destruction Complex in the Cytoplasm and in the Nucleus to Inhibit Invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells.
Cancer Cell. 2017; 31(5):621-634.e6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant WNT signaling drives colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we identify TIAM1 as a critical antagonist of CRC progression through inhibiting TAZ and YAP, effectors of WNT signaling. We demonstrate that TIAM1 shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus antagonizing TAZ/YAP by distinct mechanisms in the two compartments. In the cytoplasm, TIAM1 localizes to the destruction complex and promotes TAZ degradation by enhancing its interaction with βTrCP. Nuclear TIAM1 suppresses TAZ/YAP interaction with TEADs, inhibiting expression of TAZ/YAP target genes implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell migration, and invasion, and consequently suppresses CRC cell migration and invasion. Importantly, high nuclear TIAM1 in clinical specimens associates with increased CRC patient survival. Together, our findings suggest that in CRC TIAM1 suppresses tumor progression by regulating YAP/TAZ activity.

Wang F, Huang W, Hu X, et al.
Transcription factor AP-2β suppresses cervical cancer cell proliferation by promoting the degradation of its interaction partner β-catenin.
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(8):1909-1923 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcription factor AP-2β mediates the transcription of a number of genes implicated in mammalian development, cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Although the expression pattern of AP-2β has been analyzed in cervical cancer cell lines, the functions and molecular mechanism of AP-2β are unknown. Here, we found that AP-2β significantly inhibits TCF/LEF reporter activity. Moreover, AP-2β and β-catenin interact both in vitro through GST pull-down assays and in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation. We further identified the interaction regions to the DNA-binding domain of AP-2β and the 1-9 Armadillo repeats of β-catenin. Moreover, AP-2β binds with β-TrCP and promotes the degradation of endogenous β-catenin via the proteasomal degradation pathway. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed a negative correlation between the two proteins in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. Finally, functional analysis showed that AP-2β suppresses cervical cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the expression of Wnt downstream genes. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that AP-2β functions as a novel inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in cervical cancer.

Zhao D, Lu X, Wang G, et al.
Synthetic essentiality of chromatin remodelling factor CHD1 in PTEN-deficient cancer.
Nature. 2017; 542(7642):484-488 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Synthetic lethality and collateral lethality are two well-validated conceptual strategies for identifying therapeutic targets in cancers with tumour-suppressor gene deletions. Here, we explore an approach to identify potential synthetic-lethal interactions by screening mutually exclusive deletion patterns in cancer genomes. We sought to identify 'synthetic-essential' genes: those that are occasionally deleted in some cancers but are almost always retained in the context of a specific tumour-suppressor deficiency. We also posited that such synthetic-essential genes would be therapeutic targets in cancers that harbour specific tumour-suppressor deficiencies. In addition to known synthetic-lethal interactions, this approach uncovered the chromatin helicase DNA-binding factor CHD1 as a putative synthetic-essential gene in PTEN-deficient cancers. In PTEN-deficient prostate and breast cancers, CHD1 depletion profoundly and specifically suppressed cell proliferation, cell survival and tumorigenic potential. Mechanistically, functional PTEN stimulates the GSK3β-mediated phosphorylation of CHD1 degron domains, which promotes CHD1 degradation via the β-TrCP-mediated ubiquitination-proteasome pathway. Conversely, PTEN deficiency results in stabilization of CHD1, which in turn engages the trimethyl lysine-4 histone H3 modification to activate transcription of the pro-tumorigenic TNF-NF-κB gene network. This study identifies a novel PTEN pathway in cancer and provides a framework for the discovery of 'trackable' targets in cancers that harbour specific tumour-suppressor deficiencies.

Xu J, Zhou W, Yang F, et al.
The β-TrCP-FBXW2-SKP2 axis regulates lung cancer cell growth with FBXW2 acting as a tumour suppressor.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8:14002 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
β-TrCP and SKP2 are two well-studied F-box proteins, which often act as oncogenes. Whether and how they communicate with each other is unknown. Here we report that FBXW2, a poorly characterized F-box, is a substrate of β-TrCP1 and an E3 ligase for SKP2. While β-TrCP1 promotes FBXW2 ubiquitylation and shortens its half-life, FBXW2 does the same to SKP2. FBXW2 has tumour suppressor activity against lung cancer cells and blocks oncogenic function of both β-TrCP1 and SKP2. The levels of β-TrCP1-FBXW2-SKP2 are inversely correlated during cell cycle with FBXW2 and β-TrCP/SKP2 being high or low, respectively, in arrested cells, whereas the opposite is true in proliferating cells. Consistently, FBXW2 predicts a better patient survival, whereas β-TrCP1 and SKP2 predict a worse survival. Finally, the gain- and loss-of-function mutations of FBXW2 are found in various human cancers. Collectively, our data show that the β-TrCP-FBXW2-SKP2 axis forms an oncogene-tumour suppressor-oncogene cascade to control cancer cell growth with FBXW2 acting as a tumour suppressor by promoting SKP2 degradation.

Zhang Y, Wang W, Cai S, et al.
Reciprocal regulation between βTrCP and Smurf1 suppresses proliferative capacity of liver cancer cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2017; 232(12):3347-3359 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously reported that both the ubiquitin E3 ligases βTrCP (beta-transducin repeat-containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase) and Smurf1 (SMAD-specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1) play similar antitumorigenic roles in liver cancer cells. However, whether and how they are reciprocally regulated remains elusive. Here, we show that βTrCP interacts with Smurf1 through the 7 × tryptophan (W) aspartic acid (D)(WD) 40 and the region homologous to the E6-AP carboxyl terminus (HECT) domains, which are the E3 ligase domains of βTrCP and Smurf1, respectively. The E3 ligase domains of βTrCP and Smurf1 are also critical for maintaining the protein expressions of Smurf1 and βTrCP. Moreover, a positive correlation between βTrCP and Smurf1 was also revealed by tissue microarray analysis, indicating that this relationship might be important in liver cancer. Further, we found that Smurf1 increases the protein stability of βTrCP, possibly by reducing autoubiquitination of βTrCP, and vice versa. Interestingly, such effects depended on the presence of E3 ligase domains. Importantly, depletion of Smurf1- or βTrCP-enhanced proliferative capacity of liver cancer cells could be partially reversed by overexpression of wild-type βTrCP or Smurf1 but not their E3 ligase-dead mutants. Collectively, a reciprocal post-translational regulation between βTrCP and Smurf1 has been uncovered in this study. Simultaneous enhancement of βTrCP and Smurf1 functions might be helpful in the treatment of liver cancer.

Yang Y, Zhang Y, Qu X, et al.
Identification of differentially expressed genes in the development of osteosarcoma using RNA-seq.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(52):87194-87205 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a malignant bone tumor with high morbidity in young adults and adolescents. This study aimed to discover potential early diagnosis biomarkers in OS.
RESULTS: In total, 111 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in primary OS compared with normal controls and 235 DEGs were identified in metastatic OS compared with primary OS. AURKB and PPP2R2B were the significantly up-regulated and down-regulated hub proteins, respectively, in the PPI protein-protein network (PPI) network of primary OS. ISG15 and BTRC were the significantly up-regulated and down-regulated hub proteins, respectively, in the network of metastatic OS. The DEGs in metastatic OS compared with primary OS were significantly enriched in the arachidonic acid metabolism, malaria, and chemokine signaling pathways. Finally, we employed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to validate the expression levels of candidate DEGs and the results indicated that our bioinformatics approach was acceptable.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mRNA expression profiling of 20 subjects was obtained through high-throughput RNA-sequencing. DEGs were identified between primary OS and normal Control, and between primary OS and metastatic OS, respectively. Functional annotation and PPI networks were used to obtain insights into the functions of DEGs. qRT-PCR was performed to detect the expression levels of dysregulated genes in OS.
CONCLUSIONS: Our work might provide groundwork for the further exploration of tumorigenesis and metastasis mechanisms of OS.

Wang N, Wang X, Tan HY, et al.
Berberine Suppresses Cyclin D1 Expression through Proteasomal Degradation in Human Hepatoma Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study is to explore the underlying mechanism on berberine-induced Cyclin D1 degradation in human hepatic carcinoma. We observed that berberine could suppress both in vitro and in vivo expression of Cyclin D1 in hepatoma cells. Berberine exhibits dose- and time-dependent inhibition on Cyclin D1 expression in human hepatoma cell HepG2. Berberine increases the phosphorylation of Cyclin D1 at Thr286 site and potentiates Cyclin D1 nuclear export to cytoplasm for proteasomal degradation. In addition, berberine recruits the Skp, Cullin, F-box containing complex-β-Transducin Repeat Containing Protein (SCF

Wang S, Zhang Y, Wang Y, et al.
Amphiregulin Confers Regulatory T Cell Suppressive Function and Tumor Invasion via the EGFR/GSK-3β/Foxp3 Axis.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(40):21085-21095 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous studies mainly focused on the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in tumor cells, whereas the effects of the EGFR on immune responses has not been determined. Our study shows that the EGFR signaling pathway play a role in the regulation of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in cancer patients. The EGF-like growth factor Amphiregulin (AREG) protein was frequently up-regulated in a tissue microarray, which was associated with worse overall survival. Additionally, in sera, tissue specimens, and effusions of lung or gastric cancer patients, up-regulated AREG protein enhanced the suppressive function of Treg cells. AREG maintained the Treg cell suppressive function via the EGFR/GSK-3β/Foxp3 axis in vitro and in vivo Furthermore, inhibition of EGFR by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib restored the activity of GSK-3β and attenuated Treg cell function. β-TrCP was involved in GSK-3β-mediated Foxp3 degradation, and mass spectrometry identified Lys

Bi H, Tian T, Zhu L, et al.
Copy number variation of E3 ubiquitin ligase genes in peripheral blood leukocyte and colorectal cancer.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:29869 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Given that E3 ubiquitin ligases (E3) regulate specific protein degradation in many cancer-related biological processes. E3 copy number variation (CNV) may affect the development and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, we detected CNVs of five E3 genes in 518 CRC patients and 518 age, gender and residence matched controls in China, and estimated the association between E3 gene CNVs and CRC risk and prognosis. We also estimated their interactions with environmental factors and CRC risk. We find a significant association between the CNVs of MDM2 and CRC risk (amp v.s. wt: odds ratio = 14.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 163.74, P = 0.032), while SKP2 CNVs may significantly decrease CRC risk (del v.s. wt: odds ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval: 0.10, 1.00, P = 0.050). However, we find no significant association between the CNVs of other genes and CRC risk. The only significant gene-environment interaction effects are between SKP2 CNVs and consumption of fish and/or fruit (P = 0.014 and P = 0.035) and between FBXW7 CNVs and pork intake (P = 0.040). Finally, we find marginally significant association between β-TRCP CNVs and CRC prognosis (amp v.s. wt, hazard ratio = 0.42, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.97, P = 0.050).

Chen YJ, Liu WH, Chang LS
Hydroquinone-induced FOXP3-ADAM17-Lyn-Akt-p21 signaling axis promotes malignant progression of human leukemia U937 cells.
Arch Toxicol. 2017; 91(2):983-997 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol; HQ), a major marrow metabolite of the leukemogen benzene, has been proven to evoke benzene-related hematological disorders and myelotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. The goal of the present study was to explore the role of FOXP3 in HQ-induced malignant progression of U937 human leukemia cells. U937 cells were treated with 5 μM HQ for 24 h, and the cells were re-suspended in serum-containing medium without HQ for 2 days. The same procedure was repeated three times, and the resulting U937/HQ cells were maintained in cultured medium containing 5 μM HQ. Proliferation and colony formation of U937/HQ cells were notably higher than those of U937 cells. Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase-mediated demethylation of the Treg-specific demethylated region in FOXP3 gene resulted in higher FOXP3 expression in U937/HQ cells than in U937 cells. FOXP3-induced miR-183 expression reduced β-TrCP mRNA stability and suppressed β-TrCP-mediated Sp1 degradation, leading to up-regulation of Sp1 expression in U937/HQ cells. Sp1 up-regulation further increased ADAM17 and Lyn expression, and ADAM17 up-regulation stimulated Lyn activation in U937/HQ cells. Moreover, U937/HQ cells showed higher Lyn-mediated Akt activation and cytoplasmic p21 expression than U937 cells did. Abolishment of Akt activation decreased cytoplasmic p21 expression in U937/HQ cells. Suppression of FOXP3, ADAM17, and Lyn expression, as well as Akt inactivation, repressed proliferation and clonogenicity of U937/HQ cells. Together with the finding that cytoplasmic p21 shows anti-apoptotic and oncogenic activities in cancer cells, the present data suggest a role of FOXP3/ADAM17/Lyn/Akt/p21 signaling axis in HQ-induced hematological disorders.

Chen YF, Velmurugan BK, Wang HL, et al.
Estrogen and ERα enhanced β-catenin degradation and suppressed its downstream target genes to block the metastatic function of HA22T hepatocellular carcinoma cells via modulating GSK-3β and β-TrCP expression.
Environ Toxicol. 2017; 32(2):519-529 [PubMed] Related Publications
In our previous experiments, we found β-catenin was highly expressed in the tumor area with high invasive ability and poor prognosis. In this study, we have examined the mechanism by which ERα regulates β-catenin expression as well as the metastasis ability of hepatocellular cancer HA22T cells. To identify whether the anticancer effect of estrogen and ERα is mediated through suppression of β-catenin expression, we co-transfected pCMV-β-catenin and ERα into HA22T cells, and determined the cell motility by wound healing, invasion, and migration assays. Results showed that estrogen and/or ERα inhibited β-catenin gene expression and repressed HA22T cell motility demonstrated that similar data was observed in cells expressing the ERα stable clone. Moreover, we examined the protein-protein interaction between ERα and β-catenin by immunostain, co-immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting. E2 enhanced the binding of ERα with β-catenin and then triggered β-catenin to bind with E3 ligase (βTrCP) to promote β-catenin degradation. Finally by employing systematic ChIP studies, we showed ERα can interact directly with the β-catenin promoter region following E2 treatment. All our results reveal that estrogen and ERα blocked metastatic function of HA22T cells by modulating GSK3β and βTrCP expression and further enhanced β-catenin degradation and suppressed its downstream target genes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 519-529, 2017.

Taniue K, Kurimoto A, Sugimasa H, et al.
Long noncoding RNA UPAT promotes colon tumorigenesis by inhibiting degradation of UHRF1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(5):1273-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are reported to be dysregulated in human cancers and play critical roles in tumor development and progression. Furthermore, it has been reported that many lncRNAs regulate gene expression by recruiting chromatin remodeling complexes to specific genomic loci or by controlling transcriptional or posttranscriptional processes. Here we show that an lncRNA termed UPAT [ubiquitin-like plant homeodomain (PHD) and really interesting new gene (RING) finger domain-containing protein 1 (UHRF1) Protein Associated Transcript] is required for the survival and tumorigenicity of colorectal cancer cells. UPAT interacts with and stabilizes the epigenetic factor UHRF1 by interfering with its β-transducin repeat-containing protein (TrCP)-mediated ubiquitination. Furthermore, we demonstrate that UHRF1 up-regulates Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 and Sprouty 4, which are required for the survival of colon tumor cells. Our study provides evidence for an lncRNA that regulates protein ubiquitination and degradation and thereby plays a critical role in the survival and tumorigenicity of tumor cells. Our results suggest that UPAT and UHRF1 may be promising molecular targets for the therapy of colon cancer.

Harder B, Jiang T, Wu T, et al.
Molecular mechanisms of Nrf2 regulation and how these influence chemical modulation for disease intervention.
Biochem Soc Trans. 2015; 43(4):680-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nrf2 (nuclear factor erytheroid-derived-2-like 2) transcriptional programmes are activated by a variety of cellular stress conditions to maintain cellular homoeostasis. Under non-stress conditions, Nrf2 is under tight regulation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Detailed mechanistic investigations have shown the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-cullin3 (Cul3)-ring-box1 (Rbx1) E3-ligase to be the primary Nrf2 regulatory system. Recently, both beta-transducin repeat-containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (β-TrCP) and E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase synoviolin (Hrd1) have been identified as novel E3 ubiquitin ligases that negatively regulate Nrf2 through Keap1-independent mechanisms. In addition to UPS-mediated regulation of Nrf2, investigations have revealed a cross-talk between Nrf2 and the autophagic pathway resulting in activation of Nrf2 in a non-canonical manner. In addition to regulation at the protein level, Nrf2 was recently shown to be regulated at the transcriptional level by oncogenic K-rat sarcoma (Ras). A consequence of these differential regulatory mechanisms is the dual role of Nrf2 in cancer: the canonical, protective role and the non-canonical 'dark-side' of Nrf2. Based on the protective role of Nrf2, a vast effort has been dedicated towards identifying novel chemical inducers of Nrf2 for the purpose of chemoprevention. On the other hand, upon malignant transformation, some cancer cells have a constitutively high level of Nrf2 offering a growth advantage, as well as rendering cancer cells resistant to chemotherapeutics. This discovery has led to a new paradigm in cancer treatment; the initially counterintuitive use of Nrf2 inhibitors as adjuvants in chemotherapy. Herein, we will discuss the mechanisms of Nrf2 regulation and how this detailed molecular understanding can be leveraged to develop Nrf2 modulators to prevent diseases, mitigate disease progression or overcome chemoresistance.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. BTRC, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999