Research IndicatorsGraph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: CASP10 (cancer-related)
Chung J, Karkhanis V, Tae S, et al.Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) inhibition induces lymphoma cell death through reactivation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor pathway and polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) silencing.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(49):35534-47 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic regulation mediated by lysine- and arginine-specific enzymes plays an essential role in tumorigenesis, and enhanced expression of the type II protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 as well as the polycomb repressor complex PRC2 has been associated with increased cell proliferation and survival. Here, we show that PRMT5 is overexpressed in three different types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines and clinical samples as well as in mouse primary lymphoma cells and that it up-regulates PRC2 expression through inactivation of the retinoblastoma proteins RB1 and RBL2. Although PRMT5 epigenetically controls RBL2 expression, it indirectly promotes RB1 phosphorylation through enhanced cyclin D1 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PRMT5 knockdown in non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines and mouse primary lymphoma cells leads to RBL2 derepression and RB1 reactivation, which in turn inhibit PRC2 expression and trigger derepression of its CASP10, DAP1, HOXA5, and HRK pro-apoptotic target genes. We also show that reduced PRMT5 expression leads to cyclin D1 transcriptional repression via loss of TP53K372 methylation, which results in decreased BCL3 expression and enhanced recruitment of NF-κB p52-HDAC1 repressor complexes to the cyclin D1 promoter. These findings indicate that PRMT5 is a master epigenetic regulator that governs expression of its own target genes and those regulated by PRC2 and that its inhibition could offer a promising therapeutic strategy for lymphoma patients.
The expression of apoptosis genes in a commercial pre-designed low-density array from Applied Biosystems was evaluated in two human brain cancer cell models, LN-18 and Daoy (HTB-186™) in comparison to the reference human primary endothelial cells under basic conditions. Analysis of the gene expression in the cancer cell lines compared to the normal control revealed features reflecting anti-apoptotic and inflammatory characteristics of the former. There was an overall downregulation of apoptosis-stimulating genes in both cancer cell lines, along with an upregulation of certain apoptosis inhibitors. A number of genes demonstrated statistically significant changes in their expressions, including BAX (BCL2-associated X protein); the CARD4/NLR family, CARD domain containing 4; CASP10 (caspase 10, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase); DAP1 (death-associated protein kinase 1), and BIRC5 (baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 5). Anti-apoptotic potential in both cell lines was demonstrated by changes in the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and downregulation of the APAF1 gene in LN18 cells. There was also significant downregulation of extrinsic signals and the TNF/FADD/inflammatory cascade, and upregulation of caspase inhibitors (IAPs). These results provided a novel molecular characterization of important human cancer cell lines, which might provide a useful research tool for investigating the experimental model of the CNS cell.
Kim SJ, Sohn I, Do IG, et al.Gene expression profiles for the prediction of progression-free survival in diffuse large B cell lymphoma: results of a DASL assay.
Ann Hematol. 2014; 93(3):437-47 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We performed the whole genome cDNA-mediated annealing, selection and ligation assay with 164 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples to develop robust prognostic gene expression profiles in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The prognostic gene expression profiles were developed and validated by a gradient lasso and leave-one-out cross-validation process. We identified a set of genes whose expression provided prognostic indicators from whole data set (PRKCDBP, CASP10, FAM3C, KCNK12, MAN1A2, PRND, RAB1A, TMEM39B, SLC6A6, MMP12, FEM1B, C3orh37, RBP1, HK1, LOC400464, KIAA0746, and SLC25A23). This gene expression profile-based risk model could classify patients into two cross-validated risk groups with a significant difference in 5-year progression-free survival rates (71.1 vs. 45.5 %) and with a hazard ratio for recurrence of 2.45 (95 % CI, 1.44-4.16, P = 0.001). This model provided prognostic information independent of the International Prognostic Index (IPI), and discriminated high-risk group from patients belong to high/high-intermediate risk of IPI and activated B cell-like type. Thus, gene expression profiling from FFPE could provide additional prognostic information for diffuse large B cell lymphoma and our data underscore the need for development of risk-adapted treatment strategies based on gene expression profiles.
Populations in north central China are at high risk for gastric cancers (GC), and altered FAS-mediated cell signaling and/or apoptosis may contribute to this risk. We examined the association of 554 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 53 Fas signaling-related genes using a pathway-based approach in 1758 GC cases (1126 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCA) and 632 gastric noncardia adenocarcinomas (GNCA)), and 2111 controls from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of GC in ethnic Chinese. SNP associations with risk of overall GC, GCA and GNCA were evaluated using unconditional logistic regressions controlling for age, sex and study. Gene- and pathway-based associations were tested using the adaptive rank-truncated product (ARTP) method. Statistical significance was evaluated empirically by permutation. Significant pathway-based associations were observed for Fas signaling with risk of overall GC (p = 5.5E-04) and GCA (p = 6.3E-03), but not GNCA (p= 8.1E-02). Among examined genes in the Fas signaling pathway, MAP2K4, FAF1, MAPK8, CASP10, CASP8, CFLAR, MAP2K1, CAP8AP2, PAK2 and IKBKB were associated with risk of GC (nominal p < 0.05), and FAF1 and MAPK8 were significantly associated with risk of both GCA and GNCA (nominal p< 0.05). Our examination of genetic variation in the Fas signaling pathway is consistent with an association of altered Fas signaling and/or apoptosis with risk of GC. As one of the first attempts to investigate a pathway-level association, our results suggest that these genes and the Fas signaling pathway warrant further evaluation in relation to GC risk in other populations.
The role of Pokemon (POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic actor), a recently identified POK transcription factor with proto-oncogenic activity, in hepatocellular carcinogenesis has only been assessed by a few studies. Our previous study revealed that Pokemon is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and promotes HCC cell proliferation and migration via an AKT- and ERK- dependent manner. In the present study, we used the TUNEL assay and FACS analysis to demonstrate that oxaliplatin induced apoptosis was significantly increased in cells with silenced Pokemon. Western blots showed that p53 expression and phosphorylation were significantly increased in Pokemon defective cells, thereby initiating the mitochondria-mediated and death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathways. In the mitochondria-mediated pathway, expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members (including Bad, Bid, Bim and Puma) as well as AIF was increased and decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential resulted in cytochrome C released from mitochondrial in HepG2 si-Pokemon cells. In addition, upon oxaliplatin treatment of Pokemon-silenced cells, the FAS receptor, FADD and their downstream targets caspase-10 and caspase-8 were activated, causing increased release of caspase-8 active fragments p18 and p10. Increased activated caspase-8-mediated cleavage and activation of downstream effector caspases such as caspase-9 and caspase-3 was observed in HepG2 si-Pokemon cells as compared to control. Therefore, Pokemon might serve as an important mediator of crosstalk between intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in HCC cells. Moreover, our findings suggest that Pokemon could be an attractive therapeutic target gene for human cancer therapy.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have previously identified 13 loci associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL). To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted the largest meta-analysis for CLL thus far, including four GWAS with a total of 3,100 individuals with CLL (cases) and 7,667 controls. In the meta-analysis, we identified ten independent associated SNPs in nine new loci at 10q23.31 (ACTA2 or FAS (ACTA2/FAS), P=1.22×10(-14)), 18q21.33 (BCL2, P=7.76×10(-11)), 11p15.5 (C11orf21, P=2.15×10(-10)), 4q25 (LEF1, P=4.24×10(-10)), 2q33.1 (CASP10 or CASP8 (CASP10/CASP8), P=2.50×10(-9)), 9p21.3 (CDKN2B-AS1, P=1.27×10(-8)), 18q21.32 (PMAIP1, P=2.51×10(-8)), 15q15.1 (BMF, P=2.71×10(-10)) and 2p22.2 (QPCT, P=1.68×10(-8)), as well as an independent signal at an established locus (2q13, ACOXL, P=2.08×10(-18)). We also found evidence for two additional promising loci below genome-wide significance at 8q22.3 (ODF1, P=5.40×10(-8)) and 5p15.33 (TERT, P=1.92×10(-7)). Although further studies are required, the proximity of several of these loci to genes involved in apoptosis suggests a plausible underlying biological mechanism.
Pan Q, Chen M, Li J, et al.Antitumor function and mechanism of phycoerythrin from Porphyra haitanensis.
Biol Res. 2013; 46(1):87-95 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The anti-tumor effect of R-Phycoerythrin (R-PE) from Porphyra haitanensis was studied using cell line HeLa as an in vitro model and Sarcoma-180 (S180) tumor-bearing mice as an in vivo model. The results showed that the combination treatment of R-PE and photodynamic therapy PDT) significantly inhibited the growth of HeLa cells up to 81.5%, with a fair dose-effect relationship, but did not inhibit endothelial cells. The annexin v-fitc/PI fluorescence staining experiments demonstrated that at doses between 0~60µg/mL, apoptosis cells and later stage apoptosis cells or necrosis cells increased significantly as the R-PE dosage increased. DNA electrophoresis showed that after R-PE+PDT treatment of HeLa cells for 24 hours, a light "smear" band between 100~400bp appeared to indicate the degradation of genomic DNA. The QRT-PCR results showed that R-PE+PDT treatment increased caspase-3 and caspase-10 gene expression and decreased the Bcl-2 gene expression level significantly as the R-PE dose increased, implying that R-PE promoted HeLa cell apoptosis. Compared with untreated S180 tumor-bearing mice, R-PE injection significantly inhibited the growth of S180 in tumor-bearing mice up to 41.3% at a dose of 300mg-kg⁻¹. Simultaneously, the significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum (p < 0.01) and the decrease of the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in liver suggests that R-PE improved the anti-oxidant ability of the S180 tumor-bearing mice, which may related to its antitumor effect. In addition, the R-PE caused a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the spleen index and thymus index, and a significant increase (p < 0.01) in lymphocyte proliferation, NK cell kill activity and the TNF-α level in the serum of S180 tumor-bearing mice. These results strongly suggest that the antitumor effect of R-PE from Porphyra haitanensis functioned by increasing the immunity and antioxidant ability of S180 tumor-bearing mice, promoting apoptosis by increasing protease gene expression and TNF-α secretion.
Youn H, Jeong JC, Jeong YS, et al.Quercetin potentiates apoptosis by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappaB signaling in H460 lung cancer cells.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2013; 36(6):944-51 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The herbal flavonoid quercetin inhibits the growth of various cancer cells, but how it affects human cancer cells, particularly lung cancer cells, is unclear. We investigated the anticancer activity of quercetin and the underlying molecular mechanisms in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Quercetin strongly inhibited cell proliferation, and increased sub-G1 and apoptotic cell populations regardless of p53 status. Quercetin-induced apoptosis was verified by caspase cleavage, Hoechst staining, trypan blue exclusion, and DNA fragmentation assays. Microarray analysis using H460 cells indicated that quercetin increased the expression of genes associated with death receptor signaling tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAILR), caspase-10, interleukin (IL) 1R DNA fragmentation faotor 45 (DFF45), tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 1, FAS, inhibitor of kappaBalpha (IκBα)) and cell cycle inhibition growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible 45 (GADD45), p21(Cip1)), but decreased the expression of genes involved in nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation (NF-κB, IKKα). Further validation assays confirmed that quercetin inhibited growth by suppressing NF-κB and by increasing the expression of death receptors and cell cycle inhibitors. Taken together, these findings suggest that quercetin may be useful in the prevention and therapy of NSCLC.
We performed a loss-of-function RNA interference screen to define therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma, a genetically diverse plasma cell malignancy. Unexpectedly, we discovered that all myeloma lines require caspase-10 for survival irrespective of their genetic abnormalities. The transcription factor IRF4 induces both caspase-10 and its associated protein cFLIPL in myeloma, generating a protease that does not induce apoptosis but rather blocks an autophagy-dependent cell death pathway. Caspase-10 inhibits autophagy by cleaving the BCL2-interacting protein BCLAF1, itself a strong inducer of autophagy that acts by displacing beclin-1 from BCL2. While myeloma cells require a basal level of autophagy for survival, caspase-10 tempers this response to avoid cell death. Drugs that disrupt this vital balance may have therapeutic potential in myeloma.
The initiators caspase-9 (CASP9) and caspase-10 (CASP10) are two key controllers of apoptosis and play important roles in carcinogenesis. This study aims to explore the association between CASPs gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility in a population-based study. A two-stage designed population-based case-control study was carried out, including a testing set with 300 cases and 296 controls and a validation set with 206 cases and 845 controls. A total of eight tag selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CASP9 and CASP10 were chosen based on HapMap and the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) datasets and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the association of SNPs with CRC risk. In the first stage, from eight tag SNPs, three polymorphisms rs4646077 (odds ratio (OR)(AA+AG): 0.654, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.406-1.055; P=0.082), rs4233532 (OR(CC): 1.667, 95% CI: 0.967-2.876; OR(CT): 1.435, 95% CI: 0.998-2.063; P=0.077), and rs2881930 (OR(CC): 0.263, 95% CI: 0.095-0.728, P=0.036) showed possible association with CRC risk. However, none of the three SNPs, rs4646077 (OR(AA+AG): 1.233, 95% CI: 0.903-1.683), rs4233532 (OR(CC): 0.892, 95% CI: 0.640-1.243; OR(CT): 1.134, 95% CI: 0.897-1.433), and rs2881930 (OR(CC): 1.096, 95% CI: 0.620-1.938; OR(CT): 1.009, 95% CI: 0.801-1.271), remained significant with CRC risk in the validation set, even after stratification for different tumor locations (colon or rectum). In addition, never tea drinking was associated with a significantly increased risk of CRC in testing set together with validation set (OR: 1.755, 95% CI: 1.319-2.334). Our results found that polymorphisms of CASP9 and CASP10 genes may not contribute to CRC risk in Chinese population and thereby the large-scale case-control studies might be in consideration. In addition, tea drinking was a protective factor for CRC.
Yan S, Li YZ, Zhu JW, et al.Role of CASP-10 gene polymorphisms in cancer susceptibility: a HuGE review and meta-analysis.
Genet Mol Res. 2012; 11(4):3998-4007 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We investigated a possible association between CASP-10 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to cancer through a meta-analysis. Eight studies with a total of 29,936 cancer cases and 34,041 healthy controls were included. Meta-analysis results showed that the rs13006529 T carrier was significantly associated with increased cancer risk (OR = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.01-1.36, P = 0.03). However, rs3900115 and rs13010627 showed no association with cancer susceptibility (all P > 0.05). In the subgroup analysis by cancer type, we found that the rs13006529 T carrier was a risk factor for breast cancer (OR = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.01-1.36, P = 0.03). Similarly, no association was found between CASP-10 polymorphisms and susceptibility to lymphoma, myeloma, melanoma, or lung cancer (all P > 0.05). This meta-analysis suggests that the rs13006529 T carrier in the CASP-10 gene might be a risk factor for cancer susceptibility, especially for breast cancer.
Qian J, Qu HQ, Yang L, et al.Association between CASP8 and CASP10 polymorphisms and toxicity outcomes with platinum-based chemotherapy in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncologist. 2012; 17(12):1551-61 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Caspase-8 and caspase-10 play crucial roles in both cancer development and chemotherapy efficacy. In this study, we aimed to comprehensively assess single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the caspase-8 (CASP8) and caspase-10 (CASP10) genes in relation to toxicity outcomes with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We genotyped 13 tag SNPs of CASP8 and CASP10 in 663 patients with advanced NSCLC treated with platinum-based chemotherapy regimens. Associations between SNPs and chemotherapy toxicity outcomes were identified in a discovery set of 279 patients and then validated in an independent set of 384 patients. In both the discovery and validation sets, variant homozygotes of CASP8 rs12990906 and heterozygotes of CASP8 rs3769827 and CASP10 rs11674246 and rs3731714 had a significantly lower risk for severe toxicity overall. However, only the association with the rs12990906 variant was replicated in the validation set for hematological toxicity risk. In a stratified analysis, we found that some other SNPs, including rs3769821, rs3769825, rs7608692, and rs12613347, were significantly associated with severe toxicity risk in some subgroups, such as in nonsmoking patients, patients with adenocarcinoma, and patients treated with cisplatin combinations. Consistent results were also found in haplotype analyses. Our results provide novel evidence that polymorphisms in CASP8 and CASP10 may modulate toxicity outcomes in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. If validated, the findings will facilitate the genotype-based selection of platinum-based chemotherapy regimens.
Gu S, Wu Q, Zhao X, et al.Association of CASP3 polymorphism with hematologic toxicity in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
Cancer Sci. 2012; 103(8):1451-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Apoptosis is a distinct mode of cell death that is responsible for the deletion of cells in tumors and in normal tissues. We pursued a pathway-based approach to investigate the association of potentially functional genetic polymorphisms of the corresponding genes with the outcomes of platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer was used for genotyping 10 polymorphisms of eight apoptosis-related genes, including BCL2 rs1801018, rs1564483, rs2279115, BAX rs4645878, caspase (CASP3) rs6948, CASP8 rs3834129, CASP10 rs13006529, rs3900115, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) rs1800629, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) rs755622. The associations between these single nucleotide polymorphisms and the outcomes of 445 advanced NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy were evaluated. The CASP3 rs6948 polymorphism was most significantly associated with hematologic toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The incidence of severe hematologic toxicity was significantly lower in C allele carriers (P = 0.005; odds ratio = 0.524; 95% confidence interval = 0.333-0.824) and still significant after a Bonferroni correction. The function of this single nucleotide polymorphism in gene expression was also investigated. Quantitative PCR showed that individuals with the C allele had lower levels of CASP3 transcripts in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Luciferase reporter assays showed that the minor C allele significantly decreased the reporter gene expression level. In addition, the TNFα rs1800629 mutant allele significantly elevated gastrointestinal toxicity (P = 0.020; odds ratio = 3.020; 95% confidence interval = 1.188-7.676), when compared to the wild-type homozygote. No other association was found. In conclusion, for the first time, our study suggests that CASP3 rs6948 might influence CASP3 expression and be associated with severe hematologic toxicity risk.
Zhang CJ, Shen ZJ, Pan CW, et al.Engagement of integrinβ1 induces resistance of bladder cancer cells to mitomycin-C.
Urology. 2012; 79(3):638-43 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To identify whether integrinβ1 subunit is responsible for the resistance of bladder cancer cell to the therapeutic drug mitomycin-C (MMC), when grown on fibronectin (FN).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of integrinβ1 on bladder cancer T24 and 5637 cells was examined by the flow cytometer. The adhesion of cells to plates with the absence or presence of FN was determined. Analysis of apoptosis induced by MMC was assessed using the flow cytometer in combination with an integrinβ1-blocking antibody or siRNA targeting the coding region of integrinβ1. Western blot was used to study the expression change of integrinβ1 and its downstream molecules.
RESULTS: Bladder cancer T24 and 5637 cells express high level of integrinβ1 (87.3% ± 2.3 and 90.1% ± 1.9, respectively). Cellular adhesion to FN was significantly reduced by the blocking of integrinβ1. Blocking or silencing of integrinβ1 significantly abolished the drug resistance of cells grown on FN to MMC (P <.05) and inhibited the activation of survival signals phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3-K)/Akt.
CONCLUSION: Integrinβ1-mediated cellular adhesion to FN confers drug resistance to MMC on bladder cancer cells. Knockdown of integrinβ1 may abolish the drug resistance phenotype and sensitize bladder cancer cells to MMC.
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is used in the treatment of breast carcinoma because it substantially reduces the size of the primary tumor and lymph node metastases. The present study investigated biomarkers that can predict a pathologic response to the therapy.
MATERIAL/METHODS: The role of apoptosis in regression of the tumors after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was determined by TUNEL and anti-active caspase 3 assay. The transcriptional profile of 84 key apoptosis genes was evaluated in both pre-therapeutically obtained tumor tissue by core needle biopsy and in specimens removed by final surgery, using a pathway-specific real-time PCR assay. Obtained data were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis and correlation analysis. The immunohistochemical profile of each tumor was determined using the standard ABC method.
RESULTS: On the basis of a hierarchical cluster analysis of 13 significantly changed genes, we divided patients into good and poor prognosis groups, which correlate well with progression-free survival. In the good prognosis group, we found a statistically significant down-regulation of the expression of MCL1 and IGF1R genes after neoadjuvant treatment. We also found a statistically significant overexpression of BCL2L10, BCL2AF1, CASP8, CASP10, CASP14, CIDEB, FADD, HRK, TNFRSF25, TNFSF8 and CD70 genes. In contrast, we found up-regulation of IGF1R after the treatment in the group with poor prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression profiling using real-time PCR assay is a valuable research tool for the investigation of molecular markers, which reflect tumor biology and treatment response.
Jin X, Wu XX, Jin C, et al.Delineation of apoptotic genes for synergistic apoptosis of lexatumumab and anthracyclines in human renal cell carcinoma cells by polymerase chain reaction array.
Anticancer Drugs. 2012; 23(4):445-54 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Lexatumumab, a human agonistic monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-2 (TRAIL-R2), is a promising molecular-targeted therapeutic agent. Our past study indicated that low concentrations of doxorubicin sensitized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells to lexatumumab-mediated apoptosis. The present study was designed to examine the cellular and molecular effects of lexatumumab and anthracyclines in RCC cells. The treatment of human RCC cells with lexatumumab in combination with anthracyclines, epirubicin, and pirarubicin had a synergistic cytotoxicity. A marked synergistic apoptosis was induced by lexatumumab in combination with epirubicin or pirarubicin. Epirubicin and pirarubicin significantly increased the TRAIL-R2 expression at both the mRNA and the protein levels. The combination-induced cytotoxicity was significantly suppressed by the human recombinant DR5:Fc chimeric protein. To further explore the molecular mechanisms in this synergistic cytotoxicity with lexatumumab and anthracyclines, the changes in 84 apoptosis-related genes were evaluated by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array. Among these genes, 18 (CD40LG, FASLG, LTA, TNSF7, FAS, BAG3, BAK1, BAX, BID, BIK, BCL10, caspase-1, caspase-5, caspase-6, caspase-10, TNF receptor-associated factor 1, PYCARD, and CIDEA) were significantly upregulated and eight (TNF receptor-associated factor 4, TNFRSF11B, TNF, BCL2, BCL2L1, BNIP3L, caspase-9, and DAPK1) were downregulated at mRNA levels in RCC cells cotreated with lexatumumab and epirubicin. Furthermore, the upregulation of mRNA levels of PYCARD and CIDEA was confirmed using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. The present study demonstrates that anthracylines sensitize RCC cells to lexatumumab-mediated apoptosis by inducing TRAIL-R2 expression, and the utility of PCR array to elucidate the mechanism of synergistic apoptosis.
Ulybina YM, Kuligina ES, Mitiushkina NV, et al.Distribution of coding apoptotic gene polymorphisms in women with extreme phenotypes of breast cancer predisposition and tolerance.
Tumori. 2011 Mar-Apr; 97(2):248-51 [PubMed
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AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Comparison of subjects with extreme phenotypes of cancer susceptibility and tolerance allows to detect low-penetrance gene-disease interactions with a relatively small study size.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed the distribution of 19 coding apoptotic gene polymorphisms (Bid Gly10Ser; Casp2 Leu141Val; Casp5 Ala90Thr and Val318Leu; Casp7 Glu255Asp; Casp8 His302Asp; Casp9 Val28Ala, His173Arg and Arg221Gln; Casp10 Ile479Leu; Faim Thr117Ala and Ser127Leu; DR4 Arg141His, Thr209Arg, Ala228Glu and Lys441Arg; Survivin Lys129Glu; TNFR1 Gln121Arg; XIAP Pro423Gln) in 121 breast cancer patients with clinical features of a hereditary predisposition (family history and/or early onset and/or bilaterality) and 142 elderly tumor-free women.
RESULTS: None of the individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) demonstrated an association with breast cancer risk. The analysis of gene interactions revealed that the combination of XIAP Pro423Gln (rs5956583) AA genotype with Casp7 Glu255Asp (rs2227310) CG genotype appeared to prevail in "supercases" relative to "supercontrols" (25/121 [21%] vs 11/142 [8%], P = 0.002). We attempted to validate this association in the second round of case-control analysis, which involved 519 randomly selected breast cancer patients and 509 age-matched healthy women, but no difference was detected upon this comparison.
CONCLUSIONS: Coding apoptotic gene polymorphisms do not play a major role in BC predisposition. The results of this investigation may be considered while designing future studies on breast cancer-associated candidate SNPs.
Shen XG, Wang C, Li Y, et al.Downregulation of caspase-10 predicting poor survival after resection of stage II colorectal cancer.
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2011; 26(12):1519-24 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of caspase-10 mRNA expression in stage II colorectal cancer.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to analyze caspase-10 expression in cancer tissue and corresponding normal mucosa from 120 patients with stage II colorectal cancer. Variables were analyzed by Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Survival was evaluated with method of Kaplan-Meier. Multivariate analysis was performed with Cox's proportional hazards model.
RESULTS: The expression of caspase-10 mRNA was found to be downregulated in cancer tissue compared to normal mucosa (P = 0.001). Poorly differentiated cancer showed lower mRNA expression than cancer with greater differentiation (P = 0.031). Univariate survival curves, estimated using the method of Kaplan-Meier, defined a significant association between caspase-10 expression and both overall survival (P = 0.012) and disease-free survival (P = 0.021). A multivariate analysis, performed by Cox's proportional hazards regression model, confirmed that a low caspase-10 expression was the only significant factor to predict poor prognosis in patients with stage II colorectal cancer.
CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that caspase-10 expression, measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, is a possible prognostic factor in patients with stage II colorectal cancer.
Madkaikar M, Mhatre S, Gupta M, Ghosh KAdvances in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes.
Eur J Haematol. 2011; 87(1):1-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of lymphocyte homeostasis. It is characterized by non-malignant lymphoproliferation autoimmunity mostly directed toward blood cells and increased risk of lymphoma. Majority of patients with ALPS harbor heterozygous germline mutations in the gene for the TNF receptor-family member Fas (CD 95, Apo-1) which are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Somatic Fas mutations are the second most common genetic etiology of ALPS. Additionally mutations in the genes encoding Fas-ligand (FASLG), caspase 10 (CASP10) and caspase 8 (CASP8), NRAS and KRAS have been identified in a small number of patients with ALPS and related disorders. Approximately one-third of patients with ALPS have yet unidentified defect. ALPS was initially thought to be a very rare disease, but recent studies have shown that it may be more common than previously thought. Testing for ALPS should therefore be considered in patients with unexplained lymphadenopathy, cytopenias, and hepatosplenomegaly. There have been significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of ALPS in last few years which has resulted in the development of new diagnostic criteria and a number of targeted therapies. This review describes the clinical and laboratory manifestations found in patients with ALPS, as well as the molecular basis for the disease and new advances in treatment.
Meyer A, Coinac I, Bogdanova N, et al.Apoptosis gene polymorphisms and risk of prostate cancer: a hospital-based study of German patients treated with brachytherapy.
Urol Oncol. 2013; 31(1):74-81 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer has a genetic component, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can contribute to the risk. We aimed to investigate the role of polymorphisms in 10 candidate genes with a key function in apoptosis.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eight coding SNPs were chosen in ATM (Ser49Cys), BID (Ser56Cys), CASP8 (Asp302His), CASP10 (Val410Ile), LGALS3 (Pro64His), RASSF1 (Ser133Ala), TP53 (Arg72Pro), and TP53AIP1 (Ala7Val), and two non-coding SNPs were selected in BCL2 (-938C/A) and HDM2 (SNP309). A hospital-based case-control series of 510 prostate cancer patients and 490 healthy males from Northern Germany were genotyped for these polymorphisms.
RESULTS: SNP rs4644 in LGALS3 showed evidence for a protective effect of the minor allele, encoding the His64 variant (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.69;0.99, P = 0.04). Carriers were underrepresented among cases under a dominant model (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.54;0.92; P = 0.01), and the effect appeared more pronounced in patients diagnosed before the age of 60 years (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.31;0.85, P = 0.01). The other nine polymorphisms did not vary significantly between cases and controls, though subtle trends were noted for BCL2 (P = 0.07) and CASP10 (P = 0.08). The Asp302His variant of CASP8 tended to associate with a protective effect in the group with higher Gleason score under a dominant model (P = 0.03). Carriers of either the CASP8 or the CASP10 variants were underrepresented in the prostate cancer series (P = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: These results provide first evidence to implicate the functional Pro64His variant of galectin-3 (LGALS3) in the genetic susceptibility towards prostate cancer. The potential role of polymorphisms in BCL2, CASP8, and CASP10 merits further investigation.
Veeraraghavan J, Aravindan S, Natarajan M, et al.Neem leaf extract induces radiosensitization in human neuroblastoma xenograft through modulation of apoptotic pathway.
Anticancer Res. 2011; 31(1):161-70 [PubMed
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UNLABELLED: Induction of apoptosis is directly correlated with the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation (IR). Accordingly, we investigated the efficacy of neem leaf extract (NLE) on IR-associated apoptotic transcriptional modulation and cell death in neuroblastoma (NB).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: NB xenografts exposed to single dose (SDR, 10 Gy) or fractionated (FIR, 2 Gy/d×5d) with or without NLE were examined for transcriptional activation of 84 apoptotic pathway genes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Apoptosis was measured using TdT nick-end labeling.
RESULTS: FIR induced 55 and suppressed 10 genes, while SDR induced 49 and suppressed 5 genes. Of these, 46 and 4 genes were commonly up/down-regulated after FIR and SDR. NLE inhibited IR-induced NAIP, BIRC6, BIRC8, NOL3 and enhanced BAK1, BAX, BCL10, CASP1, CASP10 CARD8 and CRADD. Furthermore, NLE conferred FIR- and SDR-induced cell death.
CONCLUSION: These data imply that NLE may exert radiosensitization by activating pro-apoptotic signaling and negating survival signaling and may thus potentiate radiotherapy in NB.
Causative genetic variants have to date been identified for only a small proportion of familial colorectal cancer (CRC). While conditions such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis and Lynch syndrome have well defined genetic causes, the search for variants underlying the remainder of familial CRC is plagued by genetic heterogeneity. The recent identification of families with a heritable predisposition to malignancies arising through the serrated pathway (familial serrated neoplasia or Jass syndrome) provides an opportunity to study a subset of familial CRC in which heterogeneity may be greatly reduced. A genome-wide linkage screen was performed on a large family displaying a dominantly-inherited predisposition to serrated neoplasia genotyped using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 10 K SNP Array. Parametric and nonparametric analyses were performed and resulting regions of interest, as well as previously reported CRC susceptibility loci at 3q22, 7q31 and 9q22, were followed up by finemapping in 10 serrated neoplasia families. Genome-wide linkage analysis revealed regions of interest at 2p25.2-p25.1, 2q24.3-q37.1 and 8p21.2-q12.1. Finemapping linkage and haplotype analyses identified 2q32.2-q33.3 as the region most likely to harbour linkage, with heterogeneity logarithm of the odds (HLOD) 2.09 and nonparametric linkage (NPL) score 2.36 (P = 0.004). Five primary candidate genes (CFLAR, CASP10, CASP8, FZD7 and BMPR2) were sequenced and no segregating variants identified. There was no evidence of linkage to previously reported loci on chromosomes 3, 7 and 9.
Protein tyrosine kinase-7 (PTK7) is a catalytically inactive receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). PTK7 is upregulated in many common human cancers, including colon cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. The reason for this up-regulation is not yet known. To explore the functional role of PTK7, the expression of PTK7 in HCT 116 cells was examined using small interference (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing. Following transfection, the siRNA successfully suppressed PTK7 mRNA and protein expression. Knocking down of PTK7 in HCT 116 cells inhibited cell proliferation compared to control groups and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, this apoptosis was characterized by decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-9 and -10. Addition of a caspase-10 inhibitor totally blocked this apoptosis, suggesting that caspase-10 may play a critical role in PTK7-knockdown-induced apoptosis, downstream of mitochondria. These observations may indicate a role for PTK7 in cell proliferation and cell apoptosis and may provide a potential therapeutic pathway for the treatment of a variety of cancers.
Engel C, Versmold B, Wappenschmidt B, et al.Association of the variants CASP8 D302H and CASP10 V410I with breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010; 19(11):2859-68 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The genes caspase-8 (CASP8) and caspase-10 (CASP10) functionally cooperate and play a key role in the initiation of apoptosis. Suppression of apoptosis is one of the major mechanisms underlying the origin and progression of cancer. Previous case-control studies have indicated that the polymorphisms CASP8 D302H and CASP10 V410I are associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population.
METHODS: To evaluate whether the CASP8 D302H (CASP10 V410I) polymorphisms modify breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we analyzed 7,353 (7,227) subjects of white European origin provided by 19 (18) study groups that participate in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). A weighted cohort approach was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).
RESULTS: The minor allele of CASP8 D302H was significantly associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer (per-allele HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.97; P(trend) = 0.011) and ovarian cancer (per-allele HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89; P(trend) = 0.004) for BRCA1 but not for BRCA2 mutation carriers. The CASP10 V410I polymorphism was not associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers.
CONCLUSIONS: CASP8 D302H decreases breast and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers but not for BRCA2 mutation carriers.
IMPACT: The combined application of these and other recently identified genetic risk modifiers could in the future allow better individual risk calculation and could aid in the individualized counseling and decision making with respect to preventive options in BRCA1 mutation carriers.
BACKGROUND: Sin3A is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional repressor which regulates gene expression as part of the multi-protein Sin3 repressive complex. It functions as a scaffold upon which proteins with enzymatic activity dock, including chromatin modifying histone deacetylases. Although regulation of transcription by Sin3A has been studied in detail, little is understood about the function of Sin3A in cancer cells. We previously showed that Sin3A is expressed in breast cancer cells and is a repressor of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα, ESR1) gene expression. Here, we expand our previous studies to elucidate the function of Sin3A in the control of gene expression and growth of breast cancer cells.
RESULTS: Analysis of gene expression following knockdown of Sin3A revealed changes in both basal and regulated gene transcription. Genes of known importance in breast cancer and estrogen signaling, including ERBB2, PGR, MYC, CLU, and NCOA2, were among those identified as Sin3A-responsive. The mechanism of Sin3A action varied among genes and was found to be mediated through both HDAC1/2 -dependent and -independent activities. Loss of Sin3A inhibited breast cancer cell growth by increasing apoptosis without affecting cell cycle progression. Analysis of both ERα-positive and ERα-negative cell lines revealed that the effects of Sin3A on growth were cell-type specific, as Sin3A expression promoted maximum growth of only the ERα-positive cells, and, notably, Sin3A protein itself was increased by estrogen. Further gene expression experiments revealed that Sin3A repressed expression of key apoptotic genes, including TRAIL, TRAILR1, CASP10, and APAF1, in ERα-positive, but not ERα-negative, cell lines, which could provide a mechanistic explanation for cell-type differences in growth.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies Sin3A as a regulator of gene expression, survival, and growth in ERα-positive breast cancer cells. Sin3A regulates the transcription of genes involved in breast cancer and apoptosis and acts through multiple mechanisms not limited to histone deacetylase function. These findings reveal previously undescribed functions of Sin3A in breast cancer and provide evidence for an important role of this transcriptional repressor in ERα-positive tumor cell growth.
Zhang J, Du Y, Wu C, et al.Curcumin promotes apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells through miR-186* signaling pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2010; 24(5):1217-23 [PubMed
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Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Curcumin has been reported to have an antitumor effect by inducing apoptosis and suppressing growth of tumor cells. However, the mechanism by which curcumin exerts its anti-cancer effect needs further research. The purpose of the present study was to identify a miRNA-mediated mechanism which plays a role in the anti-cancer effects of curcumin. Alterations in miRNA expression were seen in curcumin-treated A549 cells, including significant downregulation of miRNA-186* expression by microarray analysis and real-time PCR. The miRNA-186* functions by overexpression or inhibition were investigated using biological assays in A549 cells. Additionally, caspase-10 was identified as a target of miRNA-186* using dual luciferase reporter assays and western blot analysis. These results demonstrate that curcumin induces A549 cell apoptosis through a miRNA pathway. Also, miRNA-186* could serve as a potential gene therapy target in curcumin treatment. furthermore, caspase-10 was shown to be a target of miR-186* regulation.
Zhu X, Zhang H, Lin Y, et al.Mechanisms of gambogic acid-induced apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells in relation to transferrin receptors.
J Chemother. 2009; 21(6):666-72 [PubMed
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Gambogic acid (GA) is one of the important active ingredients of gamboge. Our study examined the expression of transferrin receptors (TFR) on the cell surface of human lung SPC-A1 and SK-MES-1 cells and measured their GA-induced apoptosis rate. The results showed that SPC-A1 cells with a higher TFR expression were more sensitive at the same GA concentrations. To examine its distribution in cultured cells and study the mechanisms of apoptosis, we labeled GA with a (125)I tracer and examined the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. we found that GA uptake into SPC-A1 cells was higher than into SK-MES-1 cells; apoptosis-related proteins Caspase 2, Caspase 9, Caspase 10, Bax and p53 were involved in GA-induced apoptosis. We conclude that GA has an apoptosis-promoting effect on non small cell lung cancer cells. In clinical practice, the histopathological quantitation of TFR expression levels in tumor tissues may become a predictor of the sensitivity of patients' tumors to GA treatment.
Oh JE, Kim MS, Ahn CH, et al.Mutational analysis of CASP10 gene in colon, breast, lung and hepatocellular carcinomas.
Pathology. 2010; 42(1):73-6 [PubMed
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AIMS: Evasion of apoptosis is a feature of cancer cells. As a mechanism of apoptosis inactivation in cancer cells, somatic mutations of pro-apoptotic genes have been reported in many cancers. Caspase-10 is an initiation-phase caspase, and somatic mutation of CASP10 that encodes caspase-10 has been found in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and gastric carcinoma.
METHODS: The aim of this study was to explore whether CASP10 gene is somatically mutated in colon, breast, lung, and hepatocellular carcinomas. We analysed the entire coding region and all splice sites of CASP10 in 47 colon, 47 breast, 47 lung, and 47 hepatocellular carcinomas by a single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay.
RESULTS: We found two CASP10 mutations in the colon cancers (2/47; 4.3%), but none in breast, lung or hepatocellular carcinomas. One mutation [c.41A > C (p.Lys14Thr)] was a missense mutation, while the other was a substitution mutation in a splice site (c.684 + 4G > A). The colon cancer with the CASP10 missense mutation harboured additional CASP gene mutations (CASP3, 7 and 8).
CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that somatic mutation of CASP10 is rare in colon, breast, lung, and hepatocellular carcinomas. However, the data also suggest that CASP10 mutation might contribute to the pathogenesis of some colon carcinomas together with other CASP gene mutations.
Kim MS, Oh JE, Min CK, et al.Mutational analysis of CASP10 gene in acute leukaemias and multiple myelomas.
Pathology. 2009; 41(5):484-7 [PubMed
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AIMS: Deregulation of apoptosis is one of the hallmarks of cancers. Inactivation of cancer cell apoptosis by somatic mutations has been reported in several cancers. Caspase-10 activation is important in the initiation phase of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore whether CASP10 gene that encodes caspase-10 is somatically mutated in acute adulthood leukaemias and multiple myelomas (MMs).
METHODS: We analysed the entire coding region and all splice sites of CASP10 gene for the detection of somatic mutations in 60 acute leukaemias (25 acute myelogenous leukaemias, 35 acute lymphoblastic leukaemias) and 22 multiple myelomas by a single-strand conformation polymorphism assay.
RESULTS: Overall, we found two CASP10 mutations in the cancers (2/82; 2.4%). One mutation [c.854T>C (pLeu285Pro)] was detected in a T-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) (1/13 T-ALL; 7.7%). The other mutation [c.61C>T (p.Arg21Cys)] was found in an MM (1/22 MM; 4.5%). The mutations were identified in the coding regions of the death effector domain (p.Arg21Cys) and the p17 large protease subunit (pLeu285Pro). We observed both of the T-ALL and the MM with the CASP10 mutations well expressed the mutant CAS10 at mRNA level.
CONCLUSION: Although our data indicate that somatic mutation of CASP10 is not common in T-ALL and MM, the data suggest a possibility that CASP10 mutation might contribute to the pathogenesis of factions of T-ALL and MM.
BACKGROUND: Genetic markers for thyroid cancers identified by microarray analysis have offered limited predictive accuracy so far because of the few classes of thyroid lesions usually taken into account. To improve diagnostic relevance, we have simultaneously analyzed microarray data from six public datasets covering a total of 347 thyroid tissue samples representing 12 histological classes of follicular lesions and normal thyroid tissue. Our own dataset, containing about half the thyroid tissue samples, included all categories of thyroid lesions.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Classifier predictions were strongly affected by similarities between classes and by the number of classes in the training sets. In each dataset, sample prediction was improved by separating the samples into three groups according to class similarities. The cross-validation of differential genes revealed four clusters with functional enrichments. The analysis of six of these genes (APOD, APOE, CLGN, CRABP1, SDHA and TIMP1) in 49 new samples showed consistent gene and protein profiles with the class similarities observed. Focusing on four subclasses of follicular tumor, we explored the diagnostic potential of 12 selected markers (CASP10, CDH16, CLGN, CRABP1, HMGB2, ALPL2, ADAMTS2, CABIN1, ALDH1A3, USP13, NR2F2, KRTHB5) by real-time quantitative RT-PCR on 32 other new samples. The gene expression profiles of follicular tumors were examined with reference to the mutational status of the Pax8-PPARgamma, TSHR, GNAS and NRAS genes.
CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that diagnostic tools defined on the basis of microarray data are more relevant when a large number of samples and tissue classes are used. Taking into account the relationships between the thyroid tumor pathologies, together with the main biological functions and pathways involved, improved the diagnostic accuracy of the samples. Our approach was particularly relevant for the classification of microfollicular adenomas.